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A stair may be defined as series of steps suitably arranged for the
purpose of connecting different floors of a buiIding. It may also
defined as arragement of treads, risers, stringers, newel posts, hand
rails and baluster SO designed and as to provide an easy
quit or access 10 the differrent floors. Also provide comfort and safety .
The enclosure containing the complete stairway is termed as
Stairs may be made from various materials like timber, bricks, steel, plain
concrete or reinforced Concrete. The location of Ilk type of material to be used
depends upon the aesthetical important, funds available, durability desired
and fire 1esistiflg qualities expected.
Location OF STAIRS
The location of stairs in a building requires careful consideration In the advent
of flit or any such calamity, stairs provide the oil, means of communication and
as such they are so located as to serve the purpose for which they are
provided. In public building it should be located near the main entrance and in
residential building it should be placed centrally so as to provide easy access
from all the room a to maintain privacy at the same time.
The common technical terms used in stair construction are discussed below:
(1) Steps. A portion of a stairway comprising the tread and riser which
permits ascent or descent from one floor to another.
(2) Tread. The horizontal upper part of a step ii Which (O placed in ascending
or descending stairway.
(3) Riser. The vertical portion of a step providing support.

(4) flight. A series of steps without any platforms. break or landing in their
(5) Landing. A platform or resting place over between two flights. A landing
extending right across a stair cast is termed as half space landing and the one
extending only half a Corner a stair case is called a quarter-space landing.
(6) Nosing. The outer projecting edge of a tread is termed as nosing. Nosing is
usually rounded to give good architectural effect to the heads and makes the
staircase easy to negotiate.
(7) Scotia. it is a mou1ding provided under nosing to beautify the elevation or
the step.

(8) line of Nosing. it is an imaginary line i0uchiRS the 01 each tread and is
parallel to the slope of the
(9) Filer. It is a straight step having a parallel wide of tread
(10) Winders.These are tapering steps which are providing the change
direction of stair
(11) Going of step. The run of a step in a stair the width
the tread between two succesive tread
(12) Rise ofthe is the vertical distance between upper surface of
succcesive treads.
(13)Soffit. Is the under surface of a stair

8 Requirements One Should Keep in Mind to Design a Good


Stair means vertical transportation between the floors. A good stair should
therefore be designed as to provide quick, easy and safe mode of
communication between the floors.
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Following are the general requirements which the good stair should fulfil:

01. Location of Stair:

Stair should be located such that it can be easily accessible from different
rooms of the building.
Its location should be such that it has spacious and convenient
approaches without any hassle.
It should have the adequate provision of light and ventilation directly from
the exterior of the building.
02. Width of Stair:

It should be wide enough to allow user without any inconveniency.

A width of the step depends upon its location and varies with the type of
building itself.
Generally for domestic building the 1-meter width is sufficient while for
public buildings 1.5 to 2.0 meter width is required (depends upon the no.
of users).
03. Length of Flight:

It is recommended from comfort point of view, that the number of steps in

flight should not be more than 12 and less than 3.
04. Pitch of Slope:

Pitch of stair should not be more than 370 in any type of stairs.
05. Head Room:

Clearance between the tread and soffit should not be less than 2.2
meter such that even a taller person can use the stair comfortably.
06. Balustrade or Railings:

Open well or designer staircases should always be provided with

balustrade or railings for the safety of users.
07. Step Dimension:

Dimensions of stair should be such that it provides comfort to the user.

08. Materials of Construction:

The material used for construction should be such that it provides a

sufficient strength and stability, fire resistance, sound insulation and last
but not the least an aesthetic appearance to the stair.
Depending upon the various arrangement of steps, stairs can be classified under following


In this stair, all the steps are arranged continuously along in one direction. One flight may be split
into one or more than one flight by interposing a landing. This stair can be used where narrow and
long space is available for a staircase such as entrance, porch etc.

This stair consists of two straight flights of steps with direct turns between them. This stair is very
useful where the total width of the stair is just twice the width of the steps.


This type of stair consists of two or more flights arranging a well or opening between the backward
and forward flights. When all the steps are difficult to arrange in two flights, a short third flight of 3 to
6 steps may be provided along the direction perpendicular to the hall. Open newel stair is mostly
adopted in the lift.


This is another type of open newel stair where the open well between the forward and the backward
flight is curved. This stair may contain different geometrical shape. Here the change in direction is
achieved by using winders.

In this type of stair, all the steps radiate from a newel or well hole, in the form of winders. The
circular stair is adopted at the back side of a building to access its various floors.


Spiral stair is very similar to a circular stair. It consists of individual steps or treads, connecting to a
centre column. The overall diameter of the stair may range from 1 to 2.5 m.

The quarter-turn stair can be defined as the stairs that are turned at 90 degrees with the help of level


This type of stair is provided in modern public buildings as well as residential buildings. In this stair,
the flight is so arranged that there is a wide flight at the start which is sub-divided into narrow flights
at the mid-landing. The narrow flights start from either side of the mid landing.