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Food Processing

Is defined as the practices used by food and beverage industries to transform raw plant
and animal materials, such as grains, produce, meat and dairy, into products for
consumers. Nearly all our food is processed in some way. Examples include freezing
vegetables, milling wheat into flour and frying potato chips. Slaughtering animals for
meat is also sometimes considered a form of food processing.
Is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food or
food into other forms for consumption by humans or animals either in the home or by
the food processing industry. Food processing typically takes clean, harvested crops
or slaughtered and butchered animal products and uses these to produce attractive,
marketable, and often long-life food products.

Canning
- is an important, safe method for preserving food if practiced properly. The canning process
involves placing foods in jars or similar containers and heating them to a temperature that
destroys micro-organisms that cause food to spoil. During this heating process air is driven
out of the jar and as it cools a vacuum seal is formed. This vacuum seal prevents air from
getting back into the product bringing with it contaminating micro-organisms.

History:
1795 - French government faced the fact that its not easy winning battles abroad
when your soldiers are hungry and malnourished. That year the French government
established a 12,000-franc prize for whoever could find a way to preserve foodfrom
milk and meat to fruits and vegetables.
1810 Nicolas Appert (Father of Canning) published Lart de conserver pendant
plusiers annes toutes les substances animales et vgtales (The of art of conserving,
for several years, all animal and vegetable substances) and collected his prize money.
Apperts achievement didnt escape the notice of British inventor Peter Durand, who
soon applied for a British patent to preserve food.
1890s to 1920s Heinz company mandated weekly manicures for its canning-factory
workers to ensure that any bacteria lurking beneath employees fingernails stayed out
of the food. Heinz employees were required to shower and change their underwear
regularly.
Two safe ways of processing food:

1. Boiling Water Bath Method. Safe for tomatoes, fruits, jams, jellies, pickles and
other preserves. In this method, jars of food are heated completely covered with boiling
water (212F at sea level) and cooked for a specified amount of time.
2. Pressure Canning Method. Is the only safe method of preserving vegetables,
meats, poultry and seafood. Jars of food are placed in 2 to 3 inches of water in a special
pressure cooker which is heated to a temperature of at least 240 F. This temperature
can only be reached using the pressure method. A microorganism called Clostridium
botulinum is the main reason why pressure processing is necessary. Though the
bacterial cells are killed at boiling temperatures, they can form spores that can
withstand these temperatures.
The low acidic foods include:

meats
seafood
poultry
dairy products
all vegetables

The high acidic foods include:

fruits
properly pickled vegetables

Degrees of food processing:

1. Minimally processed food. Fruit, vegetables, legumes, nuts, meat and milk are
often sold in minimally processed forms. Foods sold as such are not substantially
changed from their raw, unprocessed form and retain most of their nutritional
properties. Minimal forms of processing include washing, peeling, slicing, juicing and
removing inedible parts. Some nutritionists also characterize freezing, drying and
fermenting as minimal forms of processing. To prolong shelf life and inhibit the growth
of pathogens, perishable foods may have preservatives added to them, or they may
be sealed in sterile packaging. Some minimally processed foods and beverages may
be exposed to controlled amounts of heat, or in some cases radiation, to inactivate
pathogens. Milk, for example, is commonly heat pasteurized. After purchase,
consumers may cook these foods and mix them with other ingredients as part of their
preparation.
2. Processed food ingredients. This group includes flours, oils, fats, sugars,
sweeteners, starches and other ingredients. High fructose corn syrup, margarine and
vegetable oil are common examples. Processed food ingredients are rarely eaten
alone; they are typically used in cooking or in the manufacture of highly processed
foods. To create these ingredients, starting materials such as grains and oil seeds may
be milled, refined, crushed or exposed to chemicals. Unlike minimal forms of
processing, these techniques radically change the nature of the original raw materials.
Processed food ingredients tend to be nutrient-poor, meaning they are high in calories
relative to the amount of vitamins, minerals and other key dietary nutrients.
3. Highly processed foods. Highly processed foods are made from combinations of
unprocessed food, minimally processed food and processed food ingredients. Many
are designed with consumer convenience in mind. They are often portable, can be
eaten anywhere (while driving, working at the office and watching TV, for example)
and require little or no preparation. Discussions of processed foods in the popular
media often refer to products in this category. Highly processed foods include snacks
and desserts, such as cereal bars, biscuits, chips, cakes and pastries, ice cream and
soft drinks; as well as breads, pasta, breakfast cereals and infant formula. Highly
processed animal products include smoked, canned, salted and cured meats and
products made from extruded remnants of meat, such as nuggets, hot dogs and some
sausages and burgers.5 Many vegetarian alternatives to meat are also highly
processed. Highly processed foods are made using techniques like mixing, baking,
frying, curing, smoking and the addition of vitamins and minerals.
Why foods are processed?

Preservation. The most important reason to process or prepare foods has


been to make them last longer before spoiling. Early civilizations used
techniques like salting meats, fermenting dairy (into cheese or yogurt, for
example) and pickling vegetables. More recently, in the 1790s, Napoleon
Bonaparte offered a prize to the scientist who could best develop ways to
preserve foods for the armies of France; the competition prompted the
discovery of safe canning practices by Nicolas Appert. Louis Pasteur, working
with beer and wine, would later discover pasteurization, a process that uses
controlled amounts of heat to extend the shelf life of milk, juice and other
products.
Food Safety. Processing and preparing foods can make them safer to eat by
destroying toxins and eliminating or inhibiting pathogens. Preservation
techniques such as refrigerating, freezing, fermenting, drying and adding salt
or sugar can slow or stop the growth of pathogens. Heat processes, such as
pasteurization and cooking, can eliminate pathogens. Because these
techniques help protect consumers, most cases of foodborne illness involve
raw animal products, fruits and vegetables that have been contaminated by
pathogens. For more information, refer to the module on Food Safety.
Variety. By modifying the flavors, textures, aromas, colors and form of foods
and raw ingredients, food processing can create greater variety in our food
supply.6,18 Grains, for example, can be milled into flour, which is then used to
make a wide variety of products.6,18 Grains are also the core ingredients in
most ready-to-eat breakfast cereals. In 1860, Dr. J. H. Kellogg invented a form
of granola-like cereal designed to fit the austere diets of Seventh Day
Adventists; he and his brother later founded the company that bears his
name.19 Today, a trip down the breakfast aisle of a supermarket reveals a
tremendous variety of products that are derived, in part, from wheat, rice, corn
and several other grains. Breakfast cereal manufacturers achieve this variety
by adding flavors, cooking, drying, toasting and spraying on vitamins.
Convenience. Food processing can create products that require little or no
preparation on the part of consumers. Among the early examples of processed
convenience food was pemmican, strips of dried buffalo meat mixed with fat
and berries that could be eaten on the go by First Nations peoples of the
Great Plains.19 Modern examples include baby food, canned foods, frozen
pizzas, instant noodles, bottled juices and ready-to-serve cakes, cookies and
pies. Fast food offers another form of processed, ready-to-eat calories for busy
eaters.19 From 1966 to 1999, the amount of time U.S. adults ages 25 to 54
spent cooking meals decreased by 25 percent (43 percent among women).24
Americans, in general, are consuming fewer calories at home and more at full-
service and fast-food restaurants.25 These trends may reflect a growing
demand among busy consumers for convenient food.

Dietary concerns. Although highly processed foods are not inherently


unhealthy, many foods in this category are high in added sugar, sodium,
saturated fats or trans fats and contain little dietary fiber. Some of these foods,
such as cakes, cookies and soft drinks, are among the major sources of
calories among U.S. adults28 and children.29 Breads and snack foods are
often made with refined grainsgrains that have been processed to remove
the bran and germ, which contain important nutrients like B vitamins, iron and
fiber.30 Since fortification replaces only a small fraction of nutrients in the diet,
100 percent whole grains and other whole foods are recommended over refined
alternatives.

Emerging Technology in Food Processing

Irradiation. Is the controversial process of applying low doses of gamma radiation to food
products. Irradiation does not make foods radioactive, compromise nutritional quality, or
noticeably change the taste, texture, or appearance of food. In fact, any changes made by
irradiation are so minimal that it is not easy to tell if a food has been irradiated. Food irradiation
(the application of ionizing radiation to food) is a technology that improves the safety and
extends the shelf life of foods by reducing or eliminating microorganisms and insects. Like
pasteurizing milk and canning fruits and vegetables, irradiation can make food safer for the
consumer. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for regulating the sources
of radiation that are used to irradiate food. The FDA approves a source of radiation for use on
foods only after it has determined that irradiating the food is safe.
Why Irradiate Food?
Prevention of Foodborne Illness to effectively eliminate organisms that cause
foodborne illness, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli (E. coli).
Preservation to destroy or inactivate organisms that cause spoilage and
decomposition and extend the shelf life of foods.
Control of Insects to destroy insects in or on tropical fruits imported into the United
States. Irradiation also decreases the need for other pest-control practices that may
harm the fruit.
Delay of Sprouting and Ripening to inhibit sprouting (e.g., potatoes) and delay
ripening of fruit to increase longevity.
Sterilization irradiation can be used to sterilize foods, which can then be stored for
years without refrigeration. Sterilized foods are useful in hospitals for patients with
severely impaired immune systems, such as patients with AIDS or undergoing
chemotherapy. Foods that are sterilized by irradiation are exposed to substantially
higher levels of treatment than those approved for general use.
How Is Food Irradiated?
There are three sources of radiation approved for use on foods.
1. Gamma rays are emitted from radioactive forms of the element cobalt (Cobalt 60) or
of the element cesium (Cesium 137). Gamma radiation is used routinely to sterilize
medical, dental, and household products and is also used for the radiation treatment
of cancer.
2. X-rays are produced by reflecting a high-energy stream of electrons off a target
substance (usually one of the heavy metals) into food. X-rays are also widely used in
medicine and industry to produce images of internal structures.
3. Electron beam (or e-beam) is similar to X-rays and is a stream of high-energy
electrons propelled from an electron accelerator into food.
Is Irradiated Food Safe to Eat?
The FDA has evaluated the safety of irradiated food for more than 30 years and has found the
process to be safe. The World Health Organization (WHO), the Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention (CDC) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have also endorsed
the safety of irradiated food.
Does food become radioactive after its irradiated?
No. The only way it becomes radioactive is if the source (Cobalt-60) gets on the food, which
doesn't happen.
Reference:

Kim B. Google search results for processed food. 2011.


Heldman DR, Hartel RW. Principles of Food Processing. New York: Chapman and
Hall; 1997.
Truswell AS, Brand JC. Processing food. British Medical Journal.
1985;291(6503):1186-90.
Monteiro CA, Levy RB. A new classification of foods based on the extent and purpose
of their processing. Public Health Nutrition. 2010;26(11):2039-2049.
Ohlsson T, Bengtsson N. Minimal Processing Technologies in the Food Industry. Boca
Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2002.
Alzamora SM, Tapia MS, Lpez-Malo A. Minimally Processed Fruits and Vegetables:
Fundamental Aspects and Applications. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers, Inc.
2000.
http://www.europeana.eu/portal/record/92035/BibliographicResource_100009633643
1.html
http://neinuclearnotes.blogspot.com/2008/08/how-does-food-irradiation-work.html
University of Mindanao
Matina, Davao City
College of Engineering Education

Written Report
Food Processing
In Partial Fulfilment Of The Requirements In Chemistry ChE 443

Submitted by:
Mark Andrew David B. Tolaresa

Submitted to:
Engr. Jeralyn G. Cabotaje