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7/28/2017 Coal - Wikipedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock
usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal Coal
beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, Sedimentary rock
can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure
to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal is composed
primarily of carbon, along with variable quantities of other
elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen.[1] A
fossil fuel, coal forms when dead plant matter is converted into
peat, which in turn is converted into lignite, then sub-bituminous
coal, after that bituminous coal, and lastly anthracite. This
involves biological and geological processes that take place over

Throughout human history, coal has been used as an energy
resource, primarily burned for the production of electricity and
heat, and is also used for industrial purposes, such as refining
metals. Coal is the largest source of energy for the generation of Anthracite coal
electricity worldwide, as well as one of the largest worldwide
anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide releases. The extraction Composition
of coal, its use in energy production and its byproducts are all Primary carbon
associated with environmental and health effects including Secondary hydrogen
climate change.[2]
Coal is extracted from the ground by coal mining. Since 1983, oxygen
the world's top coal producer has been China.[3] In 2015 China nitrogen
produced 3,747 million tonnes of coal – 48% of 7,861 million
tonnes world coal production. In 2015 other large producers were United
States (813 million tonnes), India (678), European Union (539) and
Australia (503).[3] In 2010 the largest exporters were Australia with 328
million tonnes (27% of world coal export) and Indonesia with 316 million
tonnes (26%),[4] while the largest importers were Japan with 207 million
tonnes (18% of world coal import), China with 195 million tonnes (17%)
and South Korea with 126 million tonnes (11%).[5]

Bituminous coal
1 Etymology
2 Formation
3 Ranks
3.1 Hilt's law
3.2 Content
4 Early uses as fuel
5 Uses today
5.1 Coal as fuel
5.1.1 Switch to natural gas
5.2 Coking coal and use of coke 1/29

7/28/2017 Coal - Wikipedia

5.3 Gasification
5.4 Liquefaction
5.5 Refined coal
5.6 Industrial processes
5.7 Production of chemicals
6 Coal industry
6.1 Coal as a traded commodity
7 Environmental and health effects
7.1 Health effects
7.2 Environmental effects
7.3 Clean coal technology
8 Bioremediation
9 Economic aspects
10 Energy density and carbon impact
11 Underground fires
12 Market trends
12.1 World coal reserves
12.2 Major coal producers
12.3 Major coal consumers
12.4 Major coal exporters
12.5 Major coal importers
13 Cultural usage
14 See also
15 References
16 Further reading
17 External links

The word originally took the form col in Old English, from Proto-Germanic *kula(n), which in turn is
hypothesized to come from the Proto-Indo-European root *g(e)u-lo- "live coal".[6] Germanic cognates include the
Old Frisian kole, Middle Dutch cole, Dutch kool, Old High German chol, German Kohle and Old Norse kol, and
the Irish word gual is also a cognate via the Indo-European root.[6] In Old Turkic languages, kül is "ash(es),
cinders", öčür is "quench". The compound "charcoal" in Turkic is öčür(ülmüş) kül, literally "quenched ashes,
cinders, coals" with elided anlaut ö- and inflection affixes -ülmüş.[7]

At various times in the geologic past, the Earth had dense forests[8] in low-
lying wetland areas. Due to natural processes such as flooding, these forests
were buried underneath soil. As more and more soil deposited over them,
they were compressed. The temperature also rose as they sank deeper and
deeper. As the process continued the plant matter was protected from
biodegradation and oxidation, usually by mud or acidic water. This trapped
the carbon in immense peat bogs that were eventually covered and deeply
buried by sediments. Under high pressure and high temperature, dead
vegetation was slowly converted to coal. As coal contains mainly carbon,
the conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called carbonization.[9]
Example chemical structure of coal 2/29

whose properties range from those of lignite to those of bituminous coal. Anthracite. glossy black coal used primarily for residential and commercial space heating. It may be divided further into metamorphically altered bituminous coal and Coal ranking system used in the "petrified oil". peat is a highly effective absorbent for fuel and oil spills on land and water. and when powdered. Ireland and Finland. once widely used as a fuel for steam locomotives. In its dehydrated form.Wikipedia The wide. a compact form of lignite. under suitable conditions.[12] Small steam coal (dry small steam nuts or DSSN) was used as a fuel for domestic water heating. is a harder. its metamorphic grade increases successively into: Peat. Lignite. In this specialized use. United States (US Geological Survey) Graphite is one of the more difficult coals to ignite and is not commonly used as fuel—it is mostly used in pencils. However. Sub-bituminous coal. the exact classification varies between countries. "Steam coal" is a grade between bituminous coal and anthracite. which predate land plants—this coal is presumed to have originated from residues of algae. or brown coal. as from the deposits in Pennsylvania. shallow seas of the Carboniferous Period provided ideal conditions for coal formation. where coal is rare. often with well-defined bands of bright and dull material. is the lowest rank of coal and used almost Coastal exposure of the Point Aconi exclusively as fuel for electric power generation.[10][11] Ranks As geological processes apply pressure to dead biotic material over time. Seam (Nova Scotia) Jet. but sometimes dark brown. although coal is known from most geological periods. The classification of coal is generally based on the content of volatiles. It is also used as a conditioner for soil to make it more able to retain and slowly release water. as a lubricant. it is sometimes known as "sea coal" in the 3/29 . The exception is the coal gap in the Permian–Triassic extinction event. for example. has industrial importance as a fuel in some regions. According to the German classification. considered to be a precursor of coal. is sometimes polished and has been used as an ornamental stone since the Upper Palaeolithic.wikipedia. the highest rank of coal.7/28/2017 Coal . Coal is known from Precambrian strata. with substantial quantities used for heat and power applications in manufacturing and to make coke. Bituminous coal is a dense sedimentary rock. it is used primarily as fuel in steam-electric power generation. is used primarily as fuel for steam-electric power generation and is an important source of light aromatic hydrocarbons for the chemical synthesis industry. usually black. coal is classified as follows:[13] https://en.

8 2.5–4.0–5. 16) by the Greek scientist Theophrastus (circa 371–287 BC):[20][21] https://en. the earliest reference to the use of coal as fuel is from the geological treatise On stones (Lap. the Italian who traveled to China in the 13th century.75 <2.380 Magerkohle Nonbaking coal 10–14 91–92 4.870 Gasflammkohle Gas flame coal 35–40 82–85 5.4–71 ppm[15] Selenium (Se) 3 ppm[16] Early uses as fuel The earliest recognized use is from the Shenyang area of China 4000 BC where Neolithic inhabitants had begun carving ornaments from black lignite.[19] In Europe.0–4.6 9. The law holds true if the thermal gradient is entirely 4/29 . high-rank coal with significant hydrogen content. now termed "liptinite". while the last class is an approximate equivalent to anthracite. the deeper the coal.[17] Coal from the Fushun mine in northeastern China was used to smelt copper as early as 1000 BC. and said coal was so plentiful.0 7.8 34–17 0.8–5. Hilt's law Hilt's law is a geological term that states that..3 ~1 <33.0–5.01 ppm[14] Arsenic (As) 1.Wikipedia Heat German English C H O S Volatiles % content Classification Designation Carbon % Hydrogen % Oxygen % Sulfur % kJ/kg Lignite (brown Braunkohle 45–65 60–75 6. but more inclusive (US anthracite has <6% volatiles).380 Anthrazit Anthracite 7–12 >92 <3.6–5.2–2. the higher its rank (grade).0 3. in a small area.8–3. people could take three hot baths a week.5 ~1 35. irrespective of depth. but metamorphism may cause lateral changes of rank.8–7. Cannel coal (sometimes called "candle coal") is a variety of fine-grained..5–3.470 coal) Flammkohle Flame coal 40–45 75–82 6.5 ~1 <35. It consists primarily of "exinite" macerals. Content Average content of some other elements Substance Content Mercury (Hg) 0. which burn like logs".0–3.[18] Marco Polo. the percentages are percent by mass of the indicated elements The middle six grades in the table represent a progressive transition from the English-language sub-bituminous to bituminous coal.3–4.380 Esskohle Forge coal 14–19 90–91 4.8 ~1 <32.300 Note.910 Gaskohle Gas coal 28–35 85–88 5.2 ~1 <35.7/28/2017 Coal .960 Fettkohle Fat coal 19–28 88–90 5.8 >9.wikipedia.5 4. described coal as "black stones .8 ~1 <35.5 ~1 <34.5–3 <28.10 ± 0.

[30] In 1257–1259.[29] Initially. near Chester. deposits of bituminous coal were used by the Romans for the smelting of iron ore.000 miners in Britain. this had shrunk to some 5.Wikipedia Among the materials that are dug because they are 5/29 .[28] but by the time of Henry VIII.[34] Uses today Coal as fuel https://en.[22][23] In Roman Britain.[28] Seacoal Lane and Newcastle Lane. are still in existence. where coal was unloaded at wharves along the River Fleet.000 miners working in around 20 collieries. — Theophrastus. Britain would have run out of suitable sites for watermills by the 1830s if coal had not been available as a source of energy. although published in 1637 in fact easily accessible surface coal from what became the Somerset coalfield was in common use in quite lowly dwellings locally. after about AD 1000.[24] Evidence of trade in coal (dated to about AD 200) has been found at the Roman settlement at Heronbridge. with the exception of two modern fields. five-sixths of the world's coal was mined in Britain. coal from Newcastle upon Coal miner in Britain. They are found in Liguria . and in Elis as one approaches Olympia by the mountain road. once set on fire. where it has been detected as forming part of the composition of funeral pyres. illustration of the Tiangong In the west of England. The development of the Industrial Revolution led to the large-scale use of coal. having fallen from the exposed coal seams on cliffs above or washed out of underwater coal outcrops. the wharf where the material arrived in London was known as Seacoal Lane. brazier of coal on the altar of Minerva at Aquae Sulis (modern day Bath).[24] No evidence exists of the product being of great importance in Britain before the High Middle Ages. there were some 750.[25] Coal cinders have been found in the hearths of Chinese coal miners in an villas and Roman forts. it was understood to derive from the way it was carried to London by sea. contemporary writers described the wonder of a permanent Kaiwu encyclopedia.[32] In 1947..[26] Evidence of coal's use for iron- working in the city during the Roman period has been found.[33] but by 2004. Rhineland. particularly in Northumberland.wikipedia. so identified in a charter of King Henry III granted in 1253. those known as anthrakes [coals] are made of earth.. 1942 Tyne was shipped to London for the smiths and lime-burners building Westminster Abbey.) These easily accessible sources had largely become exhausted (or could not meet the growing demand) by the 13th century. dated to around AD 400. "the Romans were exploiting coals in all the major coalfields in England and Wales by the end of the second century AD". On Stones (16) translation Outcrop coal was used in Britain during the Bronze Age (3000–2000 BC).[22] The alternative name was "pitcoal". the name was given because much coal was found on the shore. as the steam engine took over from the water wheel.[27] In Eschweiler. because it came from mines. In 1700.[28] Mineral coal came to be referred to as "seacoal" in the 13th century. and. when underground extraction by shaft mining or adits was developed.7/28/2017 Coal .[31] (See Industrial processes below for modern uses of the term. they burn like charcoal. where coal from the Midlands was transported via the Car Dyke for use in drying grain. and they are used by those who work in metals. and in the Fenlands of East Anglia.

[46] Komatsu bulldozer pushing coal in An alternative approach of using coal for electricity generation with Ljubljana Power Station improved efficiency is the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. some older coal-fired power stations have thermal efficiencies in the vicinity of 25%[42] whereas the newest supercritical and "ultra-supercritical" steam cycle turbines. US of China's electricity comes from coal.e.[40][48] and in 2016.[52] The multifuel- fired Avedøreværket CHP Plant just outside Copenhagen can achieve a net electric efficiency as high as 49%. use of coal to generate electricity was declining.000. 69% Utah.[39] When coal is used for electricity generation.000 Gt. operating at temperatures over 600 °C and pressures over 27 MPa (over 3900 psi).Wikipedia Coal is primarily used as a solid fuel to produce electricity and heat through combustion. the coal is gasified (see coal gasification) to create syngas. At least 40% of the world's electricity comes from coal.[43][44] or around 43% (LHV basis) even when using lower-grade lignite fuel. produced about 578 million tonnes (637.[50] In Denmark. can achieve thermal efficiencies in excess of 45% (LHV basis) using anthracite fuel. CB&I). China produced 3. it is usually pulverized and then burned in a furnace with a boiler. which is then used to spin turbines which turn generators and create electricity. Instead of pulverizing the coal and burning it directly as fuel in the steam-generating boiler. Hot exhaust gases from the turbine are used to raise steam in a heat recovery steam generator which powers a supplemental steam turbine. GE Gasifier.47 billion tonnes (3.[36] 46% of total power generated in the US was using coal.000 tonnes of coal) in 2012 to 169 quadrillion Btu in 2020.[49][50][51] As of 2012 in the United States.1 million short tons) in 2011.[37] The United States Energy Information Administration estimates coal reserves at 948 × 109 short tons (860 Gt).[40] The furnace heat converts boiler water to steam. world coal consumption is projected to increase from 2012 to 2040 at an average rate of 0. i.[35] Efforts around the world to reduce the use of coal has led some regions to switch to natural gas. down from approximately 49% in 2008. which is burned in a gas turbine to produce electricity (just like natural gas is burned in a turbine). a net electric efficiency of >47% has been obtained at the coal-fired Nordjyllandsværket CHP Plant and an overall plant efficiency of up to 91% with cogeneration of electricity and district heating. IGCC power plants outperform conventional pulverized coal-fueled plants in terms of pollutant emissions. 951 million tonnes (1. The US consumed about 13% of the world total in 2010.[53] https://en. and to 180 quadrillion Btu in 2040.[41] The thermodynamic efficiency of this process has Coal rail cars been improved over 6/29 . 30% of the United States' electricity came from coal. The overall plant efficiency with cogeneration of electricity and district heating can reach as much as 94%.wikipedia. India Castle Gate Power Plant near Helper.[38] One estimate for resources is 18. using 93% of it for generation of electricity.[45] Further thermal efficiency improvements are also achievable by improved pre-drying (especially relevant with high-moisture fuel such as lignite or biomass) and cooling technologies. According to the EIA.7/28/2017 Coal . and allow for relatively easy carbon capture. Thermal efficiencies of current IGCC power plants range from 39% to 42%[47] (HHV basis) or ≈42–45% (LHV basis) for bituminous coal and assuming utilization of mainstream gasification technologies (Shell. as plentiful supplies of natural gas obtained by hydraulic fracturing of tight shale formations became available at low prices.6%/year. from 153 quadrillion Btu (1 Quad are 36.05 billion short tons).83 billion short tons) in 2011.

burning natural gas for power or heat results in half the carbon dioxide emissions.[61] When compared to coal. approximately half as much as generated with coal. which was developed in the Soviet Union. is sufficient for many years. bituminous).[63] Coking coal and use of coke Coke is a solid carbonaceous residue derived from coking coal (a low-ash. The use of coal in the United Kingdom declined as a result of the development of North Sea oil and the subsequent Dash for Gas from the 1990s to 2000. Coke oven at a smokeless fuel plant Coking coal should be low in ash. including highly polluting.[58] Due to emergence of shale gas. from a climate perspective. Those measured in the first quarter of 2012 were the lowest of any recorded for the first quarter of any year since 1992.wikipedia. United Kingdom not migrate to the metal. lignite. and is too rich in dissolved carbon. It is often used to balance the intermittent nature of solar and wind energy when hydroelectricity is not available. Other ways to use coal are combined heat and power cogeneration and an MHD topping cycle. so that these do in Wales. low-sulfur bituminous coal.[60] Coal-fired generation puts out about twice the amount of carbon dioxide—around 2. increasing by a third over 2011. and phosphorus.832 °F). much may have to be left in the ground to avoid climate change. low-energy content types of coal (i. you might as well be burning coal. the coking coal can be divided into various grades.[57] Natural gas showed a corresponding jump. Fracking issues may exist when producing the gas.e.100 pounds of greenhouse gas per megawatt hour.[62] Natural gas production and distribution leak methane into the atmosphere which may be 25 times more potent a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide.[59] Natural gas accounted for 81% of new power generation in the US between 2000 and 2010. carbon dioxide emissions have unexpectedly fallen. Metallurgical coke is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace. coal consumption declined from 2009.000 pounds for every megawatt hour generated—than electricity generated by burning natural gas at 1. so it must be treated further to make steel. sulfur. below). In the United States.7/28/2017 Coal .[54][55] Switch to natural gas Worldwide natural gas generated power has increased from 740 TW in 1973 to 5140 TW in 2014.[64] Coke is made from coking coal by baking in an oven without oxygen at temperatures as high as 1.. The total known deposits recoverable by current 7/29 .000 °C (1. also known as metallurgical coal). and if as little as 3 percent of the gas produced escapes. which is used in manufacturing steel and other iron products. natural gas is also popular in some countries for heating and as an automotive fuel. On the other hand.[58] Coal's share of US electricity generation dropped to just over 36%. 27 gigawatts of capacity from coal-fired generators was slated to be retired from 175 US coal- fired power plants between 2012 and 2016. driving off the volatile constituents and fusing together the fixed carbon and residual ash. These grades are: https://en.[56] In addition to generating electricity.[64] Based on the ash percentage.[65] The result is pig iron. In Canada some coal power plants such as the Hearn Generating Station have stopped burning coal by switching the plant to natural gas. As the fuel mix in the United States has changed to reduce coal and increase natural gas generation. generating 22% of the worlds total electricity.Wikipedia An alternative form of coal combustion is as coal-water slurry fuel (CWS). Consumption is increasing and maximal production could be reached within decades (see world coal reserves.

CO + H2O → CO2 + H2 Liquefaction Coal can also be converted into synthetic fuels equivalent to gasoline or diesel by several different direct processes (which do not intrinsically require gasification or indirect conversion).6 MJ/kg). where more hydrogen is liberated. C (as Coal) + O2 + H2O → H2 + CO If the refiner wants to produce gasoline. hard. light oils. but contains too many impurities to be useful in metallurgical applications. the syngas is fed into the water gas shift reaction. An overview of coal liquefaction and its future potential is available. the coal is either hydrogenated or carbonized. The coal tar is then further processed into fuels.7/28/2017 Coal . including coal tar. During gasification. alternatively. which can be blended into fuel directly or converted to gasoline via the methanol to gasoline process.[69] the SRC-I and SRC-II (Solvent Refined Coal) processes. Some cokemaking processes produce valuable byproducts. syngas can be converted into methanol. which is why coking coal is so important in making steel using the conventional route. Gasification Coal gasification can be used to produce syngas. however. the alternative route is direct reduced iron. Often syngas is used to fire gas turbines to produce electricity.[68] In the direct liquefaction processes. the syngas is collected at this state and routed into a Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Alternatively. coal is coked at temperatures between 360 and 750 °C (680 and 1. These temperatures optimize the production of coal tars richer in lighter hydrocarbons than normal coal tar. Petroleum coke is the solid residue obtained in oil refining. Coke from coal is grey. and porous and has a heating value of 24. the hydrogen obtained from gasification can be used for various purposes. However. through the Fischer-Tropsch process. while also releasing hydrogen gas (H2). oxygen and water molecules oxidize the coal into carbon monoxide (CO). the NUS Corporation hydrogenation process[70][71] and several other single-stage and two-stage processes. If hydrogen is the desired end-product. heating. where any carbonaceous fuel can be used to make sponge or pelletised iron. making ammonia.[67] Gasification combined with Fischer-Tropsch technology is currently used by the Sasol chemical company of South Africa to make motor vehicle fuels from coal and natural gas. which resembles coke. Hydrogenation processes are the Bergius process. but the versatility of syngas also allows it to be converted into transportation fuels. such as gasoline and diesel.[72] In the process of low-temperature carbonization. This process has been conducted in both underground coal mines and in the production of town gas which was piped to customers to burn for illumination.8 million Btu/ton (29. a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) gas. ammonia. and coal gas. or upgrading fossil fuels. such as powering a hydrogen 8/29 .[73] https://en.380 °F). During the reaction.Wikipedia Steel Grade I (Ash content not exceeding 15%) Steel Grade II (Exceeding 15% but not exceeding 18%) Washery Grade I (Exceeding 18% but not exceeding 21%) Washery Grade II (Exceeding 21% but not exceeding 24%) Washery Grade III (Exceeding 24% but not exceeding 28%) Washery Grade IV (Exceeding 28% but not exceeding 35%)[66] The coke must be strong enough to resist the weight of overburden in the blast furnace. and cooking. the coal is mixed with oxygen and steam while also being heated and pressurized.wikipedia.

urea and others.Wikipedia Coal liquefaction methods involve carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the conversion process.7/28/2017 Coal . hydrogen and carbon monoxide.[77] The main route to these products is coal gasification to produce syngas. Refined coal Refined coal is the product of a coal-upgrading technology that removes moisture and certain pollutants from lower-rank coals such as sub-bituminous and lignite (brown) coals. interest in using coal tends to increase for higher oil and natural gas prices and during periods of high global economic growth that may strain oil and gas production. production of chemicals from coal has been used since the 1950s and has become established in the market. Also. Historically.[75] Sea coal can be mixed with the clay lining (the "bod") used for the bottom of a cupola furnace. production of chemicals from coal is of much higher interest in countries like South Africa. Sequestration adds to the cost of production. is a constituent of foundry sand. Depending on the situation. Because the slate of chemical products that can be made via coal gasification can in general also use feedstocks derived from natural gas and petroleum. While the molten metal is in the mould. 22% of new gasifier additions were to be for chemical production. acetic acid. the chemical industry tends to use whatever feedstocks are most cost- effective. According to the 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database. precombustion technology can be used in place of or as a supplement to postcombustion technologies to control emissions from coal-fueled boilers. which are the chemical building blocks from which a whole spectrum of derivative chemicals are manufactured. and so preventing the metal from penetrating the pores of the sand. From 2008 to 2010. reductions of 5–12% can be achieved in Coal to Liquid (CTL) plants and up to a 75% reduction is achievable when co-gasifying coal with commercially demonstrated levels of biomass (30% biomass by weight) in coal/biomass-to-liquids plants. Primary chemicals that are produced directly from the syngas include methanol. including olefins. China. It is one form of several precombustion treatments and processes for coal that alter coal's characteristics before it is burned.[74] For future synthetic fuel 9/29 . India and the United States where there are abundant https://en. carbon dioxide sequestration is proposed to avoid releasing CO2 into the atmosphere. easing the process of breaking open holes for tapping the molten metal. ammonia. the result is lifecycle greenhouse gas footprints that are generally greater than those released in the extraction and refinement of liquid fuel production from crude oil. If coal liquefaction is done without employing either carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies or biomass blending.[78] a survey of current and planned gasifiers. from 2004 to 2007 chemical production increased its gasification product share from 37% to 45%. If CCS technologies are employed. It is also contained in 'mould wash'. When heated. Therefore.[76] Production of chemicals Coal is an important feedstock in production of a wide range of chemical fertilizers and other chemical products. releasing reducing gases at pressure. Industrial processes Finely ground bituminous coal. The goals of precombustion coal technologies are to increase efficiency and reduce emissions when the coal is burned. The versatility of syngas as a precursor to primary chemicals and high-value derivative products provides the option of using relatively inexpensive coal to produce a wide range of Production of chemicals from coal valuable commodities. known in this application as sea coal. the coal decomposes and the bod becomes slightly friable.wikipedia. a paste or liquid with the same function applied to the mould before casting. formaldehyde. the coal burns slowly.

the price per short ton had declined to $111.7/28/2017 Coal . As of October 2008. Prices further declined to $71. and is quoted in U. and are also quoted in U.[96] Coal ash contains the radioactive elements uranium and thorium.8 billion.00 per short ton as of September 2008. The trading unit is 1.wikipedia. Coal ash and other solid combustion byproducts are stored locally and escape in various ways that expose those living near coal plants to radiation and environmental toxics. coal futures contracts provide coal producers and the electric power industry an important tool for hedging and risk management. The abundance of coal combined with lack of natural gas resources in China is strong inducement for the coal to chemicals industry pursued there. Coal to chemical processes do require substantial quantities of water.00 per short ton in 2000 to around $150. so-called because the coal dust literally turns the lungs black from their usual pink color. In the United States. Since coal is the principal fuel for generating electricity in the United States.[94] Aerial photograph of Kingston Fossil Plant coal fly ash slurry spill site Around 10% of coal is ash. including 2.[90][91][92] Breathing in coal dust causes coalworker's pneumoconiosis which is known colloquially as "black lung". it is estimated that 1. the Intercontinental Exchange (ICE) has European (Rotterdam) and South African (Richards Bay) coal futures available for trading.[85] In early 10/29 .500 former employees of the coal industry die every year from the effects of breathing in coal mine dust.[93] In the United States alone.[87] The deadly London smog was caused primarily by the heavy use of coal. the best example of the industry is Eastman Chemical Company which has been successfully operating a coal-to-chemicals plant at its Kingsport.000 tonnes (5.[97] https://en. site since 1983.550 short tons (1. Similarly. The trading unit for these contracts is 5.[86] Environmental and health effects Health effects The use of coal as fuel causes adverse health impacts and deaths.[83] In addition to the NYMEX contract. Central Appalachian coal futures contracts are currently traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange (trading symbol QL). As of 2013 much of the coal to chemical production was in the People's Republic of China[79][80] where environmental regulation and water management[81] was weak. or $55 billion.000 premature deaths every year.S.S. it was trading near $56/ton.[95] Coal ash is hazardous and toxic to human taken the day after the event beings and other living things.410 t) per contract. dollars and cents per ton.800 from lung cancer.50. dollars and cents per ton. In the United States coal-fired power plants were estimated in 2004 to cause nearly 24.Wikipedia coal resources.[89] Yet the disease and mortality burden of coal use today falls most heavily upon China.[84] The price of coal increased from around $30.[82] Coal industry Coal as a traded commodity In North America.[88] Annual health costs in Europe from use of coal to generate electricity are €42.25 as of October 2010.500 short tons). Sasol has built and operated coal-to-chemicals facilities in South Africa. Tennessee.

6 million lost workdays in the U. that contain mercury. This beneficially masks some of the warming caused by increased greenhouse gases.S. and nervous system of Americans caused by the burning of coal as fuel.7/28/2017 Coal . echoing many of the same findings. and lung cancer. the American Nurses' Association. there is a coal seam fire in Germany that has been burning since 1668.[100] Though coal burning has increasingly been supplanted by less-toxic natural gas use in recent years. 20. a 2010 study by the Clean Air Task Force still estimated that "air pollution from coal-fired power plants accounts for more than 13. Release of SO2 also contributes to the widespread acidification of ecosystems. Spills of fly ash. and destroy homes. the US alone consumed on the order of 983 million short tonnes of coal per year. each year. reduced intelligence. mercury poisoning. In 2013. This report provides medical information regarding damage to the lungs.000 premature deaths. the sulfur dioxide is oxidized to gaseous H2SO2 which scatters solar radiation. heart attacks.[99] The American Lung Association. Coal mining can also cause long lasting fires. uranium. These include fly ash. such as dust nuisance. mining affects groundwater and water table levels and acidity.[98] Use of coal on this scale generates hundreds of millions of tons of ash and other waste products every year.[106] Disused coal mines can also cause issues.[105] whereas carbon dioxide remains in the atmosphere for hundreds of years. according to the IPCC and the EPA. strokes. arsenic. and other heavy metals. It details how the air pollution caused by the plume of coal smokestack emissions is a cause of asthma. and is still burning in the 21st century. bottom ash. Power stations that burn coal also consume large quantities of 11/29 .[103] Water systems are affected by coal mining. and it has been estimated that thousands of coal seam fires are burning at any given time.[109] https://en. perhaps the largest and most long term effect of coal use is the release of carbon dioxide. cardiac arrhythmias." The total monetary cost of these health impacts is over $100 billion annually."[102] Environmental effects Coal mining and coal fueling of power station and industrial processes can cause major environmental damage.wikipedia. and has consequential impacts on other land uses. the Chicago School of Public Health released a largely similar report.[107] For example. "a one standard deviation increase in coal use raised infant mortality by 6–8% and that industrial coal use explains roughly one- third of the urban mortality penalty observed during this period. However. including workers in the mines and individuals living in communities near plants burning coal as a power source. hence its increase in the atmosphere exerts a cooling effect on climate. thorium. Subsidence can occur above tunnels. Approximately 75 Tg/S per year of sulfur dioxide (SO2) is released from burning coal.[104] For example.000 heart attacks. and flue-gas desulfurization sludge. This can affect the flows of rivers. causing damage to infrastructure or cropland. and the Physicians for Social Responsibility released a report in 2009 which details in depth the detrimental impact of the coal industry on human health. heart. and 1.[101] A 2017 study in the Economic Journal found that for Britain during the period 1851–1860. can also contaminate land and waterways. a greenhouse gas that causes climate change and global warming.[108] Some environmental impacts are modest. the sulfur is precipitated out of the atmosphere as acid rain in a matter of weeks. Coal is the largest contributor to the human-made increase of CO2 in the atmosphere. artery blockages. One of the earliest known impacts of coal on the water cycle was acid rain. However. such as the Kingston Fossil Plant coal fly ash slurry spill. along with non-metals such as selenium.Wikipedia Huge amounts of coal ash and other waste is produced annually. arterial occlusion. After release.[2] More recently. congestive heart failure.

[113] Because of this higher carbon efficiency of natural gas generation.[126] Post-combustion capture – This refers to capture of CO2 from An oxyfuel CCS power plant exhaust gases of combustion processes. and ultimately sequestered. Figures from the United States Environmental Protection Agency show that these technologies have made today's coal-based generating fleet 77 percent cleaner on the basis of regulated emissions per unit of energy produced. the head of the UN climate agency advised that most of the world's coal reserves should be left in the ground to avoid catastrophic global 12/29 .000 pounds of carbon dioxide. the most important gases in causation of acid rain.[127] may be stored or sequestered Oxy-fuel combustion – Fossil fuels such as coal are burned in a mixture of recirculated flue gas and oxygen.[115] In 2013. Some of the techniques that would be used to accomplish this include chemically washing minerals and impurities from the coal. coal tar.wikipedia.[123][124] Several different technological methods are available for the purpose of carbon capture as demanded by the clean coal concept: Pre-combustion capture – This involves gasification of a feedstock (such as coal) to form synthesis gas.[128] https://en. and gaseous compounds as by-products which if discharged to land. air or waterways can act as environmental pollutants.[114] Those measured in the first quarter of 2012 were the lowest of any recorded for the first quarter of any year since 1992. which is almost double the approximately 1100 pounds of carbon dioxide released by a natural gas-fired electric plant. and particulates which cause visible air pollution and deleterious effects on human health. and thus the efficiency of the conversion into electricity.[110] The Whyalla steelworks is one example of a coke producing facility where liquid ammonia is discharged to the marine environment. coal-fired electric power generation emits around 2. More recent focus has been on carbon dioxide (due to its impact on global warming)[119] and concern over toxic species such as mercury.666 million tonnes of carbon dioxide.7/28/2017 Coal . which may be shifted to produce a H2 and CO2-rich gas mixture. gasification (see also IGCC). improved technology for treating flue gases to remove pollutants to increasingly stringent levels and at higher efficiency. carbon capture and storage technologies to capture the carbon dioxide from the flue gas and dewatering lower rank coals (brown coals) to improve the calorific value. Historically. transported. In 1999.[112] For every megawatt-hour generated. from which the CO2 can be efficiently captured and separated. low-cost CO2 capture.[117] Those technologies are being developed to remove or reduce pollutant emissions to the atmosphere. which largely eliminates nitrogen from the flue gas enabling efficient.[125] This technology is usually associated with Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle process configurations.[118] Clean coal technology usually addresses atmospheric problems resulting from burning coal.416 million tonnes. or membrane separations to remove CO2 from the bulk so as to separate the CO2 so that it gases.[116] Clean coal technology "Clean" coal technology is a collection of technologies being developed to mitigate the environmental impact of coal energy generation.[111] In 2011.[120] Concerns exist regarding the economic viability of these technologies and the timeframe of delivery. as the market in the United States has changed to reduce coal and increase natural gas generation. world gross emissions from coal usage were 14. typically using sorbents. rather than in air.[121] potentially high hidden economic costs in terms of social and environmental damage.Wikipedia The production of coke from coal produces ammonia. carbon dioxide emissions may have fallen. operation processes the exhaust gases solvents. the primary focus was on SO2 and NOx. world gross carbon dioxide emissions from coal usage were 8.[122] and the costs and viability of disposing of removed carbon and other toxic matter.

liquid coal lost some of its economic allure in the U.Wikipedia The Kemper County IGCC Project.S.[140] China is the largest producer of coal in the world.[139] This is probably because China prefers not to be dependent on foreign oil.[135] Bioremediation The white rot fungus Trametes versicolor can grow on and metabolize naturally occurring coal. This is contingent on liquefaction production capacity becoming large enough to satiate the very large and growing demand for petroleum. as of December 2008.[136] The bacteria Diplococcus has been found to degrade coal. production of fuel from coal becomes cost-competitive with oil priced at around $35 per barrel. amine-based scrubber technology to capture 90% of the CO2 emitted by Unit 3 of the power plant. Estimates of the cost of producing liquid fuels from coal suggest that domestic U. and relies on coal to supply 69% of its energy needs. but will probably be re-vitalized. will use pre-combustion capture of CO2 to capture 65% of the CO2 the plant produces. built by German firm Siemens.[141] An estimated 5 million people worked in China's coal-mining industry in 2007.[144] https://en. Germany. which will be utilized/geologically sequestered in enhanced oil recovery operations. raising its temperature. and compresses the CO2 into a liquid.[133][134] The facility captures CO2 and acid rain producing pollutants. this CO2 will be pipelined to and utilized for enhanced oil recovery in the Weyburn oil fields. the coal liquefaction projects in China were again boosted. with an oil price around $70 per barrel. and these projects are profitable with an oil barrel price of $40.[131] However. and the processing in the oil field. Vattenfall opines that this technology is considered not to be a final solution for CO2 reduction in the atmosphere.[142] Coal pollution costs the EU €43 billion each year. In China.S.[138] with the $35 being the break- even cost.[137] Economic aspects Coal (by liquefaction technology) is one of the backstop resources that could limit escalation of oil prices and mitigate the effects of transportation energy shortage that will occur under peak 13/29 . similar to oil sand projects.wikipedia. but provides an achievable solution in the near term while more desirable alternative solutions to power generation can be made economically practical.. which went on-line in September 2008.7/28/2017 Coal . it will be the United States’ first clean coal plant. the remainder is released into the atmosphere during capturing. instead utilizing its enormous domestic coal reserves. separates them.[129] If the technology used at the Kemper Project is successful.[132] An early example of a coal-based plant using (oxy-fuel) carbon-capture technology is Swedish company Vattenfall's Schwarze Pumpe power station located in Spremberg. As oil prices were increasing during the first half of 2009. Plans are to inject the CO2 into depleted natural gas fields or other geological formations.[143] Measures to cut air pollution may have beneficial long-term economic impacts for individuals.[134] In 2014 research and development were discontinued due to high costs making the technology unviable. due to an increasing need for liquid energy in the transportation sector. It is the world's largest energy consumer. With oil prices as low as around $40 per barrel in the U. a 582 MW coal gasification-based power plant.[[130] The Saskatchewan Government's Boundary Dam Power Station Integrated Carbon Capture and Sequestration Demonstration Project will use post-combustion. only about a half of this CO2 will actually be permanently stored. coal liquefaction projects were given high priority even during periods of oil prices below $40 per barrel.S.

wikipedia. which resembles the coal burning waste "clinker" or volcanic "scoria". and it continues to burn underground to this day. Attempts to extinguish the fire were unsuccessful.000 years.[156] Wild coal fires in the area were reported by the Lewis and Clark Expedition as well as explorers and settlers in the area. the average efficiency of electricity-generating power stations was 31%.[149] Those burning underground can be difficult to locate and many cannot be extinguished. compared to 0. The coal continues to burn slowly back into the seam until oxygen (air) can no longer reach the flame front. The reddish siltstone rock that caps many ridges and buttes in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and in western North Dakota is called porcelanite.569 kg CO2/kWh (natural gas). or 133. For a coal power plant with a 40% efficiency.[157] Market trends World coal reserves The 948 billion short tons of recoverable coal reserves estimated by the Energy Information Administration are equal to about 4. an equivalent of 3. of which 2. or 0. it takes an estimated 325 kg (717 lb) of coal to power a 100 W lightbulb for one year.[154] At Kuh i Malik in Yagnob Valley. and breaking out to the surface can initiate surface wildfires. creating vast underground labyrinths full of unique minerals.8 million BTU per https://en.[148] Underground fires Thousands of coal fires are burning around the world.196 BBOE (billion barrels of oil equivalent).[38] The amount of coal burned during 2007 was estimated at 7. located in an abandoned anthracite strip mine pit. its heating value. is roughly 24 megajoules per kilogram[145] (approximately 6. Pennsylvania (a borough located in the Coal Region of the United States). coal represented about 23% of total global energy supply.075 billion short tons.Wikipedia Energy density and carbon impact The energy density of coal.881 kg CO2/kWh (oil).963 kg CO2/kWh for coal power. in 2002. emitting 360 million metric tons of CO2. This place has been well-known since the time of Herodotus.[155] Clinker is rock that has been fused by the natural burning of coal.[158] This is an average of 18. their combustion gases are dangerous to life. Coal seams can be set on fire by spontaneous combustion or contact with a mine fire or surface fire. but European geographers misinterpreted the Ancient Greek descriptions as the evidence of active volcanism in Turkestan (up to the 19th century.7 kilowatt-hours per kg). In the Powder River Basin approximately 27 to 54 billion tons of coal burned within the past three million years.4 billion tonnes of coal.7/28/2017 Coal .org/wiki/Coal 14/29 . Fires can cause the ground above to subside.[152][153] In Centralia. when the Russian army invaded the area).[146] As of 2006. Tajikistan. Local people once used this method to mine ammoniac. an exposed vein of anthracite ignited in 1962 due to a trash fire in the borough landfill. amounting to 2–3% of the annual worldwide production of CO2 from fossil fuels.[150][151] Coal fires in China burn an estimated 120 million tons of coal a year. The Australian Burning Mountain was originally believed to be a volcano.8 billion tonnes were used for electricity generation.e.179 quadrillion BTU's. but the smoke and ash come from a coal fire that has been burning for some 6. coal deposits have been burning for thousands of years. i. A grass fire in a coal area can set dozens of coal seams on fire. Lightning strikes are an important source of ignition.[147] The US Energy Information Agency's 1999 report on CO2 emissions for energy generation quotes an emission factor of 0. some of them very beautiful.

In many cases.000 barrels (8. this is about 57. The largest reserves are found in the United States. British Petroleum. Russia. This figure only includes reserves classified as "proven". States. Australia and A coal mine in Wyoming. Note the table below. Of the three fossil fuels.100. natural gas provided recoverable coal reserves at end-2008 or 2011 (million tonnes)[159] 15/29 .000 barrels (13. while oil provided 85.000. in its 2007 report. China. particularly in under- explored areas. companies are aware of coal deposits that have not been sufficiently drilled to qualify as "proven".wikipedia. coal has the most widely distributed reserves.000 barrels (9.100. By comparison in 2007. Proved https://en. and on all continents except Antarctica.000. estimated at 2006 end that there were 147 years reserves-to-production ratio based on proven coal reserves Coal output in 2005 worldwide. coal is mined in over 100 countries.000 m3) of oil equivalent per day. United India.000 m3) of oil equivalent per day.800. some nations haven't updated their information and assume reserves remain at the same levels even with withdrawals. exploration drilling programs by mining companies. In terms of heat content. are continually providing new reserves.000 m3) per day. However. The United States has the world's largest coal reserves.7/28/2017 Coal .Wikipedia short ton.640.

3 Bulgaria 2 190 2.105 5.4 Bosnia and 484 0 2.904 1.746 0.203 0 0 1.5 Greece 0 0 3.709 0.814 2.1 Czech 192 0 908 1.208 1.236 6.400 8.3 Uzbekistan 47 0 1.366 380 0 6.770 1.156 3.9 2011 India 56.9 South Africa 30.559 0.6 2011 Russia 49.559 0 4.7/28/2017 Coal .070 0.100 33.600 40.350 2.170 0 1.529 0.7 Indonesia 1.020 0.945 33.500 60.8 Canada 3.239 0.501 98.1 Mexico 860 300 51 1.369 2.500 0 12.904 2.010 14.156 0 0 30.100 37.1 Spain 200 300 30 530 0.3 Pakistan 0 166 1.2 Hungary 13 439 1.200 33.1 Albania 0 0 794 794 0.1 New Zealand 33 205 333-7.660 0.8 Poland 4.9 Kazakhstan 21.1 North Korea 300 300 0 600 0.474 872 2.371 5.6 Colombia 6.wikipedia.239 1.100 2.600 7.088 97.6 2011 Australia 37.618 30.528 0.176 237.1 Iran 1.Wikipedia Proved recoverable coal reserves at end-2008 or 2011 (million tonnes)[159] Anthracite & Percentage of Country SubBituminous Lignite Total Year Bituminous World Total United States 108.2 Thailand 0 0 1.203 0.577 1.174 2.4 2011 China 62.600 114.211 0.343 0.699 4.000[160] 0.1 https://en.520 2.472 10.3 Herzegovina Mongolia 1.338 0 1.020 3.7 Ukraine 15.900 0.1 Laos 4 0 499 503 0.351 16.000 571–15.500 12.853 0.600 3.100 0 4.366 0.1 Republic Kyrgyzstan 0 0 812 812 0.400 13.0 2011 Germany 99 0 40.873 3.295 22.450 157.6 Brazil 0 4.200 76.700 18.5 Serbia 9 361 13.853 1.520 0.100 16/29 .3 Turkey 529 0 1.

2 324. Production of Coal by Country and year (million tonnes) [161][3] Country 2000 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 China 1.5 358.4 535.1 893.2 South 224.4 244.0 972.2 256.0 114.2 627.8 1.7 193.725.3 United 974.wikipedia.530 100 2011 Major coal producers The reserve life is an estimate based only on current production levels and proved reserves level for the countries shown.0 573.035.6 301.2 983.8 216.520.7 576.2 424.5 444.6 Kazakhstan World 4.2 254. For comparison.7 252.9 110.3 188.7 558.2 275.8 247.4 515.8 202. Shares are based on data expressed in tonnes oil equivalent.1 Indonesia Russia 262.254.5 2.1 592.528.6 96.3 637.9 115.6 608.795.0 3.6 Africa 201.3 6.6 Germany Poland 172.691.421 1.0 975.204.9 74.4 244.8 Australia 77.7/28/2017 Coal .3 355.573.346 846 5.9 86.9 Total Major coal consumers Countries with annual consumption higher than 100 million tonnes are shown.974.2 144.695.3 132.1 258.613 0. Countries with annual production higher than 100 million tonnes are shown. data for the European Union is also shown.7 428.7 8.2 478.5 119.4 152.1 3.6 204.054. data for the European Union is also shown.2 1.2 97.8 Consumption of Coal by Country and year (million tonnes)[162] 17/29 .1 142.4 364.2 139.9 2.9 556.1 201.040.6 538.2 1. https://en.235.5 1.1 276.9 144.9 243.7 World Total 403.6 333.834.6 2.9 350.0 6.0 3. Shares are based on data expressed in tonnes oil equivalent.9 1.7 163.2 392.3 321.197 287.9 313.3 6.9 192.3 5.8 375.6 2.1 2011 All others 3.0 Union 313.384.9 449.1 Argentina 0 0 550 550 0.4 382.0 6.5 156.1 145.9 470.945.000 891.8 197.3 309.4 159.8 111.9 240.716.6 250.973. For comparison.3 375.0 6.8 7.063.6 7.9 86.6 5.3 255.2 413.5 605.0 3.6 196.333 201.2 190.4 States India 334.4 407.6 256.1 100.6 607.4 8.7 298.9 84.7 992.9 120.802.301.1 589.008. and makes no assumptions of future production or even current production trends.0 2.4 449.0 135.026.0 415.8 162.4 183.880.4 595.7 281.7 182.3 1.342.5 European 653.2 237.Wikipedia Zimbabwe 502 0 0 502 0.3 563.349.6 2.9 207.7 399.9 385.5 328.8 588.

2) and Russia (100.352 3.538 4.901 9.0% Russia 227 185 232 238 256 229 242 2.wikipedia.9% World Total 7.137 8. In terms of net export the largest exporters are still Australia (328.907 100% Major coal exporters Countries with annual gross export higher than 10 million tonnes are shown.699 8.3% South 114 119 133 144 141 139 144 2.691 2.892 3.2).1% Turkey 108 108 105 111 111 92 100 0. Indonesia (316.6% European 850 779 789 825 845 809 772 6. Exports https://en.Wikipedia Consumption of Coal by Country and year (million tonnes)[162] Country 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Share China 2.1% South 195 185 187 194 204 203 201 2.7/28/2017 Coal .0% United 1.678 4.2% Korea Australia 155 154 148 145 139 134 130 1.1 millions tonnes).539 50.8% Union Germany 243 225 232 232 271 272 264 2.3% Japan 185 164 187 183 197 208 210 3.3% States India 582 640 655 715 841 837 880 10.017 904 951 910 889 924 918 10.2% Africa Poland 135 137 135 147 155 158 151 1.677 4.2% Indonesia 58 62 62 68 80 90 107 of Coal by Country and year (million short tons)[4][163][164] 18/29 .636 7.640 8.013 8.

6 332.4 142.0 27.2 68.6 68.1 313.7 10.5% Kazakhstan 0.090.8 29.2 2.3 1.[165] https://en.5 93.4 4.7 51.7 74.3 2.7 98.1 16.5 60.5 328.2 60.4 28.3 27.2 31.5 35.9 228.5 15.9 100% Major coal importers Countries with annual gross import higher than 20 million tonnes are shown.0 192.0 55.0 14.212.3 33.4 89.8% Africa Canada 27.8 47.7% United 43.4 56.0 51.4 1.8 131.4 7.9 11.4 36.1 24.4 95.0 millions tonnes).8 31.4 112.5 26.3 30.4 316.1 85.4 59. In terms of net import the largest importers are still Japan (206.8 82.0 1.wikipedia.0 48.5% Colombia South 78.2 6.9 36.7 8.5% China 103.7% 30.2 221.5 74.8 75.8).org/wiki/Coal Imports of Coal by Country and year (million short tons)[5] 19/29 .4) and South Korea (125.6 33.2 126.1 247.5 Indonesia 238.2 73.8 23.2 261.4 130.7 21. China (172.1% Poland 28.2 33.413.9 764.0 288.8 72.8 1.7 18.1 15.2 331.3 28.5 31.4 23.6 38.1 150.5 3.5 278.6 75.0 255.0 936.4 20.7/28/2017 Coal .6 103.286.7% Mongolia Vietnam 6.3 74.8 2.3 26.6 1.7 27.2 115.1 14.9 37.8 1.7% States 50.4 68.2 1.4 83.7 75.8 76.2 108.9 78.0 268.5 25.6 255.7 75.9 1.1 21.7 28.9 122.7 2.6 18.8 25.7 76.0 5.0 36.5 1.3 1.Wikipedia Exports of Coal by Country and year (million short tons)[4][163][164] Country 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Share 107.1 140.2 22.5 32.5% Australia Russia 41.7 1.2 24.073.7 19.7 19.4 421.6 83.0 92.0% Total World 713.1 1.

6 71. This occurs as part of First-Footing and represents warmth for the year to come.8% Total 991.0 182.9% Russia 28.8 10.5 151.9 195.8 1.1 22. M.3 34.5% United 56.8 37.5% China 42.6 56.1 94.8 1.0 206.8 1.[167] both U.1 20.7 1.8 21.063.9 49.0 2. Blander.9 20/29 .1 100% Cultural usage Coal is the official state mineral of Kentucky.5% Kingdom Italy 27.9 76. See also Abiogenic petroleum origin Coal measures (stratigraphic Major coal producing regions Asphaltene unit) Mountaintop removal mining Biochar Coal phase out Petroleum Biomass-coal Coal-tar The Coal Question Carbochemistry Coalbed methane Tonstein Coal pollution mitigation Fluidized bed combustion World Coal Association Coal assay Fossil fuel Coal blending Fossil fuel phase-out Coal homogenization Gytta Coal measures (stratigraphic Major coal producing regions References 1.pdf) (PDF).3 20.0 56.[166] and the official state rock of Utah.9 28.Wikipedia Imports of Coal by Country and year (million short tons)[5] Country 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Share Japan 199.7 45.1 6.9 125.5 1.7% India 52.2 1. "Calculations of the Influence of Additives on Coal Combustion Deposits" (http://www. It is also customary and considered lucky in Scotland and the North of England to give coal as a gift on New Year's Day.178.9 70. https://en.8 1. 315.1 4.9 55.7 101.7 29.6% Taiwan 69.3 2.2 55.9 25.1 109.1 16.9% France 24.6 26.2 42.anl.1 24.7/28/2017 Coal .7 209.0% Germany 50.0 27.1 107.8 23.6% South Korea PCS/acsfuel/preprint%20archive/Files/Volumes/Vol34-2.8 26.1 22.9 64. states have a historic link to coal mining.1 206.2 44.2 29.3 23.7% Turkey 22.6 8.8% United States 40.3 38.8 1.5 22.9% Netherlands 25.6 70. Argonne National Laboratory.1 72.8 48.7 17. p.7 29. Some cultures hold that children who misbehave will receive only a lump of coal from Santa Claus for Christmas in their christmas stockings instead of presents.S.9 23.8 21.7 22.wikipedia.7 30.6 1.

google. Science and Civilisation in China. Needham. "Mercury in coal: a review . Chemie für Ingenieure.pdf) (PDF) on 23 March 2013.doe. S. (1957).worldcat.eia.etymonline. Mattusch (2008).org/web/20130921073525/http://factsanddetails. 1989.webcitation. M. Britannica 2004: Coal mining: ancient use of outcropping coal 23. a source for graphite in high-grade schists and gneisses". "Precambrian coal or anthraxolite. (1973).org/wiki/Coal 21/29 . Paleobotany: The biology and evolution of fossil plants (https://books. doi:10.1130/0016- 7606(1957)68[1293:ACFPUH]2.4. 20. Metalworking and Tools. 258 14. 9. Oxford at the Clarendon Press. J. dbproject/iedindex3. Lakin.doe. Coal Pollution Damages Human Health at Every Stage of Coal Life Cycle. "Anthracitic Coal from Precambrian Upper Huronian Black Shale of the Iron River District. Irby-Massie. Reports Physicians for Social Responsibility (http://www. "Arsenic in Coal" (http://pubs.cfm?tid=1&pid=1&aid=4&cid=&syid=2003&eyid=2012&unit=TST). doi:10. 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