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Foreign relations of India
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The Republic of India is the world's most-populous electoral democracy and has one of the fastest economic growth rates in the world. With the world's second largest armed forces, and fourth largest economy by purchasing power parity, India is considered to be a global power, and an emerging superpower. It is India's growing international influence that increasingly gives it a more prominent voice in global affairs. India has a long history of collaboration with several countries and is considered a leader of the developing world. India was one of the founding members of several international organizations, most notably the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Asian Development Bank and the G20 industrial nations. India has also played an important and influential role in other international organizations like East Asia Summit, World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund (IMF), G8+5 and IBSA Dialogue Forum. Regional organizations India is a part of include SAARC and BIMSTEC. India has taken part in several UN peacekeeping missions and in 2007, it was the second-largest troop contributor to the United Nations. India is currently seeking a permanent seat in the UN Security Council, along with the G4 nations.
2.1 Role of the Prime Minister 2.2 Ministry of External Affairs
• • •
3 Overview 4 Strategic partners 5 Bilateral and regional relations
5.1.1 Afghanistan 5.1.2 Bangladesh 5.1.3 Bhutan 5.1.4 Myanmar 5.1.5 China 5.1.6 Maldives 5.1.7 Nepal 5.1.8 Pakistan 5.1.9 Sri Lanka 5.2.1 Australia 5.2.2 Fiji 5.2.3 Japan 5.2.4 Laos 5.2.5 Indonesia 5.2.6 Malaysia 5.2.7 Singapore 5.2.8 South Korea 5.2.9 Taiwan 5.2.10 Thailand 5.2.11 Vietnam 5.3.1 Argentina 5.3.2 Brazil 5.3.3 Canada 5.3.4 Colombia 5.3.5 Mexico
6.4 Italy 5.4.1 European Union 184.108.40.206 Armenia 5.4.8 Other European countries 5.7.1 Arab states of the Persian Gulf 5.7 Turkey 5.7 Africa .5.6 Uzbekistan ○ 5.8.2 Post-September 11 attacks 220.127.116.11.6.5 Iraq 5.3 Egypt 5.2 United Kingdom 5.7 Lebanon 5.4.3 Kazakhstan 18.104.22.168.6.6 Russia and Central Asia ○ 5.4.1 Cold War era 5.1 Pokhran tests 22.214.171.124.8 Oman 5.5.3 Indo-USA strategic partnership 5.5.2 Bahrain 126.96.36.199 Iran 5.6.6 Israel 5.5 Tajikistan 5.3.6 Greece 5.8 Post Cold War era ○ 5.5.4 Mongolia 5.9 Saudi Arabia 5.5. 5.3.6 Paraguay 5.3 France 5.5.7 United States of America 5.1 Russian Federation 5.5 Germany 5.4 Europe 188.8.131.52 Middle East ○ 5.3.
4 South Africa 5. It had colonies (such as the Aden Settlement). the Government of British India maintained semi-autonomous diplomatic relations. Mexico.7.3 World Trade Organization 6. the People's Republic of China.5 Pakistan 7. particularly that over Kashmir. would strain its relations with Pakistan for years to come. After India gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1947. The country now seeks to strengthen its diplomatic and economic ties with the United States.5 Sudan 6 International organizations 6.4 Maldives 7. the European Union.1 Côte d'Ivoire 5. . and was a founder member of both the League of Nations and the United Nations. However. Japan.7. India adopted a foreign policy of not aligning itself with any major power bloc. Israel. it soon joined the Commonwealth of Nations and strongly supported independence movements in other colonies.1 Bangladesh 7.2 United Nations 6.3 Nigeria 5.2 Nepal 7. India developed close ties with the Soviet Union and received extensive military support from it. as it did for much of the world.1 Non-Aligned Movement 6. The end of the Cold War significantly affected India's foreign policy.2 Liberia 5.1 India – ASEAN 7 International disputes 8 Look East Policy 9 See also 10 References 11 External links  History Even before independence. During the Cold War.7.3 British Indian Ocean Territories 7.4 SAARC 7. The partition and various territorial disputes. sent and received full diplomatic missions . • ○ ○ ○ ○ • ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ • • • • ○ 5. like the Indonesian National Revolution.6 People's Republic of China 8.7.7.
in collaboration with External Affairs Ministry. Jawaharlal Nehru. Though India continues to have a military relationship with Russia. regional and global geo-political and economic milieu. signed and implemented in 2008. realistic and contemporary assessment of the bilateral. An important role of India's foreign policy has been to ensure their welfare and well being within the framework of the laws of the country where they live. foreign policy must be capable of responding optimally to new challenges and opportunities. based on a rigorous.and Brazil. promoted a strong personal role for the Prime Minister but a weak institutional structure. highlighted the growing sophistication of the Indo-American relations. In a period of rapid and continuing change. India's foreign policy is a forward-looking engagement with the rest of the world. India has also forged close ties with the member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The Prime Minister.  Policy Countries which have formal diplomatic relations with India. India's first Prime Minister. Israel has emerged as India's second largest military partner while India has built a strong strategic partnership with the United States. handles key foreign policy decisions. Manmohan Singh with Russian President Dmitry Medvedev in New Delhi. strengthening social fabric and well-being of the people and protecting India's sovereignty and territorial integrity.  Role of the Prime Minister Prime Minister Dr. around a central axis of historical and cultural commonalities. It has to be an integral part of the larger effort of building the nation's capabilities through economic development. As many as 20 million people of Indian origin live and work abroad and constitute an important link with the mother country. The guiding principles of India's Foreign Policy have been founded on Panchsheel. pragmatism and pursuit of national interest. The Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement. the African Union. Nehru served concurrently as Prime Minister and . the Arab League and Iran. India's foreign policy has always regarded the concept of neighborhood as one of widening concentric circles.
serves as the head of all Indian ambassadors and high commissioners. the Office of the Prime Minister had become the de facto coordinator and supraministry of the Indian government. although they generally appointed separate ministers of external affairs. and weaker during the periods of coalition governments. Subrahmanyam in 2005 to head a special government task force to study 'Global Strategic Developments' over the next decade. Lal Bahadur Shastri (1964–66). or the prime minister himself. The enhanced role of the office strengthened the prime minister's control over foreign policy making at the expense of the Ministry of External Affairs. By the 1970s. The RAW gathered intelligence. and conducted covert operations abroad. The Minister of External Affairs holds cabinet rank as a member of the Council of Ministers. provided intelligence analysis to the Office of the Prime Minister.  Ministry of External Affairs The Ministry of External Affairs is the Indian government's agency responsible for the foreign relations of India. The Prime Minister is however free to appoint advisers and special committees to examine various foreign policy options and areas of interest.  India's second prime minister. Indian Foreign Secretary is the head of Indian Foreign Service (IFS) and therefore. Advisers in the office provided channels of information and policy recommendations in addition to those offered by the Ministry of External Affairs. Krishna is current Minister of External Affairs. who succeeded her. The Ministry has a Ministers of State in Preneet Kaur. The Task Force submitted its conclusions to the Prime Minister in 2006. A subordinate part of the office—the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW)--functioned in ways that significantly expanded the information available to the prime minister and his advisers. the Council of Ministers. the Office of the Prime Minister. Manmohan Singh appointed K. The prime minister's control and reliance on personal advisers in the Office of the Prime Minister was particularly strong under the tenures of Indira Gandhi (1966–77 and 1980–84) and her son. In a recent instance.  Overview . M. His successors continued to exercise considerable control over India's international dealings. expanded the Office of Prime Minister (sometimes called the Prime Minister's Secretariat) and enlarged its powers. S. Nirupama Rao is the current Foreign Secretary of India. he made all major foreign policy decisions himself after consulting with his advisers and then entrusted the conduct of international affairs to senior members of the Indian Foreign Service.Minister of External Affairs. Rajiv (1984–89). The report has not yet been released in the public domain. Observers find it difficult to determine whether the locus of decision-making authority on any particular issue lies with the Ministry of External Affairs.
Although the prestige stemmed from India's nonaligned stance. India's international influence varied over the years after independence. India's international position among developed and developing countries faded in the course of wars with China and Pakistan. disputes with other countries in South Asia. India championed the cause of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). When India gained independence in 1947. Although India obtained substantial Soviet military and economic aid. Jawaharlal Nehru. especially Pakistan. India's influence was undercut regionally and internationally by the perception that its friendship with the Soviet Union prevented a more forthright condemnation of the Soviet presence in Afghanistan. In the late 1980s. Shown here are Prime Minister Nehru with Josip Broz Tito with Gamal Abdel Nasser during NAM summit in 1956. the Indian National Congress. Sri Lanka. From the late 1920s on. India's relations with the world have evolved since the British Raj (1757–1947). and Nepal. As a member of the interim government in 1946. Indian prestige and moral authority were high in the 1950s and facilitated the acquisition of developmental assistance from both East and West. the nation was unable to prevent Cold War politics from becoming intertwined with interstate relations in South Asia. However. and China while continuing close ties with the Soviet Union. had established a small foreign department in 1925 to make overseas contacts and to publicize its freedom struggle. Relations with its South Asian neighbors.During the 1950s. Nehru articulated India's approach to the world. play. In the 1960s and 1970s. formulated the Congress stance on international issues. and India's attempt to balance Pakistan's support from the United States and China by signing the Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation in August 1971. other developed countries. who had a long-standing interest in world affairs among independence leaders. occupied much of the energies of the Ministry of External Affairs. few Indians had experience in making or conducting foreign policy. India improved relations with the United States. which helped to strengthen the nation. the country's oldest political party. when the British Empire monopolized external and defense relations. .
France.. Japanese and European sanctions on India. but the disintegration of the Soviet Union removed much of India's international leverage. India has forged a closer partnership with Western powers.S. Previous policies proved inadequate to cope with the serious domestic and international problems facing India. After the collapse of the Soviet Union. India attracted the world attention towards the alleged Pakistan-backed terrorism in Kashmir.Since the collapse of the Soviet Union. In the mid-1990s. Shown here are Prime Minister Manmohan Singh with US President Barack Obama in 2009. George Fernandes. said that India's nuclear program was necessary as it provided a deterrence to . The United States and European Union recognized the fact that Pakistani military had illegally infiltrated into Indian territory and pressurized Pakistan to withdraw from Kargil. 2009. In the 1990s. Several antiIndia militant groups based in Pakistan were labeled as terrorist groups by the United States and European Union. India's economic problems and the demise of the bipolar world political system forced India to reassess its foreign policy and adjust its foreign relations. In 1998. Shown here are Prime Minister Manmohan Singh with Dmitry Medvedev. The Kargil War resulted in a major diplomatic victory for India. India's then defense minister. for which relations with Russia and the other post-Soviet states could not compensate. Japan and Germany. The end of the Cold War gutted the core meaning of nonalignment and left Indian foreign policy without significant direction. Hu Jintao and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva during BRIC summit in June. In 1992. pragmatic considerations of the early 1990s were still viewed within the nonaligned framework of the past. The hard. India tested nuclear weapons for the second time (see Pokhran-II) which resulted in several U. India has often represented the interests of developing countries at various international platforms. India improved its relations with the United States. Canada. India established formal diplomatic relations with Israel and this relationship is growing in the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) government and progressive.
 Afghanistan. Russia is the largest supplier of military equipment to India. Brazil.  Strategic partners India's growing economy. Russia. the United Kingdom. India's bilateral trade with Europe and U. These countries often represent the interests of the developing countries through economic forums such as the G8+5.S. Over the past three years. In 2004.S.U. Though India is not a part of any major military alliance. has helped India's diplomatic relations with several countries.-India and E. Brazil and Australia. South Korea. Japan. Israel is set to overtake Russia as India's largest military and strategic partner. Nepal. has more than doubled in the last five years.-India bilateral relationship. Japan. India has held numerous joint military exercises with U. and Mexico.potential Chinese nuclear threat. The two countries also collaborate extensively in the sphere of counter-terrorism and space technology. with significant information on Al-Qaeda and related groups' activities in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Indian intelligence agencies provided the U.  Bilateral and regional relations  Neighbours  Afghanistan Main article: Indo-Afghan relations Bilateral relations between India and Afghanistan have been traditionally strong and friendly.  France. and European nations that have resulted in a strengthened U. India has friendly relations with several countries in the developing world. India has been pushing for reforms in the UN and WTO with mixed results. Israel. especially South Africa. India also enjoys friendly relations with the Persian Gulf countries and most members of the African Union. India's extensive contribution to the War on Terrorism. India's candidature for a permanent seat at the UN Security Council is currently backed by several countries including France.  After the September 11 attacks in 2001. According to some analysts. India's "Look East" Policy has helped it develop greater economic and strategic partnership with Southeast Asian countries. In addition.S. including the United Kingdom. IBSA and WTO. India operates an airbase in Tajikistan and signed a landmark defense accord with Qatar in 2008. Japan. India enjoys strong military relations with several other countries. India was seen as one of the standard bearers of the developing world and claimed to speak for a collection of more than 30 other developing nations at the Doha Development Round. the United States signed a nuclear co-operation agreement with India even though the latter is not a part of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. followed by Israel and France. friendly foreign policy and large and vibrant diaspora has won it more allies than enemies. While India was the only South Asian country to recognize the Soviet-backed Democratic . Most of the sanctions imposed on India were removed by 2001.S. and Taiwan. and Italy. Germany. coupled with a surge in its economy. strategic location. the United States. and Bhutan. it has close strategic and military relationship with most of the major powers. India has also forged relationships with developing countries. Countries considered India's closest include the Russian Federation. however this has not persuaded other Nuclear Suppliers Group members to sign similar deals with India. The US argued that India's strong nuclear non-proliferation record made it an exception.
 Myanmar Main article: Indo-Burmese relations . and by selling electricity. The cultures of the two countries are similar. India is a supplier of staple foods such as rice and live animals which helps keep their prices affordable for the masses of Bangladesh. to fulfill India's burgeoning energy needs. Due to this dam. The Indo-Bhutan Friendship Treaty of 2007 strengthens Bhutan's status as an independent and sovereign nation. an element that was absent in the earlier version. Neither government shall allow the use of its territory for activities harmful to the national security and interest of the other. Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck. Bhutan. This dam. by providing employment. India gave large amounts of aid to Bangladesh. Both countries signed a Friendship treaty in 1949. which was suspected of continuing to shelter and support the Taliban. India pursues a policy of close cooperation in order to bolster its standing as a regional power and contain its rival Pakistan. Most of differences are of sharing water resources between the two countries. is building a hydro-electric dam. 2007.  Bhutan Main article: Indo-Bhutanese relations Historically. the Government of the Kingdom of Bhutan and the Government of the Republic of India shall cooperate closely with each other on issues relating to their national interests. Whereas in the Treaty of 1949 Article 2 read as "The Government of India undertakes to exercise no interference in the internal administration of Bhutan. The new democratically-elected Afghan government strengthened its ties with India in wake of persisting tensions and problems with Pakistan. in particular India's West Bengal and Tripura states and Bangladesh are all Bengali speaking regions." The revised treaty also includes in it the preamble "Reaffirming their respect for each other's independence. India is the largest regional investor in Afghanistan.  Bangladesh Main article: India-Bangladesh relations Both states are part of the Indian subcontinent and have had a long common cultural. where India would assist Bhutan in foreign relations. In recent years India provides co-operation and assistance during annual natural calamities. India played a crucial part in Bangladesh's independence from Pakistan. which it maintains is supporting Islamic militants in Kashmir and other parts of India. will greatly develop the Bhutanese economy. grew at 20+%.2 billion for reconstruction purposes. its relations were diminished during the Afghan civil wars and the rule of the Islamist Taliban in the 1990s.Republic of Afghanistan in the 1980s. sovereignty and territorial integrity". ties with India have been close. India aided the overthrow of the Taliban and became the largest regional provider of humanitarian and reconstruction aid. economic and political history. "In keeping with the abiding ties of close friendship and cooperation between Bhutan and India. the second highest growth rate in the world. the Indo-Bhutan Friendship Treaty was substantially revised under the Bhutanese King." In the revised treaty it now reads as. Tata Power. having committed more than US$2. On its part the Government of Bhutan agrees to be guided by the advice of the Government of India in regard to its external relations. On February 8. to India.
Indian exports to Myanmar totaled US$185 million. the suppression of democracy and the rule of the military junta in Burma. India has granted US$100 million credit to fund highway infrastructure projects in Myanmar.  China Main article: Sino-Indian relations .India was one of the leading supporters of Burmese independence and established diplomatic relations after Burma's independence from Great Britain in 1948. flourishing commerce. highways. However. common interests in regional affairs and the presence of a significant Indian community in Burma. Along with much of the world. increasing its own isolation from the world. However. due to geo-political concerns. the overthrow of the democratic government by the Military of Burma led to strains in ties. India condemned the suppression of democracy and Burma ordered the expulsion of the Burmese Indian community. while its imports from Myanmar were valued at around US$810 million. Burma is situated to the south of the states of Mizoram.In February 2007. A further US$27 million in grants has been pledged for road and rail projects. Indian companies have also sought active participation in oil and natural gas exploration in Myanmar. and the proximity of the People's Republic of China gives strategic importance to Indo-Burmese relations. India is a major customer of Myanmarese oil and gas. India is one of the few countries that has provided military assistance to the Myanmarese junta. when India was one of the few countries whose relief and rescue aid proposals were accepted by Myanmar's ruling junta. ports and pipelines within Myanmar in an attempt to increase its strategic influence in the region and also to counter China's growing strides in the Indochina peninsula. while US$ 57 million has been offered to upgrade Myanmarese railways. The Indo-Burmese border stretches over 1. Indo-Burmese relations were strong due to cultural links. Consequently. there has been increasing pressure on India to cut some of its military supplies to Myanmar. In 2001. However. via the Kaladan River. In 2007. India revived its relations and recognised the new name of Myanmar in 1993 overcoming strains over drug trafficking. which would enable ocean access from Indian Northeastern states like Mizoram. comprising mostly of oil and gas. For many years.600 miles and some insurgents in North-east India seek refuge in Myanmar. Only China maintained close links with Burma while India supported the pro-democracy movement. India has been keen on increasing military cooperation with Myanmar in its counter-insurgency activities. India has also been building major roads. India announced a plan to develop the Sittwe port. Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India. India provided considerable support when Burma struggled with regional insurgencies. Manipur. the Indian Army completed the construction of a major road along its border with Myanmar. Relations between the two remain close which was evident in the aftermath of Cyclone Nargis.
Bhutan.  Maldives Main article: Indo-Maldivian relations India enjoys a considerable influence over Maldives' foreign policy and provides extensive security co-operation especially after Operation Cactus in 1988 during which India repelled Tamil mercenaries who invaded the country. the economic rise of both China and India has also helped forge closer relations between the two. India formally recognized Tibet as a part of China. with both India and China eager to resolve their boundary dispute. The Maldives has taken the lead in calling for a South Asian Free Trade Agreement. the lobbying for greater action on environmental issues. India is starting the process to bring the island country into India’s security grid. However. They have also collaborated on several issues ranging from WTO's Doha round in 2008 to regional free trade agreement. Both countries have sought to reduce tensions along the frontier. Similar to Indo-US nuclear deal. In 2003. Both the countries are the largest Asian investors in Africa and have competed for control over its large natural resources.A Chinese container ship unloads cargo at the Jawaharlal Nehru Port in India. India. But the Maldives claims the Indian-administered territory of Minicoy as part of its country. Bangladesh. The Maldives is also an advocate of greater international profile for SAARC such as through formulating common positions at the UN. the country plays a very active role in SAARC. the proposal of numerous human rights measures such as the regional convention on child rights and for setting up a SAARC Human Rights Resource Centre. The move comes after the moderate Islamic nation approached New Delhi earlier this year over fears that one of its island resorts could be taken over by terrorists given its lack of military assets and surveillance capabilities. and normalize relations. China's economic interests have clashed with those of India. SAARC. that is inhabited by Muslims. Nepal. Since 2004. In December 1996. India and China have also agreed to cooperate in the field of civilian nuclear energy. PRC President Jiang Zemin visited India during a tour of South Asia. expand trade and cultural ties. By 2001. and the two sides handled the move from Tibet to India of the 17th Karmapa in January 2000 with delicacy and tact. The increasing economic reliance between India and China has also bought the two nations closer politically. India is also signing an agreement later this year which includes following things. Sino-Indian trade reached US$36 billion in 2007. making China the single largest trading partner of India. which brings together Afghanistan. While in New Delhi. relations between India and the PRC were on the mend. in June 1999. Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Maldives. . the initiation of informal political consultations in SAARC forums. during the Kargil crisis. Bilateral trade between the two countries is expected to surpass US$60 billion by 2010 making China the single largest trading partner of India. he signed with the Indian Prime Minister a series of confidence-building measures for the disputed borders. As founder member in 1985 of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. and China recognized Sikkim as a formal part of India in 2004. Sino-Indian relations have improved gradually since 1988. Sino-Indian relations suffered a brief setback in May 1998 when the Indian Defence minister justified the country's nuclear tests by citing potential threats from the PRC. then-External Affairs Minister Jaswant Singh visited Beijing and stated that India did not consider China a threat. Despite lingering suspicions remaining from the 1962 Sino-Indian War and continuing boundary disputes over Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh. the formulation of a Social Charter. However. A series of high-level visits between the two nations have helped improve relations.
Military teams from Maldives will visit the tri-services Andaman Nicobar Command (ANC) to observe how India manages security and surveillance of the critical island chain. One helicopter from the Coast Guard is likely to be handed over during Antony’s visit while another from the Navy will be cleared for transfer shortly. the problems inherent in big power-small power relations. The Indian Coast Guard (ICG) will carry out regular Dornier sorties over the island nation to look out for suspicious movements or vessels." These accords cemented a "special relationship" between India and Nepal that granted Nepal preferential economic treatment and provided Nepalese in India the same economic and educational opportunities as Indian citizens.  Pakistan Main article: Indo-Pakistani relations Former Indian PM Nehru with then Pakistani PM Muhammad Ali Bogra in 1953. . and an agreement governing both bilateral trade and trade transiting Indian soil. economics. In 1950 New Delhi and Kathmandu initiated their intertwined relationship with the Treaty of Peace and Friendship and accompanying letters that defined security relations between the two countries. Maldives has coastal radars on only two of its 26 atolls. The 1950 treaty and letters stated that "neither government shall tolerate any threat to the security of the other by a foreign aggressor" and obligated both sides "to inform each other of any serious friction or misunderstanding with any neighboring state likely to cause any breach in the friendly relations subsisting between the two governments. The radar chains of the two countries will be interlinked and a central control room in India’s Coastal Command will get a seamless radar picture. and common ethnic and linguistic identities that overlap the two countries' borders.• India will permanently base two helicopters in the country to enhance its surveillance capabilities and ability to respond swiftly to threats. India will help set up radars on all 26 for seamless coverage of approaching vessels and aircraft. The coastal radar chain in Maldives will be networked with the Indian coastal radar system. • • • •  Nepal Main article: Indo-Nepal relations Relations between India and Nepal are close yet fraught with difficulties stemming from geography. The Southern Naval Command will overlook the inclusion of Maldives into the Indian security grid. India has already undertaken a project to install radars along its entire coastline.
and its Muslim Prime Minister. few months later. signed an Instrument of Accession with New Delhi making the state an integral part of the Union of India. India and Pakistan went to war again in 1971. Following the Lahore Declaration in February 1999.Despite historical and cultural links. several confidence-building-measures (CBMs) between India and Pakistan have taken shape. India. the capital of the state. which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against rule by India. the Hindu Maharaja of the Dogra Kingdom of Jammu and Kashmir. After an invasion by Pashtun tribesmen and Pakistani paramilitary forces. There was a military standoff between the two countries which lasted for nearly a year raising fears of a nuclear conflict. In the Kashmir earthquake in 2005. a peace process. infiltrated in large numbers into the Kargil district of Indian Kashmir. however this time the conflict was over East Pakistan rather than Kashmir. The war ended in December 1948 with the Line of Control dividing the erstwhile princely state into territories administered by Pakistan (northern and western areas) and India (southern. Hari Singh. However. Relations are currently hampered since India has sent a list of 40 alleged fugitive in various terror strikes to Pakistan. failed. Sheikh Abdullah. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 started following the failure of Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar. Though bilateral trade between India and Pakistan was a modest US$1. However. Pakistan contested the legality of the Instrument of Accession since the Dogra Kingdom has signed a standstill agreement with it. The war resulted in the creation of Bangladesh. relations between the two reached all-time low which worsened even further following Pakistan's alleged involvement in the hijacking of the Indian Airlines IC814 plane in December 1999. backed by Pakistani Army. millions of Bengali refugees poured over into India. India is alleging Pakistan of harboring militants on their soil. Following the attack on the Indian Parliament in December 2001. relations briefly improved. to secure the area from the invading forces. This initiated the Kargil conflict after India moved in thousands of troops to successfully flush out the infiltrators. however. The First Kashmir War started after the Indian Army entered Srinagar.7 billion in March 2007. it is expected to cross US$10 billion by 2010. initiated in 2003. Due to the large-scale atrocities committed by the Pakistan army. expecting the handover of the said 40 people . a country which had condemned the attack. Attempts to normalize relations. led to improved relations in the following years. India sent aid to affected areas in Pakistani Kashmir & Punjab as well as Indian Kashmir. It ended in a United Nations (UN) mandated ceasefire and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. along with Mukti Bahini. defeated Pakistan and the Pakistani forces surrendered on the eastern front. The initiation of Srinagar–Muzaffarabad Bus service in 2005 and opening of a historic trade route across the Line of Control in 2008 further reflects increasing eagerness among the two sides to improve relations. The Samjhauta Express and Delhi–Lahore Bus service are one of these successful measures which have played a crucial role in expanding people to people contact between the two countries. India carried out the Pokhran-II nuclear tests which was followed by Pakistan's Chagai-I tests. The five-week war caused thousands of casualties on both sides. The recent terror attacks in Mumbai. In 1998. Kashmiri insurgents and Pakistani paramilitary forces. while Pakistan vehemently denies such claims. relations between India and Pakistan have been plagued by years of mistrust and suspicion ever since the partition of India in 1947. central and northeastern areas). such as the Agra summit held in July 2001. The principal source of contention between India and its western neighbour has been the Kashmir conflict. have seriously undermined the relations between the two countries. which was blamed on Pakistan. Since the initiation of peace process. Though the conflict did not result in a full-scale war between India and Pakistan.
This was further enhanced with the IPL. has openly declared to be having no intentions whatsoever of doing the above said extradition. more importantly. to a lesser degree. infrastructural linkages are constantly being augmented. trade and investments have increased dramatically. Kevin Rudd said that "Australia valued its education system and International Students are valued more here in Australia. broad-based improvement across all sectors of bilateral cooperation. but were controversially affected by the on-going Sri Lankan civil war and by the failure of Indian intervention during the Sri Lankan civil war. the presence of Australian cricketers in India for commercial gain. The Australian and Indian militaries have already worked well together. There exists a broad consensus within the Sri Lankan polity on the primacy of India in Sri Lanka's external relations matrix. Australian Prime Minister Mr. the US and Australia. Rudd though said that his Govt. Australia. and. the Sri Lanka Freedom Party and the United Nationalist Party have contributed to the rapid development of bilateral relations in the last ten years. Indian Government lodged strong protests with the Australian Government. Sri Lanka has supported India's candidature to the permanent membership of the UN Security Council. Bollywood has also improved ties as with John Howard's visit to Mumbai to increase tourism to Australia. on the other hand.  Sri Lanka Main article: Indo-Sri Lankan relations Bilateral relations between Sri Lanka and India have been generally friendly. first to Cyprus by Indian Navy ships and then to Delhi & Colombo by special Air India flights. India evacuated 430 Sri Lankan nationals from Lebanon. viz.  Fiji Main article: Fiji–India relations Fijis relationship with the Republic of India is often seen by observers against the backdrop of the sometimes tense relations between its indigenous people and the 44 percent of the population .to the Indian Government. Cricketing and Bollywood ties also help foster relations as in the frequent travel for games.  The bilateral agreements have worked out for all but the Indo-Australian angle. Furthermore. the ICL. Both the major political parties in Sri Lanka.. India is the only neighbor of Sri Lanka. has ordered a thorough probe into the attacks and also condemned it in strongest possible terms no significant break through has been achieved. Political relations are close. there is a going strategic connection to forming an "Asian NATO" with India. with attacks on Indian Community students in Melbourne. Pakistan. both nations occupy a strategic position in South Asia and have sought to build a common security umbrella in the Indian Ocean." Mr. In July 2006. though this has been hurt by India's refusal to sign the NPT and Australia's consequent refusal to provide India with uranium until the latter do so. Of late the relations between the two countries were jolted. India-Sri Lanka relations have undergone a qualitative and quantitative transformation in the recent past. India was the first country to respond to Sri Lanka's request for assistance after the tsunami in December 2004. defence collaboration has increased and there is a general. Japan.  Asia–Pacific  Australia Main article: Australia–India relations The strongest ties between these two states is the commonwealth connection. separated by the Palk Strait. and.
5 billion to construct a high-speed rail line between Delhi and Mumbai. lobbying for sanctions against Fiji in the wake of the 1987 coups and the 2000 coup. India is a big market for Japanese firms. and Honda. and with the growth of the Indian economy. India has culturally influenced Japan through Buddhism. Indian applicants were welcomed in 2006 to the JET Program. Australia. The most prominent Japanese company to have a big investment in India is automobiles giant Suzuki which is in partnership with Indian automobiles company Maruti Suzuki. the other being Australia and the United States. and India shall be building an Airforce Academy in Laos. one dominated and one led. Japan signed an agreement with India under which it would grant the latter a low-interest loan worth US$4. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's visit to Japan culminated in the signing of the "Joint Statement Towards Japan-India Strategic and Global Partnership". the largest car manufacturer in India. most notably the Delhi Metro subway system. Singapore and the United States. the Japanese Self Defence Forces took part in a naval exercise in the Indian Ocean. This is the single largest overseas project being financed by Japan and reflects growing economic partnership between the two. In October 2008.  Indonesia Main article: India–Indonesia relations . During the Indian Independence Movement. India is also one of three countries with whom Japan has security pact. the Japanese Imperial Army helped Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose's Indian National Army. by Indo-Fijians. one of the few such multilateral exercises Japan has ever taken part in symbolizing close military cooperation between India and Japan. India has used its influence in international forums such as the Commonwealth of Nations and United Nations on behalf of ethnic Indians in Fiji. known as Malabar 2007. Japan has funded some major infrastructure projects in India. India-Japan relations have always been strong. which also involved the naval forces of India. starting with just one slot available in 2006 and 41 in 2007. have manufacturing facilities in India. in the year 2007. like Sony. Relations have remained warm since India's independence.  Japan Main article: Indo-Japanese relations Two Japanese Naval warships took part in Malabar 2007 off India's western coast. India has endeavoured to build relations. Also.  Laos In recent years. Japanese companies. They have strong military relations. Toyota. both of which removed governments. In December 2006. with this small Southeast Asian nation.who are of Indian descent.
 Singapore had always been an important strategic trading post. India had supported Indonesian independence and Nehru had raised the Indonesian question in the United Nations Security Council.  Singapore Main article: Indo-Singaporean relations Singapore Navy frigate RSS Formidable (68) steams alongside the Indian Navy frigate INS Brahmaputra (F 31) in the Bay of Bengal. Following its independence in 1965.Sukarno called upon the peoples of Indonesia and India to "intensify the cordial relations" that had existed between the two countries "for more than 1000 years" before they had been "disrupted" by colonial powers. the first President of Indonesia . Singapore was one of the first to respond to India's "Look East" Policy of expanding its economic. which it saw as a counter-balance to Chinese influence and a partner in achieving regional security.Mahathir bin Mohamad the fourth and longest serving Prime Minister of Malayasia is of Indian origin. was Malay.000 people of Indian origin live in Singapore. cultural and strategic ties in Southeast Asia to strengthen its standing as . " Yet in the spring of 1966.  Malaysia India has a high commission in Kuala Lumpur. commercial and strategic relations.In 1950. Singapore is one of India's strongest allies in South East Asia. giving India trade access to Maritime Southeast Asia and the Far East. Today. India has an embassy in Jakarta  and Indonesia operates an embassy in Delhi. More than 300. was a Malayalee Muslim (who migrated from Kerala) and his mother Wan Tampawan. the foreign ministers of both countries began speaking again of an era of friendly relations. his father Mohamad Iskandar. our enemy. government-inspired mobs were shouting: "Down with India. India and Malaysia are also connected by various cultural and historical ties that date back to antiquity. and Malaysia has a high commission in New Delhi. Although the rival positions of both nations over the Vietnam War and the Cold War caused consternation between India and Singapore. Singapore was concerned with China-backed communist threats as well as domination from Malaysia and Indonesia and sought a close strategic relationship with India. Fifteen years later in Djakarta. India and Singapore share long-standing cultural. Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations. their relationship expanded significantly in the 1990s. with Singapore being a part of the "Greater India" cultural and commercial region. the servant of imperialists" and "Crush India. The two countries are on excellently friendly terms with each other seeing as Malaysia is home to a strong concentration of Indian immigrants. and the Asian Union.
The cordial relationship between the two countries extends back to 48AD. the Singaporean Foreign Minister. exemplified by the $530 million during the fiscal year of 1992– . India's economic liberalisation and its "Look East" policy have led to a major expansion in bilateral trade. machinery and its imports from Singapore included electronic goods. The relations between the countries have been relatively limited. silver. More than half of Singapore's exports to India are basically "re-exports" . the princess had a dream about a heavenly king who was awaiting heaven's anointed ride. India and South Korea have made large direct foreign investments in each other. which grew from USD 2.4% of its total foreign trade. she set out on a boat. is the second largest commercial vehicle manufacturer in South Korea. Trade between the two nations has increased exponentially.and to USD 50 billion by 2010.2 billion in 2001 to US 9-10 billion in 2006 . Since the formal establishment of the diplomatic ties between two countries in 1973. or Princess Heo. in re-establishing the ancient Indian university. the king and queen. jewellery. she asked her parents.items that had been imported from India.  South Korea Main article: Indo-South Korean relations Tata Daewoo. have taken an interest. and especially. India. According to the Samguk Yusa. Singapore. Prime Minister Jong Pil Kim. George Yeo. travelled from the kingdom of Ayodhya to Korea.a 400% growth in span of five years . It is also India's 9th biggest trading partner as of 2005-06. and a stone which calmed the waters.a regional power. which the king and queen urged with the belief that god orchestrated the whole fate. carrying gold. although much progress arose during the three decades. several trade agreements have been reached. Upon approval. After Princess Heo had the dream. Its cumulative investment in India totals USD 3 billion as of 2006 and is expected to rise to US 5 billion by 2010 and US 10 billion by 2015. gemstones. Many of them became prominent and well-known around the world like President Kim Dae Jung. Current descendants live in the city of Kimhae as well as abroad in America's state of New Jersey and Kentucky. Nalanda University. Archeologists discovered a stone with two fish kissing each other. a subsidiary of India's Tata Motors. when Queen Suro. Singapore is the 8th largest source of investment in India and the largest amongst ASEAN member nations. a tea plant. This royal link provides further evidence that there was an active commercial engagements between India and Korea since the queen's arrival to Korea. Singapore accounts for 38% of India's trade with ASEAN member nations and 3. a symbol of the Gaya kingdom that is unique to the Mishra royal family in Ayodhya. India's main exports to Singapore in 2005 included petroleum. organic chemicals and metals. for permission to set out and seek the man.
expansion of trade. During the 1997 Asian financial crisis. have visited Thailand as have. India recognizes only the People's Republic of China and not the Republic of China's contention of being the legitimate government of territorial China . and Manmohan Singh. and several Korean construction companies won grants for a portion of the many infrastructural building plans in India. P. and Thailand's Look West policy. India's economic & Commercial links as well as people-topeople contacts with Taiwan have expanded in recent years. Chinese Expedition Army (now Republic of China Army) boarding planes for India.1993. and establishment of free trade agreement to encourage further investment between the two countries. Indian Prime Ministers Rajiv Gandhi. Both countries are members of BIMSTEC. Korean companies such as LG and Samsung have established manufacturing and service facilities in India.a conflict that emerged after the Chinese Civil War (1945–49). Thaksin . however.  Taiwan Main article: India–Taiwan relations The bilateral relations between India and Taiwan (officially Republic of China) have improved since the 1990s despite both nations not maintaining official diplomatic relations. which consist mostly of subcontracting. South Korea is currently the fifth largest source of investment in India. Narasimha Rao. Recently.V. Tata Motor's purchase of Daewoo Commercial Vehicles at the cost of $102 million highlights the India's investments in Korea. The two countries agreed to shift their focus to the revision of the visa policies between the two countries. Much of the economic investments of South Korea have been drained into China. However. saw India grow relations with ASEAN countries including Thailand. To the Times of India. and the $10 billion during 2006–2007. Chatichai Choonhavan.  Thailand Main article: India–Thailand relations India's Look East policy. Atal Bihari Vajpayee. and began trade investments with India. President Roh voiced his opinion that cooperation between India's software and Korea's IT industries would bring very efficient and successful outcomes. The last two presidential visits from South Korea to India were in 1996 and 2006. also saw it grow its relations with India. such as the "National Highway Development Project". there have been acknowledgements in the Korean public and political spheres that expanding relations with India should be a major economical and political priority for South Korea. South Korean businesses sought to increase access to the global markets.  and the embassy works between the two countries are seen as needing improvements.
particularly United States. bilateral trade is expected to rise to USD 2 billion by 2008. India. Canada and Mexico. In 2007. textiles. including agricultural products. the volume of bilateral trade expanded at 20-30% per annum to reach USD 1 billion by 2006. Brazil. 2 years ahead of the official target. involvement in the Vietnam War and supported unification of Vietnam. tyre cord. However. especially in wake of Vietnam's hostile relations with the People's Republic of China. created to develop to enhance close ties between India and nations of Southeast Asia. electronics and other goods. rayon fibres. and Surayud Chulanont. real estate. which had become India's strategic rival. IT Services.  Vietnam Main article: Indo-Vietnamese relations India supported Vietnam's independence from France.S.68 million by 2003. paper grade pulps. including extensive cooperation on developing nuclear power. has culturally influenced Thailand. a fresh joint declaration was issued during the state visit of the Prime Minister of Vietnam Nguyen Tan Dung. with exports have grown steadily from USD 11. Mahabharata. The spheres of trade are in chemicals. India and Vietnam are members of the Mekong-Ganga Cooperation. Vietnam's exports to India rose to USD 180 million. In the 2003 joint declaration. is the 13th largest investor in Thailand. India and Vietnam have also expanded cooperation in information technology. India and Brazil continue to work together on the reform of Security Council through the G4 nations while have also increased strategic and economic cooperation . a Free trade agreement was signed between the two countries. The example can also be seen in temples around Thailand. In 2003. India established official diplomatic relations in 1972 and maintained friendly relations. are popular and are widely taught in schools as part of the curriculum in Thailand. textiles. enhancing regional security and fighting terrorism. are the main spheres. India granted the "Most Favoured Nation" status to Vietnam in 1975 and both nations signed a bilateral trade agreement in 1978 and the Bilateral Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement (BIPPA) on March 8. to this end. education and collaboration of the respective national space programmes.5 million in 1985-86 to USD 395. India is the 13th-largest exporter to Vietnam. India's commonalities with developing nations in Latin America.N. India strengthened its relations with several nations in the Americas. and manufacturing. Direct air links and lax visa regulations have been established to bolster tourism. Bilateral trade has increased rapidly since the liberalisation of the economies of both Vietnam and India. especially Brazil and Mexico have continued to grow. India and Vietnam have also built strategic partnerships. India. pharmaceuticals. 1997. nylon. Security Council and join the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).  Americas After the end of the Cold War. and Ramayana. Through Buddhism. and rods. handicrafts. Between 2001 and 2006. transnational crime and drug trafficking. where the story of Ramayana and renowned Indian folk stories are depicted on the temple wall. visited India. steel wires. Thailand.Shinawatra. Continuing the rapid pace of growth. has become a big tourist destination for Indians. Vietnam has backed a more important relationship and role between India and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and its negotiation of an Indo-ASEAN free trade agreement. opposed U. Vietnam has supported India's bid to become a permanent member of the U. The Indian epics. India and Vietnam envisaged creating an "Arc of Advantage and Prosperity" in Southeast Asia.
(L-R): Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. Uruguay. and a large population base. democratic governments. The two countries share similar perceptions on issues of interest to developing . India has an embassy in Buenos Aires and Argentina has an embassy in New Delhi. The process of finalizing Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA) with MERCOSUR (Brazil. • • List of Treaties ruling relations Argentina and India (Argentine Foreign Ministry. India has expressed its desires to agree with the Argentinian claims on British colonies in Southern Atlantic Ocean and other territorial border disputes with Chile. Argentina. India and Brazil enjoy strong bilateral relations which is clearly reflected in various international forums such as IBSA. President of Argentina. Both possess advanced technologies.through the IBSA Dialogue Forum. Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva was the guest of honour at the 2004 Republic Day celebrations in New Delhi.  Argentina Formal relations between both the countries were first established in 1949. in Spanish) Indian embassy in Buenos Aires  Brazil Main article: Indo-Brazilian relations The Prime Minister of India. Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner and President Pratibha Patil at Rashtrapati Bhawan. Brazil and India are large continental sized countries with social diversity. and Paraguay) is on the itinerary and negotiations are being held with Chile. Manmohan Singh with Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in 2006. a multiethnic society.
which are bound by the common principle of pluralism and democracy. Mohandas Gandhi is highly regarded in the country and the government has sought to teach his philosophy of non-violence to the police to improve its track record.countries and have cooperated in the multilateral level on issues such as international trade and development. relations were again halted after the Pokhran-II tests.45 billion. environment.  Colombia . reform of the UN and the UNSC expansion. Brazil and India are deeply committed to IBSA (South-South cooperation) initiatives and attach utmost importance to this trilateral cooperation between the three large. pharmaceuticals and space. multi-racial and multi-religious developing countries. India attaches tremendous importance to its relationship with this Latin American giant and hopes to see the areas of co-operation expand in the coming years. multi-ethnic. Although Jean Chrétien and Roméo LeBlanc both visited India in the late 1990s.12 billion from US$ 1. relations between Brazil and India have grown considerably and co-operation between the two countries has been extended to such diverse areas as science and technology. In recent years. the botched handling of the Air India investigation and the case in general suffered a setback to Indo-Canadian relations. Flag Commander of Western Fleet of Indian Navy while briefing a press conference on a joint Indo-Canadian naval exercise. Both countries want the participation of developing countries in the UNSC permanent membership since the underlying philosophy for both of them are: UNSC should be more democratic. In 2004. There is enormous interest in Brazil on India's culture. with allegations that India broke the terms of the Colombo Plan.2 billion in 2004. performing arts and philosophy. The two-way trade in 2007 nearly tripled to US$ 3. However. and "people-to-people links. A statue of Ghandi is located in a prominent square in Rio de Janeiro. religion. "pluralism". Private Brazilian organizations occasionally invite Indian cultural troupes. which are built upon a "mutual commitment to democracy". are the longstanding bilateral relations between India and Canada. bilateral trade between India and Canada was at about C$2. India's Smiling Buddha nuclear test led to connections between the two countries being frozen.  Canada Main article: Indo-Canadian relations Indo-Canadian relations." according to the government of Canada. legitimate and representative . A group called the Filhos de Gandhi (Sons of Gandhi) participates regularly in the carnival in Salvador.the G4 is a novel grouping for this realization.
although US provided support to India in 1962 during its war with China. both have embassies in the other country. India made considerable changes to its foreign policy. Argentina and an honorary consulate in Asuncion. commercial cultural and academic exchanges. The USA-India relationship suffered a considerable setback during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan when India openly supported the Soviet Union. . Mexico and India. as India took a leading position in the Non-Aligned Movement. and attempted to pursue even-handed economic and military relations with the Soviet Union. India is represented in Paraguay through its embassy in Buenos Aires. it decided not to join any major power bloc and refrained from joining military alliances. His book In Light of India is an analysis of Indian history and culture. the USA tended to have warmer relations with Pakistan. It developed a close relationship with the Soviet Union and started receiving massive military equipment and financial assistance from the USSR. After the Sino-Indian War and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. Since 2005. Since then the relationship between the two countries has been gradually increasing with more frequent diplomatic visits to promote political. primarily as a way to contain Soviet-friendly India and to use Pakistan to back the Afghan Mujahideen against the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan.  United States of America Main article: Indo-U. relations between India and the United States were somewhat cold following Indian independence. India. also positioned India against the USA. Though India pursued close relations with both USA and USSR. however began establishing close military relationship with the Soviet Union. relations Historically. Octavio Paz worked as a diplomat in India. 1959. signed in 1971. This had an adverse effect on the Indo-USA relationship. This created an atmosphere of suspicion between India and USA.  Cold War era India played a key role in establishing the Non-Aligned Movement in 1961. Colombia is currently the commercial point of entry into Latin America for Indian companies. An Indo-Soviet twenty year friendship treaty.  Mexico Mexico is a very important and major economic partner of India. Paraguay has had an embassy in New Delhi.Main article: Colombia–India relations Both countries established diplomatic ties on January 19. For most of the Cold War.S. See also Hinduism in Mexico  Paraguay India and Paraguay established diplomatic relations on September 13. The United States saw Pakistan as a counter-weight to pro-Soviet India and started giving the former military assistance. 1961.
 American policy towards the end of the war was dictated primarily by a need to restrict the escalation of war on . armed with nuclear missiles. Nixon sent military supplies to Pakistan. then USA President. most notably in the Blood telegram. of genocidal activities being perpetrated by Pakistani forces. During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. Kissinger was particularly concerned about Soviet expansion into South Asia as a result of a treaty of friendship that had recently been signed between India and the Soviet Union. from Vladivostok. U. the incident involving USS Enterprise is viewed as the trigger for India's subsequent nuclear program. the Soviet Navy dispatched two groups of ships. they trailed U. The Enterprise arrived on station on December 11. They had a deep personal antipathy that colored bilateral relations. feared that an Indian invasion of West Pakistan would mean total Soviet domination of the region. Richard Nixon. Task Force 74 into the Indian Ocean from 18 December 1971 until 7 January 1972. Relations between India and the United States came to an all-time low during the early 1970s. along with the Mukti Bahini. Indian Armed Forces. The Soviets also sent a nuclear submarine to ward off the threat posed by USS Enterprise in the Indian Ocean. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and U. On 6 December and 13 December.S. 1971. and sought to demonstrate to the People's Republic of China the value of a tacit alliance with the United States. President Richard Nixon did nothing to discourage then Pakistani President Yahya Khan and the Pakistan Army. Though American efforts had no effect in turning the tide of the war. a move deemed by the Indians as a nuclear threat.S.President of United States Of America Richard Nixon and Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi in 1971. and being told. routing them through Jordan and Iran.S. When Pakistan's defeat in the eastern sector seemed certain. China. while also encouraging China to increase its arms supplies to Pakistan. and in direct violation of the USA Congress-imposed sanctions on Pakistan. and that it would seriously undermine the global position of the United States and the regional position of America's new tacit ally. succeeded in liberating East Pakistan which soon declared independence. Nixon sent the USS Enterprise to the Bay of Bengal. In order to demonstrate to China the bona fides of the United States as an ally. Despite reports of atrocities in East Pakistan.
S. ." Kissinger has since expressed his regret over the comments. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding references.the western sector to prevent the 'dismemberment' of West Pakistan. Years after the war. The United States encouraged India to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) immediately and without condition.S. This article may contain original research. More details may be available on the talk page. India's then defence minister. the economy of India went through an extremely difficult phase. Further information: Pokhran-II  Post-September 11 attacks File:Vajpayee Bush.. The economic sanctions imposed by the United States in response to India's nuclear tests in May 1998 appeared.  Post Cold War era This article does not cite any references or sources. to seriously damage Indo-American relations. India has categorically stated that it will never use weapons first but will defend if attacked. India carried out nuclear tests a few years later resulting in sanctions being imposed by United States. India tested nuclear weapons which resulted in several U. In fact Pakistan is the first country that India informs if any nuclear tests are on the agenda. Most of the sanctions imposed on India were removed by 2001. India established formal diplomatic relations with Israel. During the Gulf War. said that India's nuclear program was necessary as it provided a deterrence to some potential nuclear threat. many American writers criticized the White House policies during the war as being badly flawed and ill-serving the interests of the United States.  Pokhran tests In 1998. George Fernandes. U. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. France and Germany. President Bill Clinton imposed wide-ranging sanctions pursuant to the 1994 Nuclear Proliferation Prevention Act. India started looking for new allies and tried improving diplomatic relations with the members of the NATO particularly the United States. Canada. In 1992.S.jpg Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee with President George W. The U. After the break up of the Soviet Union. IndoUS relations touched a new high under both the leaders. sanctions on Indian entities involved in the nuclear industry and opposition to international financial institution loans for non-humanitarian assistance projects in India. Since the end of the Cold War. India-USA relations have improved dramatically. further drifting the two countries apart. This has largely been fostered by the fact that the USA and India are both democracies and have a large and growing trade relationship. In recent years. also called for restraint in missile and nuclear testing and deployment by both India and Pakistan. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. Japanese and European sanctions on India. Bush in the Oval Office. The Government of India liberalized the Indian economy. at least initially. Kissinger came under fire for comments made during the Indo-Pakistan War in which he described Indians as "bastards. The non-proliferation dialogue initiated after the 1998 nuclear tests has bridged many of the gaps in understanding between the countries. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
and European nations that have resulted in a strengthened U. Bush has also lifted most of its sanctions on India and has resumed military co-operation. with significant information on Al-Qaeda and related groups' activities in Pakistan and Afghanistan.-India bilateral relationship. India's candidature for a permanent seat at the UN Security Council is currently backed by several countries including United Kingdom. has more than doubled in the last five years. under President George W.S. or the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. France. The US argued that India's strong nuclear non-proliferation record made it an exception and persuaded other Nuclear Suppliers Group members to sign similar deals with India. India has declared its policy of "no-first use of nuclear weapons" and the maintenance of a "credible nuclear deterrence". On March 2. In 2005. African Union nations and recently People's Republic of China.S. India has held numerous joint military exercises with U.After the September 11 attacks in 2001.S. Japan. Germany. Presently.U. Congress needs to ratify this pact since U. India's bilateral trade with Europe and U. 2006 India and the USA signed the Indo-U. with the two countries taking part in joint naval exercises off the coast of India and joint air exercises both in India as well as in the United States. claiming the discriminatory nature of the treaty that allows the five declared nuclear countries of the world to keep their nuclear arsenal and develop it using computer simulation testing.S. India has been pushing for reforms in the UN and WTO with mixed results. . Nuclear Pact on co-operation in civilian nuclear field. federal law prohibits the trading of nuclear technologies and materials outside the framework of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG). India's extensive contribution to the War on Terrorism has helped India's diplomatic relations with several countries.S. India would separate its civilian and military nuclear programs. The U.-India and E. India has not signed the CTBT. India had pressed for a comprehensive destruction of nuclear weapons by all countries of the world in a time-bound frame. The United States would sell India the reactor technologies and the nuclear fuel for setting up and upgrading its civilian nuclear program. Prior to its nuclear testing. the United States signed a nuclear co-operation agreement with India even though the latter is not a part of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Indian intelligence agencies provided the U.  Indo-USA strategic partnership Prime Minister Manmohan Singh with President Barack Obama at the White House. On its part. However. Relations with USA have considerably improved in the recent years.S.S. This was not acceptable to the USA and other countries. Over the past few years. This was signed during the four days state visit of USA President George Bush in India. and the civilian programs would be brought under the safeguards of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The USA. Brazil.
As the relations between India and China deteriorated during late fifties. its role in Korean war and other such acts convinced Washington about the expansionist designs of the Chinese. An initiative to forge such a partnership is the 'India-USA Knowledge Initiative on Agriculture' (KIA). it is only natural that the most optimal course such partnership can aim at is harnessing these human resources by concentrating on development and dissemination of agricultural knowledge through research. D. As China ceased to be a headache for the American policymakers by the late sixties. India . India figured mainly because of American concern about latter’s nuclear and missile programmes. counter proliferation. But any unidimensional alliance is bound to be short-lived and this alliance was no exception to this general rule. Asian balance of power. inter alia. In the post Cold War era. These issues include. the Americans found a golden opportunity to take advantage of this situation to promote India as a counterweight to China. While earlier. freedom of navigation in the Indian Ocean. in the USA strategic thinking on nuclear proliferation. As promotion of democracy around the world is one of the most important foreign policy objective of the USA. containment of terrorism. This is the reason. Agriculture is another important area of cooperation between India and the USA in present times. However. Considering the fact that both the nations at present have a vast pool of human resources adept at knowledge economy. . India rejected the suggestion of the USA about setting up a Centre for Asian Democracy. cooperation in promotion of democracy in the world has become one of the most important facets of Indo-USA relations in recent times. however. They. Chinese annexation of Tibet. Embassy of India in Washington. etc.as the largest democracy of the world-can hardly be ignored by the USA. in the twenty-first century.C. this unidimensional alliance disappeared into thin air. India is a founding member of the ‘Community of Democracies’ – a prominent endeavour of the USA on promotion of democracy. the strategic objectives of India and the USA converges on a number of issues and not just one–as well as the case earlier. The end of the Cold War necessitated as well as facilitated the infusion of strategic content to Indo-USA relations–this time multidimensional. Now. rather. The rise of China worried the policymakers in Washington. American strategic thinking on the issue of nuclear proliferation has undergone radical reorientation. promotion of democracy. want to leverage India’s growing power and influence in favour of their broader nonproliferation and counter proliferation objectives.Indo-USA relations got strategic content in the early 1960s. education and training etc. the Americans are increasingly realising the futility of insisting on a rollback of India’s nuclear programme. One of the very interesting feature of Indo-USA relations of recent times is the changes on the terms of engagement between the two countries on the issue of nuclear proliferation.
"Tomorrow we have a bilateral summit with France.C. to engage in developing nuclear energy." Sarkozy also said the EU and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan pledged to accelerate talks on a free trade deal and expected to finish the deal by 2009. adding that this clean energy will be helpful for the world to deal with the global climate change. The European Union (EU) and India agreed on September 29. During 2005 EU-India trade grew by 20. The most recent cooperation agreement was signed in 1994 and an action plan was signed in 2005. although still provides India's largest source. expounded the joint action plan on adjustments of EU's strategic partnership with . as a large country. 2009." Singh said when asked about the issue. also speaking at Monday's press conference.8% of the EU's trade and attracts only 0. India accounts for only 1.Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh was the guest of honor at the first state dinner. There was controversy in 2006 when the Indian Mittal Steel Company sought to take-over the Luxembourg based steel company.European Union relations India was one of the first countries to develop relations with the Union. D. French President Nicolas Sarkozy.3% of European Foreign Direct Investment. the EU's rotating president. The Union is India's largest trading partner. 2008 at the EU-India summit in Marseille. The Indian prime minister was also cautiously optimistic about cooperation on nuclear energy. The approach met with opposition from France and Luxembourg but was passed by the Commission who stated that were judging it on competition grounds only. However.  Europe  European Union G20 Leaders Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy in Washington. This matter will come up and I hope some good results will emerge out of that meeting.3%. Singh said that he was "very satisfied" with the results of the summit. France's largest commercial port. said at a joint press conference at the summit that "EU welcomes India. of the administration of US President Barack Obama. Arcelor. Main article: India . accounting for 20% of Indian trade. which took place on November 24. when the United Kingdom joined. to expand their cooperation in the fields of nuclear energy and environmental protection and deepen their strategic partnership. signing bilateral agreements in 1973. European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso. He added that EU and India have "common values" and the two economies are complementary to each other. As of April 2007 the Commission is pursuing a free trade agreement with India.
including advocating a permanent seat on the Security Council.  The Queen's visits to India have been enormously successful along with those by other members of the Royal Family. EU and Indian would enhance consultation and dialogue on human rights within the UN framework. Economically the relationship between Britain and India is also strong. is expected to sign a deal that would allow it to provide nuclear fuel to India. with further expansion to be seen. science and technology and environment has been launched.6 billion euros last year. dialogue and cooperation have enhanced through regular summits and exchanges of visits and that in economy. The British Raj allowed for both cultures to imbibe tremendously from the other. The English language and cricket are perhaps the two most evident British exports. mutual investments have increased dramatically in recent years. This is in part due to the significant number of people of Indian origin living in the UK." Singh told reporters. which relies heavily on nuclear power and is a major exporter of nuclear technology. The United Kingdom's favourite food is often reported to be Indian Cuisine.[dead link] The UK recently gave India a £825 million aid package to help India develop its health and education systems. India's relations with the United Kingdom have been through bilateral. India and the UK still have many enduring links. A joint statement issued at the end of the summit said the EU and India would work to reach an agreement on climate change by the end of 2009. Britain is also one of the largest investors in India.6 billion euros ($36. India is the second largest investor in Britain after the US.  United Kingdom Main article: India-United Kingdom Relations Since 1947. as well as through the Commonwealth of Nations framework. the joint action plan reckoned that in politics. Britain has also supported India's rise to prominence on the international stage. Reviewing the two sides' efforts in developing the bilateral strategic partnership.India. although no official study reports this. fight against terror and non-proliferation of arms. sustainable development. The large South Asian population in the UK results in steady travel and communication between the two countries. promote cooperation and exchange in developing civil nuclear energy and strike a free trade deal as soon as possible.   France . saying the two sides will strengthen cooperation on world peace and safety. Although the Sterling Area no longer exists and the Commonwealth is much more an informal forum. cooperation in science and technology and cultural exchanges. Trade between India and the 27-nation EU has more than doubled from 25. dialogue in macro economic policies and financial services has established and cooperation in energy. "We have agreed to achieve an annual bilateral trade turnover of 100 billion euros within the next five years.7 billion) in 2000 to 55. strengthen cooperation in world peacekeeping mission. France. Under the joint action plan. whilst in the UK food from the indian subcontinent are very popular.
visas of any kind (tourist. Indo Italian . France and Russia were the only countries that did not condemn India's decision to go nuclear in 1998. to sign a nuclear energy co-operation agreement. The chief of India's leading political party. with India. a general consulate in Milan.  Italy Despite racial and religious disconnections. • See also Embassy of India in Rome. military and economic co-operation between India and France. a detachment of 400 Indian troops marched along with the French troops as well as the Indian Prime Minister Dr. is of Italian descent. France became the largest supplier of nuclear fuel and technology to India and remains a large military and economic trade partner. Italy and India are also close economic partners and is home to a large population of Indian immigrants. This situation has reduced noticeably the possibility of tourism and business development between the two countries. France.000 people of Indian Origin living in Italy. India and Italy have enjoyed overall pleasurable and strong relations throughout history. arguably the most powerful Indian woman. India's strong diplomatic ties with France resulted in the peaceful cession of Pondicherry to India on November 1.The Indian Air Force has the second largest fleet of France's Mirage 2000H after Armée de l'Air. two general consulates (in Mumbai and Calcutta). Manmohan Singh was the guest of honour. Sonia Gandhi. There are around 100. business. following the waiver by the Nuclear Suppliers Group. India has an embassy in Rome. Nicolas Sarkozy visited India in January 2008 and was the Chief Guest of the Republic Day parade in New Delhi. Unfortunately at diplomatic level the relations seem not to be always good. During the Bastille Day celebrations on July 14. the Indian National Congress.5 billion USD has further cemented the strategic. 2009. India's permanent member aspirations in the UN Security Council have found very strong support from former French President Chirac and more recently by the current French President Nicolas Sarkozy. during Prime Minister Singh's visit. was the first country. meanwhile there are only around 300 Italian citizens residing in India mostly working on behalf of Italian industrial groups. In 2003. The recent decision by the Indian government to purchase French Scorpène class submarines worth $3 billion USD and 43 Airbus aircraft for Air India worth $2. employment and others) are issued for very short term and after a lot of hurdles for both Indian and Italian nationals. an example is the terrible visa situation between the two countries for the past few years. France and India established diplomatic relationships soon after India achieved independence in 1947. 1954 without any military opposition from France. It is not officially known the reason for the current diplomatic situation. Italy has an embassy in New Delhi.
have influenced each other. education. in 1951 During the Cold War India maintained diplomatic relations with West Germany and East Germany. technology. Germany has invested in developing education and skills amongst rural Indians. Indian and German writers and philosophers. are some areas of shared interests. Also of note. and promotion of science. once said that India and Germany. as did the Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh visit Germany. and the reunification of Germany. Bernd Mutzelburg. East Germany. during World War 2 an Indian division known as the Tiger Legion was attached to the German Wermacht. Germany is India's largest trade partner in Europe. are not just 'natural partners'. German Chancellor. Recently.  Greece Main article: Greece–India relations The first contact between both civilization dates back from Alexander the Great’s visit to India and eventual defeat. Since the fall of the Berlin Wall. relations have further improved. As both countries are strong liberal democracies. fighting terrorism and climate change. Alexander's seemingly un-stoppable eastward expansion was halted by the .• • • • Indian embassy in Rome Italian embassy in New Delhi Italian general consulate in Mumbai Italian general consulate in Calcutta  Germany Main article: Germany–India relations Arrival of the first Indian student to Dresden. but important countries in a globalised world. and collaboration between these two countries. Culturally too. Both countries have been working towards gaining permanent seats in the United Nations Security Council. they have similar objectives. The German ambassador to India. and human rights. Angela Merkel visited India recently. UN reforms.
In modern time. 2001. diplomatic relations between Greece and India were established in May 1950. has invested in and is working towards the modernization of Istanbul's Sabiha Gökçen International Airport. 3000 BC and earlier. Neither country has a resident ambassador. India has an embassy in Sofia. The new Greek Embassy building in New Delhi was inaugurated on February 6. seeing as they've known each other since the days of the Ottoman Empire. See Foreign relations of Finland See Foreign relations of Georgia Finland Georgia . and the Middle East. and seeing as India was one of the countries to send aid to Turkey following its war of independence.  Turkey Main article: Indian–Turkish relations Due to controversial issues such as Turkey's close relationship with Pakistan and India's strong relations with Greece and Armenia. but better at others. The Indian real estate firm GMR. India re-recognised Estonia on September 9. the Mahabharata talks of Indian warrior Kings' conquest of Greece and the cultural exchange resulting therefrom.  Other European countries Formal Relations Began Belarus Bulgaria 1954 See Foreign relations of Belarus See Bulgaria–India relations • Country Notes Bulgaria has an embassy in New Delhi and an honorary consulate in Kolkata. 1991 and diplomatic relations were established on December 2 of the same year in Helsinki. Estonia is represented in India by two honorary consulates (in Mumbai and New Delhi). India and Turkey are also connected by history.mighty Kingdoms of North-Western of India. Croatia Cyprus Denmark Estonia 1991-0909 See Foreign relations of Croatia See Foreign relations of Cyprus See Foreign relations of Denmark See Estonia–India relations India's first recognition of Estonia came on 22 September 1921 when the former had just acquired membership in the League of Nations. relations between the two countries have often been blistered at certain times. India is represented in Estonia through its embassy in Helsinki (Finland) and through an honorary consulate in Tallinn. India and Turkey's relationship alters from unsureness to collaboration when the two nations work together to combat terrorism in Central and South Asia.
Politically relations have not been cold nor warm. although political and economic ties have also helped build relations. Visits by government leaders have kept relations cordial at regular intervals. During the visit. James Joyce. apart from India includes Bangladesh. B. This was followed by an official visit of President of India A. Éamon de Valera. Norway. Yeats.  Ireland Malta Poland Romania • India has an embassy in Bucharest. Political relations between the two states have largely been based on socio-cultural ties. The Embassy of Iceland in London was accredited to India and the Embassy of India in Oslo. Mauritius and Nepal. relations have generally been close and friendly. India is represented in Malta through its embassy in Tripoli.See Foreign relations of the Holy See Holy See Iceland See Iceland–India relations Iceland and India established diplomatic relations in 1972. In 2003. J. See India – Ireland relations Indo-Irish relations picked up steam during the freedom struggles of the respective countries against a common imperial empire in the United Kingdom. Maldives. Abdul Kalam to Iceland in May 2005. Libya and an honorary consulate in Valletta. Gunnar Pálsson is the ambassador of Iceland to India. Iceland pledged support to New Delhi's candidature for a permanent seat in the United Nation Security Council thus becoming the first Nordic country to do so. an Indian Navy team visited Iceland on friendly mission. Soon. Following this a new embassy of Iceland was opened in New Delhi on 26 February 2006. Mutual benefit has led to economic ties that are fruitful for both states. Swaminathan as the first resident ambassador to Iceland in March 2008. Malaysia. Indonesia. Singapore. Annie Besant. Indo-Irish relations were greatly strengthened by the such luminaries as the likes of Pandit Nehru. was accredited to Iceland. the Seychelles. P. it was only after 2003 that the two countries have began close diplomatic and economic relationships. See India–Malta relations Malta opened a High Commission in New Delhi in 2007. President of Iceland Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson visited India on diplomatic mission. Rabindranath Tagore. See India–Poland relations Historically. W. This was the first visit by an Icelandic President to India. and. The Embassy's area of accreditation. characterized by understanding and cooperation on international front. Sri Lanka. However. above all. Malta also has an honourary consulate in Mumbai. . India appointed S.
India and the Soviet Union enjoyed a strong strategic. • • • • Serbia India has an embassy in Belgrade. The Consulate General of India in Odessa functioned from 1962 till its closure in March 1999. Mumbai). India is the second largest market for Russian arms industry. This is reflected in the fact that more than 50% of the oil consumed by India comes from the Persian Gulf countries and Indian nationals form the largest expatriate community in the Arabian peninsula. See also Hinduism in Romania Russia See India–Russia relations During the Cold War. See also Hinduism in Slovenia Slovenia • • • Ukraine See India–Ukraine relations Diplomatic relations between India and Ukraine were established in January 1992.• • Romania has an embassy in New Delhi and an honorary consulate in Kolkata. The Persian Gulf countries have also played an important role in addressing India's energy security concerns. more than 70% on Indian Military's hardware came from Russia.  Middle East  Arab states of the Persian Gulf India and the Arab states of the Persian Gulf enjoy strong cultural and economic ties. The annual remittance by Indian expatriates in the region amounted to US$20 billion in 2007. In 2005. economic and diplomatic relationship. Indian Embassy in Kiev was opened in May 1992 and Ukraine opened its mission in New Delhi in February 1993. Since 2000 and the visit of Vladimir Putin in India there have been an Indo-Russian Strategic Partnership. India has an embassy in Moscow and two Consulates-General (in Saint Petersburg and Vladivostok). In 2004. India is one of the largest trading partners of the CCASG with non-oil trade between India and Dubai alone amounting to US$19 billion in 2007. India improved its relations with the West but it continued its close relations with Russia. making Russia the chief supplier of arms. Serbia has an embassy in New Delhi and an honorary consulate in Chennai. Slovenia has an embassy in New Delhi. See also Hinduism in Serbia Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with India India has an embassy in Ljubljana. Kolkata. military. After the collapse of the USSR. Russia has an embassy in New Delhi and three Consulates-General (in Chennai. with Saudi Arabia and Kuwait regularly increasing their oil supply to India to meet the country's rising energy demand. Kuwait increased its oil exports to India by 10% increasing the .
 There has been progress in a proposed deep-sea gas pipeline from Qatar.net oil trade between the two to US$4. not only business links.  Bahrain Main article: Bahrain–India relations India is a close ally of Bahrain. Qatar decided to invest US$5 billion in India's energy sector. Major imports into Egypt from India are cotton yarn. During the 1956 War. tobacco. over concerns about Iran's nuclear programme Bahrain's Crown Prince appealed to India to play an active role in resolving the crisis. it is easier for Bahrain's politicians to seek training and advice from India than it is from the United States or other western alternative. For instance. the Society seeks to take advantage of the development in civil society to actively work to strengthen ties between the two countries. Egypt under Gamal Abdul Nasser and India under Jawaharlal Nehru became the founders of the NonAligned Movement.5 billion. Bahraini politicians have sought to enhance these long standing ties. In 1967. to India. the Bahrain India Society was launched in Manama to promote ties between the two countries. via Oman. Ties between India and Bahrain go back generations. Nehru stood supporting Egypt to the point of threatening to withdraw his country from the Commonwealth of Nations. Politically. The Egyptian Ministry of Petroleum is also currently negotiating the establishment of a natural gas-operated fertilizer plant with another Indian . New Delhi described the visit of President Anwar al-Sadat to Jerusalem as a "brave" move and considered the peace treaty between Egypt and Israel a primary step on the path of a just settlement of the Middle East problem. leather and iron products. opposition leader L K Advani. pharmaceutical products and transport equipment. India's Minister of State for Foreign Affairs E Ahmed and his Bahraini counterpart Dr Nazar Al Baharna attended the launch. following the Arab-Israeli war. Major Egyptian exports to India include raw cotton. herbs. social affairs. but according to the body's opening statement in politics. In 1977. India has maritime security arrangement in place with Oman and Qatar. and take part in training and media interviews. coffee. oil and oil products. Headed by the former Minister of Labour Abdulnabi Al Shoala. In 2008. science and culture. the Kingdom along with its GCC partners are (according to Indian officials) among the most prominent backers of India's bid for a permanent seat on the UN Security Council. lentils. raw and manufactured fertilizers. and Bahraini officials have urged India to play a greater role in international affairs. organic and non-organic chemicals.  Egypt Main article: Egypt–India relations Modern Egypt-India relations go back to the contacts between Saad Zaghloul and Mohandas Gandhi on the common goals of their respective movements of independence. sesame. with many of Bahrain's most prominent figures having close connections: poet and constitutionalist Ebrahim Al-Arrayedh grew up in Bombay. India supported Egypt and the Arabs. with Parliamentary Speaker Khalifa Al Dhahrani in 2007 leading a delegation of parliamentarians and business leaders to meet Indian President Pratibha Patil. In 1955. while 17th century Bahraini theologians Sheikh Salih Al-Karzakani and Sheikh Ja`far bin Kamal al-Din were influential figures in the Kingdom of Golkonda and the development of Shia thought in the sub-continent. under which India committed its military assets to protect "Qatar from external threats". In 2008. In December 2007. a landmark defense pact was signed.
In the 1990s. Iraq sided alongside other Persian Gulf states in supporting Pakistan against India during the IndoPakistani War of 1971.  Iran Main article: India–Iran relations Seen here is Rabindranath Tagore as a guest of Iran's parliament in the 1930s. sanctions on Iraq. which automatically entailed improved relationship with the Republic of India. India remained neutral but permitted refueling for U. There are significant trade ties. From 1999 onwards.S. Lucknow continues to be a major centre of Shiite culture and Persian study in the subcontinent. India was amongst the first to recognize the Baath Party-led government. It opposed U. Iran frequently objected to Pakistan's attempts to draft anti-India resolutions at international organizations such as the OIC. but the period of war and Iraq's isolation further diminished India's commercial and diplomatic ties. However. They continue to collaborate in supporting the broad-based anti-Taliban government led by Hamid Karzai and backed by the United States. which saw the creation of Bangladesh. After the Iranian Revolution of 1979. India and Iran both supported the Northern Alliance in Afghanistan against the Taliban regime.company. Currently. Both nations signed the "Treaty of Perpetual Peace and Friendship" in 1952 and an agreement of cooperation on cultural affairs in 1954.N. and Iraq remained neutral during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. Iraq and India began to work towards a stronger relationship. Iran withdrew from CENTO and dissociated itself from US-friendly countries. The eight-year long Iran–Iraq War caused a steep decline in trade and commerce between the two nations. In 2004 the Gas Authority of India Limited. the two countries have friendly relations in many areas. according to the Egyptian ambassador. Iraq had supported India's right to conduct nuclear tests . India welcomed Iran's inclusion as an observer state in the SAARC regional organization.  Iraq Main article: Indo-Iraqi relations Iraq was one of the few countries in the Middle East with which India established diplomatic relations at the embassy level immediately after its independence in 1947. During the 1991 Persian Gulf War. bought 15% of Egypt Nat Gas distribution and marketing company. airplanes. including Pakistan. In 2008 Egyptian investment in India was worth some 750 million dollars. particularly in crude oil imports into India and diesel exports to Iran.
Israel and India started a clandestine relationship that involved cooperation between their respective intelligence agencies. and Israel has entertained Indian dignitaries such as Finance Minister Jaswant Singh in diplomatic visits. On January 21. and Israel is India's second largest arms supplier. Israel has also expressed interest in participating in ISRO's Chandrayaan Mission involving an unmanned mission to the moon. Since the establishment of full diplomatic relations with Israel in 1992.following its tests of five nuclear weapons on May 11 and May 13. The creation of Israel at the end of World War II was a complex issue. Israel is India's second-biggest arms . India has improved its relation with the Jewish State. formal relations with Israel started improving significantly. and on August 6. After the end of the Cold War. diplomatic and commercial ties between India and the new democratic government of Iraq have since been normalized. India has entertained Israeli Prime Minister in a visit in 2003. They have developed close defense and security ties since establishing diplomatic relations in 1992. Israel's Minister for Science and Technology has expressed interest in collaborating with the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) towards utilizing satellites for better management of land and other resources. 2002 President Saddam Hussein conveyed Iraq's "unwavering support" to India over the Kashmir dispute with Pakistan. the final UN resolution decided to partition historic Palestine into Arab and Jewish states based on religious and ethnic majority which India opposed in the final vote as it did not agree with concept of partition on the basis of religion. due to the security threat from a US aided Pakistan and its nuclear program in the 80s. along with Iran and Yugoslavia had recommended a single state with Arab and Jewish majority provinces with an aim to prevent partition of historic Palestine and prevent any conflict that might follow based on its own experience during partition.  Israel Main article: India-Israel relations Beni-Israel Family at Bombay. the thenVice President of Iraq Taha Yassin Ramadan visited India. India and Israel collaborate extensively in scientific and technological endeavors. However. Both countries share common strategic interests to combat Pakistan-based terrorism and nuclear proliferation concerns. Israel and India share intelligence on terrorist groups. In 2000. India. Israel shared India's concerns about the growing danger posed by Pakistan and nuclear proliferation to Iran and other Arab states. India and Iraq established joint ministerial committees and trade delegations to promote extensive bilateral cooperation. 2008 India successfully launched an Israeli spy satellite into orbit from Sriharikota space station in southern India. However. India is regarded as Israel's strongest ally in Asia. Although initially disrupted during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. 1998.
CSIR and the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) signed a MoU for bilateral cooperation in 1997 and have an ongoing programme of cooperation.  Russia and Central Asia Atal Bihari Vajpayee with Russian president Vladmir Putin in 2001.supplier. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) had major repercussions for Indian foreign policy. after Russia. Similarly. Longstanding military . CSIR and the Saudi Arabian Standards Organisation (SASO) have an ongoing programme of technical cooperation (POC) since June 1993. Under this programme. who is one of the top seven trading partners and the 5th biggest investor in Saudi Arabia. In addition.  Oman Main article: India-Oman relations  Saudi Arabia Main article: Indo-Saudi Arabian relations Bilateral relations between India and the Saudi Arabia have strengthened considerably owing to cooperation in regional affairs and trade. Israel is training Indian military units and discussing an arrangement to give Indian commandos instruction in counter-terrorist tactics and urban warfare. are deputed to Saudi Arabia on regular basis.  Lebanon India has a peacekeeping force as part of the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL). India has bought more than $5 billion worth of Israeli equipment since 2002.  India and Saudi Arabia are actively cooperating in the field of science and technology. remote sensing and installation of Internet. Israel and India signed a memorandum to set up an Indo-Israel Legal Colloquium to facilitate discussions and exchange programs between judges and jurists of the two countries. particularly in the field of measurement and calibration. Indian experts in different scientific areas. In December 2008. Saudi Arabia is the one of largest suppliers of oil to India. Substantial trade with the former Soviet Union plummeted after the Soviet collapse and has yet to recover. The force also provided non-patrol aid to citizens. NPL and CFTRI visited SASO during January 2004 and both sides agreed to renew the POC. particularly in the field of space science. Recently a three-member delegation from CSIR. One infantry battalion is deployed in Lebanon and about 900 personnel are stationed in the Eastern part of South Lebanon. National Physical Laboratory has provided expertise and technology for two important SASO projects related to calibration and teleclock system. several Saudi experts and have undergone advanced training in India.
to New Delhi. The Indian public sector oil company ONGC bought Imperial Energy in 2008. you had no reason to be worried.G. have set a determination in increasing trade to $10 billion. Gazprom. as I had a Soviet nuclear submarine trailing the American task force all the way into the Indian Ocean. Russian President Yeltsin's visit to India in January 1993 helped cement this new relationship. in the Bay of Bengal. Gorshkov asked the Vice Admiral. is working for the development of the Kudankulam nuclear plant. have collaborated extensively. one of the foreign delegates to visit India was Admiral S. Ties have grown stronger with President Vladimir Putin's 2004 visit. Gorshkov. India and Russia. Other areas of collaboration include software. which led to the subsequent liberation of Bangladesh. Russia and India have decided not to renew the 1971 Indo-Soviet Peace and Friendship Treaty and have sought to follow what both describe as a more pragmatic. Soon after the victory of the Indian Armed Forces. There is national consensus in both the countries on the need to preserve and strengthen India-Russia relations and further consolidate the strategic partnership between the two countries. less ideological relationship. In December 2008. has a top speed of Mach 2. that will be capable of producing 1000 MW of electricity. During a conversation with Vice Admiral Swaraj Prakash. During his visit to Mumbai (Bombay) he came on board INS Vikrant. signed a nuclear energy co-operation . The pace of high-level visits has since increased. etc. A Declaration on Strategic Partnership was signed between former Russian President and current Prime Minister Vladimir Putin and former Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee in October 2000. has been declared by both countries as the Russia-India Friendship Year. India and Russia. as has discussion of major defence purchases. trust and mutual understanding."   Russian Federation Main articles: Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation and India–Russia relations India's ties with the Russian Federation are time-tested and based on continuity. Chief of the Soviet Navy. "Were you worried about a battle against the American carrier?" He answered himself: "Well. is working for the development of oil and natural gas.8. Joint Indo-Russian BrahMos nuclear cruise missile. although Russia continues to be India's largest supplier of military systems and spare parts. Russia. during President Medvedev's visit. on space technology. The year 2008. making it the world's fastest supersonic cruise missile.supply relationships were similarly disrupted due to questions over financing. Bollywood films are quite popular in Russia. In 2007 President Vladimir Putin was guest of honour at Republic Day celebration on 26 January 2007. ayurveda. The relationship with USSR was tested (and proven) during the 1971 war with Pakistan. Counter-terrorism techniques are also in place between Russia and India. India and Russia.
 Mongolia Main article: India-Mongolia relations The relations between India and Mongolia are still at a nascent stage and Indo-Mongolian cooperation is limited to diplomatic visits. In March. beginning with India's extensive support to the anti-Taliban Afghan Northern Alliance (ANA). provision of soft loans and financial aid and the collaborations in the IT sector. bilateral trade has been comparatively low.500 years ago. and India building atomic power plants in the Central Asian country. and space technology.  Tajikistan Main article: Indo-Tajik relations Diplomatic relations were established India and Tajikistan following Tajikistan's independence from the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union. India began renovating the Farkhor Air Base and stationed aircraft of the Indian Air Force there. India established diplomatic relations in December 1955. Since then. are to set up joint projects in construction. India's exports to Tajikistan were valued at USD 6. valued at USD 12. India was the first country outside the Soviet block to establish diplomatic relations with Mongolia. The Farkhor Air Base became fully operational in 2006. has got oil exploration and petroleum development grants in Kazakhstan. These MoU also opens possibilities of joint exploration of uranium in Kazakhstan. The Indian oil company. The two countries are collaborating in petrochemicals.09 million in 2005. there have been treaties of mutual friendship and cooperation between the two countries in 1973. 2001 and 2004. Kazakhstan has offered India five blocks for oil and gas exploration. . India also signed four other pacts. information technology. 1991.  Kazakhstan Main article: India–Kazakhstan relations India is working towards developing strong relations with this resource rich Central Asian country. of India and KazatomProm. In modern times. India's military presence and activities have been significant. including an extradition treaty. Kazakhastan will provide uranium and related products under the MoU between Nuclear Power Corp. and 12 MiG-29 bombers and trainer aircraft are planned to be stationed there. the People's Republic of China and separated by a small strip of Afghan territory from Pakistan.89 million. India recognized Armenia on December 26. during the 5th century BC. bordering Afghanistan. in the presence of President Prathibha Patil and her Kazakh counterpart Nursultan Nazarbayev.  Armenia Main article: Armenia–India relations The first contacts between both civilizations date back from 2. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation.agreement. which has the worlds' second largest reserves. Despite their common efforts. India's role in fighting the Taliban and Al-Qaeda and its strategic rivalry with both China and Pakistan have made its ties with Tajikistan important to its strategic and security policies. 1994. Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin signed an additional 19 pacts with India which included civilian nuclear energy. which had been friendly with India. 2010. minerals and metallurgy. space and military co-operation and the final sale of Admiral Gorshkov along with Mig-29K fighter jets.2 million and its imports at USD 5. India and Kazakhstan. Tajikistan occupies a strategically important position in Central Asia.
50 crore (US$3 million) to finance import by Mauritius of capital goods. consultancy services and consumer durable from India. Thabo Mbeki has called for a strategic relationship between India and South Africa to avoid imposition by Western Nations. Visits from political ministers from Ethiopia provided opportunities for strengthening bilateral cooperation between the two countries in the fields of education and technical training. Swaziland. Uzbekistan The countries have some culture in common especially because of deep Turkic and Persian influences in the two countries. This has allowed India to gain benefits from nations that are generally forgotten by other Western Nations. Lesotho. Malawi. The South African President. water resources management and development of small industries.  Africa Indian PM Manmohan Singh with Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and South African President Thabo Mbeki. Namibia. Kenya. Uganda and Tanzania. India continued to build upon its historically close relations with Ethiopia. India has an embassy in Tashkent. The government of India secured a rice and medicine agreement with the people of Seychelles. the two countries secured a deal to a new Credit Agreement of INR 10. Uzbekistan has an embassy in New Delhi. Zambia and Zimbabwe. India has had good relationships with most sub-Saharan African nations for most of its history. In the Prime Minister's visit to Mauritius in 1997. These relations have created a position of strength with African nations that other nations may not possess. The Minister of Foreign Affairs arranged for the sending of Special Envoys to each of these countries during 1996-97 as a reaffirmation of India's assurance to strengthening cooperation with these countries in a spirit of South-South partnership. India continued to build upon its close and friendly relations with Angola. Mozambique.  Côte d'Ivoire . Botswana.
iron ore. he fought for the rights of the ethnic Indians. amongst other things. Olusegun Obasanjo was the guest of honour. Côte d'Ivoire opened its resident mission in New Delhi in September 2004. Nelson Mandela was inspired by Gandhi. Liberia was represented in India through its resident mission in New Delhi which subsequently closed due to budgetary constraints. steel. and addressed the Nigerian Parliament.  Liberia Main article: India-Liberia relations The bilateral relations between the Republic of India and the Republic of Liberia have expanded on growing bilateral trade and strategic cooperation. Trade. G-77. India and South Africa.  Nigeria Main article: Indo-Nigerian relations India has close relations with this oil rich West African country. Germany.Main article: Côte d'Ivoire – India relations The bilateral relations between the Republic of India and the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire have considerably expanded in recent years as India seeks to develop an extensive commercial and strategic partnership in the West African region . There is a large group of South Africans of Indian descent. spent many years in South Africa. Felipe Calderón of Mexico. Mahatma Gandhi. is the amount of oil. visited Nigeria in 2007. and the Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of Brazil. From left to right: Manmohan Singh of India. at the Republic Day parade. that India receives from Nigeria. by Nigeria.  South Africa Main article: Indo-South African relations A meeting of G5 leaders in Berlin. Both India and Nigeria. . during which time. between these two countries stands at $875 million in 2005-2006. The Nigerian President. in 1999. Twenty percent of India's crude oil needs are met. are members of the Commonwealth of Nations.000 barrels per day of oil. and the Non Aligned Movement. 40. and communications. pharmaceuticals. information technology. Both nations are currently fostering efforts to increase trade. have always had strong relations. investments and economic cooperation. Hu Jintao of China and Thabo Mbeki of South Africa. Indian companies have also invested in manufacturing. The Indian diplomatic mission in Abidjan was opened in 1979. India is represented in Liberia through its embassy in Abidjan (Ivory Coast) and an active honorary consulate in Monrovia since 1984.
After India's independence. for India's growing civilian nuclear energy sector.International Atomic Energy Agency IBRD . Diamonds. One third of India's imports from South Africa is gold bullion.Colombo Plan EAS FAO .  Sudan Indo-Sudanese relations have always been characterized as longstanding. are polished in India. The two countries.International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) • • • • • • • .Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multisectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation BIS . Nelson Mandela was awarded the Gandhi Peace Prize. and sports relations. and remotely border Saudi Arabia by means of a body of water.Food and Agriculture Organization G-15 G-24 G-77 IAEA . India had also contributed some troops as United Nations peacekeeping force in Darfur. India and Sudan also share geographic and historical similarities. and aim to reach trade of $12 billion by 2010. with Brazil. India was strongly against apartheid. despite issues such as India's close relationship with Israel. as well as economic interests. political. India and Sudan continue to have cordial relations. and Sudan's intimate bonds with Pakistan and Bangladesh. now have close economic. and friendly. close. that are mined from South Africa.Asian Development Bank AfDB . The two nations established diplomatic relations shortly after India became known as one of the first Asian countries to recognize the newly independent African country. even since the early development stages of their countries. Both countries are former British colonies. and refused diplomatic relations while apartheid was conducted. India hopes to get large amounts of uranium. The two countries are also members of the IBSA Dialogue Forum.African Development Bank (nonregional members) ASEAN Regional Forum ASEAN (dialogue partner) BIMSTEC . Trade between the two countries grew from $3 million in 1992-1993 to $4 billion in 2005-2006. from resource rich South Africa.Bank for International Settlements Commonwealth of Nations CERN .European Organization for Nuclear Research (observer) CP . India's solidarity with Egypt over border issues with Sudan.  International organizations India participates in the following international organisations: • • • • • • • • • ADB .
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNDOF .International Trade Union Confederation (the successor to ICFTU (International Confederation of Free Trade Unions) and the WCL (World Confederation of Labor)) LAS .Inter-parliamentary Union ISO .Multilateral Investment Geographic Agency MONUC .Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons PCA .International Maritime Organization IMSO .• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ICAO .South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation SACEP .Pacific Islands Forum (partner) SAARC .International Chamber of Commerce ICRM .International Hydrographic Organization ILO .International Civil Aviation Organization ICC .United Nations Disengagement Observer Force .Organization of American States (observer) OPCW .International Development Association IFAD .League of Arab States (observer) MIGA .International Finance Corporation IFRCS .International Organization for Migration (observer) IPU .International Olympic Committee IOM .United Nations UNCTAD .International Mobile Satellite Organization Interpol .International Labor Organization IMF .Shanghai Cooperation Organization (observer) UN .International Fund for Agricultural Development IFC .International Monetary Fund IMO .International Telecommunications Satellite Organization ITU .International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies IHO .South Asia Co-opeative Environment Programme SCO .International Organization for Standardization ITSO .Nonaligned Movement OAS .International Telecommunication Union ITUC .Permanent Court of Arbitration PIF .United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo NAM .International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement IDA .International Criminal Police Organization IOC .
nonviolence and international cooperation as a means of settling international disputes. The principles of nonalignment.World Intellectual Property Organization WMO . and Cultural Organization UNHCR .United Nations Educational.World Tourism Organization UPU . particularly those led by the United States or the Soviet Union.United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees UNIDO . Scientific.United Nations Industrial Development Organization UNIFIL .• • • • • UNESCO . as articulated by Nehru and his successors.World Confederation of Labor WCO .Universal Postal Union WCL .United Nations Operation in Cote d'Ivoire UNWTO .World Health Organization WIPO . almost unquestioning support among the Indian elite.  United Nations Main article: India and the United Nations .United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon UNMEE .World Trade Organization • • • • • • • • • • •  Non-Aligned Movement Main article: India and the Non-Aligned Movement Nonalignment had its origins in India's colonial experience and the nonviolent Indian independence struggle led by the Congress. The term "Non-Alignment" itself was coined by Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru during his speech in 1954 in Colombo.World Meteorological Organization WTO . Nonalignment was a consistent feature of Indian foreign policy by the late 1940s and enjoyed strong.United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea UNMIS UNOCI . were preservation of India's freedom of action internationally through refusal to align India with any bloc or alliance.World Federation of Trade Unions WHO . which left India determined to be the master of its fate in an international system dominated politically by Cold War alliances and economically by Western capitalism. Sri Lanka.World Customs Organization WFTU .
Maldives. India has also played an active role in the deliberations of the United Nations on the creation of a more equitable international economic order. N. India and its SAARC partners signed an agreement to gradually lower tariffs within the region. It stood at the forefront during the UN's tumultuous years of struggle against colonialism and apartheid. India has been a firm supporter of the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations. Secretary-General Kofi Annan As a founder member of the United Nations. India had raised its voice against colonialism and apartheid. culture. a vindication of the policy relentlessly pursued by it from its initial days at the world forum. Other issues. Bangladesh. India exulted in the UN's triumph. In 1993. its struggle towards global disarmament and the ending of the arms race. It has been an active member of the Group of 77. November 1999 has . have also been an important focus of India's foreign policy in international forums. Its members are Afghanistan. rural development. India. Narayanan with the U. Angola and Rwanda in recent years.  SAARC Certain aspects of India's relations within the subcontinent are conducted through the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). and the SAARC Summit originally scheduled for. science and technology. At the very first session of the UN. narcotics control and anti-terrorism. and to the evolution and functioning of its various specialized programmes. SAARC encourages cooperation in agriculture. and saw in the UN's victory. population control. and has made significant contributions to the furtherance and implementation of these noble aims. Forward movement in SAARC has come to a standstill because of the tension between India and Pakistan. Bhutan. R. Pakistan.K. health. but not held in. SAARC has intentionally stressed these "core issues" and avoided more divisive political issues. Established in 1985. such as environmentally sustainable development and the promotion and protection of human rights. and towards the creation of a more equitable international economic order. Egypt and Congo in earlier years and in Somalia. Nepal. and later the core group of the G-15 nations. two issues which have been among the most significant of the UN's successes in the last half century. India was instrumental in bringing down the Doha round of talks in 2008. India has been a participant in all its peacekeeping operations including those in Korea. although political dialogue is often conducted on the margins of SAARC meetings. See more  World Trade Organization Described by WTO chief Pascal Lamy as one of the organization's "big brothers". and Sri Lanka. It has played an important role of representing as many as 100 developing nations during WTO summits.
which delimited the boundary along the Maha Kali River (Sarda River in India). India and Nepal disagree about how to interpret the 1816 Sugauli treaty between the British East India Company and Nepal. Indian forces occupied the area in 1962 after China and India fought their border war.5 km of the border between India and Bangladesh remains to be demarcated. The dispute intensified in 1997 as the Nepali parliament considered a treaty on hydro-electric development of the river. Kalapani village of India is claimed by Nepal and Nawalparasi district of Nepal is claimed by India. and does not recognise the crown's rule over these "Indian" islands.  International disputes India's territorial disputes with neighboring Pakistan and People's Republic of China have played a crucial role in its foreign policy. Ongoing discussions with Bangladesh to exchange 162 minuscule enclaves between the two. Nepal and Maldives. Although the Indo-Nepali dispute appears to be minor. Because the disputed area lies near the Sino-Indian frontier. India claims the Lipu Lekh. India prevented Maldives destabilization by armed rebels by executing Operation Cactus and restored law and order in Maldives. it was aggravated in 1962 by tensions between China and India. and Nepal meet. The Fourteenth SAARC Summit was held during 3–4 April 2007 in New Delhi. Three villages are located in the disputed zone: Kuti [Kuthi. India. India regards these islands as part of its Lakshadweep Indosphere strategy as part of its oceanic vicinity of its sovereignty and a threat to its integrity of its emerging geo-political might.  Nepal • The dispute between India and Nepal involves about 75 km² of area in Kalapani. 80°46'E].  Maldives • •  Pakistan . Dispute over Minicoy Island with Maldives. this is yet to be clarified. Nepal regards the Limpiyadhura as the source. it gains strategic value. India is also involved in minor territorial disputes with neighboring Bangladesh. where China. Nepal has reportedly tabled an 1856 map from the British India Office to support its position. 30°19'N.not been rescheduled. and Knabe. Gunji. India and Nepal differ as to which stream constitutes the source of the river. India is involved in the following international disputes:  Bangladesh • • 6. India currently maintains two manned stations in Antarctica but has made some unofficial territorial claims. The countries have held several meetings about the dispute and discussed jointly surveying to resolve the issue.  British Indian Ocean Territories • Dispute over the British Indian Ocean Territories and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands with the former colonial powers.
Though it is under Indian administration. Dispute over Kori Creek and the maritime boundary regarding the Rann of Kachchh area of India. India claims the disputed territory from Pakistan administered Kashmir. a significant aspect of India's foreign policy is the Look East Policy. at the junction of India. (Indus Water Treaty) India claims Aksai Chin and Trans-Karakoram Tract. currently administered by China. The boundary claim itself is therefore still in dispute as it could give more territorial advantage to either nation. The McMahon Line however. Myanmar and China. During the cold war. as a more southward boundary could give China more territorial claim. India claims the 38.Indus and tributaries • The unresolved Kashmir dispute and the status of Kashmir with Pakistan. had originally stretched farther southward into Indian territory than India's current territorial claims north of the line. After the end of the cold war. Water-sharing problems with Pakistan over the Indus River (Wular Barrage). China claims most of Arunachal Pradesh. the government of India particularly realised the importance of . In a sense. involving the Siachen Glacier. Tibet and Pakistan-Occupied Kashmir.000-square-kilometre area as South Tibet. • • •  People's Republic of China • • Two regions are claimed by both India and China. the line might not serve as an advantage to India's claim. a contested disputed territory of north-east India by not recognising the McMahon Line. Aksai Chin is in the disputed territory of Kashmir. Also the boundary between the North Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Uttaranchal with China's Tibet is not properly demarcated with some portions under de-facto administration of India.  Look East Policy In the post cold war era. bordering on Bhutan. as part of Jammu and Kashmir. China calls the 90. Boundary issues of the Ferozepur and Pathankot with the Government of Pakistan. India's relations with its South East Asian neighbours was not very strong. Arunachal Pradesh is a state of India in the country's northeast.000-square-kilometre territory.
  India – ASEAN India's interaction with ASEAN in the cold war era was very limited. Agreement on "India-ASEAN Partnership for Peace. 2005. the Narsimha Rao government in the early nineties of the last century unveiled the look east policy. a full dialogue partner in 1995. and a summit level partner (on par with China. Since the beginning of this century. It is only with the formulation of the Look-East policy in the last decade (1992).under the Look East Policy. After the start of liberalization. first in 2002 at Phnom Penh (Cambodia). Four India-ASEAN Summits. India has given a big push to this policy by becoming a summit level partner of ASEAN (2002) and getting involved in some regional initiatives such as the BIMSTEC and the Ganga Mekong Cooperation and now becoming a member of the East Asia Summit (EAS) in December. on which ASEAN was formed initially (in 1967). The following agreements have been entered into with ASEAN: • • • • Framework Agreement on Comprehensive Economic Cooperation (for establishing a FTA in a time frame of 10 years) was concluded in Bali in 2003. a member of the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) in 1996. the Government of India is giving special emphasis on the economic development of backward north eastern region of India taking advantage of huge market of ASEAN as well as of the energy resources available in some of the member countries of ASEAN like Myanmar.B.redressing this imbalance in India's foreign policy. Vietnam and Singapore and India becoming a important dialogue partner with ASEAN in 1992. To quote Prime Minister Manmohan Singh "it was also a strategic shift in India's vision of the world and India's place in the evolving global economy". Look-east policy was launched in 1992 just after the end of the cold war. Japan. second in 2003 at Bali (Indonesia). Initially it focused on renewing political and economic contacts with the countries of East and South-East Asia. it was a very strategic policy decision taken by the government in the foreign policy. . Vajpayee addressed this meet and since then this business summit has become an annual feature before the India-ASEAN Summits. India had started giving this region due importance in the foreign policy. An ASEAN-India Joint Declaration for Cooperation to Combat International Terrorism has been adopted. Progress and Shared Prosperity" was signed at the 3rd ASEAN-India Summit in Nov 2004. as a forum for networking and exchange of business experiences between policy makers and business leaders from ASEAN and India. The first India-ASEAN Business Summit was held at New Delhi in October 2002. following the collapse of the Soviet Union. have taken place till date. third in 2004 at Vientiane (Laos) and the fourth in 2005 at Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). India has acceded to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC) in 2003. South Korea. Consequently. The policy was given an initial thrust with the then Prime Minister Narasimha Rao visiting China. The then Prime Minister A. Japan and Korea) in 2002. India became a sectoral dialogue partner with ASEAN in 1992. India declined to get associated with ASEAN in the 1960s when full membership was offered even before the grouping was formed. At present.
4. The ASEAN region has an abundance of natural resources and significant technological skills. Laos.bbc.U. http://www. http://news. 2007-11-30.html. Myanmar. better connectivity through air (open skies policy).uk/2/hi/business/7120343. rail and road links. Myanmar. ^ The New Great Game: Why the Bush administration has embraced India 7.com/video/US+President+Barack+Obama+hails+India+as+global+power. ^ Ruth David (2006-07-13).mpg&pid=fbbeca19a1a47bf9c7cba422820296e0. India hopes to reach the level of US $ 30 billion by 2007. ^ "US President Barack Obama hails India as global power". 5. (The one in Laos is already functional) The following proposals were announced by the Prime Minister at the 4th ASEAN-India Summit: • • • • • • Setting up centres for English Language Training (ELT) in Cambodia. Organising special training courses for diplomats from ASEAN countries. Organising education fairs and road shows in ASEAN countries.co. ^ "Indian economic growth rate eases".viewdle.com/2006/07/13/g-8-india-invest-cx_rd_0713qanda. India relations . Retrieved 2009-11-21. Myanmar and Vietnam. ^ E.  See also India portal • • • • List of diplomatic missions in India List of diplomatic missions of India Research and Analysis Wing Role of India in nonaligned movement  References 1. Conducting an India-ASEAN IT Ministerial and Industry Forum in 2006.stm. Forbes. 2009-04-02. Laos and Vietnam. ^  3. Organising an India-ASEAN Technology Summit in 2006.? vid=reuters-200904024210SE-UK-INDIA_US1238706894. http://reuters. BBC. Retrieved 2009-1121. Retrieved 2009-11-21. The present level of bilateral trade with ASEAN of nearly US $ 18 billion is reportedly increasing by about 25 % per year. These provide a natural base for the integration between ASEAN and India in both trade and investment.• Setting up of Entrepreneurship Development Centres in ASEAN member states – Cambodia.forbes. "India As A Global Power". India is also improving its relations with the help of other policy decisions like offers of lines of credit. Laos and Vietnam. Setting up a tele-medicine and tele-education network for Cambodia. Reuters. ^ US Today on NIC report 6. 2.
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