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02Z030115 M, Industriemagazin Verlag GmbH, Lindengasse 56, 1070 Wien, Retouren an Postfach 100, 1350 Wien JANUARYFEBRUARY 2017

Special Edition
Official Publication of:

Euro 12,

Time to rethink
material flows

Cleaning Up Closing Down

Lead acid battery recycling Brasilias Estrutural dumpsite
Page 28 Page 18

For those of you not familiar with Trumpton, its a fictitious town in a 40 year
old animated childrens TV programme. It was on a lot when I was a kid. Each
episode began with a shot of the village clock accompanied by the narration:
Here is the clock, the Trumpton clock. Telling the time, steadily, sensibly; never
too quickly, never too slowly. Telling the time for Trumpton.

Y ou dont need to be a genius to see where Im going with this -

President Trump. To give him his dues, he said he was going to
shake things up even if he ruffled a few feathers. From an envi-
ronmental perspective hes certainly been doing that. Just two weeks into his
presidency and Trump already has the EPA firmly in his sights.
Not only did he quickly impose a media blackout on the agency, baring all press
releases and social media posts, now hes appointing the deeply controversial
Scott Pruitt as administrator. To quote an MIT Technology Review article of
8 February, this would be placing him in charge of a government body that he
sued more than a dozen times and that his new boss, President Donald Trump,
Ben Messenger Chief Editor pledged to scrap.
Unsurprisingly EPA employees are not jumping for joy at the prospect of Pruitts
arrival. Indeed, hundreds of former employees, have signed an open letter pro-
testing the appointment.
On the subject of climate change, the letter said: Mr. Pruitt persists in pointing
to uncertainty about the precise extent of humanitys contribution to the prob-
lem as a basis for resisting taking any regulatory action to help solve it.
PLACING HIM Quite what it will mean for the US waste industry is hard to know just yet, but
IN CHARGE OF A Pruitt certainly has a chequered history when it comes to environmental protec-
GOVERNMENT tion. We also know that the administration has vowed to cut regulations which
stifle industry.
BODY THAT HE When it comes to the bottom line, an easing of some regulations could well have
SUED MORE benefits to some in the waste industry. In any industry the bottom line is im-
portant, as is having the right balance of regulations. The waste industry is no
THAN A DOZEN exception.
TIMES AND THAT But in an industry which plays such an important role in keeping the environ-
HIS NEW BOSS, ment clean and people safe, the bottom line cannot be everything. Its hard to
imagine that even Pruitt would be comfortable living near a poorly regulated
PRESIDENT hazardous waste site. Although he did file a series of lawsuits against federal
DONALD TRUMP, government regulations intended to reduce the discharge of mercury from
power stations.
PLEDGED TO For something a little more positive, why not turn to page 8 to find out about
SCRAP. the changing role of plastics in the circular economy; page 28 to hear about a
promising clean technology to recycle lead acid batteries; or page 34 to learn
about healthcare waste training accreditation.
Enjoy the issue.

Ben Messenger, Chief Editor




While a number of initiatives are already underway,
with its high-profile partners, could the World
Economic Forums New Plastics Economy initiative
be the catalyst to bring plastic material flows full
Page 8

Mumbai Moves on Waste Eureka! Clean Lead Acid Learning Tools for
to Energy Battery Recycling Medical Waste Managers
As India moves to tackle its well- Californian firm Aqua Metals has ramped Following years of hard work, the EU
documented sanitation issues, Mumbai up production at its clean lead acid battery Healthcare Waste Management project has
is moving forward with two waste to recycling facility in Nevada and has concluded with the creation of a number of
energy plants. Page 20 ambitious growth plans. Page 28 important new qualifications. Page 34


+++ PLUS
Collection &



8 Reimagining Plastics 28 Cleaning Up Lead Acid Battery

Plastic materials have become ubiqui- Recycling
tous, but the uses to which they are put, California-based Aqua Metals is
and the variety of polymers used, means reinventing lead recycling through its
they are wasted in huge quantities. hydro-metallurgical process, which
So just what role can they play in the may just be the solution. 50% of plastic
circular economy? packaging could be
profitably recycled if
32 Ramping Up Re-use improvements were made
In a wasteful world much of what to both packaging design
Letter we discard could easily be given a and end-of-life manage-
second life. Could the waste industry ment systems.
be doing more to re-route goods to Page 8
18 A Letter From: Brasilia the re-use sector? Maxine Perella, freelance journalist
ISWAs mission to shut the worlds
biggest dumpsites is already paying divi-
dends with significant steps having been
made towards the closure of Brasilias Medical Waste
Estrutural dumpsite and the signing of
commitments by government to tackle
34 Managing Medical Waste
The three year EU Healthcare Waste The process to close the
Management project has conclud- dumpsite has officially
ed with the creation of national started and is planned
Waste to Energy networks in partner countries and a to be concluded by
number of vocational qualifications mid-2018.
for those responsible for managing Page 18
20 Waste to Energy on the March in healthcare waste.
Carlos Silva Filho, CEO of ABRELPE,
Mumbai ISWAs National Member in Brazil
With the city aiming to achieve zero
waste to landfill, Mumbais Municipal
Corporation intends to develop two REGULARS
waste to energy plants. 3 Editors Letter
6 ISWA Comments
14 News
Biowaste 18 Letter from Brasilia It had not dawned
40 Imprint, Index To Companies on me that in terms of
41 ISWA Information vocational qualifications,
24 Food Waste Digestion: 101 there would be such a
43 Country Profile Greece
Landfill restrictions for food and other disparity across the EU
organic wastes are tightening in many Member States.
parts of the world. Heres what you Page 34
need to know if youre thinking about Scott Crossett, head of the International
developing or operating an anaerobic Centre for the Environment, Resource
digestion plant. Management & Sustainability




At the end of January, I had the honour and the pleasure to meet the President of
Estonia, Kersti Kaljulaid, in the framework of a panel discussion during the Clean
World Conference 2017 Connecting Heroes, in Tallinn, Estonia.

I was positively surprised for two

reasons. First, for her presence in such a
discussion, and second, for the content
We need
current strengths of each and every waste
management system and keep working
focused on continuous improvement
she delivered. Prime Ministers rather than waiting solely for huge in-
First, the President of Estonia partici- vestments and projects.
pated in an almost two hour discussion
and politicians I think Kersti Kaljulaid sets the scene for
about waste and resource management. that will find the a new kind of politician that each and
By doing this, she highlighted the im- time to discuss every country desperately requires.
portance of waste and resource manage- We need Presidents, Prime Ministers
ment in a unique way and upgraded it and interact and politicians that will find the time to
substantially in the political agenda, not with scientists discuss and interact with scientists and
only locally but globally, too. A President experts. The ones that reject science as
that finds time to deal with waste and re-
and experts. the basis for environmental policy are
sources proves by her own example that The ones that dangerous for their countries and the
waste management is a key indicator for reject science planet.
the quality of our daily lives. We need Presidents, Prime Ministers and
Second, the President of Estonia stressed as the basis for politicians that will stimulate commu-
the importance and the lessons we can environmental nity involvement as a major precondi-
learn from waste management in a tion for social improvements, especially
broader context that includes wasted
policy are for the shift towards a better waste and
energy, CO2-emissions and wastewater. dangerous for resource management. We must get rid
She also focused on the ways members their countries of the governance model that is based on
of the community can solve problems the interests of small business club elites.
by themselves and can start grand and the planet. Last but not least, we need Presidents,
movements through small actions. She Prime Ministers and politicians that un-
recommended starting the implemen- derstand the dynamics between global
tation of big changes through small principles and local practices, individual
changeseverybody can find their own choices and global footprints. The ones
way of doing something for society and that ignore the interconnectivity of risks
the environment. and the complexity of our globalised
By the way, this is exactly the same world are putting all of us in high, multi-
key-message that was recommended by dimensional risks.
the Global Waste Management Outlook, Thank you, President Kersti Kaljulaid.
a report recently published by ISWA and Antonis Mavropoulos The world needs and deserves more lead-
UNEP: start the change building on the President, ISWA. ers like you


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03 - 07 April 2017

ISWA and NVRD (Dutch Solid Waste Association), are organising a 5 day study tour on collection, sorting
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With growing concern across the plastics

value chain a number of ambitious initiatives
have recently been launched. However, a
joined-up, cross-sector effort is needed to
improve communication between producers
and recyclers, and to develop national and
international standards.
By Maxine Perella

T he spotlight on plastics
waste has intensified in
recent months in a series
of high-profile launches and campaigns.
Brands like Adidas, Ecover and Procter &
Gamble are helping to mainstream the
the study, 50% of plastic packaging could
be profitably recycled if improvements
were made to both packaging design and
end-of-life management systems this
would bring in an additional $90-$140
per tonne of mixed plastics and help rem-
issue, whilst offering circular solutions edy the $80-$120 billion of plastic pack-
albeit in limited numbers in the form of aging material value lost each year to the
upcycled ocean waste trainers and beach economy.
plastic shampoo bottles. Given the disparate nature of plastics
While such initiatives have yet to scale, collection systems at almost every level
its a sharp indication that demand is national, regional, and global any
growing for better capture and repurpos- moves towards harmonisation are con-
ing of end-of-life plastics. This January sidered highly challenging. There are
in Davos, the World Economic Forum emerging examples, like WRAPs recy-
(WEF) launched its latest New Plastics cling consistency framework in the UK,
Economy report in association with the and the work of the Closed Loop Fund
Ellen MacArthur Foundation (EMF), in the US to develop replicable models
setting out an ambitious plan to recycle for kerbside recycling, but these remain
70% of plastic packaging globally, from few and far between and dont specifi-
the current rate of 14%. The report, which cally target separate plastics collections.
forms part of EMFs wider New Plastics Similarly across Europe, most plastic
Economy initiative, is significant as it packaging is collected as co-mingled ma-
has the backing of more than 40 indus- terial and capture rates remain woefully
try leaders from across the global plastics low, averaging 12%.
value chain. The systems are hyper-fragmented
in what can be processed and what ca-
LACK OF JOINED-UP THINKING pabilities exist, says Terracycles CEO
To achieve these higher recycling rates, Tom Szaky, whose company specialises in
the report calls for greater harmonisation upcycling hard-to-recycle waste streams.
and adoption of best practices for collec- Whats even worse is that packaging de-
tion and sorting systems. According to signers are constantly adding more vari-



ety, which in turn is creating more frag- tional practices. EPRO says it has engaged
mentation. with the EMF on its New Plastics Economy
Szaky says one of the biggest problems agenda while supportive of the overall
is the lack of joined-up thinking between aims, the organisation believes more ongo-
start-of-life and end-of-life considera- ing dialogue is needed.
tions. Historically, the packaging design In seeking greater convergence of
and production world, and the recycling plastics collection and sorting systems,
world have had a very hard time commu- you need to take into account local, re-
nicating with each other. Packaging de- gional, national, political and cultural
signers are designing what they think is differences, says EPRO secretary general
the best package, but usually theres no Peter Sundt. National waste legislation
line of sight for how to recycle it. can also vary quite significantly, with
One pragmatic solution, he suggests, different priorities in terms of the waste
could be to establish recycling review hierarchy. There is no one single solution
courts whereby new plastic packaging if you try to impose too much harmo-
types are assessed by reprocessors to de- nisation, you may soon meet resistance.
termine their recyclability before being Like Szaky, Sundt points to EPR as a
placed on the market. These apprais- useful lever. We believe that there should
als could initially occur at a national be some harmonisation at EPR level, he
level, before being scaled up for greater says. A key focus now in Europe is the cir-
cross-border convergence. cular economy package higher recycling
targets will require more international
A NEED FOR BETTER LEGISLATION cooperation, including on packaging de-
Szarky maintains that recyclers are largely sign, which is welcome and will hopefully
driven by economics rather than envi- accelerate action on collaboration.
ronmental concerns, and so will only One multi-stakeholder alliance that
recycle more materials if theres value to could bear some fruit here is the Polyolefin
WHATS EVEN be derived from doing so. He points to Circular Economy Platform (PCEP)
WORSE IS THAT Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) launched last year. PCEP seeks to develop
as an effective push mechanism in this EU-wide quality standards for sorted plas-
PACKAGING regard, but says theres more appetite to tics, harmonise test methods for recycled
DESIGNERS ARE do that in regions like Europe, which are plastic materials, and develop packaging
more accepting of regulation. design guidelines and assessment proto-
CONSTANTLY Certainly within the EU, plastics pack- cols in line with circular principles.
ADDING MORE aging legislation is set to become more To help support this work, one of the
VARIETY, WHICH stringent. The European Commissions co-founders PlasticsEurope has set up
Circular Economy Package has set a pro- a Plastics Packaging Circular Economy
IN TURN IS spective 55% plastics recycling and reuse Group in order to strengthen engage-
CREATING MORE target for 2025 for EU member states, and ment with all actors along the plastics
FRAGMENTATION. in January the Commission published value chain to promote lifecycle thinking
a roadmap for its forthcoming plastics on packaging solutions.
strategy, due out later this year.
The roadmap makes no mention of BEYOND EUROPE
harmonisation, but does highlight a need In regions like the US, where the waste
for better definitions and standards for hierarchy isnt so enforced and landfill is
biodegradable plastics, as well as technol- cheap, opportunities for cooperation are
ogy innovation for mixed plastics process- harder to come by. That said, the Closed
ing. On a positive note, collaboration be- Loop Fund (CLF) a social impact fund
tween recyclers is starting to happen. The with $100 million to invest is prior-
European Association of Plastics Recycling itising better plastics recycling as a clear
& Recovery Organisations (EPRO) has value opportunity. There is a lot of best
helped develop EuCertplast, an EU-wide practice in terms of business models and
Terracycles CEO
Tom Szaky
certification for post-consumer plastics technology innovation that can hap-
recyclers that aims to homogenise opera- pen and that can be leveraged across the




US, says CLFs head of external affairs,
Bridget Croke.
One area the CLF is focusing on is the
use of robotics and artificial intelligence THE LATEST EMF REPORT A NEW PLASTICS ECONOMY: CATALYSING ACTION,
but there are companies that are leverag- NATURE. IT RAISED A NUMBER OF QUESTIONS AND SUGGESTED CONCRETE
ing artificial intelligence to identify and ACTIONS FOR A GENUINE SYSTEM SHIFT GUIDED BY CIRCULAR ECONOMY
discretely sort material types which will PRINCIPLES.
reduce contamination and make it more
profitable to recycle this stuff. Thats The European Union has been discuss- while contributing to sustainable pro-
an example where we feel you could cre- ing the transition towards a Circular duction and consumption policies.
ate a lot of industry harmonisation in a Economy for some years now. The The ambitious target for plastic
cost-effective way. debate pivots around waste legislative packaging recycling (50%) suggested
She adds: We are also considering proposals defining efficient waste within the EMF report is equivalent
ways to enable MRF [operators] to come management practices with a 2030 ho- to the one being currently discussed
to us and say they want a loan to improve rizon and other sustainable patterns of by the European Parliament and the
their infrastructure, and robotics can be a consumption and production required Council of the European Union, albeit
part of that. to close the loop. with different timing. We do, actually,
Asked how plastics collection and sor- Plastics are at the core of this trans- believe that harmonisation on EU level
tation systems can be streamlined across formation. This is why the European is needed. However, for these efforts
different US states, Croke acknowledges Commission is set to publish, by the to be workable, some policy solutions
that its unlikely complete harmonisa- end of this year, a specific EU strategy are yet to be found. Amongst these lies
tion will ever happen. Theres a dif- on plastics. It will focus on decoupling the issue of how best to calculate how
ferent model for MRF sophistication plastics production from virgin fossil much waste is actually recycled.
depending on the market youre in, so feedstock; improving the economics, Following our own assessment of
thats where harmonisation becomes quality and uptake of plastic recycling the effect of recycling measurement on
challenging. I think theres a need for and reuse; and reducing plastic leakage the circular economy, we believe that
market segmentation, and to have a few into the environment. recycled waste should be measured at
different models that work in different As mentioned by the EMF report, the gate of the recycling plant. In fact,
regions and markets. we also promote a collaborative reliable data can only be ascertained
Croke says CLFs approach here is to approach between the public and the upon waste entering the recycling plant.
allocate funds according to three main private sector across the whole value At the same time, we are fully com-
market segments: mature recycling chain. The fact that so many leading mitted to ensuring that waste materials
these tend to be the denser, larger mar- businesses have committed to working that are accounted for as recycled
kets on the US coast; sub-standard recy- within the New Plastic Economy to- have adequate quality attributes. This
cling; and recycling deserts which can wards a genuine system shift becomes is why we are also proposing that, in
include both rural regions and dense, central to the initiatives success. parallel, specific quality standards for
urban dwellings. In large municipali- This is precisely what the Extended waste materials be introduced at EU
ties its very easy to make the case for a Producer Responsibility (EPR) is about. level, building on current national best
hi-tech MRF that has a lot of automated Its basic feature is that actors across practice.
sortation equipment in smaller com- the packaging value chain - and in par-
munities its much harder to justify that ticular manufacturers, importers and
cost, so its going to require a different retailers - assume a significant degree
set of solutions. of responsibility for the environmental
impact of their products throughout
their life cycle. This includes products
upstream impact linked to the selec-
tion of materials, product design and
production processes as such, as well
as downstream impact relating to the
products use and disposal. EPR more- Joachim Quoden
over provides incentives for eco-design Managing director of EXPRA



Trying to achieve a circular economy with existing
plastics is like trying to fit a round peg into a square
hole. Doing better means embracing change. One
example of what that change might look like is
Aquapaks dissolvable and 100% recyclable PVOH
packaging films.

By Zo Lenkiewicz

ur performance on deliv- terials are getting more complex. We have

ering a plastics circular to be smarter not simpler.
economy is poor, with
95% plastic packaging material value be- EMBRACING CHANGE
ing lost after a short, single use. There is a well-known business book
End-of-life has not been a considera- called Who Moved My Cheese? by Dr
tion in the historic development of plas- Spencer Johnson. A motivational busi-
tics. Whether a material could be recycled ness fable, its story teaches us to expect
or composted simply wasnt a factor; but change, embrace change and make the
times have moved on, the world is filling most of it. Right now, drastic change is
FACTS up with plastic waste, and so end-of-life taking place in the materials and resource
has moved front-of-mind. management world, and those who adapt

Plastics production will double
Where the traditional or historic plas-
tics have failed with sustainability, they
to change will be the ultimate survivors.
The waste management sector has
have succeeded in being cherished by typically considered itself to be a reactive
over the next 20 years with
packaging being the largest some in the waste management sector. industry, says Williams. But in a circular
application. Despite the absence of positive end-of-life economy, waste managers suddenly be-
characteristics, some conservatives think come influential. Some people understand

Flexible packaging is expected
we are better off sticking to the familiar
(PP, PE and PVC) rather than looking to
progressive, new materials with circular
this, and they are the ones at the table.
Aquapak is a British tech company that
has developed a library of polymers based
to rise 3% a year to $248 billion
end-of-life benefits. on polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH), the flexible
by 2020.
This reluctance to trial materials with and dissolvable plastic used in laundry
true circular economy potential is prov- liquid pods, surgical stitches and medicine
Pouches are the fastest-growing
ing a barrier to progress.
Dreaming of a simpler world where
capsules. The team at Aquapak has been
working on the formulae for five years
segment, accounting for $10bn plastics are pure streams with no additives, and is about to launch its 100% recyclable,
of the total. and there are no laminates or composites... flexible plastics lines for packing products
is just dreaming, says John Williams, di- such as crisps or replacing the clear plastic

Tonnes of plastic packaging
rector at Aquapak Polymers. The world
isnt like that now and it wont be in the
films used on meat packaging, etc.
With its first UK factory opening im-
leaks into the ocean each year.
future. We demand more and more func- minent, the company is in deal-making
tionality in our plastics, which means ma- talks with some big brands. When peo-



ple resist new materials outright it can be

frustrating, says Williams, But thank-
fully, while some are saying this cant be
done, others are saying yes, it can.
PVOH is water soluble, with the de-
gree depending on the blend of polymers, Aquapack Polymers is soon to
formulation, thickness and temperature. open its new UK factory where
it will produce 100% recyclable,
The material is hydrophilic and breaks flexible plastics suitable for
down into harmless organic components packing consumer products.
in the presence of large amounts of water
much quicker than standard hydropho- doing the same thing over and over again
bic plastics, which can take many hun- and expecting different results. If tradi-
dreds of years. tional plastics are a barrier to more sus-
As a packaging material, Aquapaks tainable resource use, then lets change to
formulated PVOH films are highly func- something that allows circularity.
tional, with barrier qualities outperform- Equally, if the new plastics have value,
ing current market-leaders for many ap- then its in the interests of the waste man-
plications. It is non-toxic and has FDA agement companies to separate it and sell
approval which opens up the potential it, not say we dont want it.
for manufacturers, brand owners, retail- We need engagement and collabo-
ers and reprocessors to have access to a ration all along the supply chain. The
multi-functional, high performing and
durable plastic film that can be 100% re-
IN A CIRCULAR waste management industry needs to be
part of this change so that new materials
cyclable and 100% recycled. ECONOMY, dont get rejected. Likewise, people work-
At end-of-life, since PVOH dissolves WASTE ing on new materials need to think about
in water, the film separates easily from end-of-life from day one; its a completely
other materials (such as a rigid plastic
MANAGERS different approach to resource manage-
food tray or a cardboard sandwich box), SUDDENLY ment, explains Williams.
reducing contamination throughout the BECOME Waste managers can now influence
recycling stream. supply chains, since they are a fundamen-
Using chemical recycling instead of me-
INFLUENTIAL. tal part of the materials cycle. Likewise, if
chanical processes makes the separation SOME PEOPLE a new material manufacturer talks with
and recovery of PVOH both affordable and UNDERSTAND the waste sector about the value of the
efficient. According to Aquapak, its nota- material and how it can be retained, it will
ble advancement is the ability to recover its THIS, AND demystify the new material and bust the
polymer back out of solution in a pure, un- THEY ARE THE myths that surround it.
contaminated form. It can be repelletised ONES AT THE According to Williams we need these
at the sorting facility and sold directly back new conversations in order to deliver a
to manufacturers in a closed loop. TABLE. circular economy.
In order to allow the technology to No-one will have a magic bullet. It
scale rapidly, Aquapak PVOH pellets are takes demonstrations, trials, and engage-
compatible with existing polyethylene ment with packaging technology part-
(PE) blow film production facilities, so ners. With new materials, we are success-
no investment is required by the blown fully building end-of-life into the process,
film manufacturers, and as demand for and now we need to work on the scale and
the products increase, operations can be cost to help bring these superior materi-
scaled up and extended. als to market, he says.
Otherwise, we will be stuck with the
SUPPLY CHAIN plastics we are using today, which are
A New Plastics Economy is clearly not just not a good fit for the 21st century. As
about new materials, its about new pro- Buckminster Fuller said, You never change
cesses. We cannot achieve a circular econ- things by fighting the existing reality. To
omy using the same approaches we have John Williams change something, build a new model that
always used. As Einstein said, insanity is Director at Aquapak Polymers makes the existing model obsolete.





Envac becomes one of the 12 solutions to be exhibited
in one of the three participating European cities that
include Stockholm, Cologne and Barcelona.


New Orleans
6-8 March 2017
Helsinki, Finland
15-16 March 2017 IN ORDER TO DEVELOP
16-19 March 2017 WASTE MANAGEMENT
Berlin, Germany
22-24 March 2017
DEVELOPING. Head of department GrowSmarter

MOSCOW INTERNATIONAL Swedish underground automated waste Envac will collect the waste from 300 apart-
Moscow collection system manufacturer, Envac AB, has ments across four waste streams including
28-30 March 2017 joined the 25 million GrowSmarter initiative, food, paper, recyclables and general waste. which will bring together cities and industry The installation will see Envacs stationary sys-
PLASTICS RECYCLING SHOW EUROPE to showcase 12 smart city solutions in energy, tem integrate with its optical sorting techno-
Amsterdam infrastructure and transport. logy, using only one container and one inlet to
29-30 March 2017
As part of the project, automated waste col- collect the waste, which it said will substantially
lection technology will be retrofitted into 300 reduce the cost of the investment.
ISRI CONVENTION & EXPOSITION apartments in Valla torg, an area that lies 8 km Coloured bags, each representing a waste
New Orleans
22-27 April 2017
south of Stockholms city centre. The company stream, will be deposited in the inlet and
said that this will play a key role in meeting transported via underground pipes to the
AD & BIOGAS 2017 GrowSmarter targets, which include reducing waste collection station on the outskirts of the
Birmingham, UK
5-6 July 2017 energy, greenhouse gas emissions and trans- development. The bags will then be taken to port emissions by 60%. an optical sorting facility.





SoCalGas said that it believed CR&R's Perris

digestion to be the largest in the world.


Utility firm, Southern California Gas Co. (SoCalGas), and waste manage-
According to Armen Derderian, president ment company CR&R Environmental, have broken ground on construc-
and CEO of RMG, the plant is the first new
MRF to be built in the city in 16 years. tion of an eight-inch pipeline that will carry biogas from a CR&Rs new an-
aerobic digestion facility in Perris into the SoCalGas distribution system.
According to SoCalGas, the carbon-neutral renewable natural gas will be
San Diego based recycling equipment manufacturer, CP Group, designated specifically to power CR&R's fleet of approximately 900 waste
has designed and installed a 15 tonne per hour MRF for fellow hauling trucks.
San Diegan firm, the Resource Management Group (RMG). The connecting pipeline, funded by CR&R Environmental, will reach
The plant features MSS CIRRUS optical sorting technology and approximately 1.4 miles from an existing SoCalGas pipeline to the AD
is designed for both commercial and single stream processing. facility and is due to be completed in spring.
The majority of the system input is a blend of commercial and CR&R's Perris anaerobic digester, supplied by Eisenmann USA and Green-
multi-family single stream materials, including OCC, OMP, and lane Biogas, and constructed by W.M. Lyles, will use source separated
plastic film. After loading onto the incline conveyor, the material organic waste to produce renewable methane.
goes through a manual pre-sorting station where any over-size This gas will then be further refined using pollution-free technology and
items are removed. distributed through SoCalGas's pipeline infrastructure.
CP Group explains that the 3-deck CP OCC screen recovers card-
board, and a CP Glass Breaker Fines Screen removes <2" fines.
The remaining material enters the MSS CIRRUS optical sorter
which is set up in a dual-eject configuration and ejects contain-
ers and fibre materials. This system is able to achieve a higher
than 90% diversion with minimal manual sorting.
CP's system engineers had to deal with a number of challenges,
like the diversity of the incoming material streams and signifi-
cant space limitations. But they delivered, Armen Derderian,
president and CEO of RMG.
Lisa Alexander
SoCalGas' vice president, customer
solutions and communications


$ 14.3
State of New Jersey distributes grants FOR INCREASING USE OF
to promote state-wide recycling. RENEWABLE FUELS.




Poor Environmental Recycling Perfor-

300 833.7
mance from EU Ship Owners

The list of all ships dismantled around
the world in 2016, which the NGO
Shipbreaking Platform has compiled and
analysed, showed no improvements of
the shipping industrys management of
its end-of-life vessels. According to the
organisation, Germany was the worst
offender when the size of its fleet is
compared to the number of ships broken CU B
irresponsibly - 98% of all obsolete Ger- FCC GROUP REPORTED
man ships were said to have ended up of RENEWABLE AN INCREASE IN
on a beach. However, other EU nations have nothing NATURAL GAS PER EBITDA to 833.7 million,
to boast about either. Greece dumped the largest total YEAR which could be with Environmental
number of vessels and the worst corporate offender produced from organic Services and Water
was UK-based ZODIAC. waste in California divisions accounting
according to SoCalGas. for 80.4%.

Bunting Magnetics Grows

Global Reach with Acquisition

Kansas-based Bunting Magnetics Co. has signed an

agreement to acquire UK firm Master Magnets Ltd.
The Redditch, UK-based firm provides a complete line
of magnetic separation, recycling and metal detection
equipment to several industries worldwide through a
global network of distributors. Bunting said that the
acquisition will build on and complement its global
foundation broadened customer reach, new manu- BILLIO TPD
facturing capabilities and the opportunity to sell into Potential ANNUAL ANAEROBIC DIGES-
new markets. SAVINGS IN HEALTH TION PLANT given the
COSTS and direct costs thumbs up by Hawaii
to the environment with County Planning
full implementation of Department in
Indian IT Firm Opens E-Waste Recycling Facility Waikoloa.
EU environment
Cerebra Integrated Technologies has inaugurated an
legislation according
e-waste recycling facility at Narasapura KIADB Indus-
to Eurobarometer.
trial Area, Kolar District. The company said that the
new facility adds metal, plastic and glass separation
and recovery to its existing reuse, refurbishment and
remarketing services. The current capacity of the facili-

ty is 36,000 tonnes per annum and Cerebra said that it

97 230
will expand further in the near future to add Platinum
Group Metal refining.

scrapped in 2016 ended
up on beaches in 2016 REPUBLIC SERVICES
compared to 62 of 105 ECONOMIC IMPACT in
from China and 104 of Nevada, according to the
113 from Greece. companys latest study.




Welsh firm MDF Recovery has concluded to be of the same high quality as virgin wood
proof of concept trials to develop a commer- fibre and provide feedstock to the manufac-
cially viable process to recover wood fibre turers of MDF board, insulation products and
from waste MDF. horticultural growing products.
The company said it is the culmination of Craig Bartlett, founder and managing director
more than six years R&D to create a technolo- of the company said that discussions with a GOOD TO KNOW
gy that will offer the first alternative to the use number of leading companies and organisa-

of landfills or burning to dispose of MDF. tions operating in the MDF production and
Britain alone disposes of around 350,000 waste industries have already begun.
tonnes of MDF each year and according to the The recycling process we have developed is
company some 30-60,000 tonnes per year of a genuine world first, said Bartlett. There is
that could be recycled. The solution generates no other environmentally friendly alternative
a new raw material source for the wood/nat-
ural fibre industry. The recovered fibre is said
to the use of landfill or burning to dispose of
Group in Germany, ten
Craig Bartlett, founder and managing director MDF Recovery
of whom have started
an apprenticeship.


Qatari firm, Modern Recycling Facilitys new
$41.3 million tyre recycling facility, which
was funded by Al Khalij Commercial Bank in
support of Qatars green technology business
sector, has opened in Mesaieed Industrial City.
The facility features tyre recycling equipment
from Danish manufacturer Eldan Recycling
and will recycle used tyres and rubber materi- AS PART OF OUR GENERATION
als to make new products. GREEN PROGRAM, THE MRF PROJECT
At 20,000 square metres, the facility is one of
the largest greenfield recycling projects in the
This is a first-of-its-kind project for recycling
used tyres, which pose a serious threat to the
environment, commented Akram Ibrahim, COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL USE.
chief executive officer of Modern Recycling Fahad Al Khalifa
Facility. the Al Khalij Commercial Bank CEO



Positive Results from ISWAs
Campaign to Close Dumpsites
On 17th January, the government of the Brazilian Federal
District inaugurated the Sanitary Landfill of the countrys
capital Brasilia, which marks the first step of the process to
close the biggest open dumpsite in Latin America.
By Carlos Silva Filho, CEO of ABRELPE, ISWAs National Member in Brazil

I SWAs report, 'Roadmap for clos-

ing Waste Dumpsites', has been
instrumental to the regional govern-
ment in implementing an adequate
away from the Brazilian Presidential
Hall and Federal Congress. The
dumpsite receives about 4000
tonnes of waste per day from a
destination for the waste generated population of 5 million people.
in Brasilia and its surrounding area. BRASILIAS Around 2000 waste pickers work on
The Roadmap highlighted Brasilias the site.
Estrutural dumpsite as being one of
SANITARY However, the inauguration of
the 50 largest on the planet. LANDFILL Brasilias Sanitary Landfill marks
Several subsidies resulting from the only the beginning of the story.
ISWA report have been taken by the
MARKS With this, the process to close the
regional government to enable it to ONLY THE dumpsite has officially started and
finally implement the decision to es- is planned to be concluded by mid-
tablish its first sanitary landfill, which
BEGINNING 2018 when seven planned recycling
represents a milestone towards the OF THE STORY. facilities will also be in operation.
effective closure of the Estrutural There are 42 measures in place
dumpsite. It is a moment causing WITH THIS, to achieve the final closure of the
great satisfaction to witness. THE PROCESS dumpsite, and some of them have
The campaign launched worldwide already been implemented:
last September during the ISWA World TO CLOSE THE - Enclosure of the dumpsites
Congress in Novi Sad and is already DUMPSITE HAS 6000 m perimeter with fences
producing concrete results. ABRELPE, - Renovation of the weighing
ISWAs National Member in Brazil, is OFFICIALLY bridges and gas drainage system
responsible for disseminating the STARTED. - Block the use of the dumpsite for
campaign in the country. the disposal of food waste from
The Estrutural dumpsite occupies an commercial centers
area of 200 ha, located only 15 km - Implement and deliver capacity



The New Sanitary Landfill Serving

the People of Brasilia.

Inauguration of the operations with the Board of

Directors from the Federal District Waste Authority
and ISWA President Antonis Mavropoulos and Vice
President Carlos Silva Filho.

building workshops for the commitment signed by ISWA and

FACTS waste pickers. other national and international
With an investment of 45 million institutions that together with the
BRL (13 million EUR), all of the re- regional government and regu-
quired infrastructure to operate latory bodies from the Brazilian
the first phase of the Sanitary Federal District they will follow up
Landfill is in place, and will use 11 and give advice on the implemen-
ha from the total 72 ha comprised tation of the planned measures

Population served by the
by the area. The expected lifespan
of the site is at least 13 years, with
and final closure of the dumpsite.
ISWA has signed a commitment,
a possible extension to 20 years, along with ABRELPE and a num-
Estrutural dumpsite. as a result of an improved sepa- ber of Brazilian institutes, to
rate collection system and organ- oversee the successful and full
Informal waste pickers making
ics recycling.
The inauguration of its first landfill
closure of the dumpsite. ISWA
will be involved in the progress
represents an important achieve- right through to the planned
a living on the site.
ment for Brasilia, and for the full-closure date of mid-2018 and
country as well. These are positive onwards, receiving regular reports
measures that will change the re-
ality of the federal capital for the
and updates. This will also be
compiled as a case study to be
Waste disposed of each day benefit of the entire population shared and serve as an example
at the dumpsite. and will help raise the awareness to other cities looking to do the
of the mayors of more than 3300 same.

Expected lifespan of the
other Brazilian municipalities
which still dispose waste in an in-
adequate way.
You can find out more about
ISWAs campaign to
#closedumpsites at closedump-
new sanitary landfill. Another positive result is a joint




In addition to the waste to energy plants

there are plans to expand the world's
largest bio-reactor plant in Kanjurmarg
to 5500 tonnes per day. Image credit:
Antony Lara Enviro Solutions Pvt. Ltd



With its huge population and rapidly growing

middleclass, waste generation is a growing problem in
India. As one of the countrys largest cities, Mumbai is
on the frontline of Indias drive to tackle its sanitation
problems. As part of that the Municipal Corporation
intends to develop two waste to energy plants.
By Jagdish Kumar

I n order to process the increasing

solid waste generation in the city,
Municipal Corporation of Greater
Mumbai (MCGM) will be setting up two
waste to energy plants outside the city vicinity.
The State of Maharashtra is the coun-
looks after news projects, told WMW that
once operational, the plants will process
all the solid waste generated in the city.
The city currently generates approxi-
mately 8500 TPD of municipal solid
waste (MSW), or nearly 0.475 kg per per-
trys leader in solid waste generation at son, according to MCGM and is expected
26,820 tonnes per day, followed by Uttar to exceed 10,000 tonnes per day by 2025.
Pradesh 19,180 tonnes. Of the total gen- MCGM currently operates the world's
erated in Maharashtra state, 8500 tonnes largest bio-reactor plant in Kanjurmarg in
come from Mumbai city alone. the city vicinity. According to Mukherjee,
To tackle this, the two new scientific that will be expanded to 5500 TPD from
waste disposal plants, which are expected the current capacity of 3000 TPD.
to cost millions of dollars, will be set up If there is need to expand the capacity,
in the outskirts of the city. One will be we can add another 2000 TPD capacity to
based in Taloja and the other in Airoli. Kanjurmarg plant, which can again be ex-
The Taloja plant will have a capacity of 500 panded to 7500 TPD, Mukherjee stressed.
tonnes per day (TPD), whereas the Airoli Of the 8500 TPD solid waste gener-
plant will have a capacity of 2500 TPD. ated in the city, 3000 are processed at the
Speaking about waste to energy, Dr. Kanjurmarg bio-reactor plant, 3500 TPD
Sanjay Mukherjee, Additional Municipal is dumped at the city's landfill site lo-
Commissioner (Projects), Municipal cated in Deonar, east of the city, and 2000
Corporation of Greater Mumbai, who tonnes goes to Mulund dumping ground



located in the north-east of the city, while By using cells in its grate technology
Keppel Seghers will effectively install
the balance are dumped outside the city 36 mini grates at the Baoan III facility,
boundaries. enabling it to operate efficiently at
such scale.


In addition, the corporation also intends
to set up another waste to energy plant of
3000 TPD capacity at Deonar, for which Mumbai currently generates approxi-
mately 8500 tonnes of MSW each day,
tenders have been called. However, the with much of that being dumped in to gets funds after selling the portion in
plants will have to be developed quickly unsanitary facilities. By 2020 all waste the open market.
generated in the city will need to be
as problems of solid waste are increasing processed.
Funds generated from this can be
and even the High Court has asked the used for funding various projects across
MCGM to showcase the plan on manag- the city in the years to come, which also
ing the city's solid waste. includes these two plants.
As per the court's order, by 2020 all Asked why they believe that EPC is the
the solid waste generated in the city needs FACTS best model, and not public private part-
to be processed and there is to be a no nership (PPP), the official explains that
dumping zone in the city limit which will PPP is successful only when you don't
have to be adhered too. have funds, but MCGM has enough
MCGM is also closing its Mulund funds to invest in the projects, so is going
landfill site by March 2017, as well as the for an EPC model.
Deonar landfill site in the coming few Under this, the private party will de-
years. There are lots of local initiatives sign and execute the project and they will
taking place around the city. Several de- also operate it. The projects have huge
centralised waste to energy plants have scope for private firms to bring in their

been set up. We are also taking keen technologies and all companies across the
interest in promoting awareness of and globe will be invited to this project.
public response to these decentralised The energy generated from these
strategies;we are hopeful to make a dif- plants will be utilised in the city and
ference to the current scenario very soon, 340 million people living in Indian money earned from this will be shared be-
Mukherjee explains. cities. 680 million people estimated tween the EPC contractor and MCGM, or
to be living in Indian cities by 2030. whichever sharing pattern if finalised, the
PROJECT FINANCE official adds.
MCGM is looking to develop these plants
on an engineering, procuring and con- 100,000 TIME TO ACT
struction (EPC) model, as it believes that TONNES With the way the population of the city
to be the right approach. Solid waste estimated to be is increasing, it is high time that MCGM
Speaking about funding for the plants, generated across Indias urban takes the solid waste management work
areas on a daily basis.
an MCGM official tells WMW on condi- seriously. These plants should have been
tion of anonymity that funds are always set up a few years back, but MCGM has
a constraint: failed to deliver its promise, an environ-
We have to prioritise our funding. mental expert tells WMW.
For these projects, we have enough fund-
ing. Though there are concerns of availa-
bility of land, as to acquire land in the city
17.4 %
Of the worlds population
With the current population of 15 mil-
lion to 18 million, and no proper area to
treat solid waste, it has become a health
is a huge challenge. are Indian citizens hazard for the population staying close to
We are closing Mulund dumping these landfill suites, they add.
ground as it has now been 50 metres Even after spending a billion of dollars
high and has been causing huge environ- in the last five years, MCGM still unable

mental issues in the region by this fiscal to process the solid waste generated in
end. We are also going to cut the size of the city daily.
Deonar dumping ground, where we have With the development of these plants,
about over 120 hectares of land. Once, we in Mumbai considered MCGM aims to make Mumbai city a zero
clear the land from this, this can be used to reside near landfills. solid waste generating city.


Waste-to-Resources 2017
7th International Symposium
MBT, MRF, Recycling
Resources and energy from MSW and organic waste
Conference & Exhibition
16th 18th of May 2017 in Hanover, Germany
Additional training course previously

Conference in 3 languages with simultaneous translation

English French German

Patronage: Barbara Hendricks, German Minister of Environment

Waste management strategies, new waste treatment technologies

Utilisation of plastic, mineral and organic waste
Anaerobic digestion of organic waste fractions
Practical experience, optimisation and new developments
Reduction of emissions, waste analytics, waste prognosis
Energy recovery by RDF power plants, liquefaction and cement kilns
Conditioning, use and sale of MBT & MRF output fractions
New and upcoming legal regulations in the EU
Waste management in emerging nations

Programme and more information at

Organisers: Gold Sponsor:



18-22 DAYS
Hydraulic retention time of the slurry.

A three tank batch system holds the sludge
at 70C for one hour for pasteurisation.

95 %
Of the organic
material is captured.

Internal moving components in the digester.

With a growing impetus to divert food waste from
landfill, anaerobic digestion is both an opportunity
for the waste industry, and a technical challenge.
Since acquiring Monsal and its advanced anaerobic
digestion technology back in 2014, GE has developed a
number of such faciclities. WMW talks to GEs Michael
Theodoulou to find out how.
By Ben Messenger



We hear a lot about the benefits of using di-

gestate as a fertiliser, does this require any
additional treatment?
THEODOULOU: Within the digestion
part of the plant youll have several pro-
cess steps depending on what the nature
and quality of the digestate needs to be.
For instance its very common to put a
pasteurisation process onto the system
so that you can kill pathogens prior to it
being used as a fertiliser. In some parts of
the world that may not be a requirement
from a regulatory point of view.
In our approach to pasteurisation we
apply a hold to the slurry prior to diges-
tion of 1 hour at 70 degrees Celsius or
based on what the regulations require, but
that would definitely cover the full patho-
gen kill that you would need to have.
At the back end of the digestion pro-
cess, to produce a quality fertiliser prod-
uct you would incorporate a de-watering
process to produce a cake. The water re-
In Rexburg, Idaho GE has installed its
Monsal 70 system for producing Class
moved in the de-watering process can be
A Biosolids at the citys wastewater recycled back into the digestion plant for
treatment facility. dilution of the incoming food waste. Or
it can be polished for discharge into the
WMW: What is Advanced Anaerobic FROM AN
Digestion and how does it increase biogas pro- WMW: What are the key factors to consider
duction from food wastes?
INVESTMENT when designing and planning a food waste
food waste standpoint, its the whole in- WE'VE SEEN THEODOULOU: We typically use the
tegration of the digestion process the same design approach, as long as it is a
pasteurisation process and the meso- THAT THE comparatively solid food waste, but we
philic digester, as well as the way in which COST OF look at feedstock characteristics and the
we integrate between the organic separa- variation of the types of feedstock com-
tion and the digestion plant.
IMPLEMENTING ing into the plant. Depending on that we
Typically, at an integrated food waste BIOGAS would potentially look at different ways
digestion plant there are several processes UPGRADING we would design the separation process
and technologies. You need to effectively as well as different ways of introducing
separate the organics from the contain- COMPARED TO different blends of feedstock coming into
ments which are in that stream - such as CHP IS FAIRLY the plant, such that you get consistent
packaging, plastics, metals or grit. Thats performance out of the digestion plant.
the first step in the process to produce a
EVEN. The viable size for an AD plant de-
slurry which can be sent to the anaerobic pends on a number of factors including
digestion part of the plant where that the quantity and quality of readily avail-
slurry is converted into biogas and a re- able feedstock, the level of feed-in-tariffs
sultant digestate. and the potential gate fee for incoming
There's a holding buffer tank between waste. Where government incentives are
the scheduled separation process which favourable, anaerobic digestion is com-
Michael Theodoulou
may operate 12 hours a day, five days per senior product manager in anaerobic
mercially viable for food waste down to
week, and the consistent feed to the di- technologies at GE Water & Process around 30,000 tonnes per year. Where
gester 24/7. Technologies those incentives are less favourable, the



plant would need to be a larger - maybe because of the elimination of greenhouse

around 60,000 tonnes per year. gas emissions by offsetting the non-renew-
able natural gas. You definitely have a sit-
How do you optimise the digestion process to uation in many parts of the world where
achieve the best yield of biogas? there's a carbon offset market, so you can
THEODOULOU: First and foremost, use that to produce high revenues for gas
the best yield from the digestion pro- to grid revenues.
cess comes from the effectiveness of the
separation process. You need to maxim- Processing waste can be tough on equipment.
ise the amount of organics in the waste What maintenance steps should operators
stream and have a slurry that is homoge- take to avoid downtime?
neous and consistent in terms of parti- THEODOULOU: In terms of mainte-
cle size and strength. The digestion pro- nance, the biggest consumer is the front-
Biological hydrolysis is said to be cess doesn't like a lot of variability when end separation. You're dealing with or-
cost effective compared to thermal you're feeding it, so you need to produce a ganic materials which can sometimes be
hydrolysis as it allows a higher
conversion of organic matter. consistent, homogeneous, even-strength laden with hard heavy materials such as
slurry to maintain biogas production. metals or rocks. You do get wear and you
The other important part is to min- do need some maintenance to maintain
imise the amount of non-digestible in- the effectiveness and the uptime of the
erts which go in. You need to minimise separation technology. On the digestion
the amount of plastics and grit that get side you have to maintain pumps and
through because those materials take up mixers and mechanical rotating equip-
volume in the digester which could be ap- ment, but it's relatively low compared to
plied to digestible organics. the separation side.
You'll definitely have a more effective On the biogas side, if you're using a CHP
plant if you have separate food waste engine, then routine maintenance and ser-
collections. You have less complications vicing is beneficial to consistently keep the
with the processing and you see contam- output of those engines at the maximum.
ination levels of less that 20-30%. When For example, that could be changing the
you have organics comingled with the oil and spark plugs every 3000 hours.
GE is supplying its Monsal anaerobic residual waste, the amount of organics For biogas upgrading and injection
digestion system to Surrey County that are in those waste streams are only plants you have to maintain the method
Councils new Eco Park waste treatment
and biogas facility being built by SUEZ around 40%, so the amount of separation of cleaning the gas and that can some-
in Shepperton, UK. you need to do is much greater. times consume media and chemicals.

Over the past few years, weve seen an in- We hear a lot about new AD developments
creasing number of gas-to-grid operations in Europe, but there is also a lot going on in
coming online. From a developers perspec- North America. Is the time right for AD to
tive, how do these projects compare to CHP? take off there?
THEODOULOU: We have started to see THEODOULOU: I see North America
a shift towards upgrading the gas into starting to implement certain strategies
biomethane for gas-to-grid injection. It's which are starting to drive the developer
definitely something that we're starting market in terms of building a financially
to see with the projects that we have in viable solution to handling organic waste.
the UK and also in North America where We're also starting to see a trend of mu-
it's starting to become a preferential solu- nicipalities, which have control over resi-
tion for biogas utilisation. dential organic waste, looking towards
From an investment standpoint, we've anaerobic digestion as a solution. Thats
seen that the cost of implementing biogas because it not only reduces the impact on
upgrading compared to CHP (Combined the environment in the form of extending
Heat & Power) is fairly even, but you do landfill lives and reducing the emissions
need to condition the biogas more for in- that would occur there, but also to pro-
jection compared to CHP. Where I am in duce renewable energy, whether that be
Canada, its very getting a lot of traction electricity or biomethane.


Composting technologies & recycling solutions

Aqua Metals' newly opened Aqua

Refinery in Nevada is the first commercial
scale lead acid battery recycling plant of
its type in the world to recycle lead
material at a molecular level.

With a limited lifespan, a huge userbase and some pretty
nasty materials inside, lead acid battery recycling is both
big business and potentially very hazardous. California-
based company reinventing lead recycling through its
hydro-metallurgical process may just be the solution.
By Ben Messenger



F ollowing an alleged conversa-

tion with Napoleon a couple
of years previously, in 1856
Henry Bessemer patented his conversion
process for producing high quality, low
cost steel. The technology revolutionised
the steel industry and remained in use in
the US into the 1960s.
Since the dawn of the Industrial Featuring 16 AquaRefining
Revolution, the arrival of such game the company opened its new 135,000 modules, the facility is able to
produce up to 120 tonnes of
changing breakthroughs have been rare, square foot (12,500 square metre) Aqua recycled lead each day. The
and technological progress usually far Refinery on the Tahoe Reno Industrial company is now aiming to roll
out five more plants in the near
more incremental. However, California Center (TRIC) best known as the home future.
firm, Aqua Metals, believes that over the of Teslas new Gigafactory. Featuring
next few years its technology has the po- 16 of the firms AquaRefining modules,
tential to do to the lead acid battery re- built at its headquarters in Alameda, the
cycling industry what Henry Bessemers plant has a capacity to produce up to 120
invention did to steel production. tonnes of lead products from recycled
Steve Cotton, chief commercial of- batteries each day.
ficer at the company, explains that the Its a water based technology that
smelting technology currently used to works at room temperature as opposed
recycle lead acid batteries would be fun- to 3000 degrees Farenheit, and with no
damentally familiar to Bronze Age metal smoke stacks required, explains Cotton.
worker. Attila the Hun would recognise a The difference is pretty profound. What
smelter, he tells WMW. we do is, we break the batteries apart to
According to Cotton one of the prob- get at the lead compound and lead plates
lems with using smelting to recycle lead and we digeste them in Aqua Metals pro-
from batteries is that while the plates do prietory electrolyte effectively it looks
not present an issue, the lead paste com- like water and it is water-based, for the
ponent requires drying before it is heated. most part. Most of that we get from the
That drying process can cause it to turn batteries, so were not really a water con-
into a dust which can be a serious health sumer. THERES ONLY
hazard for workers and a potential envi- We take the lead compound thats di- A FEW TIMES
ronmental pollutant. solved in the liquid and we put it through
Even in the US, where environmental a series of tanks, which in turn feed the IN HISTORY
restrictions for lead acid battery recyclers AquaRefining modules. Effectively we use WHERE A STEP
are strict, there have been some high-pro- a very unique way of electroplating where
file and environmentally damaging fail- we build up the material at a molecular
ures to comply. In less regulated countries level back into a base metal at room CHANGE IN
the damage caused has been the subject temperature and with no additives. The THE WAY
of much protest. As such, lead smelting is resulting product that comes out is 99.99
often listed among the worlds most pol- percent pure, he adds. A GLOBAL
luting industries. The plastic casings are also collected COMMODITY
and sent for recycling.
Founded in 2014, Cotton says that Aqua COMMERCIAL BENEFITS HAPPENED.
Metals is on a fast track to replace smelt- According to Cotton, by eliminating a
ing with its patented Aqua Refining tech- lot of the labour needed in the recycling
nology a hydro-metallurgical process process, and also by reducing energy
with far fewer environmental pitfalls. consumption and environmental risks,
Following earlier bench and pilot there are significant economic benefits Steve Cotton
tests of the technology, in July last year to the system. Its environmentally ben- chief commercial officer, Aqua Metals



eficial, he says. But its also a sustaina- lead acid batteries for backup power and
FACTS ble business model. Because its modular are seeking ways to build their sustaina-
you can build smaller facilities in terms bility programs.
of tonnage per year. You can have more The company has also sent its initial
facilities distributed globally and effec- production samples to several US bat-
tively bring recycling to the sources of tery manufacturing companies - which
96 %
Of all batteries
Cotton goes on to explain that smelt-
it says collectively represent over 50% of
US battery production - to allow them to
in use are lead acid ers are very large, typically fed by a sur- conduct their own assessments.
batteries. rounding population of 30 million,
earning them a reputation for needing THE FUTURE
to feed the beast. With smaller refin- While Aqua Metals is a relatively young
eries comes improved logistics and more startup, it has big plans to break into a

18-30 %
efficient distribution networks. big market, because in spite of the grow-
To this end, the companys new ing popularity of litium ion batteries,
Growth in lead acid battery Nevada refinery is located adjacent to a lead acid is still the dominant technology
production growth over Battery Systems Inc. facility which is able and is continuing to grow.
recent years. to supply the feedstock batteries. Such Cotton explains that while lead as a ma-
mutually advantageous partnerships terial has had its pitfalls, a clean recycling

with some of the major players in the lead process actually makes it a much cleaner
acid battery industry are very much part material to use for large scale energy stor-
Company expects to of the companys growth plans. It has age as it is a far more recyclabe material
start shipping licensed also formed strategic partnerships with than litium. Indeed, according to Aqua
AquaRefining equipment.
Interstate Batteries and Battery Systems Metals lead acid batteries are the worlds
International and says it is in discussions most recycled consumer product at 100%.
MASTER with nearly every major US-based battery Our technology is so disruptive to the $65
LICENSE manufacturer and recycler.
Another potentially large feedstock
billion global lead acid battery industry in
a sense that it could take the $22 billion
Approach developed
for China and other suppliers are data center operators and sub-sector of that which is recycling and
large markets. household internet brands, which use change not only the way in which batteries


The hydro-metallurgical process eliminates the risk of toxic airborne lead
emissions and requires less energy to operate than smelting.

Wet processes with no opportunity to generate airborne emissions

Break, sort Lead De-sul- High value

paste AquaRefine Ingoting products
and float phurize


Plastic lead

Sulphuric Metallic Ingoting Secondary

acid lead lead




are recycled, but the way in which they are things up Cotton also draws on a more
distributed and made, he says. recent comparison, the 1952 invention
The company is currently at the stage of the Float Glass Process by Alastair
of looking for suitable locations for a Pilkington and Kenneth Bickerstaff.
second and third site, and is evaluating Within 10 years of their breakthrough
options for developing four or five in the all glass was manufactured using the
near future, giving it a total recycling ca- Pilikington process.
pacity of around 800 tonnes per day. As industrial innovators go then, the
While it has previously funded initial company is certainly aiming high. But
technical developments through an Initial as anyone who has more than a passing
Public Offering (IPO) on the NASDAQ, acquaintance knows, lead acid batteries
it plans to develop these new facilities continue to be a product in desperate
through non-equity funding. It projects need of a steep change in the recycling
around 30% Internal Rate of Return (IRR) process.
for each 160 t/day AquaRefinery at a capi- Making serious inroads into a $22
tal cost of approximately $50 million. billion market is a big task for a small
company, but when a technology really is
The lead produced by the continuous CONCLUSIONS cheaper, cleaner, safer and more versatile
process drops onto conveyers which
take it to be compacted. It has been It may be over 150 years since Bessemer than its troublesome predecessor, its of-
assayed at 99.99% purity. made his breakthrough, but in summing ten just a matter of time.



Theres a mind-set in the waste and recycling industry
that doesnt want to be bothered with re-use. Theres
not much tonnage diversion to be had, theres not
always a weighbridge ticket involved and it cant be
added onto a sort line. So what could be done to move
waste up the hierarchy?
By David Roman


Household items sent to
landfill every year in the UK
according to the Furniture
Re-use Network - 3 million
of these items could be
re-used by people in crisis.

The first European country to
introduce a separate national
binding target for re-use.

Of goods expected to re-enter
the second-hand market Charity shops offer a readymade means
rather than being recycled or through which items can be diverted from
sent to landfill under the new the waste stream and into re-use, but there is
Spanish targets. room for improvement in achieving this.

I n a conventional municipal
waste setting, this is not going to
be your priority when planning
another round of efficiencies. But if its
done right, re-use is where waste man-
agement can stop being just a necessary
stream can turn into a funding stream for
job creation, housing security and a range
of good causes.
The recent CIWM Presidential Report
highlighted how in the UK and Ireland
hundreds of thousands of tonnes of tex-
utility and deliver real value to local econ- tiles, furniture, electrical items and other
omies. With little or no cost (and often goods are kept out of household waste
a saving) a difficult fraction of the waste by charities and social enterprises. There



has always been a trade in used goods IN MOST Foundation has over 730 stores and
and in the UK charity sector that has prevents over 70,000 tonnes per annum
carved out a unique role since the 1940s, CASES, ALL of waste. Like other charity retailers it
the first time the public donated a sale- THEY WANT is not driven by tonnage targets and it
able surplus in response to an appeal by FROM THE doesnt consider itself part of the waste
Oxfam. Because this never sees the inside management industry. However, such
of a waste facility, it is largely uncounted. WASTE organisations have just quietly taken a
INDUSTRY IS leading role at the top of the waste hier-
COUNTING RE-USE archy as a by-product of an effective
As in many other countries, in the UK COMMUNI- fund-raising focus.
nobody knows how many tonnes are re- CATION One of the keys to the success of the
used every year. There is estimated data TALKING UK charity retail sector, but also re-use
of course, but unless the weight of do- operators in other countries Ive visited
nations helps the charities involved or TO EACH Flanders, Netherlands, the USA is re-
contributes to government targets, it is OTHER AND sponding to the pull factor of customer
usually not being monitored. demand rather than the push factor of
What we do know is that the re-use MAKING SURE useable goods supply. An attempt to bolt
sector already saves the waste industry THE PUBLIC re-use onto a waste management system
millions and it could save it millions KNOW WHAT runs the risk of creating a junkyard.
more while also adding hundreds of mil- A good re-use retailer will know what
lions in value. This in turn creates paid OPTIONS ARE sells, at what price, and what to send
employment, volunteering opportunities AVAILABLE. straight to recycling, and they will create
and a boost to charities at a time when a suitable environment to do it in. They
the economy as a whole needs them more may be motivated by a charitable cause,
than ever. by helping people in need furnish their
There is a high level of professional- homes, by helping the unemployed into
ism amongst charity retailers. We recruit the job market, or all of these. Very rarely
specialised staff that can sort, price, dis- will they be motivated by tonnage data
play and sell an extraordinary range of alone.
donated goods. We analyse sales data,
we use discount outlets, high-end bou- PUTTING THE PIECES TOGETHER
tiques and online sales outlets. We re- If, like me, youve been in the waste in-
cycle everything from mattresses to cos- dustry for many years, but, unlike me,
tume jewellery. you havent spent much time looking at
re-use, now is the time to update your-
When, as a junior recycling officer, I was Professional re-use organisations
asked to investigate the scope for my might not make a huge difference to
local authority to save on bulky waste weighbridge tonnages (although youd
collection costs I came back with a mix quickly notice it if they werent there).
of good and bad news. The good news What they can do is deliver a lot of eco-
was that most of what was being dis- nomic and social benefits per tonne of
carded was still in a useable state. The what they handle. In most cases, all they
bad news was that local facilities able want from the waste industry is com-
to cope with large volumes of furniture munication talking to each other and
could not be found. The local authority making sure the public know what op-
carried on bearing the cost of collection tions are available.
and disposal, only recently introducing a Waste industrys role is to re-route
small collection charge like most in the goods before they enter the waste stream
UK, but continuing to subsidise the ser- and let the re-use sector do the hard
vice. Two decades later there is a choice work. How many other contractors are
of charities operating in nearly every David Romanis waste &
there that will collect from households
local authority in the UK with demand recycling managerat the British for free, reduce disposal costs and thank
outstripping supply. The British Heart Heart Foundation. you for it?



Pigs and other livestock are a common sight

on municipal waste landfills in Albania where
untreated infectious healthcare waste is also
often disposed of on these sites.




Following three years of hard work,
the EU Healthcare Waste Management
(EUHCWM) project has concluded with
the creation of a number of important
new qualifications for healthcare waste
managers and with the continued backing
of ISWA.
By Scott Crossett

A lot can happen in three

years. In the last three
years my wife and I have
become grandparents twice; moved
house; merged two businesses; fulfilled
contract obligations in 4 different coun-
Occupational Standards and Vocational
Educational Training Programmes for
Healthcare Waste Management across EU
Member States, through the development
of a new healthcare waste management
qualification framework and e-learning
tries and then there was the small matter platform.
of completing work on a lifelong learning When we devised the title and project
funded project with 12 partners. concept we thought that all EU member
Should I have mentioned BREXIT? states would be the same and we could
Maybe not. I will stick to the healthcare easily implement a new set of qualifica-
waste management project funded by tions across the board. It had not dawned
the Leonardo Da Vinci programme - on me that in terms of vocational quali-
the EU Healthcare Waste Management fications there would be such a disparity
(EUHCWM) project. across the EU Member States, and that
The project aimed to provide a unified the model we had based our project pro-
approach to the development of National posal on, the UKs, was only actually pos-




The key outputs from the project

activities were:

National Occupation Standards

for Healthcare Waste Manager;
Healthcare Waste Manager
at a Treatment Centre; and
Healthcare Waste Manager at a
Healthcare Waste Logistic Centre
The development of three
vocational training qualifications
in the roles of Healthcare Waste
Manager; Healthcare Waste
Manager at a Treatment Centre;
and Healthcare Waste Manager
at a Healthcare Waste Logistic
The development of associated
training materials for the three
training programmes required
to underpin the above qualifica-
The development of an e-learn-
ing platform to deliver the
qualifications and the training
The establishment of an EU-wide
professional network of waste
and healthcare professionals.
sible in two or three other member states professional bodies from both healthcare
- none of which we had as partners. waste management and healthcare pro-
Hindsight is an excellent skill - and one viders. There is also a strong representa-
we all excel in. Our grand plan was that tion from the vocational education &
the new qualification framework devel- training sector.
oped during the project duration would
enable the EU labour force in the sector to INITIAL ASSESSMENT
gain a standardised set of skills regardless In our initial assessment of the Member
of the member state in which they under- States where we had partner representa-
took the vocational training programme. tion we realised that currently there is
This would ensure that future health-care no formal or unified pan-European ap-
waste managers would have genuine EU proach to the development of national
educational currency and therefore ena- occupational standards or to vocational
ble greater mobility within the EU for this educational qualifications in relation to
specific labour force. healthcare waste management. Individual
The project had a team consisting of member states have radically different ap-
12 partners representing 11 European proaches to this subject area.
countries and two pan-European indus- In some instances the approach to
try associations, as well as membership vocational qualifications in the waste
from a Regional Environment Network. management industry is linked to the na-
In addition, through the inclusion of the tional waste management site permitting
International Solid Waste Association and inspection regulations. This however
(ISWA), the project has managed to reach normally relates to waste managers who
a truly global audience in respect of waste are managing regulated waste manage-
management professionals. ment facilities and it does not normally
The mismanagement of HCW poses an
unnecessary risk to both human health The project partnership includes stake- apply to the management of waste within
and the environment. holders representative of industry and a healthcare facility. Through its Duty of



legislation from the point of generation I HOPE

to the final point of disposal.
The training programme and qualifica- THAT ALL
tions developed by the project could be a THE EFFORTS
mechanism through which the healthcare
facilities have a properly trained mem-
ber of their workforce. This ensures that, WORTHWHILE
whether the healthcare waste management AND THAT
function is subcontracted or managed
internally, they have a responsible person THE PROJECT
managing the process and keeping that OUTPUTS WILL
facility compliant. In this regard therefore
it is important that a unified approach to
Vocational Education and Training (VET) THEIR PLACE,
is provided across the EU. SOONER OR
VET it is the responsibility of mem-
ber states, but the single European la- LATER, WITHIN
Informal waste pickers on municipal landfill sites are
at risk if we do not safely manage healthcare wastes. bour market makes some cooperation THE EUROPEAN
These qualifications are a mechanism to provide on education imperative, including on
benchmarking of best practice and knowledge
vocational education and training. This
across the EU and the Accession States.
co-operation should facilitate the move- FRAMEWORK
ment of the labour force around the EU AND IN AS
and in search of suitable employment op-
portunities. MANY MEMBER
One of the key project aims was to eval- STATES
uate the role of healthcare waste manag-
ers and develop a vocational educational
Care, the hospital itself needs to take re- qualification with an associated training QUALIFICATION
sponsibility for the waste it produces and programme based on the work activities FRAMEWORKS
how that waste is managed either by its and current best practices of EU health-
own internal waste management service care waste managers, taking into account AS POSSIBLE.
or by a sub-contracted service provider. best available technology applications in
That responsibility is not limited to the the healthcare waste management sector.
hospital site itself, and where waste is It was at this point in the project that I
sent off site for treatment or disposal, the realised how different the situation was in
healthcare facility should ensure that this the member states where we had partner
is done in line with national legislation. representatives. This meant that we had
Good healthcare waste management is to really consider a different approach to
one way in which a healthcare facility can the pan-European agenda foreseen in the
demonstrate that it is a safe place for pa- project proposal.
tients and visitors. The healthcare facility One of the key milestones was the
should therefore have a qualified environ- completion of the vocational units for the
ment/waste manager to provide an inter- new qualification of Healthcare Waste
nal focal point for the waste management Manager. At the beginning of the project,
system at the hospital and to be a credible a first draft of the units list for the new
interface with their waste industry part- qualification was developed and this was
ner in the case of sub-contracted service then put out to consultation with key
provision. stakeholders in the different project part-
This is a two-way communication pro- ner member states through our partner
cess and the waste industry also needs multiplier organisations.
a credible management representative
working with the healthcare facility in or- CONSULTATION PROCESS Scott Crossett
der to ensure that the system operates in The consultation process lasted two or ICERMS Limited, EUHCWM Project
full compliance with waste management three months and involved the distribu- Lead Partner



The qualifications and their under-

pinning training materials provide
the candidate with clear knowledge
on EU Best practice in healthcare
waste management including the
appropriate segregation of health-
care wastes at source.

tion of thousands of internal evaluation 1. Healthcare Waste Manager at a

questionnaires. Balancing the interests Healthcare Facility
and views of so many valid contributions 2. Healthcare Waste Manager at a
from the industry, and achieving the Healthcare Waste Treatment Facility
right balance, was not easy. 3. Healthcare Waste Manager at
In fact what we have ended up with, Healthcare Waste Transport Operations
in order to meet the needs of the sector, In total we developed a suite of 27 vo-
are three distinct qualifications involving cational qualification units, each with an
three distinct pathways, mapped from the accompanying Powerpoint-based train-
healthcare waste management suite of vo- ing module. This latter output was a ma-
cational education units. These qualifica- jor piece of work for the project partners.
tions reflect three key roles in the health- However, it was a mechanism through
care waste management sector: which we could manage the differences
in the vocational qualification systems
across the EU.
The last piece of the jigsaw as far as
FACTS the training programme was concerned
was to develop an e-learning platform in
It was decided over a number of
brainstorming sessions to create respect of the qualification and training
a series of professional networks resources and this was done by Tal Peer
within each Member State. The using the Moodle platform.
map below shows the coverage of The idea, now that we had everything
these professional networks.
ready, was that we would have two op-
tions for the project outputs.
Firstly and for those Member States
with a vocational qualification system, the
formal qualifications could be integrated
with little difficulty into those pre-existing
systems and then aligned to the European
Qualification Framework. Here it was easy
to see where the quality controls would
come from but in the context of the train-
ing option this was less evident.
The second option was to have the
other Member States offer the training
modules as a formal training course for
would-be candidates. It was at this point
that we decided to explore the possibility
of working with ISWA beyond the project

n Partner Countries
It seemed logical that any future training
n Network Member countries could be provided as part of an overarch-
n Planned network member countries ing agreement with ISWA which would



The project team at the kick-off

meeting in Largs, Scotland, UK. bring credibility to the training pro- We agreed to undertake a pilot training
grammes and also ensure a pre-defined programme utilising one of the qualifi-
level of delivery performance by poten- cations developed under the EUHCWM
tial training organisations. Problem of project in 2017. Initially this will be run
quality concerns with option two deliv- as a training programme. However, it is
ery solved. hoped that it could evolve into a formal
We wanted to ensure that we had a delivery mechanism for a vocational quali-
clear road map for a way forward with fication.
ISWA beyond the end of the project, and In terms of the formal qualification,
Hermann Koller, ISWA managing direc- the UK partner, ICERMS Limited, are
tor, considered options for a way forward. now proactively looking for possible pi-

PFTHae_WMW_1007 1 7/6/10 3:14 PM


lot opportunities. With all of the project mental organizations. A complete data-
deliverables developed, the next task was base of contact details has been created,
to determine how best to have the pro- and the members of the network are the
ject initiative and these outputs as widely core recipients of the project activities
disseminated as possible. This was the and outputs, mainly through project
task of Aditi Ramola at ISWA. It was de- newsletters and updates.
cided over a number of brainstorming It has been a hectic three years on
sessions to create a series of professional the project. I hope that all the efforts
networks within each Member State and have been worthwhile and that the pro-
in this regard we would create a small ject outputs will indeed find their place,
group of national experts who would sooner or later, within the European
be part of an EU-wide professional net- Qualification Framework and in as many
work of Healthcare Waste Managers and Member States National Qualification
Vocational Qualification Centres. Frameworks as possible.
National networks have been created As is the tradition with projects funded
The three qualifications aim to address in each participating partner country. under the Leonardo Da Vinci programme,
three different facets of HCWM: Health- The members of the networks are rep- they normally culminate in a final confer-
care waste management at a healthcare
facility; healthcare waste management in resentatives of all stakeholders target ence where the final project deliverables
the context of healthcare waste logistics groups, i.e. direct beneficiaries like voca- and outputs are disseminated to a wider
and, as pictured above in Cyprus, health-
care waste management at a healthcare
tional training providers and potential stakeholder group. For more on this visit
waste treatment centre. learners; policy and decision makers;
other stakeholders like local communi- It is time now to start the next project
ties, healthcare providers, and environ- proposal for Erasmus Plus 2017.


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Visit for more information

Shaping Two Worlds:

ISWAs Emblematic Global Initiatives for 2017

A t the 2016 ISWA World

Congress, ISWA announced its cam-
paign to push for the closure of some
of the worlds most dangerous and
hazardous places dumpsites - using
the hashtag #closedumpsites.
This global initiative is the first of
two major campaigns ISWA is em-
barking on from this year onwards.
Dumpsites, according to our recent
report, are a significant contributor to
the global health and environmental
emergency that the world is experien-
cing. They receive 40% of the worlds
waste, they are on track to account for
10% of GHG emissions by 2025 and
they are worth $10-12 billion in ille-
gal business activity. The direct deaths
caused by dumpsites are also alarming
and this is why ISWA has launched As part of the #closedumpsites campaign ISWA is urging all WMW readers to sign its declaration at
this campaign to #closedumpsites.

We are delighted to announce that

we have established a new website we encour- their attempt to close dumpsites and tecting the health and wellbeing of
age you all to take a look around. The seek sustainable solutions. hundreds of millions of people.
website highlights our campaign, At you We urge everyone to read our decla-
provides resources, cases studies and will also find our declaration, which ration and add their voice to the 600+
expertise for those looking to close we are urging everyone to sign. The professionals, students, politicians,
dumpsites, and will eventually become declaration calls for immediate action company owners and interested indi-
a help-desk; offering support to cities to close the worlds 50 biggest dump- viduals who have already signed. The
and countries who need guidance in sites, an essential step forward in pro- more voices, the stronger and clearer


ISWA 2017
ISWA Study Tour Collection
Sorting Recycling 2017
Amsterdam, Netherlands
ISWA is developing a collective roadmap to explore the impact on the industry of the Internet of Things.

29 MAY 2 JUN
ISWA Study Tour Biological
Treatment of Waste 2017
our message is. We therefore ask that try in an attempt to gather opinions Brussels, Belgium
you take a look at our website and de- and views. We want to establish what
claration and consider joining our cam- the current understanding is of the
paign. With a strong voice we can raise potential impacts. We will assess the 1824 JUN
global attention to this issue. potential future influence in the indus- ISWA Study Tour
Waste-to-Energy 2017
try of a range of technologies includ- Munich, Germany
HAVE YOUR SAY ing Artificial Intelligence, 3D Printers,
On the other side, ISWAs second, par- Driverless Cars and the Internet of
allel initiative looks at a very different Things. 2527 SEP
danger affecting more developed econ- Following this survey, ISWA will ISWA World Congress 2017
omies, the hazards of technology which publish the results and create a col- Baltimore, USA

could potentially leave the waste and lective roadmap for the waste and re-
resource management industry behind. cycling sector which aims to ensure
The world is experiencing a signifi- that we are well prepared and flexible
cant and inexorable technological shift enough to cope with the rapidly chang-
and every industry, waste and recycling ing world where robots become more
included, will be impacted by what is widely used.
commonly referred to as the fourth in- ISWA is thinking about the future
dustrial revolution. ISWA aims to help and we want to ensure that the waste
shape the future of waste management managers are not left behind. We would
by conducting the worlds only global therefore ask that you give five minutes
survey on the impacts of technology on to take the survey online at www.sur-
the waste management sector. -
ISWA is canvassing the entire waste the more responses, the more credible For more events and details
management community on the in- the analysis and the more credible our please go to or
volvement of technology in our indus- roadmap. scan the QR code.



Each day in Attica 6000 tonnes of

waste are delivered to the sanitary
landfill site at Ano Liosia each day
and 1200 tonnes is processed at the
Ano Liosia MBT plant each day.
Each day in Attica 6000 tonnes of

ATTICA, GREECE waste are delivered to the sanitary

landfill site at Ano Liosia each day
and 1200 tonnes is processed at the
Ano Liosia MBT plant each day.

The Greek prefecture of Attica, which includes

the capital Athens, has a population of 3.8
million people requiring sustainable waste ma-
nagement systems for some 2.1 million tonnes
of municipal waste generated annually.

E DSNA is the solid waste man-

agement authority responsible
for waste management for the entire
region of Attica. This includes the respon-
one is currently being filled whilst phase
two is being engineered for landfill oper-
ations. Phase two will commence opera-
tions within the next year.
sibility for managing waste produced by EDSNA has also constructed a mechanical PROMOTES
Athens, as well as that produced by the biological treatment and recycling plant
other 66 municipalities making up Attica at Ano Liosia next to its sanitary landfill. RECYCLING
Prefecture. To manage these large volumes The plant, which commenced operations TO THE
of waste, EDSNA has built a network of in 2010, processes around 1200 tonnes of
facilities. waste per day. COMMUNITY,
The Schistou waste transfer station, con- Containers for the collection of paper SCHOOLS AND
structed in 1991 and located near Piraeus, and cardboard were recently rolled out to THE WIDER
processes 900 tonnes of municipal waste schools to increase the amounts of paper
daily. It is operational 24 hours with mu- and cardboard recycled. POPULATION
nicipalities from the surrounding area EDSNA has also provided the blue ACROSS
delivering waste in conventional collec- coloured 1100 litre containers for the
tion vehicles. The island of Salamina also deposit of plastics, paper and cardboard, ATTICA.
delivers waste to the Schistou waste trans- and blue coloured igloos for the deposit
fer plant, via a ferry to Piraeus. The waste is of commingled glass. These are emptied
then driven the short distance to the plant. using vehicles operated directly by the
The Fyli sanitary landfill site at Ano Liosia municipalities.
disposes of 6000 tonnes of municipal In some areas of Athens, EDSNA also pro-
waste from across Attica daily. It is not only vides 1100 litre containers specifically for
the largest sanitary landfill site operated in the collection of paper and cardboard.
Greece but it is also thought to be the larg- These are emptied by EDNSAs own collec-
est sanitary landfill site in Europe. tion vehicles.
The site complies fully with the re- EDSNA has also drawn up future plans to
quirements of the EU Landfill Directive push waste further up the waste hierarchy
(1999/31/EC) and is lined to collect lea- and move away from the use of sanitary
chate, which is treated in a desalination landfills for the treatment of municipal
plant on site using a reverse osmosis waste. In the future, the existing mechan-
system. ical biological treatment and recycling
Methane is burnt on site using flare plant at Ano Liosia will be expanded.
torches. Electricity is harnessed from the An additional network of five smaller me-
burnt methane through a series of energy chanical biological treatment plants are
generator sets. also expected to be built around the pe- Timothy Byrne is an
The landfill is split into two phases. Phase riphery of Attica. ISWA International Waste Manager


500 projects
successfully delivered

Waste-fired power plant, Solid Waste Authority, West Palm Beach, Florida, USA.
Photography by Patricia Fallon.

yes, we know a little about

generating renewable energy!
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