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DESERTS a. mystery b. mysterious c. mysteriously d.

mysteriousness
TEST 1 20. I want to work as an interpreter in the future, ________, I am studying
Choose the word which has the underlined part pronounced differently Russian at university.
from the rest. a. but b. so c. however d. therefore
1. a. grasses b. stretches c. comprises d. potatoes 21. I am going shopping for food this evening ________ I do not have to go
2. a. lie b. wide c. circle d. comprise at the weekend.
3. a. compound b. route c. house d. south a. so b. but c. however d. moreover
4. a. dune b. hummock c. shrub d. buffalo 22. When she got the news from her family, she could not do anything,
5. a. west b. between c. growth d. which ________ cry.
Choose a, b, c, or d that best completes each unfinished sentence, a. but b. and c. so d. however
substitutes the underlined part, or has a close meaning to the original 23. Mrs. Lindon has ________ that she is unable to get a job.
one. a. but not enough education b. so little education
6. ________ Sahara of ________ Africa is the world's largest desert. c. however little education d. such little education
a. / the b. The / c. A / an d. The / an 24. That small car, ________, is advertised in many current magazines.
7. Deserts can be defined as areas that receive ________ average annual a. so inexpensive and comfortable
precipitation of less than 250 mm. b. however inexpensive and comfortable
a. a b. an c. the d. c. inexpensive but comfortable
8. The Sahara contains complex linear dunes that are ________ by almost d. and inexpensive but comfortable
6 kilometers. 25. We live in the same building ________ we have hardly seen each other
a. developed b. separated c. lay d. located a. and b. therefore c. but d. so
9. A _______ is a landscape or region that receives very little precipitation. 26. I went to buy a Rolling Stones CD ________ the shop didn't have it.
a. dune b. desert c. sandy area d. shrub land a. and b. but c. therefore d. so
10. Deserts are often composed of ________ and rocky surfaces. 27. Anna needed some money, ________, she took a part-time job.
a. water b. trees c. oil d. sand a. furthermore b. moreover c. however d. therefore
11. Three great stretches of sandy deserts almost circle the center of 28. Julie has a guitar ________ she plays it really well.
Australia. a. and b. so c. but d. therefore
a. dunes b. valleys c. lands d. areas 29. My fingers were injured ________ my sister had to write the note for me.
12. Deserts are also classified by their ________ location and dominant a. and b. however c. so d. but
weather pattern. 30. The concert was cancelled ________ we went to a nightclub instead.
a. geographical b. aerial c. sandy d. facial a. so b. however c. so on d. but
13. Thanks to pictures taken by satellites, deserts have not ________ a Error Identification.
mystery in our time. 31. Desert is a large area of land that has very little water however very few
a. hidden b. intended c. remained d. attained A B C
14. Deserts take ________ one-third of the Earth's land surface. plants growing on it. (and)
a. up b. on c. over d. after D
15. The Simpson Desert was named _______ Mr. Simpson, President of the 32. Rain falls occasionally in deserts so desert storms are often violent.
South Australian Branch of the Royal Geographical Society of Australia. A B (but) C D
a. with b. at c. after d. for 33. The Nile River, the Colorado River, but the Yellow River flow through
16. In 1953, Peveril Meigs divided desert regions ________ Earth ________ A (and) B
categories according to the amount of precipitation they received. deserts to deliver their sediments to the sea.
a. through / in b. from / with c. on / into d. in / for C D
17. More and more ________ are very excited at discovering as many 34. Deserts may have underground springs, rivers, or reservoirs they lie
interesting things in the deserts as possible. A B
a. explores b. explorations c. explorers d. exploratory close to the surface, or deep underground. (that / which)
18. Can you make a ________ estimate of how much our expedition in the C D
desert may be? 35. Most plants in deserts have adapted to sporadic rainfalls in a desert.
a. rough b. roughly c. roughing d. roughen A B C
19. After Peter had returned from the Sahara desert, he was confined to bed environments. (environment)
by a ________ disease. D
Read the passage carefully and choose the correct answer. (44) _____ drastically from day to night because the air is. (45) _____ dry
A desert is a hostile, potentially deadly environment for unprepared that heat escapes rapidly at night. The daytime temperature averages 38C
humans. In hot deserts, high temperatures cause rapid loss of water due to (46) _____ in some deserts it can get down to -4C at night. The temperature
sweating, and the absence of water sources with which to replenish it can also varies greatly depending on the (47) _____ of the desert.
result in dehydration and death within a few days. In addition, unprotected Since desert conditions are so severe, the plants that live there need to
humans are also at risk from heatstroke. have (48) _____ to compensate for the lack of water. Some plants, such as
Humans may also have to adapt to sandstorms in some deserts, not just cacti, (49) _____ water in their stems and use it very slowly, while others like
in their adverse effects on respiratory systems and eyes, but also in their bushes conserve water by growing few leaves or by having large root
potentially harmful effects on equipment such as filters, vehicles and systems to gather water or few leaves. Some desert plant species have a
communication equipment. Sandstorms can last for hours, sometimes even short life cycle of a few weeks that (50) _____ only during periods of rain.
days. 41. a. coldest b. hottest c. driest d. wettest
Despite this, some cultures have made hot deserts 'their home for 42. a. rain b. rainfall c. raindrop d. raincoat
thousands of years, including the Bedouin, Tuareg tribe, and Pueblo people. 43. a. with b. for c. about d. in
Modern technology, including advanced irrigation systems, desalinization and 44. a. change b. exchange c. transform d. transfer
air conditioning, has made deserts much more hospitable, In the United 45. a. such as b. such c. so much d. so
States and Israel for example, desert farming has found extensive use. 46. a. when b. while c. as d. because
In cold deserts, hypothermia and frostbite are the chief hazards, as well 47. a. part b. region c. area d. location
as dehydration in the absence of a source of heat to melt ice for drinking. 48. a. adaptations b. agreements c. accepts d. achievements
Falling through pack-ice or surface ice layers into freezing water is a 49. a. place b. put c. store d. hold
particular danger requiring emergency action to prevent rapid hypothermia. 50. a. spend b. take c. last d. experience
Starvation is also a hazard; in low temperatures the body requires much TEST 2
more food energy to maintain body heat and to move. As with hot deserts, Choose the word which is stressed differently from the rest.
some people such as the Inuit have adapted to the harsh conditions of cold 1. a. comprise b. sandy c. circle d. northern
deserts. 2. a. Aborigines b. expedition c. kilometer d. scientific
36. The text is about ________. 3. a. corridor b. enormous c. mystery d. separate
a. troubles that human beings have to face in a desert 4. a. remain b. hummock c. explore d. between
b. desert storms and desert inhabitants 5. a. territory b. Australia c. geography d. society
c. hot deserts and cold deserts in the United States Choose a, b, c, or d that best completes each unfinished sentence,
d. desert hospitality and environment substitutes the underlined part, or has a close meaning to the original
37. Which is not a problem for an unprepared man in a hot desert? one.
a. sandstorm b. loss of water c. irrigation d. heatstroke 6. The Simpson Desert is in ________ north of ________ Lake Eyre.
38. Sandstorms ________. a. / b. the / the c. a / the d. the /
a. do no harm to machinery 7. Cold deserts can be covered in ________ snow or ice and frozen water
b. have effects only on the eyes is unavailable to plant life.
c. never lasts more than one hour a. a b. an c. the d.
d. have bad effects on both human beings and machinery 8. In the northern part of the Simpson Desert, the dunes are separated by
39. Which sentence is true? ________ of low, open shrubland.
a. No one can survive in both hot and cold deserts. a. streets b. ways c. corridors d. lines
b. Modern technology makes deserts more hospitable. 9. San Francisco is built on 40 hills and some are very ________.
c. In the United States, all deserts are quite uninhabited. a. short b. steep c. plain d. stable
d. There are no deserts in Israel. 10. A ________ is a small raised area of ground, like a very small hill.
40. Which is not a problem in cold deserts? a. slope b. hummock c. dune d. shrub
a. Starvation b. Hypothermia c. Frostbite d. Body heat 11. We used to climb up the crest of the hill to get a good view of the
Fill in each numbered blank with one suitable word or phrase. surroundings.
Desert biomes are the (41) _____ of all the biomes. In fact, the most a. top b. foot c. middle d. face
important characteristic of a desert is that it receives very little (42) _____. 12. To ________ a desert is a danger activity which requires careful
Most deserts receive less than 300 mm a year compared (43) __ rainforests, preparation for risks.
which receive over 2,000 mm. That means that the desert only gets 10 a. comprise b. circle c. remain d. explore
percent of the rain that a rainforest gets! The temperature in the desert can
13. Scientific ________ help to explore some places and discover more and b. The roads were slippery but they managed to complete the race.
more remote parts of the world. c. The roads were slippery so they could hardly complete the race.
a. survey b. lead c. research d. expedition d. The roads were so slippery; therefore, they could hardly complete the
14. The wind that blows in the desert comes ________ far away waters. race.
a. for b. with c. in d. from 32. They decided to go for a picnic though it was very cold.
15. Some sand dunes may be over 200 meters ________ height. a. Because it was very cold, they decided to go for a picnic.
a. with b. at c. on d. in b. However cold it was, they decided to go for a picnic.
16. If you look on a map you will see that there is a desert next ________ the c. If it had been cold, they would not have gone for a picnic.
Rocky Mountains in the United States. d. It was very cold so they decided to go for a picnic.
a. of b. to c. with d. for 33. Both Peter and Mary enjoy scientific expedition.
17. ________ is the process by which a piece of land becomes dry, empty, a. It is not Peter, but Mary, that enjoys scientific expedition.
and unsuitable for growing trees or crops on. b. Peter enjoys scientific expedition. Therefore, does Mary.
a. desert b. deserted c. desertify d. desertification c. However Peter enjoys scientific expedition and Mary does.
18. Several ________ advanced countries have had plans to make desert d. Peter enjoys scientific expedition, and so does Mary.
more hospitable. 34. Because it was an interesting novel, I stayed up all night to finish it.
a. science b. scientific c. scientifically d. scientist a. I stayed up all night to finish the novel, therefore, it was interesting.
19. The desert biome includes the hottest places in the world because it b. Unless it were an interesting novel, I would stay up all night to finish it.
absorbs more ________ from the sun than land in humid climates do. c. Though it was an interesting novel, I stayed up all night to finish it.
a. heat b. hot c. hotly d. heating d. So interesting was the novel that I stayed up all night to finish it.
20. Many people have law degrees, ________. 35. He cannot afford a new computer.
a. but some of them do not practice it b. however it is not practiced by all a. The new computer is so expensive that he cannot buy it.
c. so some are not practicing law d. but not all of them practice law b. Therefore, he would buy a new computer.
21. This is an expensive ________ very useful book. c. So, he would buy a new computer.
a. but b. so c. therefore d. however d. The new computer is so expensive but he can buy it
22. ________ long it takes, I will wait for you. Read the passage carefully and choose the correct answer.
a. However b. But c. So d. Therefore Approximately one-third of the Earth's land surface is desert, arid land
23. I must say that you have done very well. ________, you should be aware with meager rainfall that supports only sparse vegetation and a limited
that you still have a lot of thing to learn. population of people and animals. Deserts have been portrayed as
a. Therefore b. So c. But d. However fascinating environments of adventure and exploration. These arid regions
24. ________ that we stopped for a rest. are called deserts because they are dry. They may be hot. They may be cold.
a. But we were tired b. So tired were we They may be regions of sand or vast areas of rocks with occasional plants.
c. However we were tired d. Therefore, we were tired Deserts are natural laboratories in which to study the interactions of
25. He is only sixteen, and ________, he is not eligible to drive a car. wind and sometimes water on the arid surfaces of planets. They contain
a. nevertheless b. but c. therefore d. however valuable mineral deposits that were formed in the arid environment or that
26. Maria tried to read a novel in French ________ the book was too difficult were exposed by erosion. Because deserts are dry, they are ideal places for
for her to understand. human artifacts and fossils to be preserved. Deserts are also fragile
a. so that b. therefore c. but d. and environments. The misuse of these lands is a serious and growing problem
27. To get from Vancouver to Victoria, you can fly, __ you can ride the ferry. in parts of our world.
a. or b. but c. so d. however There are many animals in the desert. Some are very large, like the
28. I bought a bottle of wine ________ we drank it together. kangaroo or the gazelle. Both are big and have to travel long distances for
a. therefore b. so c. and d. but water at a spring, or an oasis. Another fairly large animal is the addax. The
29. The waiter was not very nice, ________, the food was delicious. addax is a desert antelope. They live in the Sahara Desert. All addaxes are
a. however b. but c. so d. and so herbivores. There are less than 200 of them left because of hunting and
30. ___ hard he worked, he could earn enough money to support the family. tourists. Some animals crawl along. Examples of these are snakes and
a. But b. However c. Therefore d. Whatever lizards. Snakes rarely drink water; they get their moisture from other prey that
Choose the sentence which has the closest meaning to the original they eat. So do others, like the kangaroo rat. Lizards are commonly found in
one. the desert. They stay out of the sun and move as little as possible. There are
31. Slippery as the roads were, they managed to complete the race. also other animals in the desert. The fennec lives in northern Africa in the
a. The roads were so slippery that they could hardly complete the race. Sahara Desert. They are a relative of the fox. They eat mice, small birds,
lizards, and insects. When necessary, they will eat fruit. One more desert 47. a. of b. out c. in d. over
animal is the jerboa. The jerboa is a small, long distance jumper that lives in 48. a. danger b. dangerous c. endanger d. endangered
the desert. They are free drinking animals and they eat plants, seeds, and 49. a. level b. rate c. scale d. standard
bugs. 50. a. sight b. lies c. sites d. seats
36. Deserts ________. TEST 3
a. are rare in the world b. are more arid more populous Choose the word which has the underlined part pronounced differently
c. are all hot all the time d. may be both hot and cold from the rest.
37. The word They refers to ________. 1. a. three b. south c. southern d. both
a. deserts b. natural laboratories c. planets d. mineral deposits 2. a. remained b. explored c. separated d. travelled
38. Which is not true about deserts? 3. a. loose b. smooth c. food d. flood
a. arid b. hot c. humid d. dry 4. a. enormous b. rough c. enough d. double
39. According to the second paragraph, ________. 5. a. society b. geography c. dry d. sandy
a. we should use desert land properly to avoid serious problems Choose a, b, c, or d that best completes each unfinished sentence,
b. we can exploit as much fossil as possible in deserts substitutes the underlined part, or has a close meaning to the original
c. there are no erosion in deserts one.
d. deserts are ideal places for growing land 6. ________ sand covers only about 20 percent of Earth's deserts.
40. The last paragraph expresses that ________. a. A b. An c. The d.
a. none of animals can survive in deserts 7. Deserts have ________ reputation for supporting very little life, but in
b. hunting and tourists cause the decreasing of addaxes in the ________ reality deserts often have high biodiversity.
Sahara Desert. a. a / b. the / the c. a / the d. the / a
c. snakes in deserts need more water than any other species 8. The hill was so ________ that it took us more than five hours to climb up.
d. addaxes are the most populous species in deserts a. sloping b. enormous c. arid d. stable
Fill in each numbered blank with one suitable word or phrase. 9. In the northern part of the Simpson Desert, the dunes are parallel.
Most traditional human life in deserts is nomadic. It (41) ______ in hot a. mysterious b. steep c. plenty of sand d. similar in some ways
deserts on finding water, and on following infrequent rains to (42) ______ 10. Several deserts are a quite vast and uninhabited ________.
grazing for livestock. In cold deserts, it depends on finding good hunting and a. plain b. territory c. corridor d. shrub
fishing grounds, on sheltering from blizzards and winter (43) ______, and on 11. A ________ is a large animal that lives in deserts and is used for carrying
storing enough food for winter. Permanent settlement in both kinds of deserts goods and people.
requires permanent water, food sources and adequate shelter, or the a. slope b. dune c. spinifex d. camel
technology and energy sources to (44) ______ it. 12. The ________ of a cliff, or mountain, is a vertical surface or side of it.
Many deserts are flat and featureless, lacking landmarks, or composed a. face b. border c. crest d. lake
of repeating landforms such as sand (45) ______ or the jumbled ice-fields of 13. Most deserts are enormous sandy areas.
glaciers. Advanced skills or devices are required to navigate through such a. mysterious b. narrow c. immense d. aerial
landscapes and (46) _____ travelers may die when supplies run (47) ______ 14. Camels were often used _______ transportation by people of the desert.
after becoming lost. In addition, sandstorms or blizzards may cause a. as b. with c. to d. about
disorientation in severely-reduced visibility. 15. Camels have one or two humps used ________ storing water and food.
The (48) ______ represented by wild animals in deserts has featured in a. to b. for c. over d. at
explorers' accounts but does not cause higher (49) ______ of death than in 16. Many tall and wide mountain ranges do not let much rain get ________
other environments such as rainforests or savanna woodland, and generally the desert.
does not affect human distribution. Defense against polar bears may be a. into b. away c. out d. from
advisable in some areas of the Arctic. Precautions against snakes and 17. I wanted to go a more ________ route across Montana.
scorpions in choosing (50) ______ at which to camp in some hot deserts a. north b. northerly c. northerner d. northernmost
should be taken. 18. We often enjoy walking barefoot across the damp __ to the water's edge.
41. a. locates b. selects c. follows d. depends a. sand b. sanding c. sandy d. sandily
42. a. earn b. demand c. obtain d. require 19. If the deserts are ________ managed, there may be troubles for
43. a. extremes b. poles c. tops d. heights scientific expeditions.
44. a. grow b. supply c. comfort d. bring a. loose b. loosen c. loosening d. loosely
45. a. dunes b. piles c. valleys d. stores 20. He told me not to do it; ________, I did it.
46. a. inconsistent b. incapable c: inexperienced d. independent a. Therefore b. So c. But d. However
21. We have not yet won; ________, we will keep trying. a. Arabia's rainfall averages only 2-5 inches a year, and two-year
a. moreover b. however c. therefore d. so as droughts are not uncommon.
22. I am afraid that the company is in deep trouble. ________, we are going b. As Arabia's rainfall averages only 2-5 inches a year, and two year
to make some people redundant. droughts are not uncommon.
a. Therefore b. However c. But d. And c. Arabia's rainfall averages only 2-5 inches a year, which makes two
23. I wanted to give him some money after he helped me with the car year droughts are not uncommon.
________ he absolutely refused to accept it. d. Arabia's rainfall averages only 2-5 inches a year, and however two
a. so b. but c. therefore d. and so year droughts are not uncommon.
24. Everyone is ready for the discussion, ________ him. 34. The desert today / be characterized / 700 - foot - high dunes / giant sand
a. however b. but c. so d. therefore mountains.
25. ________ she could not say anything. a. The desert today is characterized with 700 - foot - high dunes but giant
a. So upset was she that b. So upset was she sand mountains.
c. However upset was she that d. Therefore upset was she that b. The desert today is characterized by 700 - foot - high dunes and
26. Do it ________. giant sand mountains.
a. so do you want b. but as you want c. The desert today is characterized by 700 - foot - high dunes and
c. however you want d. therefore you want however giant sand mountains.
27. ________ you prepare for the exam, there will still be a few questions on d. The desert today which is characterized by 700 - foot - high dunes and
which you won't be sure of the answer. giant sand mountains.
a. So much as b. Much but c. However much d. So much 35. The first white man / traverse / this desert / H. St.John Philby / in the
28. The first part of the test was easy; the second, ________, took hours. 1930s.
a. therefore b. but c. so d. however a. The first white man traversed this desert was H. St.John Philby, in the
29. ________, I cannot keep pace with Johnny. 1930s.
a. So I have tried hard b. I have tried hard so b. The first white man traversed this desert and was H. St.John Philby, in
c. However hard have I tried d. However hard I have tried the 1930s.
30. He has done nothing to prepare for the final examination, ______ played. c. The first white man to traverse this desert he was H. St.John Philby, in
a. but b. so c. therefore d. and the 1930s.
Choose the best sentence that can be made from the words given. d. The first white man to traverse this desert was H. St.John Philby,
31. The Arabian Desert / third-largest in the world / cover / nearly 1 million in the 1930s.
square mile of the Arabian Peninsula. Read the passage carefully and choose the correct answer.
a. The Arabian Desert, is third-largest in the world, covers nearly 1 million The Sonoran Desert is a North American desert which expands part of
square mile of the Arabian Peninsula. . the United States - Mexico border and covers large parts of Arizona and
b. The Arabian Desert, that is third-largest in the world, covers nearly 1 California and the Mexican states. It is one of the largest and hottest deserts
million square mile of the Arabian Peninsula. in North America, with an area of 311,000 km2.
c. The Arabian Desert, third-largest in the world, covers nearly 1 The Sonoran Desert contains a variety of unique plants and animals.
million square mile of the Arabian Peninsula. ' The desert includes 60 mammal species, 350 bird species, 20 amphibian
d. The Arabian Desert, third-largest in the world, therefore, covers nearly species, more than 100 reptile species, 30 native fish species, and more than
1 million square mile of the Arabian Peninsula. 2000 native plant species. Despite the common stereotype that it does not
32. It / the sandiest / all deserts / no river / flow through / originate from it. rain in deserts, the Sonoran Desert is considered the wettest desert in the
a. It is the sandiest of all deserts, with no river flows through and world, receiving 3 to 15 inches per year (depending on location in the desert).
originates from it. Many plants not only survive the harsh conditions of the Sonoran
b. It is the sandiest of all deserts. No river flows through or Desert, but they actually thrive. Many have evolved to have specialized
originates from it. adaptations to the desert climate. The Sonoran Desert includes such plant
c. It is the sandiest of all deserts, but no river flows through or originates from the agave family, palm family, cactus family, legume family, and many
from it. others. This desert is the only place in the world where the famous saguaro
d. It is the sandiest of all deserts. Therefore, no river flows through or cactus grows in the wild.
originates from it. The desert is home to seventeen aboriginal American cultures. The
33. Arabia's rainfall / average only 2-5 inches a year / two- year droughts / largest city in the Sonoran Desert is Phoenix, Arizona, the USA. This
not uncommon. metropolitan area in central Arizona is one of the fastest-growing
metropolitan areas in the United States, with a population of 4 million. In the
North Phoenix area, desert is losing ground to development at a rate of 50. a. a b. an c. the d.
approximately 4,000 m2 per hour. The next largest cities are Tucson, in
southern Arizona, with a metro area population of around 900,000, and
Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico, whose municipality also has a population of
around 900,000. The municipality of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico has a
population of around 700,000.
36. There are more rainfalls in the Sonoran Desert than any others.
a. True b. False c. No information
37. Fish cannot survive in the Sonoran Desert.
a. True b. False c. No information
38. No place else in the world has famous saguaro cactus growing in the
wild, but the Sonoran Desert.
a. True b. False c. No information
39. There are a lot of American citizens in the Sonoran Desert.
a. True b. False c. No information
40. The second largest city in the Sonoran Desert is Tucson.
a. True b. False c. No information
Fill in each numbered blank with one suitable word or phrase.
The Middle East and North Africa are one of the driest regions on earth.
Nearly two-thirds of the region is desert. The Sahara Desert of northern
Africa is the largest desert in the world.
Desert air (41) ____ little moisture, so few clouds form over the land.
Without clouds to block the sun, temperatures may reach as (42) ____ as
125F during the day. At night, without the clouds to contain the heat, the
temperature can fall to as low as 125F.
Extreme temperatures (43) ____ with little rainfall make desert life
difficult for people, plants, and animals. (44) ____, some life forms have
adapted to even the most severe desert (45) ____, Camels are able to
survive long periods without food or water. Many desert plants have long,
shallow (46) ____ systems. This allows the plants to reach out to collect
water over great distances. Other desert plants have taproots. Taproots grow
very deep (47) ____ they can tap sources of underground water. Plant life in
the desert is usually spread out over great distances. This is (48) ____
deserts are often described as barren, or lifeless.
When many people think of a desert they often think of endless miles of
hot sand, but a desert does not have to be hot or sandy. Most of the land of
the Middle East and North Africa is hot, dry desert land, (49) ____ some
deserts look very different. Most of Antarctica is a desert but there is no sand
on the continent and the climate of Antarctica is (50) ____ coldest on earth.
41. a. contains b. comprises c. consists d. includes
42. a. much b. far c. long d. high
43. a. locate b. combine c. explore d. separate
44. a. Therefore b. So c. However d. But
45. a. environment b. place c. society d. atmosphere
46. a. leave b. bark c. root d. branch
47. a. as b. because c. but d. so
48. a. what b. why c. how d. when
49. a. since b. as c. so d. but