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**Maths / Areas and Volumes
**

Areas and volumes

This is the chapter where we will actually put our knowledge of (definite) integration to practical use. We will

calculate areas under curves, areas bounded by curves, volumes under surfaces, volumes bounded by surfaces,

etc. We will mostly be concerned with areas; however, we will delve a little into calculating volumes for the sake of

completeness.

Calculating areas and volumes is totally about calculating definite integrals and involves no new concepts. You are

advised to read the chapter on “Definite Integration” again if you are not very comfortable in evaluating integrals.

We will now start with such calculations through actual examples.

Find the area bounded between the curves y = x

2

and y = x.

Solution: The bounded area is depicted in the figure below:

y = x

Fig - 1

x

y

y = x

2

1

1

The shaded area represents

the area A bounded between

the two curves

Thus,

( )

1

2

0

A x x dx · −

∫

1

2 3

0

1

units

2 3 6

x x

sq

| `

· − ·

. ,

Find the area of the region bounded between x = 0, x = 2, y = 2

x

and y = 2x – x

2

.

Example – 1

Example – 2

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Maths / Areas and Volumes

Solution: The bounded region has been sketched below. Verify for yourself the validity of the figure drawn:

Fig - 2

x

y

y = 2

x

0 1 2

The shaded region represents

the area A bounded between

the given curves

4

1

y = 2x - x

2

We have,

( ) ( )

2

2

0

2 2

x

A x x dx · − −

∫

2

3

2

0

2

ln 2 3

x

x

x

| `

· − +

. ,

4 8 1

4

ln 2 3 ln 2

· − + −

3 4

. units

ln 3

sq

| `

· −

. ,

Compute the area of the region bounded between the curves

ln

ln and

x

y ex x y

ex

· ·

Solution: If you’ve read the chapter on “Applications of Derivatives” properly, you should not have much of

a problem plotting the graph of the two functions:

Fig - 3

x

y

1/e 1

-1

y =

ln x

ex

The point of intersection

is determined by equating

the equation of the two

curves, i.e,

ex ln x =

ln x

ex

ln x = 0 or e x =1

2 2

⇒

The shaded area represents

the area A between two curves

x = 1 or x =

1

e

⇒

Example – 3

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Maths / Areas and Volumes

From the figure, it is clear that

1

1/

ln

ln

e

x

A ex x dx

ex

| `

· −

. ,

∫

1 1

1/ 1/

ln

ln

e e

x

dx e x xdx

ex

· −

∫ ∫

1

0 1 2

1 1/ 1/

1 1

ln

2 2

e e

x

tdt e x x dx

e

−

¹ ¹

¹ ¹

¹ ¹

· − −

' ' ' '

¹ ¹ ¹ ¹

¹ ¹

∫ ∫

2 2

1 1 1 1

1

2 2 4

e

e e e

− ¹ ¹ | `

· − − −

' '

. , ¹ ¹

2

2

1 1 1

2 2 4

e e

e e e

| ` −

· − − +

. ,

2

1 1

4

e

e e

−

· − +

2

5

. units

4

e

sq

e

−

·

A curve y = f(x) passes through the origin. Through any point (x, y) on the curve, lines are drawn parallel to the

co-ordinate axis. If the curve divides the area formed by these lines and the co-ordinate axes in the ratio m:n, find

the equation of the curve.

Solution: The situation described in the question is graphically depicted below:

Fig - 4

x

y = f(x)

y

A

2

(x, y)

A

1

It is given that

A

1

A

2

=

m

n

Note that A + A = xy

1 2

and A = ydx

2

x

0

From the given constraint, we have

0

0

x

x

xy y dx

m

n

y dx

−

·

∫

∫

( )

0

x

n

y dx xy

m n

⇒ ·

+

∫

Example – 4

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Maths / Areas and Volumes

Differentiating both sides with respect to x, we obtain

n xdy

y y

m n dx

| `

· +

+

. ,

dy

my nx

dx

⇒ ·

dy m dx

y n x

⇒ ·

ln ln

m

y x C

n

⇒ · +

ln ln

m

x k

n

· +

where k is a constant

⇒

/ m n

y kx · (Note that this passes through the origin)

Find the area of the region containing the points whose (x, y) co-ordinates satisfy

1

2

x

y e

−

+ ≤

Solution: If you observe the given relation carefully, you will realise that whatever region we obtain will be

symmetric about both the x-axis and y-axis.

This means that we only need to plot the region in the first quadrant. The regions in the other quadrants

can then automatically be obtained by reflecting symmetrically the region in the first quadrant into all

the other quadrants.

So let us now consider just the first quadrant. In this quadrant, both x, y > 0, so that the given relation

can be simply written as

1

2

x

y e

−

+ ≤

⇒

1

2

x

y e

−

≤ −

We now plot this region for x > 0, y > 0:

Fig - 5

1/2

y=e

-x

–

1

2

ln 2

y

x

The shaded region

represents y < e

-x

–

1

2

Example – 5

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Maths / Areas and Volumes

Our required region is therefore,

Fig - 6

1/2

y

x

- ln2 ln2

-1/2

The shaded region

represents

y < e

- x

–

1

2

The required area is:

ln 2

0

1

4

2

x

A e dx

−

| `

· −

. ,

∫

ln2

0

4

2

x

x

e

−

| `

· − −

. ,

1 1

4 ln 2

2 2

| `

· −

. ,

( ) 2 1 ln 2 . units sq · −

Find all the possible values of b > 0 so that the area of the bounded region enclosed between the parabolas

2

2

and

x

y x bx y

b

· − · is maximum.

Solution: The first parabola has its zeroes given by

2

0 y x bx · − ·

1

0, x

b

⇒ ·

Example – 6

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Maths / Areas and Volumes

This is a downwards facing parabola. The other parabola has its vertex at the origin.

Fig - 7

x

y

y =

x

2

b

y = x bx –

2

P

0 1/b

The point of intersection

P is given by:

x

2

b

= x bx –

2

⇒

x =

b

1+b

2

y =

b

(1+b )

2 2

The figure above tells us how to calculate the co-ordinates of the intersection point P:

( )

2 2

2

,

1

1

b b

P

b

b

| `

≡

+

+

. ,

Now, the bounded area A is given by:

2

2 1

2

0

b

b

x

A x bx dx

b

+

| `

· − −

. ,

∫

2

2

1

3

0

1 1

2 3

b

b

x

b x

b

+

¹ ¹

| `

· − +

' '

. ,

¹ ¹

( ) ( )

2 2 3

2 3

2 2

1 1

3

2 1 1

b b b

b

b b

+

· − ⋅

+ +

( )

2

2

2

6 1

b

b

·

+

We now maximize A (or more conveniently, and equivalently,

6A

):

1 2

6

1

b

A A

b

· ·

+

( )

( )

2 2

1

2

1 2

1

b b

dA

db b

+ −

⇒ ·

+

2

2

1

1

b

b

−

·

+

A

1

is maximum when

1

0

dA

db

·

i.e, b = 1 (b is > 0 so it cannot be –1)

Thus, the bounded area is maximum when b = 1

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Maths / Areas and Volumes

Find the area of the region bounded by

1

, 2,

2

x x · ·

y = ln x and y = 2

x

.

Solution: The region of interest is very straightforward to plot:

Fig - 8

x

y

½ 1 2

The shaded area represents

the region whose area

we need to determine

1

The required area is

( )

2

1/ 2

2 ln

x

A x dx · −

∫

2

1/ 2

2

ln

ln 2

x

x x x

| `

· − +

. ,

4 2 5 3

ln 2 . units

ln 2 2 2

sq

| `

−

· − +

. ,

Let ( ) ( ) ( )

{ ¦

2

2

max , 1 , 2 1 . f x x x x x · − − Determine the area of the region bounded by the curve

( ), axis, 0 y f x x x · − · and x = 1.

Example – 7

Example – 8

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Maths / Areas and Volumes

Solution: The technique to plot the curve for f(x) has been outlined in the unit on Functions. We plot all the three

curves

( ) ( )

2

2

, 1 and 2 1 x x x x − − on the same axes, scan the x-axis from left to right and at every

point, pick out that graph which lies uppermost of all the three graphs. In the figure below, the heavyset

curve is the curve for f(x):

Fig - 9

y

y = x

2

The intersection point

A is given by

(1 - x) = 2x (1 - x)

2

y = (1 x)

2

–

1

½

¼

½

1 0

A

B

y = x (1 x) –

1

3

The intersection point

B is given by

x = 2x (1 - x)

2

2

3

x

We can evaluate the required area, as is clear from the figure above, by dividing the integration interval

[0, 1] into three sub-intervals:

( ) ( )

1/ 3 2/ 3 1

2

2

0 1/ 3 2/ 3

1 2 1 A x dx x x dx x dx · − + − +

∫ ∫ ∫

19 13 19

18 81 81

· + +

(verify)

51

81

·

17

27

·

A square has its vertices at (1, 1), (1, –1), (–1, –1) and (–1, 1). Four circles of radius 2 are drawn, one centred

at each vertex of the square. Find the area common to these four circles.

Example – 9

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Maths / Areas and Volumes

Solution:

y

(1, -1) (-1, -1)

x

Each circle has

been partially drawn.

The area common to

there four circles has

bee shaded.

(-1, 1) (1, 1)

O

R

S

P

Fig - 10

Let us evaluate the area in the first quadrant. For that, we need to evaluate the x-co-ordinate of P.

Notice that the circle centred at (–1, –1) is the one which intersects the x-axis at P. The equation of

this circle is given by:

( ) ( )

2 2

1 1 4 x y + + + · ...(1)

When

0, 3 1 y x · · −

Thus,

( )

3 1, 0 P ≡ −

The area in the first quadrant is now:

( )

( )

3 1

2

1

0

4 1 1

st

A x dx

−

· − + −

∫

( ) we used 1 to write down the equation

of the circle in an explicit form

¹ ¹

¹ ¹

' '

¹ ¹

¹ ¹

= ( ) ( )

3 1

2

1

0

1 4 1

1 4 1 sin

2 2 2

x

x x x

−

−

¹ + ¹ | `

− + + − + +

' '

. , ¹ ¹

(verify this step)

1 1

3 3 3 1

3 1 2sin 2sin

2 2 2 2

− −

| ` | `

· − + + + − +

. , . ,

3

3

π

· −

Therefore, the total bounded area is

1

4

st

A A · ×

4 3 . units

3

sq

π | `

· −

. ,

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Maths / Areas and Volumes

Find the area of the region bounded by x + 1 = 0, y = 0, y = x

2

+ x + 1 and the tangent to

2

1 y x x · + + at

x = 1

Solution: Let us first determine the equation of the said tangent:

( )

1

1

2 1

x

x

dy

x

dx

·

·

· +

= 3

Also, when x = 1, y = 3

The required equation is

( ) 3 3 1 y x − · −

3 y x ⇒ · .

0

-½

-1

The curve

y=x +x+1

2

1

¾

3

y

x

1

The tangent y = 3x

The shaded area

represents the bounded

region whose area we

wish to determine

Fig - 11

From the figure above, it should be clear that the area can be calculated as described below:

( ) ( ) { ¦

0 1

2 2

1 0

1 1 3 A x x dx x x x dx

−

· + + + + + −

∫ ∫

0 1

3 2 3

2

1 0

3 2 3

x x x

x x x

−

| ` | `

· + + + − +

. , . ,

1

0

1 1 1

1 1 1

3 2 3

| ` | `

· − − + − + − +

. , . ,

7

. units

6

sq ·

Example – 10

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Maths / Areas and Volumes

Find the area of the region bounded by the curves

2 2

, 2 and 2, y x y x y · · − ·

which lies to the right of the line x = 1.

Solution: The required area is sketched below

1 2

y

x

0

y = x

2

y = |2-x |

2

2

1

2

Fig - 12

The required area can be evaluated as follows:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

2 2

2 2 2

1 2

2 2 2 A x x dx x dx · − − + − −

∫ ∫

2 2

3 3

1 2

2

2 4

3 3

x x

x x

| ` | `

· − + −

. , . ,

20 12 2

. units

3

sq

−

· (verify the calculations)

A curve ( ) y f x · passes through the point (1, 1) P . The normal to the curve at P is ( 1) ( 1) 0 a y x − + − · . If the

slope of the tangent at any point on the curve is proportional to the ordinate of that point, determine the equation

of the curve. Hence obtain the area bounded by the y-axis, the curve and the normal to the curve at P.

Solution: The slope of the given normal is obvious from the expression:

1 1

1

y

x a

−

· −

−

Example – 11

Example – 12

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Maths / Areas and Volumes

1

N

m

a

⇒ · −

T

m a ⇒ ·

P

dy

a

dx

| `

⇒ ·

. ,

It is given that

dy dy

y ky

dx dx

∝ ⇒ ·

Since

(1.1)

dy

a k a

dx

· ⇒ ·

Thus,

dy

ay

dx

·

dy

adx

y

⇒ ·

ln ln y ax C ⇒ · + (we took the constant of integration as ln C instead

of C so that the final expression for y is simpler)

ax

y Ce ⇒ ·

Since this curve passes through (1, 1),

.1

1

a

Ce ·

a

C e

−

⇒ ·

Thus, the equation of the curve is

( 1) a x

y e

−

·

Let us now proceed to evaluate the bounded area, which is sketched below:

Fig - 13

x

y

The curve y=e

a(x-1)

1

e

-a

p

The normal to the curve at P

1

The equation of the normal has already been provided:

1

1 (1 ) y x

a

· + −

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Maths / Areas and Volumes

Thus, the required area is:

1

( 1)

0

1

1 (1 )

a x

A x e dx

a

−

¹ ¹ | `

· + − −

' '

. , ¹ ¹

∫

1

2 ( 1)

0

2

a x

x x e

x

a a a

−

| `

· + − −

. ,

1 1 1

1

2

a

e

a a a a

−

| `

| `

· + − − − −

. ,

. ,

1 1

1 sq. units

2

a

a ae

| `

· − +

. ,

Let ( ) f x be a continuous function given by

2

2 , 1

( )

, 1

x x

f x

x ax b x

¹ ≤ ¹

¹ ¹

·

' '

+ + >

¹ ¹

¹ ¹

Find the area of the region in the third quadrant bounded by the curves

2

2 x y · − and ( ) y f x · lying to the left of

the line

8 1 0 x + ·

.

Solution: We can use the fact that ( ) f x is continuous to determine the constants a and b. The critical points are

x = –1 and x = 1.

1 x ·

–

1

lim ( ) ( 1)

x

f x f

→−

· −

1 2 a b ⇒ − + · −

3 a b ⇒ − · ...(1)

1 x · −

1

lim ( ) (1)

x

f x f

+

→

·

1 2 a b ⇒ + + ·

1 a b ⇒ + · ...(2)

From (1) and (2), 2 and 1 a b · · − .

Thus,

2

2 , 1

( )

2 1 , 1

x x

f x

x x x

¹ ≤ ¹

¹ ¹

·

' '

+ − >

¹ ¹

¹ ¹

Example – 13

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Maths / Areas and Volumes

We now proceed to sketch the bounded region that has been described in the question.

Observe all the

intersection points very

carefully and how they are

obtained. The function f(x)

changes its definition

at x = -1 so we have to split

the area we need to evaluate

accordingly.

-¼

-1

-2

-1 -2

y=x +2x-1

2

(-2, -1)

-1/8 0

2y =-x

2

x=-1/8

y

x

y = 2x

Fig - 14

The required area is:

( )

1 1/ 8

2

2 1

2 1 2

2 2

x x

A x x dx x dx

− −

− −

| ` | `

−

· − + − + − −

. , . ,

∫ ∫

1 1/ 8

3

3/ 2 2 3/ 2 2

2 1

2 2

( ) ( )

3 3 3

x

x x x x x

− −

− −

¹ ¹ ¹ ¹

| ` − ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹

· − − − + − + − −

' ' ' '

¹ ¹ ¹ ¹ . ,

¹ ¹ ¹ ¹

3/ 2

3/ 2

2 5 10 2 1 1

(1 2 ) 1 1

3 3 3 3 8 64

¹ ¹ ¹ ¹

− ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹ | ` | ` | `

· − − − − + − − −

' ' ' '

. , . , . , ¹ ¹ ¹ ¹

¹ ¹ ¹ ¹

2 4 5 1 2 1

1

3 3 3 48 3 64

· − + + − + − +

1 1

48 64

· − −

7

4

192

· −

761

sq. units

192

·

In what ratio does the x-axis divide the area of the region bounded by the parabola

2 2

4 and y x x y x x · − · − ?

Example – 14

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Maths / Areas and Volumes

Solution: The two parabolas and the region they bound have been sketched below:

Fig - 15

4

y

4

15/4

5/2 2 1

A

1

A

2

4x-x

2

x

x - x

2

We need to

evaluate

The intersection of

the curves can be evaluated

by equating the equation

of the curves, i.e

4x - x = x - x

2 2

0

5

2

A

1

A

2

The total area

1 2

A A + can be evaluated as the area of the region bounded between the two curves:

{ ¦

5/ 2

2 2

1 2

0

(4 ) ( ) A A x x x x dx + · − − −

∫

5/ 2

2

0

(5 2 ) x x dx · −

∫

5/ 2

2 3

0

5 2

2 3

x x | `

· −

. ,

125 125

8 12

· −

125

sq. units

24

·

The area

2

A is

( )

1

2

2

0

A x x dx · −

∫

1

3 2

0

3 2

x x | `

· −

. ,

1

sq. units

6

·

The area

1

A is therefore

1

125 1

24 6

A · −

121

sq. units

24

·

Thus, the required ratio is

1

2

121

4

A

A

·

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Maths / Areas and Volumes

Let

1 2 3

, and C C C be the graphs of the functions

2

, 2 and ( ) for [0, 1] y x y x y f x x · · · ∈ where (0) 0 f · .

For a point

1

on P C , let the lines through P parallel to the axes meet

2 3

and C C at Q and R respectively as

shown in the figure below. If for every position

1

on P C , the area of the shaded regions and OPQ ORP are

equal, determine the function ( ) f x .

Fig - 16

The area ORP can be

evaluated simply as:

x

y

1

Q

P(1, 1)

R

1

C : y = x

1

2

P(t, t )

2

C : y = 2x

2

X

S

C : f(x)

3

But to evaluated area OPQ,

we will have to divide the

integration interval into

two parts OS and SX, i.e.,

the area OPQ would be:

x

0

(x -f(x))dx

2

z

0

(2x - x ) dx +

2

t

(t - x ) dx

2 2

z

where z is the x- coordinate

of S and equals t /2. A better

more straightforward approach is

described in the solution

2

O

Soulution:

To evaluate area OPQ, we could follow the approach described above, that is by dividing the integration interval

OX into OS and SX. By this way,

( ) ( )

2 2 2

0

area 2

z t

z

OPQ x x dx t x dx · − + −

∫ ∫

2 3 3

2

0

2 3 3

z t

z

x x x

t x

| ` | `

· − + −

. , . ,

2

where

t

z

z

| `

·

. ,

4 6 2 3 6

2

8 24 2 3 24

t t t t t

t t

| ` | `

· − + − − −

. , . ,

3 4

2

3 4

t t

· −

However this area can be more easily evaluated by just considering the inverse of the functions representing

1 2

and C C and integrating with respect to y. (This means that you view the figure above from left to right inside of

the usual top to bottom.) That is, we take y as the integration variable. y will vary from

2

0 to t (the y -co-ordinate

of P). The equations of the curves

1 2

and C C with respect to the y-axis will just be the inverse of the original

equations i.e.

1 2

and

2

y y

y

C y C · ·

.

Example – 15

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Maths / Areas and Volumes

Thus,

2

0

area

2

t

y

OPQ y dy

| `

· −

. ,

∫

2

3/ 2 2

0

2

3 4

t

y y | `

· −

. ,

3 4

2

3 4

t t

· −

We see that doing the calculation this way given us the result more quickly because we did not have to divide the

integration interval into two sub-intervals as we had to do when we integrated w.r.t x.

The area ORP can be easily evaluated (w.r.t the variable x):

( )

2

0

area ( )

t

ORP x f x dx · −

∫

3

0 0

( )

3

t

t

x

f x dx · −

∫

3

0

( )

3

t

t

f x dx · −

∫

Since area area [0, 1], OPQ ORP t · ∀ ∈ we have

3 4 3

0

2

( )

3 4 3

t

t t t

f x dx − · −

∫

4 3

0

( )

4 3

t

t t

f x dx ⇒ · −

∫

Differentiating both sides w.r.t t, we obtain our required function :

3 2

( ) f t t t · −

Thus, the curve

3

C is given by

3 2

( ) f x x x · − in [0, 1] .

Consider a square with vertices at (1, 1), ( 1, 1), ( 1, 1) and (1, 1) − − − − . Let S be the region consisting of all points

inside the square which are nearer to the origin than to any edge. Sketch the region S and find its area.

Solution: The important part in this question is to correctly plot the required region. Once that is done, the area

is more or less straight forward to evaluate. Consider the square ABCD described in the question and

any point P inside it satisfying the given constraint.

Example – 16

L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS 18

Maths / Areas and Volumes

A(1, 1) B(-1, 1)

C(-1, -1)

D(1, -1)

x

P

y

O

P satisfies the given

constraint, i.e,

d(P, O) < d(P, AB)

d(P, O) < d(P, BC)

d(P, O) < d(P, CD)

d(P, O) < d(P, AD)

Fig - 17

Consider the point P and any one edge of the square, say AD. Suppose P was equidistant from O and

AD (or its extended line). Where could it possible lie? What is the locus of a point which moves so that

its distance from a fixed point is equal to its distance from a fixed line? A parabola.

Since ( , ) ( , ), d P O d P AD < the point P will lie not on the parabola but in one of the regions that the

parabola divides the plane into:

Fig - 18

A(1, 1)

Any point here is

closer to O than to

AD (extended)

O

D(1, -1)

x

The parabola divides the plane into

two regions. The region containing

the origin is the is that of all points

which are closer to O than to AD

(or the extended line of AD).

The equation of this parabola is

(using the definition of a parabola):

Any point on this curve is

equidistant from O and AD (extended).

1

Any point here

is closer to AD

(extended) than O.

½

x +y = (x - 1)

2 2 2

⇒ x +y = (x - 1)

2 2 2

This crosses the y-axis

at y = ± 1 and the x-axis

at x = ½

-1

y

We will now have to draw such a parabola for each edge of the square since we want that each edge

should satisfy the given constraint, that is any point in the required region should lie closer to the origin

than to any edge:

L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS 19

Maths / Areas and Volumes

Fig - 19

y

(1, -1)

(-1, -1)

x

The shaded region is the

region in which any point

is closer to the origin

than to any edge

(-1, 1)

(1, 1)

X

N

M

C

3

C

4

Y

C

1

C

2

O

Verify that the equations of the other three bounding parabolas (apart from

1

C ) are :

2

2

: 2 1 C y x · +

2

3

: 2 1 C x y · +

2

4

: 2 1 C x y · − +

To calculate the required area, let us calculate the shaded region in the first quadrant. We can divide

this area into two parts: area (region OXMN) and area (region NMY).

We first need the intersection point M and its x-co-ordinate N. This can be found out by equating the

equations of the curves

1 4

and C C . However, we may directly observe that the point M lies

symmetrically w.r.t the x-axis and the y-axis, and therefore, it will have equal x and y co-ordinates. We

may now use this fact in either of the two equations

1 4

or C C :

2

4

: 2 1 0 C x y + − ·

2

2 1 0 x x ⇒ + − · ( ) for x y M · ∵

2 1 x ⇒ · − ( ) we want 0 x >

Thus, the point M is

( )

2 1, 2 1 − − .

We now proceed to evaluate the area.

1

4

2 1 1 2

1st quad

0 2 1

Equation of

Equation of

1

1 2

2

C

C

x

A dx x dx

−

−

| ` −

· + −

. ,

↑

↑

∫ ∫

L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS 20

Maths / Areas and Volumes

( )

( )

2 1

3

1

3/ 2

2 1

0

1

1 2

2 6 3

x x

x

−

−

| `

· − − −

. ,

( )

( )

( )

3

3/ 2

2 1

1 1

2 1 0 3 2 2

2 3 3

| `

−

· − − − − −

. ,

( ) ( ) ( )

3 3

2 1 2 1 2 1

2 6 3

− − −

· − +

( )( )

2 1 3 2

3

− −

·

Thus, the total required area is

( )( )

4 2 1 3 2

3

A

− −

·

Let O (0, 0), A(2, 0) and

( )

1, 1/ 3 B be the vertices of a triangle. Let R be the region consisting of all those points

P inside

OAB ∆

which satisfy ( ) ( ) ( ) { ¦

, min , , , , d P OA d P OB d P AB ≤ where d denotes the distance from the

point to the corresponding line. Sketch the area R and find its area.

Solution: Like the last question, this question too is more about correctly plotting the required region rather than

calculating area. (In fact, we need not even use definite integration here since we’ll see that the region

R is bounded by straight lines).

Consider the triangle OAB as described in the question:

Fig - 20

A(2, 0)

x

P

B(1, 1 3 )

0

y

Consider a point P

which is closer to OA

than to either of OB

or AB.

We need to find out the region in which P can possibly lie.

Example – 17

L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS 21

Maths / Areas and Volumes

Suppose that P was equidistant from OA and OB. Then P would lie on the angle bisector of . AOB ∠

Since P is actually closer to OA, it lies ‘below’ the angle bisector, as shown in the next figure:

Fig - 21

x

B

0

y

Any point in this region is closer

to OB (or its extended line) than

OA (extended)

Any point on this line is equidistant

from OA (extended) and OB (extended).

Any point in this region is closer to OA (extended) than

to OB . This is the region we are looking for. (extended)

30º

15º

A

Since P also satisfies the constraint that it lies closer to OA than to AB, P will lie below the angle

bisector of OAB ∠ too. Thus, P lies in the following region

Fig - 22

x

0

y

Angle bisector

of AOB ∠

X

P can lie

anywhere

inside the

shaded region

15º

B(1, )

3

1

Angle bisector

of OAB ∠

15º

A(2, 0)

It is a matter of simple geometry now to evaluate the required area which is the area . OAX ∆ Verify

that this is

3 1

3 1

| `

−

+

. ,

sq. units.

Let

0 b ≠

and for j = 0, 1, 2 ......, n, let S

j

be the area of the region bounded by the y-axis and the curve

sin

ay

xe · by,

( ) 1

.

j j

y

b b

π π +

≤ ≤

Show that

0 1 2

, , ......,

n

S S S S are in G.P.

Also, find their sum for a = –1 and

b π ·

.

Solution: The equation of the curve is

ay

x e

−

·

sin by

If you recall our discussions on plotting graphs, you will realise that the graph (of x versus y) will be

oscillatory in nature, bounded by an envelope given by .

ay

e

−

The zeroes of this function are given by.

by j j π · ∈"

j

y j

b

π

⇒ · ∈"

Example – 18

L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS 22

Maths / Areas and Volumes

Thus, we can now plot x versus y as follows:

The envelope of the function

y

x

0

2π

b

π

b

3π

b

The shaded areas

represents S , S , S

and so on.(Thus

S is defined for

0 1 2

j

jπ

b

y )

j + π

b

Fig - 23

S

0

S

1

S

2

S

3

Now we proceed to calculate S

j

:

( ) 1 /

/

sin

j b

ay

j

j b

S e by dy

π

π

+

−

·

∫

( )

( ) 1

2 2

sin cos

j

ay

b

j

b

e

a by b by

a b

π

π

+

−

¹ ¹

· − −

' '

+

¹ ¹

we used integration by parts to evaluate

the indefinite integral; verify this step

| `

. ,

( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

1

1

2 2 2 2

e e

= 1 1

a a

j j

b b

j j

b b

a b a b

π π − + −

+

| ` | `

× − × − − × − × −

+ +

. , . ,

( )

/

/

2 2

= 1

ja b

a b

be

e

a b

π

π

−

−

+

+

.... (1)

Thus,

1 / j a b

j

S

e

S

π + −

·

which is a constant

⇒

The series

0 1 2

, , ......

n

S S S S is a G.P.

For 1 a · − and

b π ·

, we have from (1):

( )

2

1

1

j

j

S e e

π

π

· +

+

( )

1

2

0

1 1

1 1

n n

j

j

e e

S

e

π

π

+

·

| ` + −

⇒ ·

− +

. ,

∑

L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS 23

Maths / Areas and Volumes

Find the lateral surface area and the volume of a cone of height H and base radius R.

Solution: This question is an easy application question of definite integration. Let us evaluate the surface area

first.

H

Take a variable x as

depicted along the slant of the cone.

We analyse an infinitesmally small

strip of width dx along this slant now.

R

d

x

Note from the geometry of

the cone that

=

r

x

R

L

where L is the slant

height of the cone.

( L= )

R + H

2 2

The surface area of this

elemental strip is 2 rdx π

x

Fig - 24

Fig - 25

Magnify

r

From the explanation given in the figure:

Lateral surface area

0

2

L

A rdx π ·

∫

0

2

L

R

xdx

L

π

·

∫

RL π ·

To calculate the volume, we again use the elemental strip analysed in Fig -25. The thickness of this

strip is not dx but cos dx θ where cos

H

L

θ ·

Example – 19

L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS 24

Maths / Areas and Volumes

Fig 26

Actual thickness = dx cos θ

d

x

θ

The volume of this strip is therefore

2

cos . r dx π θ Thus, the total volume is

2

0

cos

L

V r dx π θ ·

∫

2

2

2

0

L

R

x dx

L L

π

· ⋅

∫

2 3

3

3

R H L

L

π

· ⋅

2

1

3

R H π ·

An ellipse

2 2

2 2

1

x y

a b

+ · (where a > b) is rotated about its major axis. Find the volume generated.

Solution: An ellipse, when rotated about its major axis, will form an “egg-shaped” volume. (It won’t be exactly

egg-shaped though! It will be symmetric about its centre plane (a plane through the line y = 0

perpendicular to the x - y plane) while an egg is not exactly symmetric in this way).

The solid shape formed by

rotating the ellipse about

its major axis

y

x

Fig - 27

b

a

Example – 20

L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS 25

Maths / Areas and Volumes

We take an elemental strip of thickness dx at a distance x from the origin.

x

y

y

x

dx

Fig - 27

As is clear from the figure, the volume of this elemental strip is

2

dV y dx π ·

2

2

2

1

x

b dx

a

π

| `

· −

. ,

Thus, the volume generated of the right half would be :

2

2

2

0 0

1

a a

half

x

V dV b dx

a

π

| `

· · −

. ,

∫ ∫

3

2

2

0

3

a

x

b x

a

π

| `

· −

. ,

2

3

a

b a π

| `

· −

. ,

2

2

3

ab π

·

The total volume is therefore

2

4

2

3

half

ab

V V

π

· × ·

Now, try calculating the surface area of this volume generated.

L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS 26

Maths / Areas and Volumes

Q. 1 Show that the area of the ellipse

2 2

2 2

1

x y

a b

+ · is

ab π

.

Q. 2 If

( )

2 2

1 2

0

max sin , cos and min(sin , cos ) S x x dx S x x dx

π π

0

· ·

∫ ∫ , show that

1 2

S S · .

Q. 3 Prove that the area of the region represented by 2 2 8 and 2 is 4(3 ln 4) x y x y xy − + + ≤ ≥ − .

Q. 4 Prove that the area enclosed by the region { ¦

2

1

( , ) : is

3

R x y y x y ≡ ≤ ≤

.

Q. 5 Find the surface area of the volume generated by rotating the ellipse

2 2

2 2

1 ( )

x y

a b

a b

+ · > about its major

axis. Hence find the surface area of a sphere of radius r.

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