You are on page 1of 3

Data Preparation

- Preparation of data is the preprocessing of data. Typical operations are :

Data format conversion
Raster-vector conversion (or vice-versa)
Coordinate transformations
Edge matching
Data editing
Coordinate thinning
Attribute association
And many other operations
Data preparation-attribute association
With vector data, attribute data may be automatically associated with features that have
unique identifiers.
With raster data, each cell stores a characteristic value. This value can ve used to look
up attribute data.
Data Manipulation and Analysis
The purpose of manipulation and analysis is to derive new information from the contents of
the GIS database. Typical functions are :
Measurements (does not change original data)
Data querying (does not change original data)
Overlay function.
Neighborhood funcitons
Network functions
3-D analysis
Data representation
The purpose of data presentation in a GIS is to represent the derrived information in a clear and
unambiguous way to avoid that wrong decisions are taken. Catographic grammar rules need to
be followed.
Data Presentation Marginal Information
Additional information is needed to be fully understood the information presented in the map.
Data Presentation Multi-Dimensions
Spatial data can be viewed in multiple dimensions. The handling of time-dependent data can
be seen as the fourth dimension.
Data Presentation Interactive Web Maps
The internet creates a demand for higly-interactive and dynamically created maps with tools
for zooming, panning, hyperlinking, and more.
A geographic phenomenon is an entity or process of interest that ;
Can be named or described
Can be georeferenced (it has a position in space), and
Can be assigned a time (interval) at which it is/was present.
There are two groups of geographic phenomena, fields and objects :
Geographic field : a geographic phenomenon for which, for every point in the study
area, a value can be determined.
Geograpic object : well-distinguished, discreate, and bounded entities, not ppresent
everywhere in the study area (do not cover the total stydy area). The space between
them is potentially empty or undetermined.
Some typical examples of fields are temperature, barometric pressure and elevation.
In picture on the left you see an example of elevation. You can measure the height....
Continuous and discrete field
There are two types of geographic fields, continuous fields and discrete fields.:
In a convtinuous field, the underlying function is assumeed to be continuous.
Continuity means that all changes in field values are gradual (for example elevation).
Discrete fields cut up the stydy space in mutually exclusive bounded pats, with all
location in one part having the same field value (for example soil types).
Discrete fields.
Typical examples are land classifications, geological classes, soil types, landuse types,
crop types or natural vegetation types.
Objects are discrete and bounded entities.
The space between the objects is potentially emptyor undeterminde....
The posision of an object in space is determined by a combination of one or more of
the following parameters.
Discrete and continuous field assign.
Discrete field.
Both objects and discrete fields have boundaries.
Two different types of boundaries :
_ Crispt boundaries
_ Fuzzy Boundaries
Fuzzy boundaries contrast with crisp boundaries in that the boundary is not a precise
line, but rather an area of transition.