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ME117 Engineering

Fundamentals 1
Statics, Dynamics and Mechanics of
Materials. (Part 2)
Stress and strain
We are now concerned with deformable bodies. If a bar of
material is subjected to an axial force its length will change by
a small amount. The amount of change in length will depend on
the material. Let bar cross section area be A.
∆L L ∆L
F F F F

L
force F
stress = , σ=
area A These are called direct
change in length ∆L stresses and direct strains.
strain = ,ε=
original length L
EXAMPLE
50 kN 50 kN
What are the stresses
in each section of bar? 25 mm ∅
50 mm ∅

π0.052 π0 .025 2
A1 = = 1.96 ×10 −3 m 2 , A1 = = 4.91× 10 −4 m 2
4 4
50000 N
σ1 = −3
= 25.5 × 10 6
Pa = 25.5 MPa
1.96 × 10 m 2

50000 N
σ2 = −4
= 101 .8 × 10 6
Pa = 101.8 MPa
4.91× 10 m 2
Stress-strain Curve
a - b: the elastic range.
About 0.1 - 0.2% of total strain σu d
to failure. σy c e

Nominal stress
If load is removed, bar returns
to original length. b
b - e: the plastic range.
Bar is permanently deformed.
σy = yield stress
Strain no longer proportional to
σu = ultimate tensile stress
strain.
b - c: peculiar to mild steel. a strain
c - d: strain hardening.
d - e: necking until failure. Ductile material
Failure
A ductile material is one that, when subjected to a tensile
force fails only after it has increased in length by a relatively
large amount. (Say 20-30%). Steel is ductile. Necking occurs and
a cup and cone failure occurs.
A brittle material is one that, when subjected to a tensile force
fails suddenly after only a very small increase in length. Stone
and cast iron and stone are brittle.
A material can fail in compression, the material crumbles apart.
A column of material can also buckle - another failure mode.
Elastic relationship
In the elastic range direct strain is proportional to direct
stress. Thus σ/ε is a constant. This constant is E.
σ
E= E is the modulus of elasticity or
ε Young’s modulus. Units are Pa.
Material E σy σu
E - GPa
mild steel, 210 240 320
σy - MPa
aluminium, 72 395 475
σu - MPa
lead 16 12
soft wood 7
diamond 1000
Factor of safety
The ratio between the ultimate tensile stress (UTS) and
the actual stress is the factor of safety.

A cylinder cover plate is attached by 8, mild steel, 12 mm dia


bolts. The cylinder is 250 mm. If the UTS of the steel is 320 MPa ,
and a factor of safety of 3 is required, what is the maximum
pressure allowed in the cylinder?
Bolt CSA = 8 x (π122/4) = 905 mm2.
Max allowed force in bolts = (320 MPa/3) x 905 mm2 = 96533 N.
Force = pressure x area of cylinder. A = 0.252 π /4 = 0.049 m2.
P = F/A = 96533/0.049 = 1.97 MPa
Thin cylinders
Longitudinal stress.
Pressure x area = stress x area L
σL = longitudinal stress. d
Internal pressure p
π 2
p × d = πdt × σ L
4
pd σL
∴σL =
4t d
p
σL
t
Thin cylinders (2)
Circumferential stress. d
Pressure x area = stress x area
σC = circumferential stress.
t
p × d × L = L × 2t × σC

∴ σC =
pd σL p σL
2t

Circumferential stress L
d
twice longitudial stress. Internal pressure p
Lateral strain

Under a tensile load a bar stretches axially but it also contracts


laterally. The ration between the lateral and axial strain is
Poisson’s ratio. Thus εL = –υ x εA. Poisson’s ratio is a positive
quantity. For most materials υ is in the region 0.25 to 0.35.
Rubber has a value close to 0.5 and cork has a value close to 0.

F F
Shear stress and strain
Shear takes place in the same
plane as the force. Thus the
pin will shear in planes AB F F
and CD.
In this example shear force in
plane AB and in plane CD is
F/2. The area under shear in
plane is πd2/4. The shear stress A B
is the shear force/area over which C D
it acts. Thus
τ = FS AS
d
Shear stress and strain
The shear stress is the shear force/area over which it acts. Thus
τ = FS AS τ is the shear stress (N/m2).
x
The angle φ (in radians) FS
φ=x L
is the shear strain.
L
φ
G=τ φ G is the shear modulus,
in N/m2 or Pa.
E AS
It can be shown that G =
2(1 + υ)
G, E and υ are properties of the material.
EXAMPLE 1
In the system show the pin
has a diameter of 10 mm and
the maximum allowable shear F F
stress is 50 MPa. What is the
maximum force that can be applied to the joint?
Area of one shear plane is
AS = πd 2 4 = π × 0.010 2 4 = 7.854 × 10 −5 m 2
N
FS = τ max As = 50 ×10 2 × 7.854 ×10 −5 m 2
6

m
FS = 3927 N ∴Max force = 2 FS = 7854 N
EXAMPLE 2
An engine mounted is modelled as a rubber pad, 50 mm by
50 mm and 20 mm thick. Each pad is subjected a shear force
of 500 N. Determine the deflection of the pad due to shear
if (for this rubber) υ = 0.47 and E = 2.94 MPa.

G = 2.94 MPa/[2(1+0.47)] = 1 MPa.


τ = FS/AS = 500 N/0.0502 m2 = 200,000 N/m2 = 0.2 MPa.
G = τ/φ so that φ = τ/G = 0.2/1 = 0.2.
Since φ = x/L, x = φL = 0.2 x 20 mm = 4 mm.
Beam loading
Beams are important structural members, usually supporting
transverse loads. Such members are found in bridges, roof
trusses and cranes. Beams are usually horizontal, loads vertical
(but not always). Loads may be point loads or distributed loads.

Aqueduct (carrying a distributed


Crane carrying a point load load of water).
Types of beam

Simply supported of pin-pinned


or prop-propped
Cantilever or clamped-free

Clamped-supported, clamped-
pinned or clamp-propped.

Built-in or clamp-clamped
Beam boundaries

Clamped support. No rotation, no


deflection. Reaction force and fixing
moment act.

Simple support. Rotation but no


deflection. Reaction force acts.

Free end. Rotation and deflection can


take place. No reaction force or fixing
moment.
Beam equilibrium
When a beam is loaded it will tend to bend. To analyse this we
need to know the internal forces and moments that respond to
the applied forces etc.
If the beam is stationary it must be in equilibrium and also each
part must be in equilibrium. E.g.
F
P1 P2 P1 M M P2

F
F is the shear force, M is the bending moment.
Sign convention
Positive shear force
Positive bending
moment - sagging

Negative shear force Negative bending


moment - hogging
Shear force diagrams
The force (SF) at any point along the beam is the algebraic sum
of all the normal forces acting on either side of a point on the beam.

E.g. To find reactions, acw MA = 10RD – 2 x 7 – 6 x 6 = 0


RD = (14 + 36)/10 = 5 kN. F = RA – 7 – 6 + 5 = 0. RA = 8 kN

7kN 6kN
2m B 4m C 4m
A D
RA RD
Drawing SF diagram
8 7kN 6kN

A B C D A B C D
8
1
A C D A B C D
8
1
A D A B C D
–5
8
1
A D A B C D
–5 8 kN 5 kN
SF diagram with
distributed loads
6 kN/m
Suppose the A B
UDL is 6kN/m. RA 10 m RB
Total load = 60 kN
Thus RA = RB = 30 kN x
SF at x (to left) = 30 – 10x. x = 0, SF = 30 kN
x = 5m, SF = 30 – 6 x 5 = 0, x = 10m, SF = 30 – 6 x 10 = – 30 kN

30 kN

– 30 kN
Bending moment
diagram
The bending moment at any point along the beam is the algebraic
sum of all the moments acting on either side of a point on the beam.

7kN 6kN
2m B 4m C 4m
A D
8kN 5kN
Drawing BM diagram
7 6
This is a previous example. The
B C
beam is 10 m long. A D
MP = 8x [x ≤ 2] 8 5
7 6
MQ = 8x − 7(x − 2) [2 ≤ x ≤ 6]
MR = 8x − 7(x − 2) − 6(x − 6) 2m B C D
A
[6 ≤ x ≤ 10] 8 5
7 6
Thus MA = 0, MB = 16 kN m 2m B 4m C
A D
MC = 48 − 28 = 20 kN m 8 5
MD = 80 − 56 − 24 = 0 kN m
Drawing BM diagram

7 6
Note BM is all positive
because BM cause beam 2m B 4m C 4m
A D
to sag. 8 5
20
16

Bending Moment Diagram


BM diagram with
distributed load
Consider UDL 6 kN/m
A B
to left of P. Its
30 kN 10 m 30 kN
centre of mass P
is at x/2. Thus x
MP = 30x − (6 x x) x x/2 = 30x − 3x2.
Thus
x = 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
MP = 0 27 48 63 72 75 72 63 48 27 0
BM diagram with
distributed load
80

70

M 60

50

40

30

20

10

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

x
SF diagram for a
complicated system
10 kN
Beam 10 m long. UDL 6 kN/m
extends over 3/4 of A D B
length. Central point RA C RB
load of 10 kN. P Q R
x
RA + RB = 10 + 7.5 x 6 = 55 kN.
Mts at A. 7.5 x 6 x 3.75 + 10 x 5 = 10RB
218.75 kN m = 10 m RB. RB = 21.875 kN
Thus RA = 55 − 21.875 = 33.125 kN
P lies between A and C. SFP = 33.125 − 6x [x ≤ 5]
Q lies between C and D, SFQ = 33.125 − 6x − 10 [5 ≤ x ≤ 7.5]
R lies between D and B, SFR = 33.125 − 6 x 7.5 − 10 [constant]
SF diagram for a
complicated system
10 kN
6 kN/m
A D B
RA C RB
P Q R
xP
33 kN −6kN/m
3 kN

−7 kN
−22 kN
BM diagram for a
complicated system
10 kN
6 kN/m
A D B
33.125 C 21.875
P Q R
x
Note trick of introducing
MP = 33.125x − 3x2; [x ≤ 5] negative UDL
MQ = 33.125x − 3x2 − 10(x − 5); [5 ≤ x ≤ 7.5]
MR = 33.125x − 3x2 − 10(x − 5) + 3(x − 7.5)2; [7.5 ≤ x ≤ 10]
SF diagram for a
complicated system
100

90

80
M Sharp corner
70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

x
SF and BM diagrams
SF and BM 40

diagrams are usually SF 20

shown together. 0

Note when SF is zero, -20

BM is a max -40
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

BM
Cantilevers
Easier to develop SF and BM 5 kN 7 kN
diagrams from free end. We don’t
1m 1m
yet know the fixing moment and
force at the clamped end. x
A-B: SF = 5 kN
B-C: SF = 5 + 7 = 12 kN SF
A-B BM = 5x
B-C BM = 5x + 7(1 – x)
BM
Note that a cantilever with a LHE
clamped has +ve SF and BM diagrams.
Superposition
The principle of superposition widely used in stress analysis.
One application of the principle of superposition is as follows:
We can determine the BM diagram for a complex system of
loads from the BM diagrams for the individual loads.
Superposition
15 kN
1m 2m 10

10 kN 5 kN
12 kN 9
1.5 m 1.5 m
6 kN 6 kN

16 16.5
15 kN 12 kN
Beam in bending
In compression
N A

In tension

Neutral axis(NA) - line of zero strain and stress. The NA passes


through the centroid (i.e. centre of area of the beam cross section).

N comp A
tension
Position of a centroid
h/3
h

X X
Take moments of area about axis XX y
y
Mt of area = Ay = ∑ Ay y

∴y =
∑ A y y
Ay

A
EXAMPLE
- T section
AA = 10 × 50 = 500mm 2 50 mm
A 10 mm
AB = 10 × 50 = 500mm 2
y
yA = 10 2 = 5mm
yB = 10 + 50 2 = 35mm 50 mm


B
A y A yA + AB yB
y= =
y A
A AA + AB 10 mm
500 × 5 + 500 × 35
y= = 20mm
500 + 500
Beams in Bending (1)
Before bending CD = AB R
After bending AB = Rθ and θ
C1D1 = (R + y)θ. Thus
C1D1 – CD = (R + y)θ – Rθ = yθ
Strain ε = yθ/Rθ = y/R y
N A
But ε = σ/E. Thus
A B D
σ E C1 1
=
y R B
A
Note that stress is a maximum C D
when y is a maximum.
EXAMPLE
A steel strip, 50 mm wide and 2 mm thick is wrapped a 1.5 m
diameter drum. What is the max bending stress? E = 200 GPa.

2 mm
50 mm

Max(σ) occurs when y is a maximum, i.e. y = 1 mm. Thus


σ = Ey/R = 200 x 109 x 1/(0.75 x 103) = 267 x 106Pa = 267 MPa.

Generally we will not know the radius of curvature of the beam


in bending, but rather the moment applied to the beam.
Beams in Bending (2)
Longitudinal force Fy = σ x δA
Moment about NA My = σ x δA x y δA
Since σ = Ey/R then
My = (Ey/R) x δA x y = (Ey2 x δA)/R
y
Total moment for the whole section is N A
E
M = ∑ M y = ∑ y 2 δA. Let ∑ y 2 δA = I .
R
EI M E M σ E
∴M = or = . Hence = =
R I R I y R
I is the second moment of area for the section.
2nd moment of area
It has been stated that
of area.
∑ δA = I where I is the 2nd moment
y 2

b
For a rectangle INA = bd3/12
For a circle INA = πD4/64
D d
We will also use the relationship:
IXX = INA + Ah2 where INA is the 2nd moment of area about the
neutral axis and IXX is another, parallel axis, a distance h from
the neutral axis.
EXAMPLE
- T section
50 mm
INA = [IA + AA h2] + [IB + ABh2]
A 10 mm
INA = [50x103/12+50x10x(20–5)2]
+ [10x503/12+50x10x(35 – 20)2] y = 20mm

INA = [50000/12 + 500 x 225]


+ [1250000/12 + 500 x 225] B 50 mm

= 116666.7 + 216666.7
4 10 mm
= 333,333 mm .
Note that in the other plane INA = IA + IB = 10x503/12+50x102/12
INA = 104,583 mm4.
I values for equal area
shapes
70 mm
70 mm
612,500 1,012,500
57,398 mm4
mm4 mm4

Area = 1500 mm2.


Stress due to bending
moments - Summary
When a beam is subjected to an applied bending moment M, it
will bend. Then
M σ E
= =
I y R
Where σ is the direct stress a distance y from the neutral axis, I is
the 2nd moment of area of the beam, R is the radius of curvature
and E is the modulus of elasticity.

N comp y A
tension
EXAMPLE
A beam comprises an alloy I-beam. The
maximum allowable stress is 150 MPa.
Determined the greatest moment that can
be supported by the beam. 6.25 mm

I = (4.75x87.53)/12+2(50x6.253)/12 100 mm
+2(50x6.25)x(50–3.125)2.
6 4 –6 4 4.75 mm 87.5 mm
= 1.641 x 10 mm = 1.641 x 10 m
M = σI/y. Thus:
M = 150 x 106 x 1.641 x 10–6/0.05
50 mm
M = 4,923 Nm
Note: maximum stress occurs at maximum distance from NA.
EXAMPLE 2
A bending moment of 1 kNm is 50 mm
applied to the T-beam shown. A 10 mm
Determine the maximum tensile
y = 20mm
and compressive stress.
At the top edge y = 20 mm
σC = My/I = 1000 x 20/333333 Nm/mm3 B 50 mm
= 60.1 MPa
At the bottom edge y = 40 mm 10 mm
σT = My/I = 1000 x 40/333333 Nm/mm3 INA = 333,333 mm4
= 120.2 MPa
Shear Stress due to
Torsion
The following analysis is restricted to circular shafts.
Shear strain due to torsion is φ = x/L. Since
θ = x/r then φL = θr. Thus φ = θr/L.
φ = τ/G. Thus τ/G = θr/L. Rearranging τ/r = Gθ/L τ

x
θ
r
r
L
Shear strain and stress are directly proportional to the distance
r from the axis of the shaft.
Shear Stress due to
Torsion
Consider an element in the circular shaft
with area = δA. Moment or torque applied
to element is the product of shear stress,
δA
area of element and distance from axis of
rotation. Thus
δΤ = τ x (δA) x r r
Τ = Σ δΤ = Σ(τ x rδA)
Since τ/r = Gθ/L, τ = rGθ/L. Thus
Τ = Σ δΤ = Σ(Gθr2δA)/L
For a circular shaft
Let J = Σ(r2δA) - the polar 2nd moment
J = πD4/32
area. Thus Τ = GθJ/L or Τ/J = Gθ/L
Shear stress due to
torsion - Summary
When a circular shaft of length L is subjected to an applied
torque Τ it will twist by an angle θ. Then
Τ Gθ τ
= =
J L r
Where τ is the shear stress at a radius r, J is the polar 2nd moment
of area of the shaft and G is the shear modulus.
EXAMPLE 1
A hollow circular shaft has an o/d of 40 mm and an i/d 30 mm.
If the max allowable shear stress is 40 MPa, determine the max
allowable torque.

J = πD4/32 – πd4/32 = (π/32)(0.044 – 0.034) = 1.718 x 10–7 m4.


Τ/J = τ/r. Thus Τ = Jτ/r = 1.718 x 10–7 x 40 x 106/0.04 Nm
Τ = 171.8 Nm
EXAMPLE 2
A circular shaft is required to transmit 40 kW at 2 rev/s. The shear
stress is limited to 50 MN/m2 and the twist must not exceed
0.5º/m. G = 77 GN/m2. Calculate the diameter of the shaft.
Since power = Τω (see later), Τ = 40000/(2π x 2) = 3183 Nm.
Τ/J = Gθ/L = τ/r
Τ/τ = J/r. Thus J/r = 3183/50 x 106 = 5.895 x 10–6 m3.
(πD4/32)/(D/2) = πD3/16 = 6.366 x 10–5 m3.
D = 0.0687 m or 68.7 mm.
θ = 0.5 x π/180 = 0.00873.
Τ/J = Gθ/L. Thus J = ΤL/Gθ=3183/(77x109x0.00873)=4.735x10–6
πD4/32 = 4.735x10–6 m4, D = 0.0833 m or 83.3 mm. (Required dia).