0 Up votes0 Down votes

99 views14 pagesAug 08, 2010

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

99 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness
- Principles: Life and Work
- The Intelligent Investor, Rev. Ed
- The Nest
- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What The Rich Teach Their Kids About Money - That the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!
- I Will Teach You to Be Rich, Second Edition: No Guilt. No Excuses. No BS. Just a 6-Week Program That Works
- Awaken the Giant Within: How to Take Immediate Control of Your Mental, Emotional, Physical and Financial
- The Total Money Makeover: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness
- The Hard Thing About Hard Things: Building a Business When There Are No Easy Answers
- Secrets of the Millionaire Mind: Mastering the Inner Game of Wealth
- The Intelligent Investor Rev Ed.
- The Total Money Makeover Workbook: Classic Edition: The Essential Companion for Applying the Book’s Principles
- Secrets of Six-Figure Women: Surprising Strategies to Up Your Earnings and Change Your Life
- MONEY Master the Game: 7 Simple Steps to Financial Freedom
- The Intelligent Investor
- Alibaba: The House That Jack Ma Built
- Rich Dad's Guide to Investing: What the Rich Invest In, That the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!
- Rich Dad Poor Dad
- The Richest Man in Babylon

You are on page 1of 14

MB0029

SET – 2

Roll Number

Learning Center SMU Riyadh (02543)

Subject Financial Management

Date of Submission 28 Feb 2010

Assignment Number MB0029

This page is intentionally left blank

Assignment MBA 2nd Semester Subject: MB0029

1. Is Equity Capital Free of cost? Substantiate your statement.

Calculating the cost of equity can be tricky since there are two different types of equity.

Firms have retained earnings (the money left over after dividends are paid) as the first

type of equity. The second form of equity comes from issuing new shares of stock.

Cost of equity capital is acknowledged as the rate of return that is necessary to satisfy

commitments made to the common shareholders of a corporation. Generally, the cost of

equity capital is expected to be equal to the rate of return that is expected on equity-

supplied capital.

In order to determine the cost of equity capital, it is necessary to know three specific

figures. First, the current market value associated with the shares must be determined.

Second, the dividend growth rate as it relates to the period under consideration must be

calculated. Last, the number of dividends per share should be identified. Once these three

pieces of information are in hand, it is possible quickly calculate the current cost of equity

capital.

The cost of equity under dividend valuation model is calculated by the following formula:

The formula above calculates the cost of equity based on a firm's current rate of return. If one

assumes a perfect market, industry-specific costs of equity reflect the riskiness of particular

industries. A high cost of equity would then indicate a higher-risk industry that should command

a higher return to compensate for the higher risk.

And using the CAPM model, the cost of equity is the product of the Market Risk Premium and

the equity's beta plus the risk-free interest rate.

Or

Symbolically written as

Assignment MBA 2nd Semester Subject: MB0029

Equity Capital is not free of cost:

Some people are of the opinion that equity capital is free of cost for the reason that a company

is not legally bound to pay dividends and also the rate of equity dividend is not fixed like

preference dividends. This is not a correct view as equity shareholders buy shares with the

expectation of dividends and capital appreciation. Dividends enhance the market value of

shares and therefore equity capital is not free of cost.

Assignment MBA 2nd Semester Subject: MB0029

2.

A) What is the rate of return for a company if the β is 1.25, risk free rate of

return is 8% and the market rate of return is 14%? Use CAPM model.

β = 1.25

Risk free Rate of Return= 8%

Market Rate of return = 14%

Rate of return for a company is given by,

Ke = Rf + β [Rm-Rf]

Ke = 0.08 + 1.25(0.14-0.08)

Ke = 0.08 + 0.275

= 0.155 or 15.5%

Office of Government Commerce,

Trevelyan House, 26 - 30 Great Peter Street, London SW1P 2BY

Service Desk: 0845 000 4999 E: ServiceDesk@ogc.gsi.gov.uk

Assignment MBA 2nd Semester Subject: MB0029

2.

B) Sundaram Transports has the following capital structure.

12% preference share capital Rs.100 each 100 lakhs

Retained earnings 150 lakhs

12% Debentures (Rs.100 each) 350 lakhs

14% Term loan from SBI 150 lakhs

Total 1000 lakhs

The market price per equity is Rs 54. The company is expected to declare a dividend per share

of Rs.2 per share and there will be a growth of 10% in the dividends for the next 5 years. The

preference shares are redeemable at a premium of Rs.5 per share after 8 years. The current

market price of preference share is Rs.92. Debenture redemption will take place after 7 years at

a discount of 2% and the current market price is Rs.91 per debenture. The corporate tax rate is

40%. Calculate WACC.

Solution:

Expected dividend per share = D1 = Rs.2

Rate of growth of dividend = g =0.1

= (2/54) + 0.1

= 0.137 or 13.7%

Present value P =92

Future Value F =105

Period n =8

Cost of preference capital, Kp = [D + {(F—P)/n}] / {F+P)/2}

=13.625/98.5

= 0.1383 or 13.83%

Cost of retained earnings, Kr = Ke this is 13.7%

Mohammed Roohul Ameen 6 Roll Number:

Assignment MBA 2nd Semester Subject: MB0029

Annual interest payable per unit debenture = I = 12%

Corporate tax rate = T = 40%

Redemption price per debenture = F = 105

Net amount realized per debenture = P= 92

Maturity period = n = 7

= 0.09195 or 9.2%

= 0.14(1–0.4)

= 0.084 or 8.4%

We = 250/1000 = 0.25

Wp = 100/1000 = 0.1

Wr = 150/1000 = 0.15

Wd = 350/1000 = 0.35

Wt = 150/1000 = 0.15

Step III Multiply the costs of various sources of finance with corresponding weights and WACC

calculated by adding all these components.

= 0.1139 or 11.39%

Assignment MBA 2nd Semester Subject: MB0029

3. The effective cost of debt is less than the actual interest payment made by the firm.

Do you agree with this statement? If yes/no substantiate your views.

Yes the effective cost of debt is less than actual interest payment made by the firm.

True cost of debt Most small and emerging businesses use debt as part of their financing

structure. (The exceptions--and they have dwindled--are those high-potential ventures that can

raise money through promises of potentially lucrative slices of equity.)

The financial crisis is proof that too few people either 1) know how to perform these

calculations or 2) bother to live by what the numbers are telling them. The first part is

somewhat easily remedied; the second, sadly, is perhaps something only a painful recession can

drive home.

Lenders like to receive interest each month. (Bonds carry less frequent payments, with

quarterly or semi-annual installments, but smaller businesses usually do not have access to the

bond market.) Here's where things get tricky: Paying interest monthly effectively raises your

interest rate.

Say the lender says it will lend to you at 12% per year, to be paid 1% per month. (On $100, that

means you will pay $1 each month.) But by paying monthly, you have raised your effective rate,

which takes into account the time value of money. Observed through that lens, your annual

interest cost is 12.7%.

The cost of debt is computed by taking the rate on a risk free bond whose duration and

conditions match the term structure of the corporate debt, then adding a default premium due

to the risk factor involved in that investment. This default premium will rise as the amount of

debt increases in the capital structure of the entity. Since in most cases debt expense is a

deductible expense for tax purpose, the cost of debt is computed as an after tax cost to make it

comparable with the cost of equity (earnings are after-tax as well). Thus, for profitable firms,

debt is discounted by the tax rate. The formula can be written as (Rf + credit risk rate) (1-T),

where T is the corporate tax rate and Rf is the risk free rate.

A company will use various bonds, loans and other forms of debt, so this measure is useful for

giving an idea as to the overall rate being paid by the company to use debt financing. The

measure can also give investors an idea as to the riskiness of the company compared to others,

because riskier companies generally have a higher cost of debt.

To get the after-tax rate, you simply multiply the before-tax rate by one minus the marginal tax

rate (before-tax rate x (1-marginal tax)). If a company's only debt were a single bond in which it

paid 5%, the before-tax cost of debt would simply be 5%. If, however, the company's marginal

tax rate were 40%, the company's after-tax cost of debt would be only 3% (5% x (1-40%)).

Assignment MBA 2nd Semester Subject: MB0029

4. Why capital budgeting decision very crucial for finance managers?

Capital budgeting decision is very crucial as it helps with the “go-no-go” decisions of firm.

Financial management is largely concerned with financing, dividend and investment decisions of

the firm with overall goal in mind. Corporate finance theory has developed around a goal of

maximizing the market value of the firm to its shareholders. This is also known as shareholder

wealth maximization. Although various objectives or goals are possible in the field of finance,

the most widely accepted objective for the firm is to maximize the value of the firm to its

owners.

Capital budgeting is a required managerial tool. One duty of a financial manager is to choose

investments with satisfactory cash flows and rates of return. Therefore, a financial manager

must be able to decide whether an investment is worth undertaking and be able to choose

intelligently between two or more alternatives. To do this, a sound procedure to evaluate,

compare, and select projects is needed.

The planning process used to determine whether a firm's long term investments such as new

machinery, replacement machinery, new plants, new products, and research development

projects are worth pursuing. It is budget for major capital, or investment, expenditures.

Many formal methods are used in capital budgeting, including the techniques such as

Net present value

Profitability index

Internal rate of return

Modified internal rate of return

Equivalent annuity

These methods use the incremental cash flows from each potential investment, or project

Techniques based on accounting earnings and accounting rules are sometimes used - though

economists consider this to be improper - such as the accounting rate of return, and "return on

investment." Simplified and hybrid methods are used as well, such as payback period and

discounted payback period.

Is a financial ratio used in capital budgeting. The ratio does not take into account the concept of

time value of money. ARR calculates the return, generated from net income of the proposed

capital investment. The ARR is a percentage return. Say, if ARR = 7%, then it means that the

project is expected to earn seven cents out each dollar invested. If the ARR is equal to or greater

than the required rate of return, the project is acceptable. If it is less than the desired rate, it

should be rejected. When comparing investments, the higher the ARR, the more attractive the

investment.

Assignment MBA 2nd Semester Subject: MB0029

Net present value (NPV) or Net present worth (NPW)

The net present value (NPV) or net present worth (NPW) of a time series of cash flows, both

incoming and outgoing, is defined as the sum of the present values (PVs) of the individual cash

flows. In case when all future cash flows are incoming (such as coupons and principal of a bond)

and the only outflow of cash is the purchase price, the NPV is simply the NPV of future cash

flows minus the purchase price (which is its own PV). NPV is a central tool in discounted cash

flow (DCF) analysis, and is a standard method for using the time value of money to appraise

long-term projects. Used for capital budgeting, and widely throughout economics, finance, and

accounting, it measures the excess or shortfall of cash flows, in present value terms, once

financing charges are met.

The NPV of a sequence of cash flows takes as input the cash flows and a discount rate or

discount curve and outputting a price; the converse process in DCF analysis, taking as input a

sequence of cash flows and a price and inferring as output a discount rate (the discount rate

which would yield the given price as NPV) is called the yield, and is more widely used in bond

trading.

Also known as profit investment ratio (PIR) and value investment ratio (VIR), is the ratio of

investment to payoff of a proposed project. It is a useful tool for ranking projects because it

allows you to quantify the amount of value created per unit of investment.

Assuming that the cash flow calculated does not include the investment made in the project, a

profitability index of 1 indicates breakeven. Any value lower than one would indicate that the

project's PV is less than the initial investment. As the value of the profitability index increases,

so does the financial attractiveness of the proposed project.

If PI < 1 then reject the project

Assignment MBA 2nd Semester Subject: MB0029

Internal rate of return

The internal rate of return (IRR) is a rate of return used in capital budgeting to measure and

compare the profitability of investments. It is also called the discounted cash flow rate of return

(DCFROR) or simply the rate of return (ROR). In the context of savings and loans the IRR is also

called the effective interest rate. The term internal refers to the fact that its calculation does

not incorporate environmental factors (e.g., the interest rate or inflation).

It is used in capital budgeting to rank alternative investments. As the name implies, MIRR is a

modification of the internal rate of return (IRR) and as such aims to resolve some problems with

the IRR.

In finance the equivalent annual cost (EAC) is the cost per year of owning and operating an

asset over its entire lifespan.

EAC is often used as a decision making tool in capital budgeting when comparing investment

projects of unequal life spans. For example if project A has an expected lifetime of 7 years, and

project B has an expected lifetime of 11 years it would be improper to simply compare the net

present values (NPVs) of the two projects, unless neither project could be repeated.

EAC is calculated by dividing the NPV of a project by the present value of an annuity factor.

Equivalently, the NPV of the project may be multiplied by the loan repayment factor.

EAC=

The use of the EAC method implies that the project will be replaced by an identical project.

Assignment MBA 2nd Semester Subject: MB0029

5. A road project require an initial investment of Rs.10,00,000. It is expected to

generate the following cash flow in the form of toll tax recovery.

Year Cash Inflows

1 4,50,000

2 4,25,000

3 3,00,000

4 3,50,000

Step I:

Compute the average of annual cash inflows

1 450000

2 425000

3 300000

4 350000

Total 1525000

Average = 1525000 /4

= Rs. 381250

Step II:

Divide the initial investment by the average of annul cash inflows:

= 1000000/381250

= 2.62

Step III:

From PVIFA table for 4 years, the annuity factor very near 2.62 is 19%. Therefore the first initial

rate is 19%

1 450000 0.84 378000

2 425000 0.706 300050

3 300000 0.593 177900

4 350000 0.499 174650

Total 1030600

Assignment MBA 2nd Semester Subject: MB0029

Since the initial investment of Rs. 10,00,000 is less than computed value at 19% of Rs. 1030600

the next trail rate is 20%

Year Cash flows PVIF factor @ 20% PV of cash flows

1 450000 0.833 374850

2 425000 0.694 294950

3 300000 0.579 173700

4 350000 0.482 168700

Total 1012200

Year Cash flows PVIF factor @ 21% PV of cash flows

1 450000 0.826 371700

2 425000 0.683 290275

3 300000 0.564 169200

4 350000 0.467 163450

Total 994625

Since the investment of Rs.10,00,000 lies between 21% and 20%, the IRR by interpolation is,

1000000 − 1012200

20 + x1

(1000000 − 994625)

IRR = 20.7%

Assignment MBA 2nd Semester Subject: MB0029

6. What is sensitivity analysis? Mention the steps involved in it.

Sensitivity Analysis

A technique used to determine how different values of an independent variable will impact a

particular dependent variable under a given set of assumptions. This technique is used

within specific boundaries that will depend on one or more input variables, such as the

effect that changes in interest rates will have on a bond's price.

Sensitivity analysis is a way to predict the outcome of a decision if a situation turns out to be

different compared to the key prediction(s).

Sensitivity analysis is very useful when attempting to determine the impact the actual outcome

of a particular variable will have if it differs from what was previously assumed. By creating

a given set of scenarios, the analyst can determine how changes in one variable(s) will impact

the target variable.

For example, an analyst might create a financial model that will value a company's equity

(the dependent variable) given the amount of earnings per share (an independent variable) the

company reports at the end of the year and the company's price-to-earnings multiple (another

independent variable) at that time. The analyst can create a table of predicted price-to-earnings

multiples and a corresponding value of the company's equity based on different values for each

of the independent variables.

In other words before an investment decision is taken, numerous forecasts of many factors

connected with the project are considered. Cash flows are predicted based on sales. Sales are in

turn dependent on the volume and unit selling price. Volume of sales depends on the market

size and the firm’s market share. Costs include variable costs which depend on the sales

volume. The NPV or

IRR of the project is again determined by the by analyzing the after-tax cash flows. We can

understand that it is difficult to arrive at an unbiased and accurate forecast of each variable. If

forecasts go wrong, the reliability of NPV or IRR is lost. Therefore each item of forecast is

changed, one at a time, to at least three values – pessimistic, expected and optimistic. NPV is re-

calculated for all the three assumptions. This method of re-calculating NPV or IRR for each

forecast is called sensitivity analysis.

Identification of variables that will influence on the project’s NPV/IRR.

Determining the mathematical relationship between the variables.

Analyzing the impact of the change in each of the variable on the project’s NPV.

Assignment MBA 2nd Semester Subject: MB0029

- CBT-NPV,BCR,IRRUploaded byZ Anderson Rajin
- IrrUploaded byPankaj2c
- Lecture 6 International Capital Budgeting TwoUploaded bySiva Naga Aswini B
- Basics of Capital_BudgetingUploaded byRahul Shukla
- Project Appraisal and FinanceUploaded byNaijalegend
- Investment Decision Criteria [PAF]Uploaded byVinayGolchha
- Lecture-6.pptxUploaded by2016 reza
- caiib_fmmoddmcqs_nov08Uploaded byNitin Sharma
- Excel Functions (Ism)Uploaded bySyril Thomas
- Typical StaffUploaded byMelvin Wu
- Topic 5. The Basics of Capital Budgeting.docxUploaded byCerf Vint
- Week 6 Chapter 12 & 13Uploaded byEed Eid
- Capital Budgeting TechniquesUploaded bymusa_scorpion
- 58236701 Capital BudgetingUploaded bypuneet
- Capital Budgeting DecisionsUploaded byarunadhana2004
- Capital Budgeting DemoUploaded byNeha Ujjwal
- MBA Questions AnswersUploaded byAli Asghar Gardezi
- Article MIRR a Better MeasureUploaded byabunourh
- 2. Capital Budgeting DecisionUploaded byAatish Pandit
- Capital BudgetingUploaded byShaheer Ali
- Brm ProjectUploaded byimaal
- Question Nair 1Uploaded byarjunmba119624
- Ch10IMUploaded byAditya Achmad Narendra Whindracaya
- IV Financial MgmtUploaded bysnow807
- anFinmanUploaded bykarina gayos
- ACCT 4230 - Final ReviewUploaded byRaquel Vandermeulen
- 04 Investment Appraisal MngUploaded bycanela.d
- Assign 1 Design Economics siapUploaded byaku_la
- Project Planning Appraisal and Control AssignmentUploaded byMpho Peloewtse Tau
- Raga355Uploaded byB

- MB0033 - Project Management - CompletedUploaded byroohulameen
- MB0028 - Production and Operations Management - CompletedUploaded byroohulameen
- MB0030 - Marketing Management - CompletedUploaded byroohulameen
- MB0031 - Management Information System - CompletedUploaded byroohulameen
- MB0032 - Operations Research - CompletedUploaded byroohulameen
- MB0026 - Set 1Uploaded byroohulameen
- MB0025 - Set 1Uploaded byroohulameen
- MB0024 - Set 2Uploaded byroohulameen
- MB0023 - Set 1Uploaded byroohulameen
- MB0022 - Set 1Uploaded byroohulameen
- MB0027 - Set 1Uploaded byroohulameen

- Chap 005Uploaded byCitra Dewi Wulansari
- Abbot's financial analysisUploaded byMonaaa
- PIA_Annual_Report2012_06052013Uploaded byUzma Bashir Ghaus
- Accounting for Branch Operation- BakerUploaded bySumon Shahariar
- Financial AccountingUploaded byayu7kaji
- Statement of cash flow by KiesoUploaded bySiblu Hasan
- operating-model-build-v33.xlsxUploaded bychandan.hegde
- Topics of finance badly explainedUploaded byAndres Goldbaum
- XxxxxxxxxxUploaded byJemaimah Buhayan
- Principles of Accounting - CH 5678Uploaded bysmaude01
- cfatest1Uploaded byranjuncajun
- MBA - Semester II - MCQ - All subjects-1.pdfUploaded byismath
- Finance Management Assignmenet HelpUploaded byAssignment Consultancy
- Solution Manual for Financial Accounting 7th Canadian Edition by KimmelUploaded bya849648994
- P2P AccountingUploaded byHimanshu Madan
- Application of Break Even AnalysisUploaded bySamarjit Chatterjee
- Cost Curve2Uploaded byBinayak Pandit
- Financial Accounting I Final Practice Exam 1Uploaded bymisterwaterr
- Stock Valuation ProblemsUploaded bytdavis1234
- Inventory & Bad DebtsUploaded byshahab
- CEKAUploaded bySolihul Hadi
- Pwc Adopting IfrsUploaded bysngtn
- Ch04-TestUploaded byxvkgpusz
- Financial Accounting Ch11Uploaded byDiana Fu
- Crown Case SolutionUploaded byurmiabir
- FIN 515 MART Teaching Effectively Fin515martdotcomUploaded byzenalogk
- Financial Accounting 1Uploaded byEr Lian
- Jurnal EdelweisUploaded byRis Ris
- Audit of Liabilities Quiz 3Uploaded byCattleya
- Ch06 Tb Hoggetta8eUploaded byAlex Schuldiner

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.