Transformers

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Transformers

© All Rights Reserved

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machines which transmit energy from

systems with certain current and voltage

values into systems with generally

different current and voltage values but

with identical frequency

Operating principle of a transformer

Following connection to alternating voltage U1 there is a

standstill current I. The magnetomotive force H = I1 N1

generates a magnetic alternating flow (1) in the iron

core.

are induced in accordance with the induction law. A self-

induction voltage U10 arises in the input winding. It is

counter-positioned in accordance with Lenz's law on

applied voltage. During idling operation - because of

mutual induction - there arises the output voltage U20

which is simultaneously the terminal voltage U2.

Operating principle of a transformer

The value of the induced voltage is derived from the following equation:

U 0 = 4,44 N B AFe f

where:

U0 induction voltage

N number of turns

B max. flow density

AFe limb cros-section

f induction voltage frequency

the magnetic flow density in the iron core, the iron cross-section

and the frequency.

Operating principle of a transformer

Example:

Which maximum flow density occurs in an iron core of 16

cm2 cross-section when a voltage of 380 V (50 Hz) is

applied to the primary coil with 930 turns?

Solution: 1.15 T

Voltage transformation

A few field lines already close before reaching the output coil so

that flow 1 can be divided into a maximum flow K which

saturates both coils and a leakage flow S

Voltage transformation

U10 = 4.44 . N1 . K . f

U20 = 4.44 . N2 . K . f

transformer ratio p:

U 1 N1

p= =

U 2 N2

Voltage transformation

The rated voltages

U1n and U2n

are indicated on the rating plate of the transformer

Example:

What secondary terminal voltage arises in a transformer where 380 V is

applied to the primary winding of 980 turns and the secondary winding

has 594 turns?

Given: U1 = 380 V; N1 = 980; N2 = 594

Sought: U2

Solution: U2 = 230 V

Load behaviour of the transformer

If the transformer is output-loaded, current I2 flows into coil

N2. Current I2 generates the magnetic flow 2K. According

to Lenz's Law this magnetic flow is counter-positioned to

the cause (1K).

Load behaviour of the transformer

In this manner the magnet flow 1K is weakened and induction voltage

U10 decreases. Given uniform rated voltage, the difference increases

between the two voltages U10 and U1.

flow 1K is increased. The magnetic flow in the iron core thus

remains virtually constant:

1K = 1K - 2K = constant

Load behaviour of the transformer

Transformation ratio

Without heeded the losses of the transformer, the following applies according

to the energy conservation law:

S1 = S2 and U1 I1= U2 I2

If we arrange the equation so that the voltage and current values appears on

respective sides, then

I1 U 2 N 2 1

= = =

I 2 U 1 N1 p

Load behaviour of the transformer

Currents the are conversely proportional to the voltages or

numbers of turns. A transformer converts high currents into

low ones or low currents into higher ones.

Example:

A welding transformer takes up 220 (current being 10A).

The output voltage is 20 V. How great is the welding

current?

Solution:

I2 = 110 V

Idling behaviour

A transformer idles where mains voltage U1 remains

applied to the primary side whilst no consumer is

connected to the secondary side

(Za = ).

Primary circuit U1 appliesI0 flows (idling current)

Secondary circuit Za = , I2 = 0, U2 = U20

Idling behaviour

Idling current I0

The applied voltage U10 drives the idling current I0. This is needed to

establish the magnetic field .This lags behind the voltage U1.

Idling behaviour

big transformers and up to 15 % in smaller transformers

No-load curve

Figure indicates that no-load

current I0 increases

proportionally to the input

voltage U1. No-load current

increases markedly over and

beyond the input rated speed

U1n. It can, moreover, even

attain values greater than the

rated current.

be driven by voltages

greater than the rated

voltage U1n.

Short-circuit behaviour

Short-circuit curves

Secondary current I2 increases if load resistance is decreased. Where Za = 0 the

transformer has been short-circuited.

Primary circuit U1 is applied

IK flows Secondary circuit Za = 0

U2 = 0 Short-circuit voltage

The short-circuited transformer can be replaced by resistor Z1 which corresponds

to the transformer internal resistor

Short-circuit behaviour

rated voltage (U1n) in mains transformers

Short-circuit behaviour

Short-circuit losses (winding losses)

In the short-circuit experiment a power meter indicates short-circuit

losses as the primary and secondary rated currents generate

winding losses. The iron core is only slightly magnetised by the

applied short-circuit voltage

UK << U1

experiment. They are dependent on the load current (PVW = I2R).

Loaded voltage behaviour

In contrast to operational idling, during loading the

secondary circuit is closed through an external resistance

Za. Secondary current I2 flows. According to the energy

conservation law the transformer must also take up

commensurate primary power, thus a primary current I1

also flows.

I1 > I0 Secondary circuit Za <

I2 > 0

U2 < U20

Loaded voltage behaviour

Voltage curve U2 = f (I2)

As the curve in figure shows, terminal voltage U2

decreases during loading.

1 uK small, 2 uK big

Loaded voltage behaviour

Secondary terminal voltage depending on the degree and

nature of loading

1 Idling

2 Rated load

transformer depends on the

- degree of load current I2

- the magnitude of relative short-

circuit voltage

- the nature of the load (ohmic,

inductive or capacitive).

Full equivalent circuit diagram

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