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LOCUS 1

Areas and volumes

This is the chapter where we will actually put our knowledge of (definite) integration to practical use. We will
calculate areas under curves, areas bounded by curves, volumes under surfaces, volumes bounded by surfaces,
etc. We will mostly be concerned with areas; however, we will delve a little into calculating volumes for the sake of
completeness.
Calculating areas and volumes is totally about calculating definite integrals and involves no new concepts. You are
advised to read the chapter on “Definite Integration” again if you are not very comfortable in evaluating integrals.
We will now start with such calculations through actual examples.

Example – 1

Find the area bounded between the curves y = x2 and y = x.


Solution: The bounded area is depicted in the figure below:

y
2
y=x
y=x The shaded area represents
the area A bounded between
1 the two curves

x
1

Fig - 1

Thus,
1

A = ∫ ( x − x 2 ) dx
0

1
 x2 x3  1
=  −  = sq units
 2 3 0 6

Example – 2

Find the area of the region bounded between x = 0, x = 2, y = 2x and y = 2x – x2.

Maths / Areas and Volumes


LOCUS 2

Solution: The bounded region has been sketched below. Verify for yourself the validity of the figure drawn:
y
x
y=2
4
The shaded region represents
the area A bounded between
the given curves

x
0 1 2
2
y = 2x - x

Fig - 2
We have,

( )
2

A = ∫ 2 x − ( 2 x − x 2 ) dx
0
2
 2x x3 
= − x2 + 
 ln 2 3 0

4 8 1
= −4+ −
ln 2 3 ln 2
 3 4
=  −  sq. units
 ln 3 

Example – 3
ln x
Compute the area of the region bounded between the curves y = ex ln x and y =
ex
Solution: If you’ve read the chapter on “Applications of Derivatives” properly, you should not have much of
a problem plotting the graph of the two functions:
y
ln x
y = ex The point of intersection
is determined by equating
the equation of the two
x curves, i.e,
1/e 1 ln x
ex ln x =
ex
⇒ ln x = 0 or e2x2=1
1
⇒ x = 1 or x = e

The shaded area represents


the area A between two curves
-1
Fig - 3

Maths / Areas and Volumes


LOCUS 3

From the figure, it is clear that

 ln x 
1

A=
1/ e
∫ ex
− ex ln x  dx

1 1
ln x
= ∫ dx − e ∫ x ln xdx
1/ e
ex 1/ e

 1 0   x 2 
1 1
1
=  ∫ tdt  − e  ln x − ∫ x dx 
 e −1   2 1/ e
2 1/ e 
−1  1 1  1 
= − e  2 − 1 − 2  
2e  2e 4  e  
1 1 e  e2 − 1 
=− − +  2 
2e 2 e 4  e 
1 e2 − 1
=− +
e 4e
e −5
2
= sq. units
4e
Example – 4
A curve y = f(x) passes through the origin. Through any point (x, y) on the curve, lines are drawn parallel to the
co-ordinate axis. If the curve divides the area formed by these lines and the co-ordinate axes in the ratio m:n, find
the equation of the curve.
Solution: The situation described in the question is graphically depicted below:

y = f(x) It is given that


A1 m
=
y A2 n
(x, y)
Note that A1 + A2 = xy
x

and A 2 = ydx
A1 0

A2

Fig - 4
From the given constraint, we have
x
xy − ∫ y dx
m
x
0
=
n
∫ y dx
0

x
n
⇒ ∫ y dx = m + n ( xy )
0

Maths / Areas and Volumes


LOCUS 4

Differentiating both sides with respect to x, we obtain


n  xdy 
y=  + y
m + n  dx 
dy
⇒ my = nx
dx
dy m dx
⇒ =
y n x
m
⇒ ln y = ln x + C
n
m
= ln x + ln k where k is a constant
n
⇒ y = kx m / n (Note that this passes through the origin)

Example – 5

Find the area of the region containing the points whose (x, y) co-ordinates satisfy

1 −x
y+ ≤e
2
Solution: If you observe the given relation carefully, you will realise that whatever region we obtain will be
symmetric about both the x-axis and y-axis.
This means that we only need to plot the region in the first quadrant. The regions in the other quadrants
can then automatically be obtained by reflecting symmetrically the region in the first quadrant into all
the other quadrants.
So let us now consider just the first quadrant. In this quadrant, both x, y > 0, so that the given relation
can be simply written as

1
y+ ≤ e− x
2
1
⇒ y ≤ e− x −
2
We now plot this region for x > 0, y > 0:
y

The shaded region


1/2 -x 1
represents y < e –
2

y=e-x – 1
2

x
ln 2
Fig - 5
Maths / Areas and Volumes
LOCUS 5

Our required region is therefore,


y

1/2 The shaded region


represents
y <e
- x
– 1
2

x
- ln2 ln2

-1/2

Fig - 6

The required area is:

 1
ln 2

A = 4 ∫  e − x −  dx
0 
2

ln 2
 x
= 4  −e − x − 
 20

1 1 
= 4  − ln 2 
2 2 

= 2 (1 − ln 2 ) sq. units

Example – 6

Find all the possible values of b > 0 so that the area of the bounded region enclosed between the parabolas
x2
y = x − bx and y =
2
is maximum.
b

Solution: The first parabola has its zeroes given by

y = x − bx 2 = 0

1
⇒ x = 0,
b

Maths / Areas and Volumes


LOCUS 6

This is a downwards facing parabola. The other parabola has its vertex at the origin.
y 2
x
y=
b
The point of intersection
P is given by:
2
x
P = x – bx2
b
b
y = x – bx2 x= 2
1+b

y=
b
x 2 2
0 1/b (1+b )

Fig - 7

The figure above tells us how to calculate the co-ordinates of the intersection point P:

 
b b
P≡ , 
 1 + b 2 (1 + b 2 )2 
 
Now, the bounded area A is given by:
b
1+ b 2
 x2 
A= ∫  x − bx −  dx
2

0  b 
b
 x2 1  1   1+b
2

=  −  b +  x3 
 2 3 b 0

b2 1 b2 + 1 b3
= − ⋅
2 (1 + b 2 ) (1 + b2 )
2 3
3 b

b2
=
6 (1 + b 2 )
2

We now maximize A (or more conveniently, and equivalently, 6A ):


b
A1 = 6 A =
1 + b2
dA1 (1 + b ) − 2b
2 2

⇒ =
db (1 + b2 )
1 − b2
=
1 + b2
dA1
A1 is maximum when = 0 i.e, b = 1 (b is > 0 so it cannot be –1)
db

Thus, the bounded area is maximum when b = 1

Maths / Areas and Volumes


LOCUS 7

Example – 7

1
Find the area of the region bounded by x = , x = 2, y = ln x and y = 2x.
2

Solution: The region of interest is very straightforward to plot:

The shaded area represents


the region whose area
we need to determine

x
½ 1 2

Fig - 8

The required area is


2

A= ∫ (2 − ln x ) dx
x

1/ 2

2
 2x 
= − x ln x + x 
 ln 2  1/ 2

 4− 2 5 3
=  − ln 2 +  sq. units
 ln 2 2 2

Example – 8

{ }
Let f ( x ) = max x , (1 − x ) , 2 x (1 − x ) . Determine the area of the region bounded by the curve
2 2

y = f ( x ) , x − axis, x = 0 and x = 1.

Maths / Areas and Volumes


LOCUS 8

Solution: The technique to plot the curve for f(x) has been outlined in the unit on Functions. We plot all the three
curves x 2 , (1 − x ) and 2 x (1 − x ) on the same axes, scan the x-axis from left to right and at every
2

point, pick out that graph which lies uppermost of all the three graphs. In the figure below, the heavyset
curve is the curve for f(x):

y
2
y=x y = (1 – x)
2

The intersection point


A is given by
2
1 (1 - x) = 2x (1 - x)
1
½ 3
A B The intersection point
¼
x B is given by
2
0 ½ 1 x = 2x (1 - x)
2
3

y = x (1 – x)

Fig - 9
We can evaluate the required area, as is clear from the figure above, by dividing the integration interval
[0, 1] into three sub-intervals:
1/ 3 2/3 1

A= ∫ (1 − x ) dx + ∫ 2 x (1 − x ) dx + ∫ x dx
2 2

0 1/ 3 2/3

19 13 19
= + + (verify)
18 81 81

51
=
81

17
=
27

Example – 9

A square has its vertices at (1, 1), (1, –1), (–1, –1) and (–1, 1). Four circles of radius 2 are drawn, one centred
at each vertex of the square. Find the area common to these four circles.

Maths / Areas and Volumes


LOCUS 9

y
Solution:

(-1, 1) (1, 1)
O
Each circle has
R been partially drawn.
P x The area common to
there four circles has
bee shaded.
S

(-1, -1) (1, -1)

Fig - 10

Let us evaluate the area in the first quadrant. For that, we need to evaluate the x-co-ordinate of P.
Notice that the circle centred at (–1, –1) is the one which intersects the x-axis at P. The equation of
this circle is given by:

( x + 1) + ( y + 1) =4
2 2
...(1)
When y = 0, x = 3 − 1

Thus, P≡ ( 3 − 1, 0 )
The area in the first quadrant is now:

( )  we used (1) to write down the equation 


3−1
A1st = ∫ 4 − ( x + 1) − 1 dx
2
 
0 of the circle in an explicit form 
3 −1
 1 4 −1  x + 1  
=  − x + ( x + 1) 4 − ( x + 1) + sin 
2
 (verify this step)
 2 2  2  0
 3 3  3 1
=  − 3 + 1 + + 2sin −1  −  + 2sin −1 
 2 2   2 2
π
= − 3
3
Therefore, the total bounded area is
A = 4 × A1st
π 
= 4  − 3  sq. units
3 

Maths / Areas and Volumes


LOCUS 10

Example – 10

Find the area of the region bounded by x + 1 = 0, y = 0, y = x2 + x + 1 and the tangent to y = x 2 + x + 1 at


x=1
Solution: Let us first determine the equation of the said tangent:
dy
= ( 2 x + 1) x =1
dx x =1
=3
Also, when x = 1, y = 3
The required equation is
y − 3 = 3 ( x − 1)
⇒ y = 3x .

3
The shaded area
represents the bounded
region whose area we
wish to determine

The curve
2
y=x +x+1 1
¾

x
-1 -½ 0 1

The tangent y = 3x
Fig - 11

From the figure above, it should be clear that the area can be calculated as described below:

{( x }
0 1

A= ∫ (x + x + 1) dx + ∫ + x + 1) − 3 x dx
2 2

−1 0
0 1
 x3 x 2   x3 
=  + + x  +  − x2 + x 
 3 2  −1  3 0
1
 1 1  1 
= −  − + − 1 +  − 1 + 1
 3 2  3 0
7
= sq. units
6
Maths / Areas and Volumes
LOCUS 11

Example – 11

Find the area of the region bounded by the curves

y = x 2 , y = 2 − x 2 and y = 2,

which lies to the right of the line x = 1.


Solution: The required area is sketched below
y

2
y = |2-x |

2
y=x

x
0 1 2 2

Fig - 12
The required area can be evaluated as follows:

∫ ( x − (2 − x )) dx + ∫ (2 − ( x )
2 2
A= 2 2 2
− 2 ) dx
1 2

2 2
 2 x3   x3 
= − 2x  +  4x − 
 3 1  3 2

20 − 12 2
= sq.units (verify the calculations)
3

Example – 12

A curve y = f ( x ) passes through the point P (1, 1) . The normal to the curve at P is a ( y − 1) + ( x − 1) = 0 . If the
slope of the tangent at any point on the curve is proportional to the ordinate of that point, determine the equation
of the curve. Hence obtain the area bounded by the y-axis, the curve and the normal to the curve at P.

Solution: The slope of the given normal is obvious from the expression:
y −1 1
=−
x −1 a

Maths / Areas and Volumes


LOCUS 12

1
⇒ mN = −
a
⇒ mT = a

 dy 
⇒   =a
 dx  P
dy dy
It is given that ∝y ⇒ = ky
dx dx
dy
Since = a ⇒ k =a
dx (1.1)
Thus,
dy
= ay
dx
dy
⇒ = adx
y
⇒ ln y = ax + ln C (we took the constant of integration as ln C instead
of C so that the final expression for y is simpler)
⇒ y = Ceax
Since this curve passes through (1, 1),
1 = Ce a.1
⇒ C = e− a
Thus, the equation of the curve is
y = e a ( x −1)
Let us now proceed to evaluate the bounded area, which is sketched below:

a(x-1)
The curve y=e

1 p

-a
e The normal to the curve at P

x
1

Fig - 13

The equation of the normal has already been provided:


1
y = 1 + (1 − x )
a

Maths / Areas and Volumes


LOCUS 13

Thus, the required area is:


 1  
1
A = ∫ 1 + (1 − x)  − e a ( x −1)  dx
0   
a
1
 x x 2 e a ( x −1) 
=x+ − − 
 a 2a a 0

 1 1 1  e 
−a
= 1 + − − −− 
 a 2a a   a 

 1 1 
= 1 − + a  sq. units
 2a ae 

Example – 13

Let f ( x ) be a continuous function given by

 2x , x ≤ 1
f ( x) =  2 
 x + ax + b , x > 1
Find the area of the region in the third quadrant bounded by the curves x = −2 y 2 and y = f ( x ) lying to the left of
the line 8 x + 1 = 0 .

Solution: We can use the fact that f ( x ) is continuous to determine the constants a and b. The critical points are
x = –1 and x = 1.

x =1
lim f ( x ) = f ( −1)
x →−1–

⇒ 1 − a + b = −2
⇒ a −b = 3 ...(1)
x = −1
lim f ( x ) = f (1)
x →1+

⇒ 1+ a + b = 2
⇒ a +b =1 ...(2)
From (1) and (2), a = 2 and b = −1 .
Thus,
 2x , x ≤ 1
f ( x) =  2 
 x + 2 x − 1 , x > 1

Maths / Areas and Volumes


LOCUS 14

We now proceed to sketch the bounded region that has been described in the question.

x= -1/8 y = 2x Observe all the


intersection points very
2y2=-x
carefully and how they are
obtained. The function f(x)
-2 -1 -1/8 0 changes its definition
x
-¼ at x = -1 so we have to split
the area we need to evaluate
-1 accordingly.
(-2, -1)

-2
2
y=x +2x-1

Fig - 14

The required area is:


−1
 −x  −1/ 8
 
− ( x 2 + 2 x − 1)  dx + ∫  − − 2 x  dx
x
A = ∫ 
−2 
2  −1 
2 
−1 −1/ 8
 2  x3    − 2 
= − (− x)3/ 2 −  + x 2 − x   +  (− x)3/ 2 − x 2 
 3  3   −2  3  −1

 2  5 10    − 2  1   1  
= − (1 − 23/ 2 ) −  −   +   3/ 2 − 1 −  − 1 
 3  3 3    3  8   64  

2 4 5 1 2 1
=− + + − + − +1
3 3 3 48 3 64
1 1
=− −
48 64
7
= 4−
192
761
= sq. units
192

Example – 14

In what ratio does the x-axis divide the area of the region bounded by the parabola y = 4 x − x 2 and y = x 2 − x ?

Maths / Areas and Volumes


LOCUS 15

Solution: The two parabolas and the region they bound have been sketched below:
y
x2 - x

4
15/4 We need to
evaluate A1
A2
A1 The intersection of
the curves can be evaluated
by equating the equation
of the curves, i.e
x 2 2
4x - x = x - x
0 1 2 5/2 4
A2 5
4x-x
2 2

Fig - 15

The total area A1 + A2 can be evaluated as the area of the region bounded between the two curves:
5/2

A1 + A2 = ∫ {(4 x − x ) − ( x 2 − x )} dx
2

0
5/2

= ∫ (5 x − 2 x
2
) dx
0
5/ 2
 5 x 2 2 x3 
= − 
 2 3 0
125 125
= −
8 12
125
= sq. units
24
The area A2 is
1
A2 = ∫ (x − x ) dx
2

0
1
 x3 x 2 
= − 
 3 2 0
1
= sq. units
6
The area A1 is therefore
125 1
A1 = −
24 6
121
= sq. units
24
Thus, the required ratio is
A1 121
=
A2 4

Maths / Areas and Volumes


LOCUS 16

Example – 15

Let C1 , C2 and C3 be the graphs of the functions y = x 2 , y = 2 x and y = f ( x) for x ∈ [0, 1] where f (0) = 0 .
For a point P on C1 , let the lines through P parallel to the axes meet C2 and C3 at Q and R respectively as
shown in the figure below. If for every position P on C1 , the area of the shaded regions OPQ and ORP are
equal, determine the function f ( x ) .

y C2 : y = 2x The area ORP can be


C1 : y = x
2 evaluated simply as:
x
2
(x -f(x))dx
0
1 P(1, 1) But to evaluated area OPQ,
2
P(t, t ) we will have to divide the
Q integration interval into
two parts OS and SX, i.e.,
the area OPQ would be:
z t
2 2 2
(2x - x ) dx + (t - x ) dx
0 z
X where z is the x- coordinate
x
R 1
2
O S of S and equals t /2. A better
more straightforward approach is
C3 : f(x) described in the solution

Fig - 16
Soulution:
To evaluate area OPQ , we could follow the approach described above, that is by dividing the integration interval
OX into OS and SX. By this way,
z t

area OPQ = ∫ ( 2 x − x ) dx + ∫ (t 2 − x 2 ) dx
2

0 z

z t
 x2 x3   x3   t2 
=  −  + t2x −   where z = 
 2 3 0  3 z  z

t4 t6  t 2   t3 t6 
= − + t2 t −  −  − 
8 24  2   3 24 

2t 3 t 4
= −
3 4

However this area can be more easily evaluated by just considering the inverse of the functions representing
C1 and C2 and integrating with respect to y. (This means that you view the figure above from left to right inside of
the usual top to bottom.) That is, we take y as the integration variable. y will vary from 0 to t 2 (the y -co-ordinate
of P). The equations of the curves C1 and C2 with respect to the y-axis will just be the inverse of the original
y
equations i.e. C1y = y and C2 y = .
2
Maths / Areas and Volumes
LOCUS 17

Thus,
t2
 y
area OPQ = ∫  y −  dy
0 2

t2
 2y 3/ 2
y 
2
= − 
 3 4 0

2t 3 t 4
= −
3 4

We see that doing the calculation this way given us the result more quickly because we did not have to divide the
integration interval into two sub-intervals as we had to do when we integrated w.r.t x.
The area ORP can be easily evaluated (w.r.t the variable x):
t

area ORP = ∫ ( x 2 − f ( x ) ) dx
0

t t
x3
3 0 ∫0
= − f ( x )dx

t
t3
3 ∫0
= − f ( x) dx

Since area OPQ = area ORP ∀ t ∈ [0, 1], we have


t
2t 3 t 4 t 3
− = − ∫ f ( x ) dx
3 4 3 0
t
t4 t3
⇒ ∫
0
f ( x) dx = −
4 3
Differentiating both sides w.r.t t, we obtain our required function :
f (t ) = t 3 − t 2
Thus, the curve C3 is given by f ( x) = x3 − x 2 in [0, 1] .

Example – 16

Consider a square with vertices at (1, 1), ( −1, 1), ( −1, − 1) and (1, − 1) . Let S be the region consisting of all points
inside the square which are nearer to the origin than to any edge. Sketch the region S and find its area.

Solution: The important part in this question is to correctly plot the required region. Once that is done, the area
is more or less straight forward to evaluate. Consider the square ABCD described in the question and
any point P inside it satisfying the given constraint.

Maths / Areas and Volumes


LOCUS 18
y

B(-1, 1) A(1, 1)

P satisfies the given


P constraint, i.e,
d(P, O) < d(P, AB)
x d(P, O) < d(P, BC)
O
d(P, O) < d(P, CD)
d(P, O) < d(P, AD)

C(-1, -1) D(1, -1)

Fig - 17

Consider the point P and any one edge of the square, say AD. Suppose P was equidistant from O and
AD (or its extended line). Where could it possible lie? What is the locus of a point which moves so that
its distance from a fixed point is equal to its distance from a fixed line? A parabola.

Since d ( P, O ) < d ( P , AD ), the point P will lie not on the parabola but in one of the regions that the
parabola divides the plane into:
y
Any point on this curve is
equidistant from O and AD (extended).
A(1, 1) The parabola divides the plane into
Any point here is two regions. The region containing
closer to O than to the origin is the is that of all points
AD (extended) which are closer to O than to AD
(or the extended line of AD).
The equation of this parabola is
(using the definition of a parabola):
x 2 2
x +y = (x - 1)
2
O ½ 1
⇒ x +y = (x - 1)
2 2 2

This crosses the y-axis


at y = ± 1 and the x-axis
at x = ½
Any point here
D(1, -1)
-1 is closer to AD
(extended) than O.
Fig - 18

We will now have to draw such a parabola for each edge of the square since we want that each edge
should satisfy the given constraint, that is any point in the required region should lie closer to the origin
than to any edge:

Maths / Areas and Volumes


LOCUS 19

(-1, -1) (1, 1)

C3
X
M
The shaded region is the
region in which any point
x is closer to the origin
O N Y
than to any edge

C4

(-1, 1) (1, -1)

C1 C2

Fig - 19
Verify that the equations of the other three bounding parabolas (apart from C1 ) are :

C2 : y 2 = 2 x + 1

C3 : x 2 = 2 y + 1

C4 : x 2 = −2 y + 1
To calculate the required area, let us calculate the shaded region in the first quadrant. We can divide
this area into two parts: area (region OXMN) and area (region NMY).
We first need the intersection point M and its x-co-ordinate N. This can be found out by equating the
equations of the curves C1 and C4 . However, we may directly observe that the point M lies
symmetrically w.r.t the x-axis and the y-axis, and therefore, it will have equal x and y co-ordinates. We
may now use this fact in either of the two equations C1 or C4 :

C4 : x 2 + 2 y − 1 = 0
⇒ x2 + 2 x − 1 = 0 (∵ x = y for M )

⇒ x = 2 −1 ( we want x > 0 )
Thus, the point M is ( 2 − 1, 2 − 1 . )
We now proceed to evaluate the area.
2 −1
 1 − x2  1
A1st quad = ∫ 
 2 
 dx + ∫ 1 − 2 x dx
0 2 −1 ↑
↑ Equation of C1
Equation of C4

Maths / Areas and Volumes


LOCUS 20

2 −1
 x x3 
( )
1
1
= −  − (1 − 2 x )
3/ 2

2 6 0 3 2 −1


( 2 − 1  1 )
3
1
=  2 −1 −
2 3 (
 − 3 0− 3− 2 2

( )
3/ 2
)
 

( )−( ) +( )
3 3
2 −1 2 −1 2 −1
=
2 6 3

=
( )(
2 −1 3 − 2 )
3
Thus, the total required area is

A=
4 ( )(
2 −1 3 − 2 )
3

Example – 17

( )
Let O (0, 0), A(2, 0) and B 1, 1/ 3 be the vertices of a triangle. Let R be the region consisting of all those points

P inside ∆OAB which satisfy d ( P, OA) ≤ min {d ( P, OB ) , d ( P, AB )}, where d denotes the distance from the
point to the corresponding line. Sketch the area R and find its area.

Solution: Like the last question, this question too is more about correctly plotting the required region rather than
calculating area. (In fact, we need not even use definite integration here since we’ll see that the region
R is bounded by straight lines).
Consider the triangle OAB as described in the question:

Consider a point P
which is closer to OA
than to either of OB
B(1, 1 3) or AB.

P
x
0 A(2, 0)

Fig - 20

We need to find out the region in which P can possibly lie.

Maths / Areas and Volumes


LOCUS 21

Suppose that P was equidistant from OA and OB. Then P would lie on the angle bisector of ∠ AOB.
Since P is actually closer to OA, it lies ‘below’ the angle bisector, as shown in the next figure:
y

Any point in this region is closer


B to OB (or its extended line) than
OA (extended)

Any point on this line is equidistant


from OA (extended) and OB (extended).
30º
15º
x
0 A
Any point in this region is closer to OA (extended) than
to OB(extended). This is the region we are looking for.
Fig - 21

Since P also satisfies the constraint that it lies closer to OA than to AB, P will lie below the angle
bisector of ∠ OAB too. Thus, P lies in the following region

y
B(1, 1 ) P can lie
3
anywhere
Angle bisector Angle bisector
inside the
of ∠OAB of ∠AOB shaded region
X

15º 15º x
0 A(2, 0)
Fig - 22

It is a matter of simple geometry now to evaluate the required area which is the area ∆ OAX . Verify
 3 −1 
that this is   sq. units.
 3 +1

Example – 18

Let b ≠ 0 and for j = 0, 1, 2 ......, n, let Sj be the area of the region bounded by the y-axis and the curve

xeay = sin by, jπ ≤ y ≤ ( j + 1)π . Show that S0, S1, S2 ......, Sn are in G.P.
b b
Also, find their sum for a = –1 and b = π .

Solution: The equation of the curve is


x = e−ay sin by
If you recall our discussions on plotting graphs, you will realise that the graph (of x versus y) will be
oscillatory in nature, bounded by an envelope given by e−ay . The zeroes of this function are given by.
by = jπ j∈"

⇒ y= j ∈"
b
Maths / Areas and Volumes
LOCUS 22

Thus, we can now plot x versus y as follows:

The shaded areas


represents S0, S1, S2 The envelope of the function
and so on.(Thus
Sj is defined for S0
2π S2 3π
jπ y j + π ) b b y
b 0 π
b b S1
S3

Fig - 23

Now we proceed to calculate Sj:


( j +1)π / b
Sj = ∫ e −ay sin by dy
jπ / b

( j +1)π
 e − ay
 b
 we used integration by parts to evaluate 
=  2 2 ( −a sin by − b cos by )  
a + b  jπ  the indefinite integral; verify this step 
b

 − a ( j +1)π   − a jπ 
e b j +1   e
b
j
=  2 2 × ( −b ) × ( −1)  −  2 2 × ( −b ) × ( −1) 
 a +b   a +b 
   

be − jaπ / b
=
a 2 + b2
(
1 + e−aπ / b ) .... (1)
Thus,
S j +1
= e −aπ / b which is a constant
Sj

⇒ The series S0, S1, S2 ...... Sn is a G.P.


For a = −1 and b = π , we have from (1):
π
Sj = e j (1 + e )
1+ π 2

n
π (1 + e )  e n +1 − 1 
⇒ ∑Sj =  
j =0 π 2 +1  e −1 

Maths / Areas and Volumes


LOCUS 23

Example – 19

Find the lateral surface area and the volume of a cone of height H and base radius R.
Solution: This question is an easy application question of definite integration. Let us evaluate the surface area
first.

Take a variable x as
depicted along the slant of the cone.
H We analyse an infinitesmally small
strip of width dx along this slant now.
Magnify

R
Fig - 24

Note from the geometry of


r the cone that
dx
r R
x = L
where L is the slant
height of the cone.
( L= R2 + H2 )
The surface area of this
elemental strip is 2πrdx
Fig - 25

From the explanation given in the figure:


L
Lateral surface area A = ∫ 2π rdx
0

2π R
L

L ∫0
= xdx

= π RL
To calculate the volume, we again use the elemental strip analysed in Fig -25. The thickness of this
H
strip is not dx but dx cos θ where cos θ =
L

Maths / Areas and Volumes


LOCUS 24

θ
dx
Actual thickness = dx cos θ

Fig 26
The volume of this strip is therefore π r 2dx cos θ . Thus, the total volume is
L
V = ∫ π r 2dx cos θ
0

π R2
L
= ⋅ ∫ x dx
2
L L2 0

π R 2 H L3
= ⋅
L3 3
1
= π R2H
3

Example – 20

x2 y 2
An ellipse 2 + 2 = 1 (where a > b) is rotated about its major axis. Find the volume generated.
a b

Solution: An ellipse, when rotated about its major axis, will form an “egg-shaped” volume. (It won’t be exactly
egg-shaped though! It will be symmetric about its centre plane (a plane through the line y = 0
perpendicular to the x - y plane) while an egg is not exactly symmetric in this way).

y The solid shape formed by


rotating the ellipse about
its major axis
b

x
a

Fig - 27

Maths / Areas and Volumes


LOCUS 25

We take an elemental strip of thickness dx at a distance x from the origin.

y
dx

y
x
x

Fig - 27

As is clear from the figure, the volume of this elemental strip is


dV = π y 2 dx

2x2 
= π b 1 − 2  dx
 a 
Thus, the volume generated of the right half would be :

2
x2 
a a
Vhalf = ∫ dV = ∫ π b 1 − 2  dx
0 0  a 
a
2 x3 
= πb  x − 2 
 3a 
0

 a
= π b2  a − 
 3

2π ab 2
=
3
The total volume is therefore
4π ab 2
V = 2 × Vhalf =
3
Now, try calculating the surface area of this volume generated.

Maths / Areas and Volumes


LOCUS 26

TRY YOURSELF - 1

x2 y 2
Q. 1 Show that the area of the ellipse + = 1 is π ab .
a 2 b2

2π 2π

Q. 2 If S1 = ∫ max (sin x, cos x ) dx and S2 = ∫ min(sin x, cos x) dx , show that S1 = S2 .


0 0

Q. 3 Prove that the area of the region represented by x − 2 y + x + 2 y ≤ 8 and xy ≥ 2 is 4(3 − ln 4) .

Q. 4 {
Prove that the area enclosed by the region R ≡ ( x, y) : y ≤ x ≤ y is
2
} 1
3
.

x2 y 2
Q. 5 Find the surface area of the volume generated by rotating the ellipse + = 1 (a > b) about its major
a 2 b2
axis. Hence find the surface area of a sphere of radius r.

Maths / Areas and Volumes