Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

330 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- iit maths - polynomials and quadratics, integration, circle
- IIT JEE FIIT JEE STUDY MATERIAL
- Atomic+Structrure+final
- AIEEE Class XII 03 Maths Solution of Triangle
- iit maths- trigonometry, functions, graphs, differentiation etc
- Co Ordinate Geometry
- AIEEE Class XII 01 Phy Electrostatics
- Basics of Chemistry - I
- iit maths - straight lines, functions and graphs and differentiation
- Oscillation
- AIEEE Class XI Phy Laws of Motion
- IIT Maths Trigonometric Ratio
- Jr Phy M2 Newtons Law of Motion
- Teaching Notes 1
- Continuity & Differentiability
- Maths+quest
- IIT Class XI Maths Circle
- Application of Derivatives 13.08.07
- 11-Iit-jee Maths Paper II
- Straight+Lines+OK

You are on page 1of 26

This is the chapter where we will actually put our knowledge of (definite) integration to practical use. We will

calculate areas under curves, areas bounded by curves, volumes under surfaces, volumes bounded by surfaces,

etc. We will mostly be concerned with areas; however, we will delve a little into calculating volumes for the sake of

completeness.

Calculating areas and volumes is totally about calculating definite integrals and involves no new concepts. You are

advised to read the chapter on “Definite Integration” again if you are not very comfortable in evaluating integrals.

We will now start with such calculations through actual examples.

Example – 1

Solution: The bounded area is depicted in the figure below:

y

2

y=x

y=x The shaded area represents

the area A bounded between

1 the two curves

x

1

Fig - 1

Thus,

1

A = ∫ ( x − x 2 ) dx

0

1

x2 x3 1

= − = sq units

2 3 0 6

Example – 2

LOCUS 2

Solution: The bounded region has been sketched below. Verify for yourself the validity of the figure drawn:

y

x

y=2

4

The shaded region represents

the area A bounded between

the given curves

x

0 1 2

2

y = 2x - x

Fig - 2

We have,

( )

2

A = ∫ 2 x − ( 2 x − x 2 ) dx

0

2

2x x3

= − x2 +

ln 2 3 0

4 8 1

= −4+ −

ln 2 3 ln 2

3 4

= − sq. units

ln 3

Example – 3

ln x

Compute the area of the region bounded between the curves y = ex ln x and y =

ex

Solution: If you’ve read the chapter on “Applications of Derivatives” properly, you should not have much of

a problem plotting the graph of the two functions:

y

ln x

y = ex The point of intersection

is determined by equating

the equation of the two

x curves, i.e,

1/e 1 ln x

ex ln x =

ex

⇒ ln x = 0 or e2x2=1

1

⇒ x = 1 or x = e

the area A between two curves

-1

Fig - 3

LOCUS 3

ln x

1

A=

1/ e

∫ ex

− ex ln x dx

1 1

ln x

= ∫ dx − e ∫ x ln xdx

1/ e

ex 1/ e

1 0 x 2

1 1

1

= ∫ tdt − e ln x − ∫ x dx

e −1 2 1/ e

2 1/ e

−1 1 1 1

= − e 2 − 1 − 2

2e 2e 4 e

1 1 e e2 − 1

=− − + 2

2e 2 e 4 e

1 e2 − 1

=− +

e 4e

e −5

2

= sq. units

4e

Example – 4

A curve y = f(x) passes through the origin. Through any point (x, y) on the curve, lines are drawn parallel to the

co-ordinate axis. If the curve divides the area formed by these lines and the co-ordinate axes in the ratio m:n, find

the equation of the curve.

Solution: The situation described in the question is graphically depicted below:

A1 m

=

y A2 n

(x, y)

Note that A1 + A2 = xy

x

and A 2 = ydx

A1 0

A2

Fig - 4

From the given constraint, we have

x

xy − ∫ y dx

m

x

0

=

n

∫ y dx

0

x

n

⇒ ∫ y dx = m + n ( xy )

0

LOCUS 4

n xdy

y= + y

m + n dx

dy

⇒ my = nx

dx

dy m dx

⇒ =

y n x

m

⇒ ln y = ln x + C

n

m

= ln x + ln k where k is a constant

n

⇒ y = kx m / n (Note that this passes through the origin)

Example – 5

Find the area of the region containing the points whose (x, y) co-ordinates satisfy

1 −x

y+ ≤e

2

Solution: If you observe the given relation carefully, you will realise that whatever region we obtain will be

symmetric about both the x-axis and y-axis.

This means that we only need to plot the region in the first quadrant. The regions in the other quadrants

can then automatically be obtained by reflecting symmetrically the region in the first quadrant into all

the other quadrants.

So let us now consider just the first quadrant. In this quadrant, both x, y > 0, so that the given relation

can be simply written as

1

y+ ≤ e− x

2

1

⇒ y ≤ e− x −

2

We now plot this region for x > 0, y > 0:

y

1/2 -x 1

represents y < e –

2

y=e-x – 1

2

x

ln 2

Fig - 5

Maths / Areas and Volumes

LOCUS 5

y

represents

y <e

- x

– 1

2

x

- ln2 ln2

-1/2

Fig - 6

1

ln 2

A = 4 ∫ e − x − dx

0

2

ln 2

x

= 4 −e − x −

20

1 1

= 4 − ln 2

2 2

= 2 (1 − ln 2 ) sq. units

Example – 6

Find all the possible values of b > 0 so that the area of the bounded region enclosed between the parabolas

x2

y = x − bx and y =

2

is maximum.

b

y = x − bx 2 = 0

1

⇒ x = 0,

b

LOCUS 6

This is a downwards facing parabola. The other parabola has its vertex at the origin.

y 2

x

y=

b

The point of intersection

P is given by:

2

x

P = x – bx2

b

b

y = x – bx2 x= 2

1+b

⇒

y=

b

x 2 2

0 1/b (1+b )

Fig - 7

The figure above tells us how to calculate the co-ordinates of the intersection point P:

b b

P≡ ,

1 + b 2 (1 + b 2 )2

Now, the bounded area A is given by:

b

1+ b 2

x2

A= ∫ x − bx − dx

2

0 b

b

x2 1 1 1+b

2

= − b + x3

2 3 b 0

b2 1 b2 + 1 b3

= − ⋅

2 (1 + b 2 ) (1 + b2 )

2 3

3 b

b2

=

6 (1 + b 2 )

2

b

A1 = 6 A =

1 + b2

dA1 (1 + b ) − 2b

2 2

⇒ =

db (1 + b2 )

1 − b2

=

1 + b2

dA1

A1 is maximum when = 0 i.e, b = 1 (b is > 0 so it cannot be –1)

db

LOCUS 7

Example – 7

1

Find the area of the region bounded by x = , x = 2, y = ln x and y = 2x.

2

the region whose area

we need to determine

x

½ 1 2

Fig - 8

2

A= ∫ (2 − ln x ) dx

x

1/ 2

2

2x

= − x ln x + x

ln 2 1/ 2

4− 2 5 3

= − ln 2 + sq. units

ln 2 2 2

Example – 8

{ }

Let f ( x ) = max x , (1 − x ) , 2 x (1 − x ) . Determine the area of the region bounded by the curve

2 2

y = f ( x ) , x − axis, x = 0 and x = 1.

LOCUS 8

Solution: The technique to plot the curve for f(x) has been outlined in the unit on Functions. We plot all the three

curves x 2 , (1 − x ) and 2 x (1 − x ) on the same axes, scan the x-axis from left to right and at every

2

point, pick out that graph which lies uppermost of all the three graphs. In the figure below, the heavyset

curve is the curve for f(x):

y

2

y=x y = (1 – x)

2

A is given by

2

1 (1 - x) = 2x (1 - x)

1

½ 3

A B The intersection point

¼

x B is given by

2

0 ½ 1 x = 2x (1 - x)

2

3

y = x (1 – x)

Fig - 9

We can evaluate the required area, as is clear from the figure above, by dividing the integration interval

[0, 1] into three sub-intervals:

1/ 3 2/3 1

A= ∫ (1 − x ) dx + ∫ 2 x (1 − x ) dx + ∫ x dx

2 2

0 1/ 3 2/3

19 13 19

= + + (verify)

18 81 81

51

=

81

17

=

27

Example – 9

A square has its vertices at (1, 1), (1, –1), (–1, –1) and (–1, 1). Four circles of radius 2 are drawn, one centred

at each vertex of the square. Find the area common to these four circles.

LOCUS 9

y

Solution:

(-1, 1) (1, 1)

O

Each circle has

R been partially drawn.

P x The area common to

there four circles has

bee shaded.

S

Fig - 10

Let us evaluate the area in the first quadrant. For that, we need to evaluate the x-co-ordinate of P.

Notice that the circle centred at (–1, –1) is the one which intersects the x-axis at P. The equation of

this circle is given by:

( x + 1) + ( y + 1) =4

2 2

...(1)

When y = 0, x = 3 − 1

Thus, P≡ ( 3 − 1, 0 )

The area in the first quadrant is now:

3−1

A1st = ∫ 4 − ( x + 1) − 1 dx

2

0 of the circle in an explicit form

3 −1

1 4 −1 x + 1

= − x + ( x + 1) 4 − ( x + 1) + sin

2

(verify this step)

2 2 2 0

3 3 3 1

= − 3 + 1 + + 2sin −1 − + 2sin −1

2 2 2 2

π

= − 3

3

Therefore, the total bounded area is

A = 4 × A1st

π

= 4 − 3 sq. units

3

LOCUS 10

Example – 10

x=1

Solution: Let us first determine the equation of the said tangent:

dy

= ( 2 x + 1) x =1

dx x =1

=3

Also, when x = 1, y = 3

The required equation is

y − 3 = 3 ( x − 1)

⇒ y = 3x .

3

The shaded area

represents the bounded

region whose area we

wish to determine

The curve

2

y=x +x+1 1

¾

x

-1 -½ 0 1

The tangent y = 3x

Fig - 11

From the figure above, it should be clear that the area can be calculated as described below:

{( x }

0 1

A= ∫ (x + x + 1) dx + ∫ + x + 1) − 3 x dx

2 2

−1 0

0 1

x3 x 2 x3

= + + x + − x2 + x

3 2 −1 3 0

1

1 1 1

= − − + − 1 + − 1 + 1

3 2 3 0

7

= sq. units

6

Maths / Areas and Volumes

LOCUS 11

Example – 11

y = x 2 , y = 2 − x 2 and y = 2,

Solution: The required area is sketched below

y

2

y = |2-x |

2

y=x

x

0 1 2 2

Fig - 12

The required area can be evaluated as follows:

∫ ( x − (2 − x )) dx + ∫ (2 − ( x )

2 2

A= 2 2 2

− 2 ) dx

1 2

2 2

2 x3 x3

= − 2x + 4x −

3 1 3 2

20 − 12 2

= sq.units (verify the calculations)

3

Example – 12

A curve y = f ( x ) passes through the point P (1, 1) . The normal to the curve at P is a ( y − 1) + ( x − 1) = 0 . If the

slope of the tangent at any point on the curve is proportional to the ordinate of that point, determine the equation

of the curve. Hence obtain the area bounded by the y-axis, the curve and the normal to the curve at P.

Solution: The slope of the given normal is obvious from the expression:

y −1 1

=−

x −1 a

LOCUS 12

1

⇒ mN = −

a

⇒ mT = a

dy

⇒ =a

dx P

dy dy

It is given that ∝y ⇒ = ky

dx dx

dy

Since = a ⇒ k =a

dx (1.1)

Thus,

dy

= ay

dx

dy

⇒ = adx

y

⇒ ln y = ax + ln C (we took the constant of integration as ln C instead

of C so that the final expression for y is simpler)

⇒ y = Ceax

Since this curve passes through (1, 1),

1 = Ce a.1

⇒ C = e− a

Thus, the equation of the curve is

y = e a ( x −1)

Let us now proceed to evaluate the bounded area, which is sketched below:

a(x-1)

The curve y=e

1 p

-a

e The normal to the curve at P

x

1

Fig - 13

1

y = 1 + (1 − x )

a

LOCUS 13

1

1

A = ∫ 1 + (1 − x) − e a ( x −1) dx

0

a

1

x x 2 e a ( x −1)

=x+ − −

a 2a a 0

1 1 1 e

−a

= 1 + − − −−

a 2a a a

1 1

= 1 − + a sq. units

2a ae

Example – 13

2x , x ≤ 1

f ( x) = 2

x + ax + b , x > 1

Find the area of the region in the third quadrant bounded by the curves x = −2 y 2 and y = f ( x ) lying to the left of

the line 8 x + 1 = 0 .

Solution: We can use the fact that f ( x ) is continuous to determine the constants a and b. The critical points are

x = –1 and x = 1.

x =1

lim f ( x ) = f ( −1)

x →−1–

⇒ 1 − a + b = −2

⇒ a −b = 3 ...(1)

x = −1

lim f ( x ) = f (1)

x →1+

⇒ 1+ a + b = 2

⇒ a +b =1 ...(2)

From (1) and (2), a = 2 and b = −1 .

Thus,

2x , x ≤ 1

f ( x) = 2

x + 2 x − 1 , x > 1

LOCUS 14

We now proceed to sketch the bounded region that has been described in the question.

intersection points very

2y2=-x

carefully and how they are

obtained. The function f(x)

-2 -1 -1/8 0 changes its definition

x

-¼ at x = -1 so we have to split

the area we need to evaluate

-1 accordingly.

(-2, -1)

-2

2

y=x +2x-1

Fig - 14

−1

−x −1/ 8

− ( x 2 + 2 x − 1) dx + ∫ − − 2 x dx

x

A = ∫

−2

2 −1

2

−1 −1/ 8

2 x3 − 2

= − (− x)3/ 2 − + x 2 − x + (− x)3/ 2 − x 2

3 3 −2 3 −1

2 5 10 − 2 1 1

= − (1 − 23/ 2 ) − − + 3/ 2 − 1 − − 1

3 3 3 3 8 64

2 4 5 1 2 1

=− + + − + − +1

3 3 3 48 3 64

1 1

=− −

48 64

7

= 4−

192

761

= sq. units

192

Example – 14

In what ratio does the x-axis divide the area of the region bounded by the parabola y = 4 x − x 2 and y = x 2 − x ?

LOCUS 15

Solution: The two parabolas and the region they bound have been sketched below:

y

x2 - x

4

15/4 We need to

evaluate A1

A2

A1 The intersection of

the curves can be evaluated

by equating the equation

of the curves, i.e

x 2 2

4x - x = x - x

0 1 2 5/2 4

A2 5

4x-x

2 2

Fig - 15

The total area A1 + A2 can be evaluated as the area of the region bounded between the two curves:

5/2

A1 + A2 = ∫ {(4 x − x ) − ( x 2 − x )} dx

2

0

5/2

= ∫ (5 x − 2 x

2

) dx

0

5/ 2

5 x 2 2 x3

= −

2 3 0

125 125

= −

8 12

125

= sq. units

24

The area A2 is

1

A2 = ∫ (x − x ) dx

2

0

1

x3 x 2

= −

3 2 0

1

= sq. units

6

The area A1 is therefore

125 1

A1 = −

24 6

121

= sq. units

24

Thus, the required ratio is

A1 121

=

A2 4

LOCUS 16

Example – 15

Let C1 , C2 and C3 be the graphs of the functions y = x 2 , y = 2 x and y = f ( x) for x ∈ [0, 1] where f (0) = 0 .

For a point P on C1 , let the lines through P parallel to the axes meet C2 and C3 at Q and R respectively as

shown in the figure below. If for every position P on C1 , the area of the shaded regions OPQ and ORP are

equal, determine the function f ( x ) .

C1 : y = x

2 evaluated simply as:

x

2

(x -f(x))dx

0

1 P(1, 1) But to evaluated area OPQ,

2

P(t, t ) we will have to divide the

Q integration interval into

two parts OS and SX, i.e.,

the area OPQ would be:

z t

2 2 2

(2x - x ) dx + (t - x ) dx

0 z

X where z is the x- coordinate

x

R 1

2

O S of S and equals t /2. A better

more straightforward approach is

C3 : f(x) described in the solution

Fig - 16

Soulution:

To evaluate area OPQ , we could follow the approach described above, that is by dividing the integration interval

OX into OS and SX. By this way,

z t

area OPQ = ∫ ( 2 x − x ) dx + ∫ (t 2 − x 2 ) dx

2

0 z

z t

x2 x3 x3 t2

= − + t2x − where z =

2 3 0 3 z z

t4 t6 t 2 t3 t6

= − + t2 t − − −

8 24 2 3 24

2t 3 t 4

= −

3 4

However this area can be more easily evaluated by just considering the inverse of the functions representing

C1 and C2 and integrating with respect to y. (This means that you view the figure above from left to right inside of

the usual top to bottom.) That is, we take y as the integration variable. y will vary from 0 to t 2 (the y -co-ordinate

of P). The equations of the curves C1 and C2 with respect to the y-axis will just be the inverse of the original

y

equations i.e. C1y = y and C2 y = .

2

Maths / Areas and Volumes

LOCUS 17

Thus,

t2

y

area OPQ = ∫ y − dy

0 2

t2

2y 3/ 2

y

2

= −

3 4 0

2t 3 t 4

= −

3 4

We see that doing the calculation this way given us the result more quickly because we did not have to divide the

integration interval into two sub-intervals as we had to do when we integrated w.r.t x.

The area ORP can be easily evaluated (w.r.t the variable x):

t

area ORP = ∫ ( x 2 − f ( x ) ) dx

0

t t

x3

3 0 ∫0

= − f ( x )dx

t

t3

3 ∫0

= − f ( x) dx

t

2t 3 t 4 t 3

− = − ∫ f ( x ) dx

3 4 3 0

t

t4 t3

⇒ ∫

0

f ( x) dx = −

4 3

Differentiating both sides w.r.t t, we obtain our required function :

f (t ) = t 3 − t 2

Thus, the curve C3 is given by f ( x) = x3 − x 2 in [0, 1] .

Example – 16

Consider a square with vertices at (1, 1), ( −1, 1), ( −1, − 1) and (1, − 1) . Let S be the region consisting of all points

inside the square which are nearer to the origin than to any edge. Sketch the region S and find its area.

Solution: The important part in this question is to correctly plot the required region. Once that is done, the area

is more or less straight forward to evaluate. Consider the square ABCD described in the question and

any point P inside it satisfying the given constraint.

LOCUS 18

y

B(-1, 1) A(1, 1)

P constraint, i.e,

d(P, O) < d(P, AB)

x d(P, O) < d(P, BC)

O

d(P, O) < d(P, CD)

d(P, O) < d(P, AD)

Fig - 17

Consider the point P and any one edge of the square, say AD. Suppose P was equidistant from O and

AD (or its extended line). Where could it possible lie? What is the locus of a point which moves so that

its distance from a fixed point is equal to its distance from a fixed line? A parabola.

Since d ( P, O ) < d ( P , AD ), the point P will lie not on the parabola but in one of the regions that the

parabola divides the plane into:

y

Any point on this curve is

equidistant from O and AD (extended).

A(1, 1) The parabola divides the plane into

Any point here is two regions. The region containing

closer to O than to the origin is the is that of all points

AD (extended) which are closer to O than to AD

(or the extended line of AD).

The equation of this parabola is

(using the definition of a parabola):

x 2 2

x +y = (x - 1)

2

O ½ 1

⇒ x +y = (x - 1)

2 2 2

at y = ± 1 and the x-axis

at x = ½

Any point here

D(1, -1)

-1 is closer to AD

(extended) than O.

Fig - 18

We will now have to draw such a parabola for each edge of the square since we want that each edge

should satisfy the given constraint, that is any point in the required region should lie closer to the origin

than to any edge:

LOCUS 19

C3

X

M

The shaded region is the

region in which any point

x is closer to the origin

O N Y

than to any edge

C4

C1 C2

Fig - 19

Verify that the equations of the other three bounding parabolas (apart from C1 ) are :

C2 : y 2 = 2 x + 1

C3 : x 2 = 2 y + 1

C4 : x 2 = −2 y + 1

To calculate the required area, let us calculate the shaded region in the first quadrant. We can divide

this area into two parts: area (region OXMN) and area (region NMY).

We first need the intersection point M and its x-co-ordinate N. This can be found out by equating the

equations of the curves C1 and C4 . However, we may directly observe that the point M lies

symmetrically w.r.t the x-axis and the y-axis, and therefore, it will have equal x and y co-ordinates. We

may now use this fact in either of the two equations C1 or C4 :

C4 : x 2 + 2 y − 1 = 0

⇒ x2 + 2 x − 1 = 0 (∵ x = y for M )

⇒ x = 2 −1 ( we want x > 0 )

Thus, the point M is ( 2 − 1, 2 − 1 . )

We now proceed to evaluate the area.

2 −1

1 − x2 1

A1st quad = ∫

2

dx + ∫ 1 − 2 x dx

0 2 −1 ↑

↑ Equation of C1

Equation of C4

LOCUS 20

2 −1

x x3

( )

1

1

= − − (1 − 2 x )

3/ 2

2 6 0 3 2 −1

( 2 − 1 1 )

3

1

= 2 −1 −

2 3 (

− 3 0− 3− 2 2

( )

3/ 2

)

( )−( ) +( )

3 3

2 −1 2 −1 2 −1

=

2 6 3

=

( )(

2 −1 3 − 2 )

3

Thus, the total required area is

A=

4 ( )(

2 −1 3 − 2 )

3

Example – 17

( )

Let O (0, 0), A(2, 0) and B 1, 1/ 3 be the vertices of a triangle. Let R be the region consisting of all those points

P inside ∆OAB which satisfy d ( P, OA) ≤ min {d ( P, OB ) , d ( P, AB )}, where d denotes the distance from the

point to the corresponding line. Sketch the area R and find its area.

Solution: Like the last question, this question too is more about correctly plotting the required region rather than

calculating area. (In fact, we need not even use definite integration here since we’ll see that the region

R is bounded by straight lines).

Consider the triangle OAB as described in the question:

Consider a point P

which is closer to OA

than to either of OB

B(1, 1 3) or AB.

P

x

0 A(2, 0)

Fig - 20

LOCUS 21

Suppose that P was equidistant from OA and OB. Then P would lie on the angle bisector of ∠ AOB.

Since P is actually closer to OA, it lies ‘below’ the angle bisector, as shown in the next figure:

y

B to OB (or its extended line) than

OA (extended)

from OA (extended) and OB (extended).

30º

15º

x

0 A

Any point in this region is closer to OA (extended) than

to OB(extended). This is the region we are looking for.

Fig - 21

Since P also satisfies the constraint that it lies closer to OA than to AB, P will lie below the angle

bisector of ∠ OAB too. Thus, P lies in the following region

y

B(1, 1 ) P can lie

3

anywhere

Angle bisector Angle bisector

inside the

of ∠OAB of ∠AOB shaded region

X

15º 15º x

0 A(2, 0)

Fig - 22

It is a matter of simple geometry now to evaluate the required area which is the area ∆ OAX . Verify

3 −1

that this is sq. units.

3 +1

Example – 18

Let b ≠ 0 and for j = 0, 1, 2 ......, n, let Sj be the area of the region bounded by the y-axis and the curve

xeay = sin by, jπ ≤ y ≤ ( j + 1)π . Show that S0, S1, S2 ......, Sn are in G.P.

b b

Also, find their sum for a = –1 and b = π .

x = e−ay sin by

If you recall our discussions on plotting graphs, you will realise that the graph (of x versus y) will be

oscillatory in nature, bounded by an envelope given by e−ay . The zeroes of this function are given by.

by = jπ j∈"

jπ

⇒ y= j ∈"

b

Maths / Areas and Volumes

LOCUS 22

represents S0, S1, S2 The envelope of the function

and so on.(Thus

Sj is defined for S0

2π S2 3π

jπ y j + π ) b b y

b 0 π

b b S1

S3

Fig - 23

( j +1)π / b

Sj = ∫ e −ay sin by dy

jπ / b

( j +1)π

e − ay

b

we used integration by parts to evaluate

= 2 2 ( −a sin by − b cos by )

a + b jπ the indefinite integral; verify this step

b

− a ( j +1)π − a jπ

e b j +1 e

b

j

= 2 2 × ( −b ) × ( −1) − 2 2 × ( −b ) × ( −1)

a +b a +b

be − jaπ / b

=

a 2 + b2

(

1 + e−aπ / b ) .... (1)

Thus,

S j +1

= e −aπ / b which is a constant

Sj

For a = −1 and b = π , we have from (1):

π

Sj = e j (1 + e )

1+ π 2

n

π (1 + e ) e n +1 − 1

⇒ ∑Sj =

j =0 π 2 +1 e −1

LOCUS 23

Example – 19

Find the lateral surface area and the volume of a cone of height H and base radius R.

Solution: This question is an easy application question of definite integration. Let us evaluate the surface area

first.

Take a variable x as

depicted along the slant of the cone.

H We analyse an infinitesmally small

strip of width dx along this slant now.

Magnify

R

Fig - 24

r the cone that

dx

r R

x = L

where L is the slant

height of the cone.

( L= R2 + H2 )

The surface area of this

elemental strip is 2πrdx

Fig - 25

L

Lateral surface area A = ∫ 2π rdx

0

2π R

L

L ∫0

= xdx

= π RL

To calculate the volume, we again use the elemental strip analysed in Fig -25. The thickness of this

H

strip is not dx but dx cos θ where cos θ =

L

LOCUS 24

θ

dx

Actual thickness = dx cos θ

Fig 26

The volume of this strip is therefore π r 2dx cos θ . Thus, the total volume is

L

V = ∫ π r 2dx cos θ

0

π R2

L

= ⋅ ∫ x dx

2

L L2 0

π R 2 H L3

= ⋅

L3 3

1

= π R2H

3

Example – 20

x2 y 2

An ellipse 2 + 2 = 1 (where a > b) is rotated about its major axis. Find the volume generated.

a b

Solution: An ellipse, when rotated about its major axis, will form an “egg-shaped” volume. (It won’t be exactly

egg-shaped though! It will be symmetric about its centre plane (a plane through the line y = 0

perpendicular to the x - y plane) while an egg is not exactly symmetric in this way).

rotating the ellipse about

its major axis

b

x

a

Fig - 27

LOCUS 25

y

dx

y

x

x

Fig - 27

dV = π y 2 dx

2x2

= π b 1 − 2 dx

a

Thus, the volume generated of the right half would be :

2

x2

a a

Vhalf = ∫ dV = ∫ π b 1 − 2 dx

0 0 a

a

2 x3

= πb x − 2

3a

0

a

= π b2 a −

3

2π ab 2

=

3

The total volume is therefore

4π ab 2

V = 2 × Vhalf =

3

Now, try calculating the surface area of this volume generated.

LOCUS 26

TRY YOURSELF - 1

x2 y 2

Q. 1 Show that the area of the ellipse + = 1 is π ab .

a 2 b2

2π 2π

0 0

Q. 4 {

Prove that the area enclosed by the region R ≡ ( x, y) : y ≤ x ≤ y is

2

} 1

3

.

x2 y 2

Q. 5 Find the surface area of the volume generated by rotating the ellipse + = 1 (a > b) about its major

a 2 b2

axis. Hence find the surface area of a sphere of radius r.

- iit maths - polynomials and quadratics, integration, circleUploaded byParas Thakur
- IIT JEE FIIT JEE STUDY MATERIALUploaded byVishalRaman
- Atomic+Structrure+finalUploaded byapi-3728411
- AIEEE Class XII 03 Maths Solution of TriangleUploaded byVishalRaman
- iit maths- trigonometry, functions, graphs, differentiation etcUploaded byParas Thakur
- Co Ordinate GeometryUploaded byvharithsa
- AIEEE Class XII 01 Phy ElectrostaticsUploaded bysatish jadhav
- Basics of Chemistry - IUploaded byVishalRaman
- iit maths - straight lines, functions and graphs and differentiationUploaded byParas Thakur
- OscillationUploaded byApex Institute
- AIEEE Class XI Phy Laws of MotionUploaded bysatish jadhav
- IIT Maths Trigonometric RatioUploaded byRavi Assnani
- Jr Phy M2 Newtons Law of MotionUploaded byMOHAMMED ASIF
- Teaching Notes 1Uploaded byMOHAMMED ASIF
- Continuity & DifferentiabilityUploaded byVishalRaman
- Maths+questUploaded byapi-3728411
- IIT Class XI Maths CircleUploaded byArut Selvan
- Application of Derivatives 13.08.07Uploaded byVishalRaman
- 11-Iit-jee Maths Paper IIUploaded byJeetu Knojiya
- Straight+Lines+OKUploaded byapi-3728411
- IIT-JEE 2010 Model Test Sample Question PaperUploaded byEducation Master
- Application of Derivative ASSIGNMENT FOR IIT-JEEUploaded byApex Institute
- Class XI Maths Limits and Derivatives 1Uploaded bysahibsinghhh
- 6. Magnetic Field due to a Current by Sanjay PandeyUploaded bySanjay Pandey
- FieldsUploaded bySanjay Pandey
- Vectors+and+3-D+GeometryUploaded byapi-3728411
- iit maths - vectors, exponentials and logarithms and wave functionsUploaded byParas Thakur
- IIT Class XII Maths ProbabilityUploaded byGeetha Balakrishnan
- Unit 1.Newton's LawsUploaded bySanjay Pandey
- 25- Permutations and CombinationsUploaded byNagendra Kumar

- FrictionUploaded byVishalRaman
- Capacitor QbankUploaded byVishalRaman
- Basics of Chemistry - IUploaded byVishalRaman
- Alkanes_ Alkenes_ Alkynes _dpp 2Uploaded byVishalRaman
- Alkyl Halide & Org a No Metallic Comp. DPP - 1Uploaded byVishalRaman
- Application of Derivatives 13.08.07Uploaded byVishalRaman
- Alkyl Halide & Org a No Metallic Comp. DPP - 4Uploaded byVishalRaman
- AIEEE Class XII 01 Phy ElectrostaticsUploaded bysatish jadhav
- Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes ObjectiveUploaded byVishalRaman
- Alkyl Halide & Org a No Metallic Comp. DPP - 3Uploaded byVishalRaman
- Alkyl Halide & Org a No Metallic Comp. DPP - 2Uploaded byVishalRaman
- AIEEE Class XI Chem Structure of AtomUploaded byVishalRaman
- AIEEE Class XI Phy Laws of MotionUploaded bysatish jadhav
- Alkanes_ Alkenes_ Alkynes _dpp 3Uploaded byVishalRaman
- Aldehydes & Ketones DPP 5Uploaded byVishalRaman
- Aldehydes & Ketones DPP 4Uploaded byVishalRaman
- Aldehydes & Ketones DPP 3Uploaded byVishalRaman
- Class XI Maths Limits and Derivatives 1Uploaded bysahibsinghhh
- CHAPTER 1- FUNCTIONSUploaded byWan Shahirah

- Fourier Series Beku 2431 Laboratory ReportUploaded byAzrul Nizar
- Bisection Method Algo & ExamplesUploaded byZunAib Ali
- Simplify Improper 1Uploaded byChietrebor Joy
- algebra12ndsemesterUploaded byapi-262621710
- Notes MA1104Uploaded byMargarita Palacios Vargas
- Inverse Laplace DiffUploaded byAmit Thakur
- Taylor Series NotesUploaded byOscar
- Undergraduate Competitions Putnam 2000 23Uploaded byC.W. Wang
- weatherwax_grewal_solutions.pdfUploaded bythomasfebyanto
- Dividing DecimalUploaded byElvin Nobleza Palao
- Extras.pdfUploaded byKamrun Nahar
- Math Test Item FSC Part 2Uploaded byFakhar Abbas
- Saharon Shelah and Zoran Spasojevic- Cardinal Invariants bκ and tκUploaded byGlomse
- A First Course in Complex AnalysisUploaded bysxydxt
- mate4020 hw3Uploaded byCarlos
- Lecture CO1 Math 21-1Uploaded byKezter Fajutagana
- Unit 1Uploaded bycooooool1927
- Sean Mauch - Introduction to Methods of Applied MathematicsUploaded byItamir Sartori
- Calculus of Variations.pdfUploaded byEdgar R. Mondragón
- Lecture Statics 271 Spring 2016-1-13Uploaded byDavidVizcaíno
- Algebra 2 Study GuideUploaded byAndreiNicolaiPacheco
- CEET416 - Compound CurveUploaded bypipeds
- 12 Chapter Test (Exponent and Radical)Uploaded byDanilo de Mesa
- Crystals, Formal Groups and Period Mappings (Ando, Dieudonné)Uploaded byP_A_I
- chap4 example.pdfUploaded byAntriksh Singh
- Advanced Math Refresher SetUploaded byGracielle Nebres
- ExponentsUploaded byDave
- Integral FormulasUploaded bysantosh_raju
- Selected Problems from Royden 7.3Uploaded byvinhkhale
- 4037_w14_qp_13Uploaded bySherlock Wesley Conan

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.