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What is morphology ?

Morph = form or shape, ology = study of Morphology is the study of the basic building blocks of meaning in
language.

What is a morpheme?
A morpheme is the minimal unit of meaning or grammatical function. For example,
The English word play (basic element) that stands for its own and other additional elements plays, played,
playing, replay.

Morpheme meets three criteria :


1- It is a word or a part of a word that has meaning
2- It cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts without violation of its meaning or without meaningless
reminders
3- It recurs in differing verbal environments with a relatively stable meaning

Write a number after each word showing how many morphemes it contains
Play = 1 Replay = 2 unable = 2 cheaply = 2
Man = 1 weak = 1 weakness = 2 rainy = 2

Write the meaning of the italicized morphemes


Antedate = before\ replay = again \ manly = like \ keeper = one who \ unable + inactive + impossible = not \
cheapest = most

Free morpheme
That is a morpheme is free if it is able to appear as a word by itself.
(can be uttered with meaning)
Bound morpheme
It is bound if it can only appear as part of a larger, multi-morphemic word.
(cannot be uttered with meaning)

Undressed careless

Un- dress -ed care -less -ness


Prefex stem suffix stem suffix suffix
Bound free bound free bound bound

Underline the free morphemes


Speaker \ kingdom\ petrodollar\ idolize \ selective. .. . .
Underline the bound morphemes
Speaker \ kingdom \ petrodollar \ idolize \ selective \ remake \ undo\ dreamed \ biomass

A base morpheme :It is the part of a word that has the principal meaning

Underline the bases in these words

Womanly \ endear \ failure \ famous \ infamous \ enlighten


A base is a linguistic form that meets one or more of these requirements

1- It can occur as an immediate constituent of a word whose only other immediate constituent is a prefix
or suffix Examples: react active fertilize
2- It is an allomorph of a morpheme which has another allomorph that is a free form
3- Examples: depth (deep) wolves (wolf)
4- It is a borrowing from another language in which it is a free form or a base
5- Examples: biometrics microcosm phraseology

Affixes

An affix is a bound morpheme that occurs before or within or after a base

There are three kinds of affixes: prefixes infixes and suffixes

Prefixes: are those bound morphemes that occur before a base

Infixes: are bound morphemes that have been inserted within a word

Suffixes: are bound morphemes that occur after a base

Examples: Prefix = unfuckinbelieveable \ infix = unfuckinbelieveable \ suffix = unfuckinbelieveable

Write the meaning of the prefixes below and write another word containing the same prefix with the same
meaning

Antifreeze against Imperfect not Postwar after


antivirus impossible postmortem

Circumvent around Irreverent not Proceed forward


circumstances irreplaceable progress

Copilot with Inspire in,on inscribe Retroactive backward


cooperation retrogress
Intervene between
Contradict against intercede Semiprofessional half
contravene semisoft
Intramural within
Devitalize do the intravenous Subway under
opposite of deactivate substandard
Obstruct against or
Disagreeable not opposite obstacle Supernatural over
dishonest superman
Prewar before
Insecure not preconceive
incompetent
Write the number of suffixes it contains after each word

Organists = 2 \ personalities = 3 \ flirtatiously = 2 \ atomizers = 3 \ contradictorily = 3

Inflectional suffixes can be schematized as follows:

1- {-s pl} \ dogs , bushes \ noun plural


2- {-s sg ps} \ boys \ noun singular possessive
3- {- s pl ps} \ boys , mens \ noun plural possessive
4- {- 3d} \ runs , catches \ present third-person singular
5- {-ing vb} \ discussing \ present participle
6- {-d pt} \ chewed \ past tense
7- {-d pp} \ chewed, eaten \ past participle
8- {-er cp} \ bolder, sooner , nearer \ comparative
9- {-er sp} \boldest, soonest, nearest \ superlative

The inflectional suffixes differ from the derivational suffixes in the following ways

1- They do not change the part of speech


2- They come last in a word when they are present
3- They go with all stems of a given part of speech
4- They do not pile up; only one ends a word

Write the name for each bold inflectional suffix below:

The flagpole remained in front of Main Hall = past tense

Four pledges were initiated = noun plural

Shirley pledges to do her best = 3rd person singular

The pledges shirt was torn = noun singular possessive

The pledges shirts were torn = noun plural possessive

We were discussing the editorial = present participle

The novel was shorter than I had expected = comparative

They waited at the dock = past tense

Which is the longest route? = superlative

The dealer weighed the poultry = past participle


Derivational suffixes characteristics

1- The words with which derivational suffixes combine is an arbitrary matter


2- In many cases but not all a derivational suffix changes the part of speech of the word to which it is
added
3- Usually do not close off a word

Derivational suffixes examples:

Happiness \ friendship \ boyhood \ activity \ imagination \ ignorance \ pleasure \ multilingualism

After every word indicate its part of speech classification by N(noun V(verb) Aj(adjective) Av(adverb)

Break = N\V * Conspire = V * Ideal = N\Aj * False = Aj * Passion = noun * Sweetly = Av * Singer = N * accept

Daily = Aj\N\Av * familiarization = N * doubt = N\V

Add a derivational suffix to each of the following words which already end in a derivational suffix

Reasonable = reasonableness \ formal = formality \ organize = organization \ purify = purification \ realist =


realistic

Add an inflectional suffix to each of the following words which end in derivational suffixes

Kindness = kindnesses \ beautify = beautified \ quarterly = quarterlies \ popularize = popularized

Depth = depths \ pressure = pressures \ arrival = arrivals \ friendly = friendlier \ funny = funniest

Allomorphs - are the set of morphs - are variants of a morpheme that differ in pronunciation identical

Examples: the plural (e)s of regular nouns can be pronounced \-z\, mats \-s\, or papers\-iz\ depending on the
final sound of the nouns singular form

Zero allomorph: an inflection on nouns or verbs presumed to be present although invisible

Examples: in three sheep and he hit a home run the plural of sheep and the past tense of hit are said to be
realized as zeros

Words a sound or a letter or a group of both that express particular meaning

Simple, complex and compound words:

1- Simple words consist of a single morpheme. Examples: slay, flea, long, spirit, knave, graph, pure, oyster,
mete
2- Complex words contain as their immediate constituents either two bound forms or abound and a free
form. Examples: matri|side \ tele|vise \ ex|clude \ cosmo|naut \ knav|ish \ tele|graph \ aqua|naut\
bi|cycle \ philo|sophy \ dent|tal
3- Compound words have free forms usually two as their immediate constituents
Examples: green|house \ out|side \ no|show \ under|go \ over|ripe \ attorney|general
*a small number of compound words have three or four free forms as coordinate ICs
Examples: happy|go|lucky \ spic|and|span
Word formation processes

Compounding: process used in English and it involves combining roots\two or more words to create new
ones known as compound lexemes. E.g.: typewriter, hotdog, dining room, handbag, breakfast, high school,
baby-sitter, mother-in-law

Derivation: process by which new words are created by adding derivational affixes to simple bases\roots.
E.g.: act+or actor \ act+ive active \ king+dom kingdom

Invention:

One of the least common processes of word formation


It involves the invention of totally new words
It is associated with the names of inventors, products names or companies names
E.g. aspirin, nylon, Kleenex, Kodak, Fahrenheit

Echoism: the formation of words whose sound suggests their meaning.


E.g.: hiss\ hush\ click\ thunder\whisper\moan.

Clipping: the process of cutting off the beginning or the end of a word or both, leaving apart to stand for the
whole. Examples: exam\ gym\math\lab\ dorm\ prof\ fan\ gas\ ad

Acronymy: the process whereby a word is formed from the initial or beginning segments of a succession of
words. E.g.: LAZER Light Amplification By Stimulated Emission of Radiation
NATO North Atlantic Treaty \ NOW National Organization of Women \ OK Old Kinderhook
WASP White, Anglo-Saxon Protestant \ IRS Internal Revenue Service

Blending:

A special form of word formation that involves both compounding and clipping.
It is the fusion of two words into one, the first part of one word with the last part of another.
E.g. brunch breakfast+lunch \ Smog Smoke+fog \ motel motor+hotel \ telecast
television+broadcast happenstance happen+circumstance \ stagflation stagnation+inflation \
simulcast simultaneous+broadcast \ dumbfound dumb+confound \ telecast tele+broadcast

Back-formation:

Avery specified type of reduction process in which a form of one lexical category is reduced to
form another.
When the Verb is formed from the Noun
E.g. televise television \ donate donation \ edit editor \ housekeep housekeeper
administrate administration \ babysit baby-sitter \ emote emotion
Inflectional Paradigms

Paradigm: is a set of related forms having the same stem but different affixes.

Stem Plural Possessive Plural + The noun paradigm


Possessive

-------- {s-pl} {-s ps} {-s pl


ps}

Doctor doctors doctors doctors

Woman women womans womens

Carpenter Carpenters Carpenters


Carpenters

Brother Brothers Brothers Brothers

Japanese Japanese ------------- -----------------

Cattle Cattle ------------- Cattles

Athletics athletics Athletics ------------------

Duck Ducks Ducks Ducks

Underline the noun modifier or pronoun reference that reveals the number of the bold noun:

- The hunting party saw few deer this season


- That news delighted her
- He studied poetics in all its complications
- My scissors lost their sharpness
- She shot both quail on the wing

Underline the verb that reveals the number of the bold noun:

- The Chinese was preparing the dinner


- The Chinese were preparing the dinner
- Oats is his best crop
- The bass are biting today
- The species has become extinct
Indicate by Sg or Pl whether the bold collective nouns are singular or plural:

- The band is playing well today Sg


- The band are playing well today Pl
- The choir became dissatisfied with their robes Pl
- The choir became dissatisfied with its singing Sg
- The staff of the college paper was a high-quality group Pl
- The tribe were on the warpath Pl
- The tribe was the owner fo the river bottom Sg
- The congregation rose to its feet Sg
- The congregation have all helped with the fund-raising drive Pl

The verb paradigm

Stem Present Present Past Past


Third- Participle Tense Participle
Person
Singular

--------- {s 3d} {-ING vb} {-D pt} {-D pp}

Show Shows Showing Showed Showed


also shown

Ring Rings Ringing Rang Rung

Cut cuts Cutting Cut cut

Learn Learns Learning Learned Learned

Choose Chooses Choosing Chose Chosen

Set Sets Setting Set set

*Verbs have three, four, or five forms for example the verb learn have four forms

Each of these five forms has its own uses:

1- The stem: occurs after to, after auxiliaries such as can and will
Examples: to sit \ can go \ we eat
2- The present third-person singular: is the form used with the pronouns he, she it
Examples: - he cuts his class every Wednesday \ that freshman cuts his class every Wednesday
3- The present participle: combines with seven of the eight forms... am\ is \ are\ was \ were\ be \ been
Examples: they were writing letters \ she must have been sleeping
4- The past tense takes on numerous forms
Examples: jumped\ shrunk\ kept\ led \began\ rode\ built\ found\ knew\ swore \ shook
5- The past participle is used with have, has, had
Examples: she has selected a stunning gown \ he had never flown in a helicopter

Write down the following verb paradigms and indicate how many forms they have

- Walk walks walking walked walked [4]


- Bite bites biting bit bit or bitten [4 or 5]
- Keep keeps keeping kept kept [4]
- Freeze freezes freezing froze frozen [5]
- Set sets setting set set [3]
- Sell sells selling sold sold [4]
- Put puts putting put put [3]
- Sleep sleeps sleeping slept slept [4]

The comparable Paradigm

Stem Comparative Superlative

---------- {ER cp} {EST sp}


-

Deadly Deadlier Deadliest

sweet Sweeter Sweetest

Friendly Friendlier Friendliest

Soon Sooner Soonest

Write down the comparative and superlative forms for the following stems

Angry angrier angriest \ healthy healthier healthiest

Common commoner commonest \ quiet quieter quietest

Stupid stupider stupidest \ foolish x x \ cruel x cruelest

Well better best \ bad worse worst \ much, many more most

Old older oldest \ few fewer fewest


Noun: is the name of a thing that may be seen, felt, heard or understand

Verb: is a word that shows action or state of being

Adjective: is a word that modifies a noun

Adverb: defined as a word that modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb

Underline the nouns in the following sentences:

- Our president has a new plan


- The janitors had not seen the umbrella
- The counselor may plan a different approach
- My aunt always mothers her youngest son
- The chefs sisters arrived

Indicate how many of the five forms the bold verbs has

- The president met the leaders of the parade [4]


- The mines had been swept away [4]
- The bridge players would not leave the table [4]
- The water is spreading into the meadow [3]
- The canary might have been eaten by the cat [5]
- June set the table [3]

Write down the source noun, verb, adjective, or bound form of the adjectives below

Golden gold \ helpless help \ lovely love \ peaceful peace

Classify the bold words whether its adverb or adjective

- Your ideas seem sensible Aj


- They are playing happily Av
- He turned the hands clockwise Av
- Be careful Aj
- Have you seen the paper lately? Av
- Its fragile. Lift it easylike Av
- She walked homeward Av
- Luckily, the brake was set Av
- The students reports were creative Aj
- Her report was very specific Aj
- You richly deserve the prize Av
- Annie is a waitress evenings Av