logarithm

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logarithm

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1 Factorise:

a 52 x + 5 x b 3n+2 + 3n c 7n + 73n

d 5n+1 5 e 6n+2 6 f 4n+2 16

2 Simplify:

12n 20a 6b 4n

a b c d

6n 2a 2b 20n

35x 6a 5n+1 5n+1

e f a g h

7x 8 5n 5

3 Solve for x:

a 2x = 8 b 5x = 25 c 3x = 81 d 7x = 1

e 3x = 31 1

f 4x = 16 1

g 5x = 125 h 4x+1 = 64

i 2x2 = 1

32 j 3x+1 = 1

27 k 7x+1 = 343 l 512x = 1

5

graph the following functions: y = 2x, y = 3x , y = 10x, y = (1:3)x .

5 On the same set of axes, use a graphing package or graphics calculator to

graph the following functions: y = 2x , y = 2x + 1, y = 2x 2.

6 Write an equivalent exponential statement for:

p

a log10 10 000 = 4 b log10 (0 :1) = 1 c log10 10 = 12

p

d log2 8 = 3 e log2 ( 14 ) = 2 f log3 27 = 1:5

7 Write an equivalent logarithmic statement for:

a 22 = 4 b 23 = 1

8

c 10 2 = 0:01

1

d 72 = 49 e 26 = 64 f 3 3 = 27

8 Solve for x:

1

a log2 x = 3 b log4 x = 2 c log x 81 = 4 d log2 (x 6) = 3

x

9 Use loga a = x to find:

1 p

a log4 16 b log2 4 c log3 3 d log10 4 1000

p

e log7 p17 f log5 (25 5) g log3 p1

27

h log4 2p 1

2

10 Write as a single logarithm:

a log 8 + log 2 b log 8 log 2 c log 40 log 5

d log 4 + log 5 e log 5 + log(0:4) f log 2 + log 3 + log 4

g 1 + log 3 h log 4 1 i log 5 + log 4 log 2

11 Show that:

p 1

1

a log 9 = 2 log 3 b log 2 = 2 log 2 c log 8 = 3 log 2

d log 51 = log 5 e log 5 = 1 log 2 f log 5000 = 4 log 2

12 Solve for x:

a log 3 27 + log3 ( 31 ) = log3 x b log5 x = log5 8 log5 (6 x)

p

c log5 125 log5 5 = log5 x d log20 x = 1 + log20 10

e log x + log(x + 1) = log 30 f log(x + 2) log(x 2) = log 5

If logb a = x, then bx = a

) log c bx = logc a

The International School

log10 a

) x logc b = logc a

logc a

1 Use the rule logb a = to find, correct to 3 significant figures: ) x=

log10 b log c b

a log 3 12 b log 1 1250 c log3 (0:067) d log0: 4(0:006 984)

2

ln a

2 Use the rule logb a = to solve, correct to 3 significant figures:

ln b

a 2x = 0:051 b 4x = 213 :8 c 32 x+1 = 4:069

Hint: In 2a 2x = 0 :051 implies that x = log2 (0:051) .

3 Solve for x:

a 25x 3(5x ) = 0 b 8(9x) 3x = 0

4 Solve for x:

p p

a log 4 x3 + log2 x = 8 b log16 x5 = log64 125

log4 x

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