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Villanueva,Angeli Lou J 1-B

Philippine Organic Act (1902)


The Philippine Organic Act (c. 1369, 32 Stat. 691) was a basic law for the Insular Government that
was enacted by the United States Congress on July 1, 1902. It is also known as the Philippine Bill
of 1902 and the Cooper Act, after its author Henry A. Cooper. The approval of the act coincided
with the official end of the PhilippineAmerican War.

Overview
The Philippine Organic Act provided for the creation of an elected Philippine Assembly after the
following conditions were met:
-the cessation of the existing insurrection in the Philippine Islands;
-completion and publication of a census; and
-two years of continued peace and recognition of the authority of the United States of America after
the publication of the census.
After the convening of the Assembly, legislative power shall then be vested in a bicameral legislature
composed of the Philippine Commission as the upper house and the Philippine Assembly as the
lower house. Supervision of the islands was assigned to the War Department's Bureau of Insular
Affairs.

Other key provisions included:


-a bill of rights for the Filipinos,
-the appointment of two Filipino nonvoting Resident Commissioners to represent the Philippines in
the United States Congress, and
-the disestablishment of the Roman Catholic Church.
-conservation of natural resources for the Filipinos
-exercise of executive power by the civil governor who would have several executive departments
-establishment of the Philippine Assembly to be elected by the Filipinos two years after the
publication of a census and only after peace had been restored completely in the country
This act was superseded by the Philippine Autonomy Act, or the Jones Law, enacted on August 29,
1916.

Background
The act was preceded by the Spooner Amendment to the Army Appropriations Act of 1901 (31 Stat.
895, 910, enacted 2 March 1901) which had provided that:

... all military, civil, and judicial powers necessary to govern the Philippine Islands ... shall until
otherwise provided by Congress be vested in such person and persons, and shall be exercised in
such manner, as the President of the United States shall direct, for the establishment of civil
government, and for maintaining and protecting the inhabitants of said Islands in the free enjoyment
of their liberty, property, and religion.
This was complemented by a cable from the Secretary of War Elihu Root to the Philippine
Commission on 5 March 1901:

Until further orders government will continue under existing instructions and orders.

The comprehensive Spooner Amendment, and these instructions and orders, virtually constituted for
many months the charter of government for the Philippine Islands.[3] Between September 1900 and
August 1902, the Second Philippine Commission (the Taft Commission) issued 499 laws.

Implementation
The act was enacted into law on July 1, 1902, and the Philippine Commission executed its
provisions.[4] A census was conducted in 1903, and published on March 25, 1905.[4] The Philippine
Assembly elections of 1907 were held on July 30, 1907, for 80 seats, and on October 16, 1907, the
1st Philippine Legislature was inaugurated at the Manila Grand Opera House.

As a result of the act, the Catholic Church agreed to gradually substitute Spanish priests with
Filipinos and to sell its land.[1] It refused however to send the friars immediately back to Spain.[1] In
1904, the American administration bought 166,000 hectares, a major part of the friars' holding, over
half of which was in the Manila area, and the land was resold to Filipinossome of them tenants but
the majority of them estate owners.
Villanueva,Angeli Lou J 1-B

TydingsMcDuffie Act
Senator Millard Tydings was one of the authors of the Philippine Independence Act.
John McDuffie co-authored the TydingsMcDuffie Act.

The TydingsMcDuffie Act, officially the Philippine Independence Act (Pub.L. 73127, 48 Stat. 456,
enacted March 24, 1934), is a United States federal law that established the process for the
Philippines, then an American colony, to become an independent country after a ten-year transition
period. Under the act, the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines was written and the Commonwealth of
the Philippines was established, with the first directly elected President of the Philippines (direct
elections to the Philippine Legislature have been held since 1907). It also established limitations on
Filipino immigration to the United States.
The act was authored in the 73rd United States Congress by Senator Millard E. Tydings (Dem.) of
Maryland and Representative John McDuffie (Dem.) of Alabama, and signed into law by President
Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Provisions
The TydingsMcDuffie Act specified a procedural framework for the drafting of a constitution for the
government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines within two years of its enactment. The act
specified a number of mandatory constitutional provisions, and required approval of the constitution
by the U.S. President and by Filipinos. The act mandated U.S. recognition of independence of the
Philippine Islands as a separate and self-governing nation after a ten-year transition period.

Prior to independence, the act allowed the U.S to maintain military forces in the Philippines and to
call all military forces of the Philippine government into U.S. military service. The act empowered the
U.S. President, within two years following independence, to negotiate matters relating to U.S. naval
reservations and fueling stations of in the Philippine Islands.

Immigration
The act reclassified all Filipinos, including those who were living in the United States, as aliens for
the purposes of immigration to America. A quota of 50 immigrants per year was established. Before
this act, Filipinos were classified as United States nationals, but not United States citizens, and while
they were allowed to migrate relatively freely, they were denied naturalization rights within the US,
unless they were citizens by birth in the mainland US.

History
In 1934, Manuel L. Quezon, the President of the Senate of the Philippines, headed a "Philippine
Independence mission" to Washington, D.C. It successfully lobbied Congress and secured the act's
passage.
In 1935, under the provisions of the act, the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines was drafted and
became law, establishing the Commonwealth of the Philippines with an elected executive, the
President of the Philippines.

Immigration
Main article: History of Filipino Americans
The immigration quota under the act was low, and immigration continued at levels much higher than
the legal quota.[4] This was due to the strength of agricultural lobbies, such as the Hawaiian sugar
planters, which were able to successfully lobby the federal government to allow more male Filipino
agricultural workers provided that they demonstrated a need. This further increased the Filipino
population in Hawaii which had at one point been 25% of agricultural workers on the islands.

The act also led to the Filipino Repatriation Act of 1935

This act extended the Asian-exclusion policy of the Immigration Act of 1924 to the soon-to-be-former
territory. This policy hampered the domestic lives of many Filipinos within the US because any
Filipino who wished to go to the Philippines and then return to the United States would be subject to
the restrictions on Asian immigration to America and would likely never be allowed to return.

In 1946 the US decreased the tight restrictions of TydingsMcDuffie Act with the LuceCeller Act of
1946, which increased the quota of Filipino immigrants to 100 per year and gave Filipinos the right to
become naturalized American citizens.
Villanueva,Angeli Lou J 1-B
Jones Law (Philippines)
Congressman William Jones authored the bill which replaced the Philippine Organic Act of 1902.

The Jones Law (39 Stat. 545, c. 416, also known as the Jones Act, the Philippine Autonomy Act,
and the Act of Congress of August 29, 1916) was an Organic Act passed by the United States
Congress. The law replaced the Philippine Organic Act of 1902 and acted as a constitution of the
Philippines from its enactment until 1934, when the TydingsMcDuffie Act was passed (which in turn
led eventually to the Commonwealth of the Philippines and to independence from the United States).
The Jones Law created the first fully elected Philippine legislature.

The law was enacted by the 64th United States Congress on August 29, 1916 and contained the first
formal and official declaration of the United States Federal Government's commitment to grant
independence to the Philippines.[1] It was a framework for a "more autonomous government", with
certain privileges reserved to the United States to protect its sovereign rights and interests, in
preparation for the grant of independence by the United States. The law provides that the grant of
independence would come only "as soon as a stable government can be established", which was to
be determined by the United States Government itself.

The law also changed the Philippine Legislature into the Philippines' first fully elected body and
therefore made it more autonomous of the U.S. Government. The 1902 Philippine Organic Act
provided for an elected lower house (the Philippine Assembly), while the upper house (the Philippine
Commission) was appointed.[2] The Jones Law provided for both houses to be elected[2] and
changed the name of the Assembly to the House of Representatives. The executive branch
continued to be headed by an appointed Governor General of the Philippines, always an American.

Elections were held on October 3, 1916 to the newly created Philippine Senate. Elections to the
Philippine Assembly had already been held on June 6, 1916, and those elected automatically
became members of the House of Representatives.

In 1898, the Philippines were ceded by Spain to the United States, which subsequently fought the
PhilippineAmerican War between 1899 and 1902 and established control over the Philippines.

Development of the bill

The ultimate goal for the Philippines was independence. U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt said as
early as 1901, "We hope to do for them what has never been done for any people of the tropicsto
make them fit for self-government after the fashion of really free nations."[4] The American public
tended to view America's presence in the Philippines as unremunerative and expensive, so
Roosevelt had concluded by 1907, "We shall have to be prepared for giving the islands
independence of a more or less complete type much sooner than I think advisable."
Woodrow Wilson said, during the 1912 election campaign which made him US President, "The
Philippines are at present our frontier but I hope we presently are to deprive ourselves of that
frontier."[4] Even before the 1912 elections, U.S. House Committee on Insular Affairs Chairman
William Atkinson Jones attempted to launch a bill which set a fixed date for Philippine
independence.[5] Manuel L. Quezon was one of the Philippines' two resident commissioners to the
US House of Representatives. Jones delayed to launch his bill, so Quezon drafted the first of two
"Jones Bills." He drafted a second Jones Bill in early 1914 after the election of Wilson as president
and his appointment of Francis Burton Harrison as President of the Philippine Commission and
Governor General of the Philippines.

Wilson had informed Quezon of his hostility to any fixed timetable for independence, and Quezon
believed that the draft bill contained enough flexibility to suit Wilson.

Passage into law

The bill passed the House in October 1913 and went to the Senate, backed by Harrison, US
Secretary of War Lindley Garrison, and Wilson. A final version of the bill was signed into US law by
Wilson on August 29, 1916, after amendment by the Senate and further changes in a congressional
conference committee.[6]

Terms

Among the provisions of the law was the creation of an all-Filipino legislature. It created the
Philippine Senate to replace the Philippine Commission, which had served as the upper chamber of
the legislature.