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Fundamentals 1

Statics, Dynamics and Mechanics of

Materials. (Part 2)

Stress and strain

We are now concerned with deformable bodies. If a bar of

material is subjected to an axial force its length will change by

a small amount. The amount of change in length will depend on

the material. Let bar cross section area be A.

∆L L ∆L

F F F F

L

force F

stress = , σ=

area A These are called direct

change in length ∆L stresses and direct strains.

strain = ,ε=

original length L

EXAMPLE

50 kN 50 kN

What are the stresses

in each section of bar? 25 mm ∅

50 mm ∅

π0.052 π0 .025 2

A1 = = 1.96 ×10 −3 m 2 , A1 = = 4.91× 10 −4 m 2

4 4

50000 N

σ1 = −3

= 25.5 × 10 6

Pa = 25.5 MPa

1.96 × 10 m 2

50000 N

σ2 = −4

= 101 .8 × 10 6

Pa = 101.8 MPa

4.91× 10 m 2

Stress-strain Curve

a - b: the elastic range.

About 0.1 - 0.2% of total strain σu d

to failure. σy c e

Nominal stress

If load is removed, bar returns

to original length. b

b - e: the plastic range.

Bar is permanently deformed.

σy = yield stress

Strain no longer proportional to

σu = ultimate tensile stress

strain.

b - c: peculiar to mild steel. a strain

c - d: strain hardening.

d - e: necking until failure. Ductile material

Failure

A ductile material is one that, when subjected to a tensile

force fails only after it has increased in length by a relatively

large amount. (Say 20-30%). Steel is ductile. Necking occurs and

a cup and cone failure occurs.

A brittle material is one that, when subjected to a tensile force

fails suddenly after only a very small increase in length. Stone

and cast iron and stone are brittle.

A material can fail in compression, the material crumbles apart.

A column of material can also buckle - another failure mode.

Elastic relationship

In the elastic range direct strain is proportional to direct

stress. Thus σ/ε is a constant. This constant is E.

σ

E= E is the modulus of elasticity or

ε Young’s modulus. Units are Pa.

Material E σy σu

E - GPa

mild steel, 210 240 320

σy - MPa

aluminium, 72 395 475

σu - MPa

lead 16 12

soft wood 7

diamond 1000

Factor of safety

The ratio between the ultimate tensile stress (UTS) and

the actual stress is the factor of safety.

bolts. The cylinder is 250 mm. If the UTS of the steel is 320 MPa ,

and a factor of safety of 3 is required, what is the maximum

pressure allowed in the cylinder?

Bolt CSA = 8 x (π122/4) = 905 mm2.

Max allowed force in bolts = (320 MPa/3) x 905 mm2 = 96533 N.

Force = pressure x area of cylinder. A = 0.252 π /4 = 0.049 m2.

P = F/A = 96533/0.049 = 1.97 MPa

Thin cylinders

Longitudinal stress.

Pressure x area = stress x area L

σL = longitudinal stress. d

Internal pressure p

π 2

p × d = πdt × σ L

4

pd σL

∴σL =

4t d

p

σL

t

Thin cylinders (2)

Circumferential stress. d

Pressure x area = stress x area

σC = circumferential stress.

t

p × d × L = L × 2t × σC

∴ σC =

pd σL p σL

2t

Circumferential stress L

d

twice longitudial stress. Internal pressure p

Lateral strain

laterally. The ration between the lateral and axial strain is

Poisson’s ratio. Thus εL = –υ x εA. Poisson’s ratio is a positive

quantity. For most materials υ is in the region 0.25 to 0.35.

Rubber has a value close to 0.5 and cork has a value close to 0.

F F

Shear stress and strain

Shear takes place in the same

plane as the force. Thus the

pin will shear in planes AB F F

and CD.

In this example shear force in

plane AB and in plane CD is

F/2. The area under shear in

plane is πd2/4. The shear stress A B

is the shear force/area over which C D

it acts. Thus

τ = FS AS

d

Shear stress and strain

The shear stress is the shear force/area over which it acts. Thus

τ = FS AS τ is the shear stress (N/m2).

x

The angle φ (in radians) FS

φ=x L

is the shear strain.

L

φ

G=τ φ G is the shear modulus,

in N/m2 or Pa.

E AS

It can be shown that G =

2(1 + υ)

G, E and υ are properties of the material.

EXAMPLE 1

In the system show the pin

has a diameter of 10 mm and

the maximum allowable shear F F

stress is 50 MPa. What is the

maximum force that can be applied to the joint?

Area of one shear plane is

AS = πd 2 4 = π × 0.010 2 4 = 7.854 × 10 −5 m 2

N

FS = τ max As = 50 ×10 2 × 7.854 ×10 −5 m 2

6

m

FS = 3927 N ∴Max force = 2 FS = 7854 N

EXAMPLE 2

An engine mounted is modelled as a rubber pad, 50 mm by

50 mm and 20 mm thick. Each pad is subjected a shear force

of 500 N. Determine the deflection of the pad due to shear

if (for this rubber) υ = 0.47 and E = 2.94 MPa.

τ = FS/AS = 500 N/0.0502 m2 = 200,000 N/m2 = 0.2 MPa.

G = τ/φ so that φ = τ/G = 0.2/1 = 0.2.

Since φ = x/L, x = φL = 0.2 x 20 mm = 4 mm.

Beam loading

Beams are important structural members, usually supporting

transverse loads. Such members are found in bridges, roof

trusses and cranes. Beams are usually horizontal, loads vertical

(but not always). Loads may be point loads or distributed loads.

Crane carrying a point load load of water).

Types of beam

or prop-propped

Cantilever or clamped-free

Clamped-supported, clamped-

pinned or clamp-propped.

Built-in or clamp-clamped

Beam boundaries

deflection. Reaction force and fixing

moment act.

deflection. Reaction force acts.

take place. No reaction force or fixing

moment.

Beam equilibrium

When a beam is loaded it will tend to bend. To analyse this we

need to know the internal forces and moments that respond to

the applied forces etc.

If the beam is stationary it must be in equilibrium and also each

part must be in equilibrium. E.g.

F

P1 P2 P1 M M P2

F

F is the shear force, M is the bending moment.

Sign convention

Positive shear force

Positive bending

moment - sagging

moment - hogging

Shear force diagrams

The force (SF) at any point along the beam is the algebraic sum

of all the normal forces acting on either side of a point on the beam.

RD = (14 + 36)/10 = 5 kN. F = RA – 7 – 6 + 5 = 0. RA = 8 kN

7kN 6kN

2m B 4m C 4m

A D

RA RD

Drawing SF diagram

8 7kN 6kN

A B C D A B C D

8

1

A C D A B C D

8

1

A D A B C D

–5

8

1

A D A B C D

–5 8 kN 5 kN

SF diagram with

distributed loads

6 kN/m

Suppose the A B

UDL is 6kN/m. RA 10 m RB

Total load = 60 kN

Thus RA = RB = 30 kN x

SF at x (to left) = 30 – 10x. x = 0, SF = 30 kN

x = 5m, SF = 30 – 6 x 5 = 0, x = 10m, SF = 30 – 6 x 10 = – 30 kN

30 kN

– 30 kN

Bending moment

diagram

The bending moment at any point along the beam is the algebraic

sum of all the moments acting on either side of a point on the beam.

7kN 6kN

2m B 4m C 4m

A D

8kN 5kN

Drawing BM diagram

7 6

This is a previous example. The

B C

beam is 10 m long. A D

MP = 8x [x ≤ 2] 8 5

7 6

MQ = 8x − 7(x − 2) [2 ≤ x ≤ 6]

MR = 8x − 7(x − 2) − 6(x − 6) 2m B C D

A

[6 ≤ x ≤ 10] 8 5

7 6

Thus MA = 0, MB = 16 kN m 2m B 4m C

A D

MC = 48 − 28 = 20 kN m 8 5

MD = 80 − 56 − 24 = 0 kN m

Drawing BM diagram

7 6

Note BM is all positive

because BM cause beam 2m B 4m C 4m

A D

to sag. 8 5

20

16

BM diagram with

distributed load

Consider UDL 6 kN/m

A B

to left of P. Its

30 kN 10 m 30 kN

centre of mass P

is at x/2. Thus x

MP = 30x − (6 x x) x x/2 = 30x − 3x2.

Thus

x = 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

MP = 0 27 48 63 72 75 72 63 48 27 0

BM diagram with

distributed load

80

70

M 60

50

40

30

20

10

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

x

SF diagram for a

complicated system

10 kN

Beam 10 m long. UDL 6 kN/m

extends over 3/4 of A D B

length. Central point RA C RB

load of 10 kN. P Q R

x

RA + RB = 10 + 7.5 x 6 = 55 kN.

Mts at A. 7.5 x 6 x 3.75 + 10 x 5 = 10RB

218.75 kN m = 10 m RB. RB = 21.875 kN

Thus RA = 55 − 21.875 = 33.125 kN

P lies between A and C. SFP = 33.125 − 6x [x ≤ 5]

Q lies between C and D, SFQ = 33.125 − 6x − 10 [5 ≤ x ≤ 7.5]

R lies between D and B, SFR = 33.125 − 6 x 7.5 − 10 [constant]

SF diagram for a

complicated system

10 kN

6 kN/m

A D B

RA C RB

P Q R

xP

33 kN −6kN/m

3 kN

−7 kN

−22 kN

BM diagram for a

complicated system

10 kN

6 kN/m

A D B

33.125 C 21.875

P Q R

x

Note trick of introducing

MP = 33.125x − 3x2; [x ≤ 5] negative UDL

MQ = 33.125x − 3x2 − 10(x − 5); [5 ≤ x ≤ 7.5]

MR = 33.125x − 3x2 − 10(x − 5) + 3(x − 7.5)2; [7.5 ≤ x ≤ 10]

SF diagram for a

complicated system

100

90

80

M Sharp corner

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

x

SF and BM diagrams

SF and BM 40

shown together. 0

BM is a max -40

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

BM

Cantilevers

Easier to develop SF and BM 5 kN 7 kN

diagrams from free end. We don’t

1m 1m

yet know the fixing moment and

force at the clamped end. x

A-B: SF = 5 kN

B-C: SF = 5 + 7 = 12 kN SF

A-B BM = 5x

B-C BM = 5x + 7(1 – x)

BM

Note that a cantilever with a LHE

clamped has +ve SF and BM diagrams.

Superposition

The principle of superposition widely used in stress analysis.

One application of the principle of superposition is as follows:

We can determine the BM diagram for a complex system of

loads from the BM diagrams for the individual loads.

Superposition

15 kN

1m 2m 10

10 kN 5 kN

12 kN 9

1.5 m 1.5 m

6 kN 6 kN

16 16.5

15 kN 12 kN

Beam in bending

In compression

N A

In tension

through the centroid (i.e. centre of area of the beam cross section).

N comp A

tension

Position of a centroid

h/3

h

X X

Take moments of area about axis XX y

y

Mt of area = Ay = ∑ Ay y

∴y =

∑ A y y

Ay

A

EXAMPLE

- T section

AA = 10 × 50 = 500mm 2 50 mm

A 10 mm

AB = 10 × 50 = 500mm 2

y

yA = 10 2 = 5mm

yB = 10 + 50 2 = 35mm 50 mm

∑

B

A y A yA + AB yB

y= =

y A

A AA + AB 10 mm

500 × 5 + 500 × 35

y= = 20mm

500 + 500

Beams in Bending (1)

Before bending CD = AB R

After bending AB = Rθ and θ

C1D1 = (R + y)θ. Thus

C1D1 – CD = (R + y)θ – Rθ = yθ

Strain ε = yθ/Rθ = y/R y

N A

But ε = σ/E. Thus

A B D

σ E C1 1

=

y R B

A

Note that stress is a maximum C D

when y is a maximum.

EXAMPLE

A steel strip, 50 mm wide and 2 mm thick is wrapped a 1.5 m

diameter drum. What is the max bending stress? E = 200 GPa.

2 mm

50 mm

σ = Ey/R = 200 x 109 x 1/(0.75 x 103) = 267 x 106Pa = 267 MPa.

in bending, but rather the moment applied to the beam.

Beams in Bending (2)

Longitudinal force Fy = σ x δA

Moment about NA My = σ x δA x y δA

Since σ = Ey/R then

My = (Ey/R) x δA x y = (Ey2 x δA)/R

y

Total moment for the whole section is N A

E

M = ∑ M y = ∑ y 2 δA. Let ∑ y 2 δA = I .

R

EI M E M σ E

∴M = or = . Hence = =

R I R I y R

I is the second moment of area for the section.

2nd moment of area

It has been stated that

of area.

∑ δA = I where I is the 2nd moment

y 2

b

For a rectangle INA = bd3/12

For a circle INA = πD4/64

D d

We will also use the relationship:

IXX = INA + Ah2 where INA is the 2nd moment of area about the

neutral axis and IXX is another, parallel axis, a distance h from

the neutral axis.

EXAMPLE

- T section

50 mm

INA = [IA + AA h2] + [IB + ABh2]

A 10 mm

INA = [50x103/12+50x10x(20–5)2]

+ [10x503/12+50x10x(35 – 20)2] y = 20mm

+ [1250000/12 + 500 x 225] B 50 mm

= 116666.7 + 216666.7

4 10 mm

= 333,333 mm .

Note that in the other plane INA = IA + IB = 10x503/12+50x102/12

INA = 104,583 mm4.

I values for equal area

shapes

70 mm

70 mm

612,500 1,012,500

57,398 mm4

mm4 mm4

Stress due to bending

moments - Summary

When a beam is subjected to an applied bending moment M, it

will bend. Then

M σ E

= =

I y R

Where σ is the direct stress a distance y from the neutral axis, I is

the 2nd moment of area of the beam, R is the radius of curvature

and E is the modulus of elasticity.

N comp y A

tension

EXAMPLE

A beam comprises an alloy I-beam. The

maximum allowable stress is 150 MPa.

Determined the greatest moment that can

be supported by the beam. 6.25 mm

I = (4.75x87.53)/12+2(50x6.253)/12 100 mm

+2(50x6.25)x(50–3.125)2.

6 4 –6 4 4.75 mm 87.5 mm

= 1.641 x 10 mm = 1.641 x 10 m

M = σI/y. Thus:

M = 150 x 106 x 1.641 x 10–6/0.05

50 mm

M = 4,923 Nm

Note: maximum stress occurs at maximum distance from NA.

EXAMPLE 2

A bending moment of 1 kNm is 50 mm

applied to the T-beam shown. A 10 mm

Determine the maximum tensile

y = 20mm

and compressive stress.

At the top edge y = 20 mm

σC = My/I = 1000 x 20/333333 Nm/mm3 B 50 mm

= 60.1 MPa

At the bottom edge y = 40 mm 10 mm

σT = My/I = 1000 x 40/333333 Nm/mm3 INA = 333,333 mm4

= 120.2 MPa

Shear Stress due to

Torsion

The following analysis is restricted to circular shafts.

Shear strain due to torsion is φ = x/L. Since

θ = x/r then φL = θr. Thus φ = θr/L.

φ = τ/G. Thus τ/G = θr/L. Rearranging τ/r = Gθ/L τ

x

θ

r

r

L

Shear strain and stress are directly proportional to the distance

r from the axis of the shaft.

Shear Stress due to

Torsion

Consider an element in the circular shaft

with area = δA. Moment or torque applied

to element is the product of shear stress,

δA

area of element and distance from axis of

rotation. Thus

δΤ = τ x (δA) x r r

Τ = Σ δΤ = Σ(τ x rδA)

Since τ/r = Gθ/L, τ = rGθ/L. Thus

Τ = Σ δΤ = Σ(Gθr2δA)/L

For a circular shaft

Let J = Σ(r2δA) - the polar 2nd moment

J = πD4/32

area. Thus Τ = GθJ/L or Τ/J = Gθ/L

Shear stress due to

torsion - Summary

When a circular shaft of length L is subjected to an applied

torque Τ it will twist by an angle θ. Then

Τ Gθ τ

= =

J L r

Where τ is the shear stress at a radius r, J is the polar 2nd moment

of area of the shaft and G is the shear modulus.

EXAMPLE 1

A hollow circular shaft has an o/d of 40 mm and an i/d 30 mm.

If the max allowable shear stress is 40 MPa, determine the max

allowable torque.

Τ/J = τ/r. Thus Τ = Jτ/r = 1.718 x 10–7 x 40 x 106/0.04 Nm

Τ = 171.8 Nm

EXAMPLE 2

A circular shaft is required to transmit 40 kW at 2 rev/s. The shear

stress is limited to 50 MN/m2 and the twist must not exceed

0.5º/m. G = 77 GN/m2. Calculate the diameter of the shaft.

Since power = Τω (see later), Τ = 40000/(2π x 2) = 3183 Nm.

Τ/J = Gθ/L = τ/r

Τ/τ = J/r. Thus J/r = 3183/50 x 106 = 5.895 x 10–6 m3.

(πD4/32)/(D/2) = πD3/16 = 6.366 x 10–5 m3.

D = 0.0687 m or 68.7 mm.

θ = 0.5 x π/180 = 0.00873.

Τ/J = Gθ/L. Thus J = ΤL/Gθ=3183/(77x109x0.00873)=4.735x10–6

πD4/32 = 4.735x10–6 m4, D = 0.0833 m or 83.3 mm. (Required dia).

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