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Contents ix

4.4 Late Transient Analysis Bounded (Developed)


Reservoirs .............................................................. 111
4.5 Semi-steady-state Analysis Reservoir Limit
Test ........................................................................ 115
4.6 Two-rate Flow Test Analysis ................................. 121
4.7 Variable-rate Flow Tests ....................................... 129
4.8 Multi-rate Flow Test Analysis ................................ 137
4.9 Drawdown Rate Normalization Methods .............. 146
4.10 Summary ............................................................... 150
References ......................................................................... 151
Additional Reading ............................................................. 151

5. Pressure Buildup Analysis Techniques for Oil


Wells ....................................................................... 153
5.1 Introduction ............................................................ 153
5.2 Ideal Pressure Buildup Test .................................. 153
5.3 Actual Buildup Tests Infinite Reservoir .............. 156
5.4 Pressure Buildup Test Analysis in Infinite-acting
Reservoir ............................................................... 157
5.5 Pressure Buildup Testing Methods for Finite
(Bounded) Reservoir ............................................. 176
5.6 Multiphase Buildup Test Analysis ......................... 194
5.7 Afterflow Analysis Using Russels Technique ....... 199
5.8 Pressure Buildup Tests Preceded by Two
Different Flow Rates .............................................. 201
5.9 Variable-rate Pressure Buildup Analysis ............... 206
5.10 Multi-phase, Multi-rate Buildup Analysis ............... 210
5.11 Rate Normalization Techniques and Procedures
(Pressure Buildup Data) ........................................ 214
5.12 Summary ............................................................... 231
References and Additional Reading .................................. 232

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6. Original and Average Reservoir Pressure


Estimation Methods .............................................. 234
6.1 Introduction ............................................................ 234
6.2 Original Reservoir Pressure in Infinite
Reservoirs .............................................................. 234
6.3 Estimating Average and Initial Reservoir
Pressure ................................................................ 235
6.4 Estimating Constant Pressure at Aquifer in
Water-drive Reservoirs .......................................... 244
6.5 Summary ............................................................... 252
References and Additional Reading .................................. 252

7. Well Testing Methods for Naturally Fractured


Reservoirs .............................................................. 254
7.1 Introduction ............................................................ 254
7.2 Identification of Natural Fractures ......................... 254
7.3 Characteristics of Naturally Fractured
Reservoirs .............................................................. 255
7.4 Typical Pressure Drawdown Behavior Curve
Shapes ................................................................... 255
7.5 Pressure Buildup Behavior Characteristics .......... 256
7.6 Well Test Interpretation Methods, Uses, and
Limitations .............................................................. 257
7.7 Buildup Analysis Techniques for Tight Reservoir
Matrix ..................................................................... 270
7.8 Interpretation of Interference Tests in Matrix and
Fractured Reservoirs ............................................. 275
7.9 Horizontal Well Pressure Behavior Curve
Shapes ................................................................... 278
7.10 Horizontal Well Production Forecasting Dual-
porosity Reservoir .................................................. 284

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Contents xi

7.11 Summary ............................................................... 285


References and Additional Reading .................................. 285

8. Fundamentals of Type Curve Matching


Methods for Oil Wells ............................................ 287
8.1 Introduction ............................................................ 287
8.2 Application to Conventional Tests ......................... 287
8.3 Fracture Type Curve Matching Techniques .......... 313
8.4 Type Curves Horizontal Fractured Oil Wells ...... 329
8.5 Summary ............................................................... 337
References and Additional Reading .................................. 338

9. Flow Regime Identification and Analysis Using


Special Methods .................................................... 339
9.1 Introduction ............................................................ 339
9.2 Fracture Linear Flow Period .................................. 339
9.3 Bilinear Flow .......................................................... 341
9.4 Formation Linear Flow ........................................... 345
9.5 Pseudo-radial Flow ................................................ 346
9.6 Type Curve Matching Methods ............................. 346
9.7 Summary ............................................................... 356
References ......................................................................... 357
Additional Reading ............................................................. 357

10. Application of Pressure Derivative in Oil Well


Test Analysis ......................................................... 359
10.1 Introduction ............................................................ 359
10.2 Pressure Derivative Applications in Well Test
Analysis .................................................................. 359
10.3 Pressure Derivative Analysis Methods ................. 359
10.4 Fractured Reservoir Systems ................................ 365

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xii Contents

10.5 Pressure Derivative Trends for Other Common


Flow Regimes ........................................................ 370
10.6 Summary ............................................................... 371
References ......................................................................... 371
Additional Reading ............................................................. 371

11. Massive Hydraulic-fractured Oil Well Behavior


Analysis .................................................................. 372
11.1 Introduction ............................................................ 372
11.2 Methods of Evaluating MHF Oil Wells .................. 372
11.3 Analyzing Infinite Flow Capacity Fractures ........... 372
11.4 Analyzing Finite Flow Capacity Fractures ............. 373
11.5 Estimating Formation Characteristics of Finite
Conductivity Fractures ........................................... 378
11.6 Pretreatment Testing of Hydraulically Fractured
Candidate .............................................................. 384
11.7 Summary ............................................................... 385
References ......................................................................... 386
Additional Reading ............................................................. 386

12. Drill-stem Testing Methods .................................. 387


12.1 Introduction ............................................................ 387
12.2 DST Equipment and Operational Procedures ...... 388
12.3 Recommended Flow and Shut-in Time for Drill-
stem Tests ............................................................. 389
12.4 Troubleshooting DST Pressure Charts ................. 390
12.5 Checking Validity and Consistency of Reporting
DST Data ............................................................... 391
12.6 Estimation of Average Flow Rate .......................... 392
12.7 DST Analysis Methods, Uses, and Limitations ..... 396
12.8 Wireline Formation Test Data Evaluation ............. 414

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Contents xiii

12.9 Summary ............................................................... 427


References and Additional Reading .................................. 427

13. Interference and Pulse Test Analysis Methods .... 429


13.1 Introduction ............................................................ 429
13.2 Interference Test Analysis Techniques ................. 429
13.3 Analysis of Pulse Test Pressure Response .......... 434
13.4 Vertical Pulse Test Design and Analysis
Methods ................................................................. 445
13.5 Design and Analysis of Unequal Pulses ............... 448
13.6 Summary ............................................................... 462
References ......................................................................... 462
Additional Reading ............................................................. 462

14. Injection Well Transient Testing and Analysis ... 463


14.1 Introduction ............................................................ 463
14.2 Injectivity Test Analysis Methods .......................... 463
14.3 Pressure Fall-off Test Analysis Methods .............. 475
14.4 Two-rate Injectivity Test Analysis .......................... 492
14.5 Step-rate Injectivity Testing Technique ................. 496
14.6 Summary ............................................................... 502
References ......................................................................... 502
Additional Reading ............................................................. 503

15. Well Testing Methods in Multilayered Oil


Reservoir Systems ................................................ 504
15.1 Introduction ............................................................ 504
15.2 Identification of Layered Oil Reservoir Systems ... 504
15.3 Analyzing Pressure Behavior in Multilayered
Systems ................................................................. 505

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xiv Contents

15.4 Concept of Reservoir Layer Fracture


Conductivity ........................................................... 509
15.5 Pressure Production Performance Response
Equations ............................................................... 510
15.6 Investigating Degree of Communication and
Type of Crossflow .................................................. 512
15.7 Pressure Buildup Characteristics in Layered
Reservoir Systems ................................................ 512
15.8 Pressure Analysis Methods for Oil Wells
Producing Commingled Zones .............................. 514
15.9 Factors Affecting Multilayered Reservoir
Performance .......................................................... 520
15.10 Economic Aspects of Interlayer Crossflow ............ 521
15.11 Summary ............................................................... 521
References and Additional Reading .................................. 521

16. Pressure Analysis Methods in Heterogeneous


Oil Reservoir Systems .......................................... 523
16.1 Introduction ............................................................ 523
16.2 Effect of Pressure on Rock Properties .................. 523
16.3 Major Causes of Heterogeneities .......................... 524
16.4 Pressure Responses near No Flow Boundaries ... 524
16.5 Effect of Hydraulic Diffusivity on Reservoir
Behavior ................................................................. 534
16.6 Simple Procedures and Guidelines to Estimate
Reservoir Heterogeneity Properties ...................... 536
16.7 General Approach to Estimate Fracture Trends
or Heterogeneity .................................................... 536
16.8 Determination of Reservoir Parameters and
Fracture Orientations ............................................. 536

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16.9 Defining Reservoir Heterogeneity by Multiple-


well Tests ............................................................... 539
16.10 Method for Calculating Fracture Orientation ......... 555
16.11 Estimating Two-dimensional Permeability with
Vertical Interference Testing ................................. 556
16.12 Application of Pulse Tests to Describe Reservoir
Heterogeneity ........................................................ 561
16.13 Validity of Various Models and Steps Used to
Obtain Reservoir Description ................................ 573
16.14 Summary ............................................................... 574
References and Additional Reading .................................. 574

Appendices
Appendix A: Conversion Factors between Unit Systems ........ 577
Appendix B: Correlation Tables and Dimensionless
Functions .............................................................. 585
References and Additional Reading ................ 594
Appendix C: Pressure Drop through Vertical, Inclined, and
Horizontal Oil Wells .............................................. 595
C.1 Hagedorn and Brown Method ................. 596
C.2 Beggs and Brill Method ........................... 602
References and Additional Reading ................ 606
Appendix D: Oil and Water PVT Properties and Correlation
Equations ............................................................. 607
D.1 Oil PVT Properties and Correlations ....... 608
D.2 Solution Gas-oil Ratio ............................. 612
D.3 Oil Formation Volume Factor .................. 613
D.4 Total Formation Volume Factor ............... 616
D.5 Oil Density .............................................. 616
D.6 Oil Viscosity ............................................ 618
D.7 Oil Compressibility .................................. 622

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D.8 Reservoir Rock Properties ...................... 623


D.9 Reservoir PVT Water Properties ............. 624
References and Additional Reading ................ 639

Nomenclature ................................................................ 640

Bibliography .................................................................. 645

Index ............................................................................... 661

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Chapter 1
Introduction

1.1 Role of Oil Well Tests and Information


in Petroleum Industry
Oil well test analysis is a branch of reservoir engineering. Information
obtained from flow and pressure transient tests about in situ reservoir condi-
tions are important to determining the productive capacity of a reservoir.
Pressure transient analysis also yields estimates of the average reservoir
pressure. The reservoir engineer must have sufficient information about the
condition and characteristics of reservoir/well to adequately analyze reservoir
performance and to forecast future production under various modes of opera-
tion. The production engineer must know the condition of production and
injection wells to persuade the best possible performance from the reservoir.
Pressures are the most valuable and useful data in reservoir engineering.
Directly or indirectly, they enter into all phases of reservoir engineering
calculations. Therefore accurate determination of reservoir parameters is
very important. In general, oil well test analysis is conducted to meet the
following objectives:
To evaluate well condition and reservoir characterization;
To obtain reservoir parameters for reservoir description;
To determine whether all the drilled length of oil well is also a pro-
ducing zone;
To estimate skin factor or drilling- and completion-related damage to an
oil well. Based upon the magnitude of the damage, a decision regarding
well stimulation can be made.

1.2 History of Oil Well Testing and Uses


of Oil Well Tests
Two monographs1'3 and numerous additional oil well test analysis
technical papers have been published. Those papers have extended the
scope of oil well test analysis, publicized many new problems, provided
solutions for previously unsolved problems, and changed the approach to
some phases of oil well test analysis. Thus, it is appropriate to provide an
updated handbook dealing with advances in oil well test analysis in a
manner that presents an up-to-date treatment of the state of the art. This
book presents popular pressure transient test analysis techniques and
estimates of the range of applicability. More than 100 actual field exam-
ples illustrate most analysis techniques. Figure 1-1 shows uses of well
tests.

1.3 Oil Well Test Data Acquisition, Analysis,


and Management
Throughout the life of an oil well, from exploration to abandonment, a
sufficient amount of well test data are collected to describe well condition
and behavior. It should be emphasized that the multidisciplinary profes-
sionals need to work as an integrated team to develop and implement the
well test data management program.

Efficient Oil Well Test Analysis Programs


Initial bottom-hole pressure measurements should be made, preferably at
each well and at selected "Key Oil Wells" periodically. Key oil wells repre-
sent 25% of the total wells2. Reference 2 has also found that it is beneficial to
measure pressure in all wells at least every 2-3 years to aid in calibrating
reservoir models. It is essential to establish the specification of what and how
much well test data need to be gathered, and the procedure and frequency to
be followed. A logical, methodical, and sequential well test data acquisition
and analysis program is shown in Figure 1-2.

1.4 Selecting Oil Wells for Optimum


Stimulation Treatment
The key to determining whether or not a well is a good candidate for
stimulation treatment is diagnosing the well to find the cause for its low
productivity. Buildup, drawdown, or drill-stem tests, core analyses offset well
data, and other information can be used to accomplish this. After diagnosis,
the optimum well stimulation treatment, either small or massive hydraulic