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1.

0 OBJECTIVE

1. To identify the important components of the level and flow control system.
2. To carry out the start-up procedures systematically.
3. To study level control system using PID controller.
4. To study Level-Flow cascade control.

2.0 SUMMARY

The objectives for the simulation are mainly for identify the important components of the
level and flow control system. The method used was begun with the start-up methodology
where it should be led for PID trial value and the set point variable (SV) in always in Manual
(M) mode since the method provide faster and simpler analysis. After the level control
process is stabilize in auto mode, the controller is switch to manual mode. The percentage of
change manipulated variable is 5% which put the initial manipulated variable of 35% to the
final manipulated variable of 40%. Since level control system is non self-regulating system,
after a period of time, the manual mode is switch to automatic mode before the graph of the
response curve is printed. From this simulation, it shown that the system with the cascade
controller is more effective to control the flow system against just using the PID system.
3.0 INTRODUCTION & THEORY

The experiment Level Flow Cascade Process Control use PID controllers to stimulate
liquid phase physical process which is water where flow and level are being controlled.
Basically, the liquid level is controlled in a process tank which involves the operation of
pumps or valves. Process control involves the design of process system, identify
instrumentations and also the suitable parameters of controllers. Types of control systems are
feedback, cascade, ratio and feed forward. The process is identified whether involves flow,
level, temperature or pressure in determining the specifications of instrumentations. Selecting
right parameters however involves in either to adjust the proportional (P), integral (I) or the
derivative (D) of the control system.

These are the basic terminologies that related to process control which are process
variable (PV), manipulated variables (MV), set point (SP) and also load and disturbance.
Process variable refers to the variable that must be maintained at desired value whereas
manipulated variable refers to the variable used in order to maintain the process variable.
While set point is referred to the desired value in the process variable. Load variable is
defined as any variable that causes the process variable to diverge from its set point. A
process control loop consists of four blocks. The four blocks are controller, final control
element, process and sensor. The controller acts as a brain of the control loop. It performs
decision in the control system. Final control element such as control valve implements the
decision performed by the controller. Sensor acts by transmitting signals obtained from
process to the controller

A feedback control involves the outcome process of action that is being fed back to
the controller as corrective measures. Cascade control involves inner loop and outer loop in
which inner loop controller received set point from the outer loop. Cascade control is mainly
used to eliminate effect of disturbance.
4.0 RESULT & DISCUSSION

RESULT

LIC31, PID1, Loop 1 FIC31, PID2, Loop 2

First (I) Second (II) First (I) Second (II)


Trial PID Trial PID Trial PID Trial PID
Set Point SV1 200-600 mm 200-600 mm Set Point SV2 0.9-2.4 m3/hr 0.9-2.4 m3/hr

PB1 30% 10% PB1 250% 100%

TI1 25 sec 15 sec TI1 10 sec 6 sec

TD1 0 sec 0 sec TD1 0 sec 0 sec

PH1 640 mm PL2 0.5 m3/hr

Table 4.1: PID Trial Values

DISCUSSUION

The main focus on this experiment is to identify the important components of the
level and flow control system, to carry out the start-up procedures systematically, to study
level control system using PID controller and to study Level-Flow cascade control. Water is
used to stimulate the liquid phase physical processes. PID controller was used to control
Level and flow. When the system suffers from fluctuating inflow and a more exact control of
level is required, the single loop PID controllers are not adequate. Cascade controller must be
employed to smooth the fluctuating inflow by using secondary or a slave loop.

The experiment was begun with the start-up methodology where it should be led for
PID trial value and the set point variable (SV) in always in Manual (M) mode. The red line
represented the level of water while the green line represented the flow of water. Based on the
result achieved, for the first experiment of the open tank configuration, the red line showed
that the water over flow constantly for a few minutes started from First trial at Loop 1 at set
point MV= 50 %, SV1= 280 mm, PB1= 30%, TI1= 25 sec, TD1= 0 sec and PH1= 640 mm.
The green line was consistent at first but after a few seconds it fluctuated during First trial at
Loop 2 when MV= 50 %, SV2=0.9 m 3/hr, PB2= 250 %, TI2= 10 sec, TD2= 0 sec and PL2=
0.5 m3/hr. which shows that it was a self-regulating process.

Then, experiment was set up for Second trials for Loop 1 which had a slight fluctuate
for a few seconds at SV= 1.8 m3 /hr, PB1= 10 %, T11=15 sec, TD1= 0 sec and PH1= 640
mm. For Second trials for Loop 2 that had been set up at SV2= 1.8m 3/hr, PB2= 100 %, TI2=
6 s, TD2=0 s and 0.5 m3/hr. This pattern was maintain by the controlling the PID. Then
disturbance was applied by decreasing from SV2= 1.8 m3/hr to 1.5 m3/hr. This change can be
seen on the graph where there was fluctuating on the red line which yet the red and the green
line could keep up back to its original pattern.

was because both of the control loops was set to cascade control during those
disturbance is applied. This shown that the system with the cascade controller is more
effective to control the flow system against just using the PID system. Cascade control takes
advantage when two variables, incoming flow and tank level, are interacting to improve the
overall control on a process variable. The main purpose of cascade control is to minimize the
disturbances that affect the secondary variable before they can causes pronounced changes in
the primary controlled variable. Another advantage is the improvement in the speed of
response of the secondary variable. The disturbance is related with the manipulated variable
or the final control element. This is where the secondary measurement point is located so that
it detects the upset condition earlier than the controlled variable. Then, the oscillatory had
more smooth because value which control the flow value was higher where PB2= 100%
where the greater the flow rate value, the smoother the oscillatory produced on the graph.
5.0 CONCLUSION

Based on the result and discussion, the experiment are able to identify the important
components of the level and flow control system. The change can be seen on the graph where
there was fluctuating on the red line which yet the red and the green line could keep up back
to its original pattern. This enables to identify the behaviour of the cascade controller which
discussed in the discussion section. Before the simulation is done, several theories and
assumptions has been used in order to differentiate the simulations at different set points.
From this simulation, it shown that the system with the cascade controller is more effective to
control the flow system against just using the PID system.
6.0 REFERENCE

Abdul Aziz Ishak & Zalizawati Abdullah. (2014). PID TUNING Fundamental Conceptsand
Application. UITM Press.

H. Bischoff*, D.Hoffmann*, E.V.Terzi. (1997). Process Control System, Control of


Temperature, Flow and Filling Level. Festo Didactic GmbH & Co.

Basso, Christophe (2012). "Designing Control Loops for Linear and Switching
PowerSupplies: A Tutorial Guide". Artech House, ISBN 978-1608075577

Liu, Jie; Wang, Golnaraghi, Kubica (2010). "A novel fuzzy framework for nonlinearsystem
control".

Fuzzy Sets and Systems 161 (21): 2746 2759.doi: 10.1016/j.fss.2010.04.009

Blanke, M.; Kinnaert, M.; Lunze, J.; Staroswiecki, M. (2006), Diagnosis andFault-Tolerant
Control

(2nd ed.), Springer

Bennett, Stuart (1993). A history of control engineering, 1930-1955 . IET. p. p. 48.