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Chapter Three


This chapter discusses the methodology in this study. It explains some

points such as design of the study, setting of the study, participants of the study,

data collection technique, data collection procedure and ended by data analysis.

Design of the Study

This study aims at seeking EED UMY pre-service teachers perception on

the use of realia as a teaching aid in learning vocabulary at internship program, so

that the research participants require to reveal their opinion on the use of realia as

a teaching aid in learning vocabulary. So, this study uses qualitative as a

methodology of the study. The selection of qualitative as a method is because the

data form is preferred in the verbal form than in numerical form. Qualitative

research is more focus on describing in depth the statement from the participants

opinions. Qualitative research is also suitable to seek information about

perception. This is in line with Creswell (2012) a qualitative research study is

needed to explore the phenomenon from perspective of distance education

students (p.16). Besides, Tewksbury (2009) state that qualitative research

method provided more emphasis on interpretation and providing someone with

complete views, looking at context, environmental and depth of understanding of

concept (p.39)

This study specifically use descriptive qualitative as a design. The use of

descriptive qualitative is to gather and interpret the information from the

participant about the phenomenon being studied. Sandelowski (2000) states

descriptive qualitative study is a detailed of the phenomena which involves the

conversation participants and researcher. Besides, according to Elliot and Timulak

(2005) descriptive qualitative research has a feature of emphasis on understanding

phenomenon in their rather than from some outside perspective. The researcher

wants to look for the detail information related to the use of realia as a teaching

aid through EED pre-service teacher experiences when they do an internship


Setting of the Study

This study will conduct at EED of UMY. The researcher chooses EED of

UMY because some reasons. First, EED of UMY has an internship program that

enables the students of EED of UMY play a role as pre-service teacher and

teaches in certain school. Second, some of the students from EED of UMY also

implement realia as a teaching aid when they did an internship program.

Moreover, the researcher is also the students of EED of UMY. So, the researcher

receives an ease when conducting his research.

The Researcher starts collecting data on October 2017. The data will be

collected in 2nd up to 7th October 2017. After the data collection, the researcher

does the next steps to analyze and report the data.

Participants of the Study

The participants of this research were from EED of UMYs students of

batch 2014. The reasons of choosing the students from batch 2014 are because

these students recently passed internship program. Moreover, several of them

applied realia when they taught in internship program. So, they still have fresh

and strong memory and they are being able to provide deep and comprehensive

The researcher applies non-probability samples in this study. Cohen, L.,

Manion, L., & Morison, K. (2011) argued non-probability sample only presents

the case in small scale. In this study researcher only pick the participants based on

the specific criteria needed. This study uses snowball sampling to select

participants. Creswell (2012) snowball sampling is a form of purposeful

sampling that typically proceeds after a study begins and occur when the

researcher asks participants to recommends other individuals to be sampled (p.

209). Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morison, K. (2011) researcher identify a small

number of individuals who have the characteristics in which they are interested

(p.158). Snowball sampling is chosen because the researcher has participant in

different batch. So, the first selected participant will choose the other participants

based on the researcher need.

There are four participants will choose. In choosing the participants, the

researcher asks to the first of the participant to find their other friends who applied

realia when they taught in internship program. They should already have applied

realia at least two times in teaching practice. Participants also applied other

teaching method in teaching practice. The researcher finds three others EED of

UMY students who applied realia from the first participant. The selective of other

participants are from recommendation from the first participant. They taught in

the same group and applied the same method. Because students who are in the

same group and apply the same method probably have rich experience and can

provide more information and perception on the use of realia in teaching

Data Collection Technique

The researcher collected the data by conducting in depth interview.

Interview is useful to gather information from the participant experiences. Cohen,

L., Manion, L., & Morison, K. (2011) Interview is a flexible tool for data

collection enabling multi-sensory channels to be used: verbal, non-verbal, spoken

and heard (p.409). From the interview, interviewer will ask several questions

based on the purpose of this study to the interviewee. The interviewee gives their

personal experiences freely. Then the interviewer gains in-depth information

about the topic being studied. Before conducted the interview, researcher reviews

some relate theories. From the theories and the purpose of this study researcher

generates the interview question. Then researcher makes interview guideline

which consists of several questions.

The construction of schedule in this study is designed in open-ended items.

Kerlinger (1970) as cited in Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morison, K. (2011) those

that supply a frame of reference for respondents answer but a minimum of

restraint on the answer and their expression (p.416). Silverman (1993) in Cohen,

L., Manion, L., & Morison, K. (2011) the importance of open-ended interviews,

as this enables respondent to demonstrate their unique way of looking at the world

their definition of the situation (p. 205). So that enable the researcher to gain

deeper information. The question format that is used is indirect question. It can

provide more information from the participants. Furthermore, it is supported by

Tuckman (1972) in Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morison, K. (2011) that the use of

indirect approach is more likely to produce frank and open responses. The
researcher hopes the participants provide unstructured response, because the

researcher wants to gain deep information about their perception on the use of

realia as a teaching aid in learning vocabulary at internship program. According to

Tuckman (1972) in Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morison, K. (2011) unstructured

response allows the respondent to give answer in whatever way they chose.

Data Collecting Procedure

The researcher will follow some steps in collecting the data with interview.

Firstly, researcher chooses participants based on criteria that are already decided

before. Participants of this study are from EED of UMY batch 2014. After

participants agree to be participants of this study, the researcher makes appointment

with the participants to discuss about the time and where the place to conduct

interview. Second, the researcher contacts the participants by using messenger such

as WhatsApp, Line or BBM. The interview is conducted by using Bahasa Indonesia

to avoid misunderstanding between interviewer and interviewee. Moreover, it is

facilitated by mobile phone as a tool to record the conversation during interview

process. The researcher also brings the note to write down the unclear statement

from participants. After dealing time and place with the participants, researcher

conducts the interview. In conducting interview, researcher introducing himself and

explain to the participant the purpose of interview and explain why the researcher

chooses the participants. Then, the researcher starts to ask the participant with the

interview question and record the interview section with mobile phone. After

interview done, the researcher asks again about unclear explanation, and asks

additional information. The last, researcher say thanks to the participants and close

the interview.
Data Analysis

After conduct the interview, the researcher transcribes the data from

spoken form to text. Creswell (2012) transcription is process of converting

audiotape recordings or field note into text data (p. 239). Researcher transcribes

every word spoken by participants. After that researcher does a member checking

to check the validity and the accuracy of the transcript data. Creswell, (2012)

member checking is process in which the researcher asks one or more participants

in the study to check the accuracy of the report.

Then, after member checking the researcher starts to analyze all the data

from interview by using coding, they are open, analytic, axial and selective

coding. Kerlinger (1970) in Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2011) defines

coding as the translation of the question responses and respondent information to

specific categories for the purpose of analysis. Strauss & Corbin (1990) in Cohen,

L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2011) open code is simply a new label that

researcher attaches to a piece of text to categorize that piece of text (p. 561). In

this part, the researcher gives certain code or label to give categorize for each

sentence from participants. Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2011).

Analytic coding is a descriptive code to generate information into smaller unit and

more interpretative. Moreover, axial coding is a set of procedure that researcher

follow whereby data were originally segmented into small unit or theme. Cohen,

L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2011) an axial code is a category label ascribed

to a group of open codes whose referents the phenomena being describe are

similar in meaning. Then, Selective coding is process of identifying the core in

category in a text. Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2011) selective

coding identifies the core categories of text data, integrating them to form a

theory (p. 562).

The data will be analyzed based on research question and purposes. It

consists of the pre-service teachers perception on the use of realia as a teaching

aid in learning vocabulary at internship program, the pre-service teacher feels on

differences when implementing conventional way and when implementing realia

as a teaching aid in learning vocabulary, pre-service teacher perception on the

activities in learning using realia. pre-service teacher perception on strength and

weaknesses using realia as a teaching aid, and After coding is completed, the

researcher will report, interpret and summarize the finding in the next chapter.