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INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC

FUNCTIONS

2.1 Overview

Inverse of a function f exists, if the function is one-one and onto, i.e, bijective.

Since trigonometric functions are many-one over their domains, we restrict their

domains and co-domains in order to make them one-one and onto and then find

their inverse. The domains and ranges (principal value branches) of inverse

trigonometric functions are given below:

Functions Domain Range (Principal value

branches)

y = sin1x [1,1] ,

2 2

y = cos1x [1,1] [0,]

y = cosec1x R (1,1) , {0}

2 2

y = sec1x R (1,1) [0,]

2

y = tan1x R ,

2 2

y = cot1x R (0,)

Notes:

(i) The symbol sin1x should not be confused with (sinx)1. Infact sin1x is an

angle, the value of whose sine is x, similarly for other trigonometric functions.

(ii) The smallest numerical value, either positive or negative, of is called the

principal value of the function.

INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 19

the principal value branch. The value of the inverse trigonometic function which

lies in the range of principal branch is its principal value.

2.1.2 Graph of an inverse trigonometric function

The graph of an inverse trigonometric function can be obtained from the graph of

original function by interchanging x-axis and y-axis, i.e, if (a, b) is a point on the graph

of trigonometric function, then (b, a) becomes the corresponding point on the graph of

its inverse trigonometric function.

It can be shown that the graph of an inverse function can be obtained from the

corresponding graph of original function as a mirror image (i.e., reflection) along the

line y = x.

2.1.3 Properties of inverse trigonometric functions

1. sin1 (sin x) = x : x ,

2 2

cos1(cos x) = x : x [0, ]

tan1(tan x) = x : x ,

2 2

cot1(cot x) = x : x ( 0, )

sec1(sec x) = x : x [0, ]

2

cosec1(cosec x) = x : x , {0}

2 2

2. sin (sin1 x) = x : x [1,1]

cos (cos1 x) = x : x [1,1]

tan (tan1 x) = x : x R

cot (cot1 x) = x : x R

sec (sec1 x) = x : x R (1,1)

cosec (cosec1 x) = x : x R (1,1)

1

3. sin 1 cosec 1 x : x R (1,1)

x

1

cos 1 sec 1 x : x R (1,1)

x

20 MATHEMATICS

1

tan 1 cot 1 x : x>0

x

= + cot1x : x<0

4. sin1 (x) = sin1x : x [1,1]

cos1 (x) = cos1x : x [1,1]

tan1 (x) = tan1x : x R

cot1 (x) = cot1x : x R

sec1 (x) = sec1x : x R (1,1)

cosec1 (x) = cosec1x : x R (1,1)

5. sin1x + cos1x = : x [1,1]

2

tan1x + cot1x = : x R

2

sec1x + cosec1x = : x R[1,1]

2

x y

6. tan1x + tan1y = tan1 1 xy : xy < 1

x y

; xy > 1

tan1x tan1y = tan1 1 + xy

2x

7. 2tan1x = sin1 : 1 x 1

1 x2

1 x2

2tan1x = cos1 : x0

1 x2

2x

2tan1x = tan1 : 1 < x < 1

1 x2

2.2 Solved Examples

Short Answer (S.A.)

3

Example 1 Find the principal value of cos1x, for x = .

2

INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 21

3

3

Solution If cos 1

2 = , then cos = .

2

3

Since we are considering principal branch, [0, ]. Also, since > 0, being in

2

3

the first quadrant, hence cos1 2 = .

6

Example 2 Evaluate tan1 sin .

2

Solution tan1 sin = tan1 sin = tan1(1) = .

2 2

4

13

Example 3 Find the value of cos1 cos .

6

13 1

Solution cos1 cos

6

= cos1 cos (2 + ) = cos cos

6 6

= .

6

9

Example 4 Find the value of tan1 tan .

8

9

Solution tan1 tan = tan1 tan +

8 8

1

= tan tan =

8 8

Example 5 Evaluate tan (tan ( 4)).

1

Example 6 Evaluate: tan1 3 sec1 (2) .

22 MATHEMATICS

1 2

= + cos 1 = + = .

3 2 3 3 3

1 1 3

Example 7 Evaluate: sin cos sin 2 .

1 1 3 1 1

Solution sin cos sin sin 1 cos = sin .

2 3 2 6

Example 8 Prove that tan(cot1x) = cot (tan1x). State with reason whether the

equality is valid for all values of x.

Solution Let cot1x = . Then cot = x

or, tan = x tan 1 x =

2 2

1

So tan(cot x) = tan = cot = cot cot x = cot(tan x)

1 1

2 2

The equality is valid for all values of x since tan1x and cot1x are true for x R.

1 y

Example 9 Find the value of sec tan .

2

y y

Solution Let tan

1

= , where , . So, tan = ,

2 2 2 2

4 y2

which gives sec= .

2

y 4 + y2

Therefore, sec tan 1 = sec = .

2 2

1 8

Example 10 Find value of tan (cos1x) and hence evaluate tan cos .

17

Solution Let cos1x = , then cos = x, where [0,]

INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 23

1 cos 2 1 x2

Therefore, tan(cos1x) = tan = = .

cos x

2

8

1

Hence 8 17 15 .

tan cos 1 = =

17 8 8

17

1 5

Example 11 Find the value of sin 2cot

12

5 5

Solution Let cot1 = y . Then cot y = .

12

12

1 5

Now sin 2cot = sin 2y

12

12 5

= 2siny cosy = 2 since cot y < 0, so y 2 ,

13 13

120

169

1 1 4

Example 12 Evaluate cos sin sec 1

4 3

1 4 1 1 3

Solution cos sin

1

sec 1 = cos sin + cos 1

4 3 4 4

1 1 3 1 3

= cos sin cos cos 1 sin sin 1 sin cos 1

4 4 4 4

2 2

3 1 1 3

= 4 1 4

4

1

4

3 15 1 7 3 15 7

= 4 4 4 4 16

.

24 MATHEMATICS

3 17

Example 13 Prove that 2sin1 tan1 =

5 31 4

3 3

Solution Let sin1 = , then sin = , where ,

5 5 2 2

3 3

Thus tan = , which gives = tan1 .

4 4

3 17

Therefore, 2sin1 tan1

5 31

17 3 17

= 2 tan1 = 2 tan1 tan1

31 4 31

3

2. 17

tan 1 4 tan 1 24 17

= 31 = tan1 tan 1

1 9 7 31

16

24 17

tan 1 7 31

= =

1+ 24 . 17 4

7 31

cot17 + cot18 + cot118 = cot13

Solution We have

cot17 + cot18 + cot118

1 1 1 1

= tan1 + tan1 + tan1 (since cot1 x = tan1 , if x > 0)

7 8 18 x

1 1

7+8 1 1

1

tan + tan 1 1

= 1 1 18 (since x . y = . < 1)

1 7 8

7 8

INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 25

3 1

+

1 3 1 1 tan 1 11 18

= tan + tan = (since xy < 1)

11 18 1 3 1

11 18

1 65 1 1

= tan = tan = cot1 3

195 3

Example 15 Which is greater, tan 1 or tan1 1?

Solution From Fig. 2.1, we note that tan x is an increasing function in the interval

, , since 1 > tan 1 > tan . This gives

2 2 4 4 Y tan x

tan 1 > 1

tan 1 > 1 >

4 O

tan 1 > 1 > tan1 (1). X

p/2 p/4 p/2

Example 16 Find the value of

2

sin 2 tan 1 + cos (tan 1 3) .

3

2 2

Solution Let tan1 = x and tan1 3 = y so that tan x = and tan y = 3.

3 3

2

Therefore, sin 2 tan 1 + cos (tan 1 3)

3

= sin (2x) + cos y

2

2.

2 tan x 1 3 + 1

= 1 + tan x + = 4

( )

2 2

1+ tan 2 y 1+ 1+ 3

9

12 1 37

= + = .

13 2 26

26 MATHEMATICS

1 x 1

tan 1 1

= tan x, x > 0

1 + x 2

1 x

Solution From given equation, we have 2 tan 1 1

= tan x

1+ x

2 = 3tan 1 x = tan 1 x

4 6

1

x=

3

sin1 x + sin1 (1 x) = cos1 x.

Solution From the given equation, we have

sin (sin1 x + sin1 (1 x)) = sin (cos1x)

sin (sin1 x) cos (sin1 (1 x)) + cos (sin1 x) sin (sin1 (1 x) ) = sin (cos1 x)

x 1 (1 x) 2 + (1 x) 1 x 2 = 1 x 2

x 2 x x 2 + 1 x 2 (1 x 1) = 0

x ( )

2 x x 2 1 x 2 = 0

x = 0 or 2x x2 = 1 x2

1

x = 0 or x= .

2

Example 19 Solve the equation sin16x + sin1 6 3 x =

2

1

Solution From the given equation, we have sin1 6x = sin 6 3 x

2

INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 27

1

sin (sin1 6x) = sin sin 6 3 x

2

6x = cos (sin1 6 3 x)

36x2 = 1 108x2

1

144x2 = 1 x=

12

1 1

Note that x = is the only root of the equation as x = does not satisfy it.

12 12

Example 20 Show that

1 sin cos

2 tan1 tan .tan = tan

2 4 2 cos + sin

2 tan .tan

2 4 2 1 1 2 x

since 2 tan x = tan

1

Solution L.H.S. = tan

1 x 2

1 tan 2 tan 2

2 4 2

1 tan

2

2 tan

2 1 + tan

1 2

= tan 2

1 tan

2

1 tan 2

2 1 + tan

2

2 tan . 1 tan 2

2

2

= tan 1 2 2

2

1 + tan tan 1 tan

2 2 2

28 MATHEMATICS

2

2 tan 1 tan

2

2

= tan 1

2 2 2

1 + tan 1 tan + 2 tan 1+ tan

2 2 2 2

2 tan 1 tan 2

2 2

2 2

1+ tan 1+ tan

= tan 1 2 2

2

1 tan 2 tan

2+ 2

2 2

1+ tan 1+ tan

2 2

sin cos

= tan 1 = R.H.S.

cos + sin

Choose the correct answer from the given four options in each of the Examples 21 to 41.

Example 21 Which of the following corresponds to the principal value branch of tan1?

(A) , (B) ,

2 2 2 2

(C) , {0} (D) (0, )

2 2

Example 22 The principal value branch of sec1 is

(A) , {0} (B) [0, ]

2 2 2

(C) (0, ) (D) ,

2 2

INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 29

Example 23 One branch of cos1 other than the principal value branch corresponds to

3 3

(A) 2, 2 (B) [ , 2]

2

(C) (0, ) (D) [2, 3]

1 43

Example 24 The value of sin cos is

5

3 7

(A) (B) (C) (D)

5 5 10 10

1 40 + 3 1 3

Solution (D) is the correct answer. sin cos = sin cos 8 +

5 5

1 3 1 3

= sin cos = sin sin

5 2 5

1

= sin sin = .

10 10

2 2 34

(A) (B) (C) (D)

9 9 9 9

Solution (A) is the correct answer. cos1 (cos (680)) = cos1 [cos (720 40)]

2

= cos1 [cos ( 40)] = cos1 [cos (40)] = 40 = .

9

Example 26 The value of cot (sin1x) is

1+ x 2 x

(A) (B)

x 1+ x 2

30 MATHEMATICS

1 1 x 2

(C) (D) .

x x

1 1

cosec = cosec2 =

x x2

1 1 x 2

1 + cot2 = cot = .

x2 x

Example 27 If tan1x = for some x R, then the value of cot1x is

10

2 3 4

(A) (B) (C) (D)

5 5 5 5

Solution (B) is the correct answer. We know tan1x + cot 1x = . Therefore

2

cot1x =

2 10

2

cot1x = = .

2 10 5

Example 28 The domain of sin1 2x is

(A) [0, 1] (B) [ 1, 1]

1 1

(C) , (D) [2, 2]

2 2

1 1

Now 1 sin 1, i.e., 1 2x 1 which gives x .

2 2

3

Example 29 The principal value of sin1 2 is

INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 31

2 4 5

(A) (B) (C) (D) .

3 3 3 3

3 1 1

sin 1 = sin sin = sin sin = .

2 3 3 3

Example 30 The greatest and least values of (sin1x)2 + (cos1x)2 are respectively

5 2 2

(A) and (B) and

4 8 2 2

2 2 2

(C) and (D) and 0 .

4 4 4

Solution (A) is the correct answer. We have

2

= 2sin 1 x sin 1 x

4 2

2

( )

2

= sin 1 x + 2 sin 1 x

4

1 2

( )

1 2

2

= sin x sin x +

2 8

1 2

2

=

2 sin x + .

4 16

2 2 2 2

2

Thus, the least value is i.e. and the Greatest value is 2 + ,

16 8 2 4 16

5 2

i.e. .

4

Example 31 Let = sin1 (sin ( 600), then value of is

32 MATHEMATICS

2 2

(A) (B) (C) (D) .

3 2 3 3

10

sin 1 sin 600 1

= sin sin

180 3

1 2 1 2

= sin sin 4 = sin sin

3 3

1 1

= sin sin = sin sin = .

3 3 3

(A) [0, 1] (B) (0, 1)

(C) [1, 1] (D)

i.e. 1 x2 1 (since 1 sin y 1)

1 x2 1

0 x2 1

x 1 i.e. 1 x 1

(A) [3, 5] (B) [0, ]

(C) 5, 3 5, 3 (D) 5, 3 3, 5

i.e. 1 x2 4 1 (since 1 cos y 1)

3 x2 5

3 x 5

x 5, 3 3, 5

INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 33

(C) ( , ) (D)

Solution (A) is the correct answer. The domain of cos is R and the domain of sin1 is

[1, 1]. Therefore, the domain of cosx + sin1x is R [ 1,1] , i.e., [1, 1].

Solution (B) is the correct answer. Let sin1 (.6) = , i.e., sin = .6.

Example 36 If sin1 x + sin1 y = , then value of cos1 x + cos1 y is

2

2

(A) (B) (C) 0 (D)

2 3

Solution (A) is the correct answer. Given that sin1 x + sin1 y = .

2

1 1

Therefore, cos x + cos y =

2 2 2

cos1x + cos1y = .

2

1 3 1

Example 37 The value of tan cos + tan 1 is

5 4

19 8 19 3

(A) (B) (C) (D)

8 19 12 4

1 3 1 1 4 1

Solution (A) is the correct answer. tan cos + tan 1 = tan tan + tan 1

5 4 3 4

34 MATHEMATICS

4 1

3+4 1 19 19

= tan tan 1 = tan tan = .

1 4 1 8 8

3 4

Example 38 The value of the expression sin [cot1 (cos (tan1 1))] is

1 2

(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) (D) .

3 3

1 1 2 2

sin [cot1 (cos )] = sin [cot1 ]= sin sin =

4 2 3 3

1

Example 39 The equation tan1x cot1x = tan1 has

3

(A) no solution (B) unique solution

(C) infinite number of solutions (D) two solutions

tan1x cot1x = and tan1x + cot1x =

6 2

2

Adding them, we get 2tan1x =

3

tan1x = i.e., x = 3 .

3

Example 40 If 2 sin1x + cos1x , then

(A) = , = (B) = 0, =

2 2

3

(C) = , = (D) = 0, = 2

2 2

INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 35

Solution (B) is the correct answer. We have sin1 x 2

2

+ sin1x + +

2 2 2 2 2

0 sin x + (sin x + cos x)

1 1 1

0 2sin1x + cos1x

(A) 5 (B) 11 (C) 13 (D) 15

Solution (B) is the correct answer.

= 22 1 + 32 2 = 11.

2.3 EXERCISE

5 1 13

+ cos cos

1

1. Find the value of tan tan .

6 6

1 3

2. Evaluate cos cos .

2 6

4

1 1 1

4. Find the value of tan cot 1 tan 1 sin .

3 3 2

2

5. Find the value of tan1 tan .

3

1 4

6. Show that 2tan1 (3) = + tan .

2 3

36 MATHEMATICS

tan 1 x ( x + 1) + sin 1 x 2 + x + 1 = .

2

8.

Find the value of the expression sin 2 tan

1 1

3

1

(

+ cos tan 2 2 .

)

9. If 2 tan1 (cos ) = tan1 (2 cosec ), then show that = ,

4

where n is any integer.

1 1 1 1

10. Show that cos 2 tan = sin 4 tan .

7 3

3

11. (

)

Solve the following equation cos tan 1 x = sin cot 1 .

4

1 1 x2 1 x 2 1

12. Prove that tan cos 1 x 2

2

1 x 1 x 2 4 2

1 3 4 3

13. Find the simplified form of cos cos x sin x , where x , .

5 5 4 4

1 8 3 77

14. Prove that sin sin 1 sin 1 .

17 5 85

1 5 3 63

15. Show that sin cos 1 tan 1 .

13 5 16

1 2 1

16. Prove that tan

1

+ tan 1 = sin 1 .

4 9 5

1 1 1

17. Find the value of 4 tan tan 1 .

5 239

INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 37

1 1 3 4 7 4+ 7

18. Show that tan sin and justify why the other value

2 4 3 3

is ignored?

19. If a1, a2, a3,...,an is an arithmetic progression with common difference d, then

evaluate the following expression.

d 1 d 1 d 1 d

tan tan 1 + tan + tan + ... + tan .

1 + a1 a2 1 + a2 a3 1 + a3 a4 1 + an 1 an

Choose the correct answers from the given four options in each of the Exercises from

20 to 37 (M.C.Q.).

20. Which of the following is the principal value branch of cos1x?

(A) 2 , 2 (B) (0, )

(C) [0, ] (0, )

(D)

2

21. Which of the following is the principal value branch of cosec1x?

(A) , (B) [0, ]

2 2 2

(C) 2 , 2 (D) 2 , 2 {0}

22. If 3tan1 x + cot1 x = , then x equals

1

(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 1 (D) .

2

33

23. The value of sin1 cos is

5

3 7

(A) (B) (C) (D)

5 5 10 10

38 MATHEMATICS

(A) [0, 1] (B) [1, 1]

(C) ( 1, 1) (D) [0, ]

25. The domain of the function defined by f (x) = sin1 x 1 is

(A) [1, 2] (B) [1, 1]

(C) [0, 1] (D) none of these

2

26. If cos sin

1

+ cos 1 x = 0 , then x is equal to

5

1 2

(A) (B) (C) 0 (D) 1

5 5

27. The value of sin (2 tan1 (.75)) is equal to

(A) .75 (B) 1.5 (C) .96 (D) sin 1.5

1 3

28. The value of cos cos is equal to

2

3 5 7

(A) (B) (C) (D)

2 2 2 2

1

29. The value of the expression 2 sec1 2 + sin1 is

2

5 7

(A) (B) (C) (D) 1

6 6 6

4

30. If tan1 x + tan1y = , then cot1 x + cot1 y equals

5

2 3

(A) (B) (C) (D)

5 5 5

2a 1 1 a 2 2x

31. If sin 1 cos tan 1 , where a, x ]0, 1, then

1 a2 1 a2 1 x 2

the value of x is

a 2a

(A) 0 (B) (C) a (D)

2 1 a 2

INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 39

1 7

32. The value of cot cos is

25

25 25 24 7

(A) (B) (C) (D)

24 7 25 24

1 2

33. The value of the expression tan cos 1 is

2 5

(A) 2 5 (B) 52

5 2

(C) (D) 5 2

2

1 cos

Hint :tan =

2 1 + cos

2x

34. If | x | 1, then 2 tan1 x + sin1 is equal to

1 x2

2

35. If cos1 + cos1 + cos1 = 3, then ( + ) + ( + ) + ( + )

equals

(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 6 (D) 12

36. The number of real solutions of the equation

1 + cos 2 x = 2 cos 1 (cos x)in , is

2

(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) Infinite

37. If cos x > sin x, then

1 1

1 1

(A) < x1 (B) 0x<

2 2

1

(C) 1 x < (D) x>0

2

40 MATHEMATICS

1

38. The principal value of cos1 is__________.

2

3

39. The value of sin1 sin is__________.

5

40. If cos (tan1 x + cot1 3 ) = 0, then value of x is__________.

1

41. The set of values of sec1 is__________.

2

42. The principal value of tan1 3 is__________.

14

43. The value of cos1 cos is__________.

3

44. The value of cos (sin1 x + cos1 x), |x| 1 is______ .

sin 1 x + cos 1 x 3

45. The value of expression tan ,when x = is_________.

2 2

2x

46. If y = 2 tan1 x + sin1 for all x, then____< y <____.

1 x2

x y

47. The result tan1x tan1y = tan1 1 + xy is true when value of xy is _____

48. The value of cot (x) for all x R in terms of cot1x is _______.

1

State True or False for the statement in each of the Exercises 49 to 55.

49. All trigonometric functions have inverse over their respective domains.

50. The value of the expression (cos1 x)2 is equal to sec2 x.

51. The domain of trigonometric functions can be restricted to any one of their

branch (not necessarily principal value) in order to obtain their inverse functions.

52. The least numerical value, either positive or negative of angle is called principal

value of the inverse trigonometric function.

53. The graph of inverse trigonometric function can be obtained from the graph of

their corresponding trigonometric function by interchanging x and y axes.

INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 41

n

54. The minimum value of n for which tan1 > , nN , is valid is 5.

4

1 1

55. The principal value of sin1 cos sin is .

2 3

Chapter 3

Matrices

3.1 Overview

3.1.1 A matrix is an ordered rectangular array of numbers (or functions). For example,

x 4 3

A= 4 3 x

3 x 4

The numbers (or functions) are called the elements or the entries of the matrix.

The horizontal lines of elements are said to constitute rows of the matrix and the

vertical lines of elements are said to constitute columns of the matrix.

3.1.2 Order of a Matrix

A matrix having m rows and n columns is called a matrix of order m n or simply

m n matrix (read as an m by n matrix).

In the above example, we have A as a matrix of order 3 3 i.e.,

3 3 matrix.

In general, an m n matrix has the following rectangular array :

a a22 a23 a2 n

21

A = [aij]m n = 1 i m, 1 j n i, j N.

am1 am 2 am3 amn m n

The element, aij is an element lying in the ith row and jth column and is known as the

(i, j)th element of A. The number of elements in an m n matrix will be equal to mn.

3.1.3 Types of Matrices

(i) A matrix is said to be a row matrix if it has only one row.

MATRICES 43

(iii) A matrix in which the number of rows are equal to the number of columns,

is said to be a square matrix. Thus, an m n matrix is said to be a square

matrix if m = n and is known as a square matrix of order n.

(iv) A square matrix B = [bij]nn is said to be a diagonal matrix if its all non

diagonal elements are zero, that is a matrix B = [bij]nn is said to be a

diagonal matrix if bij = 0, when i j.

(v) A diagonal matrix is said to be a scalar matrix if its diagonal elements are

equal, that is, a square matrix B = [bij]nn is said to be a scalar matrix if

bij = 0, when i j

bij = k, when i = j, for some constant k.

(vi) A square matrix in which elements in the diagonal are all 1 and rest are

all zeroes is called an identity matrix.

In other words, the square matrix A = [aij]nn is an identity matrix, if

aij = 1, when i = j and aij = 0, when i j.

(vii) A matrix is said to be zero matrix or null matrix if all its elements are

zeroes. We denote zero matrix by O.

(ix) Two matrices A = [aij] and B = [bij] are said to be equal if

(a) they are of the same order, and

(b) each element of A is equal to the corresponding element of B, that is,

aij = bij for all i and j.

3.1.4 Additon of Matrices

Two matrices can be added if they are of the same order.

3.1.5 Multiplication of Matrix by a Scalar

If A = [aij] mn is a matrix and k is a scalar, then kA is another matrix which is obtained

by multiplying each element of A by a scalar k, i.e. kA = [kaij]mn

3.1.6 Negative of a Matrix

The negative of a matrix A is denoted by A. We define A = (1)A.

3.1.7 Multiplication of Matrices

The multiplication of two matrices A and B is defined if the number of columns of A is

equal to the number of rows of B.

44 MATHEMATICS

the matrices A and B is the matrix C of order m p. To get the

(i, k)th element cik of the matrix C, we take the ith row of A and kth column of B,

multiply them elementwise and take the sum of all these products i.e.,

cik = ai1 b1k + ai2 b2k + ai3 b3k + ... + ain bnk

The matrix C = [cik]mp is the product of A and B.

Notes:

1. If AB is defined, then BA need not be defined.

2. If A, B are, respectively m n, k l matrices, then both AB and BA are

defined if and only if n = k and l = m.

3. If AB and BA are both defined, it is not necessary that AB = BA.

4. If the product of two matrices is a zero matrix, it is not necessary that

one of the matrices is a zero matrix.

5. For three matrices A, B and C of the same order, if A = B, then

AC = BC, but converse is not true.

6. A. A = A2, A. A. A = A3, so on

3.1.8 Transpose of a Matrix

1. If A = [aij] be an m n matrix, then the matrix obtained by interchanging

the rows and columns of A is called the transpose of A.

Transpose of the matrix A is denoted by A or (AT). In other words, if

A = [aij]mn, then AT = [aji]nm.

2. Properties of transpose of the matrices

For any matrices A and B of suitable orders, we have

(i) (AT)T = A,

(ii) (kA)T = kAT (where k is any constant)

(iii) (A + B)T = AT + BT

(iv) (AB)T = BT AT

3.1.9 Symmetric Matrix and Skew Symmetric Matrix

(i) A square matrix A = [aij] is said to be symmetric if AT = A, that is,

aij = aji for all possible values of i and j.

MATRICES 45

that is aji = aij for all possible values of i and j.

Note : Diagonal elements of a skew symmetric matrix are zero.

(iii) Theorem 1: For any square matrix A with real number entries, A + AT is

a symmetric matrix and A AT is a skew symmetric matrix.

(iv) Theorem 2: Any square matrix A can be expressed as the sum of a

symmetric matrix and a skew symmetric matrix, that is

(A + A T ) (A A T )

A= +

2 2

3.1.10 Invertible Matrices

(i) If A is a square matrix of order m m, and if there exists another square

matrix B of the same order m m, such that AB = BA = Im, then, A is said

to be invertible matrix and B is called the inverse matrix of A and it is

denoted by A1.

Note :

1. A rectangular matrix does not possess its inverse, since for the products

BA and AB to be defined and to be equal, it is necessary that matrices A

and B should be square matrices of the same order.

2. If B is the inverse of A, then A is also the inverse of B.

(ii) Theorem 3 (Uniqueness of inverse) Inverse of a square matrix, if it

exists, is unique.

(iii) Theorem 4 : If A and B are invertible matrices of same order, then

(AB)1 = B1A1.

3.1.11 Inverse of a Matrix using Elementary Row or Column Operations

To find A1 using elementary row operations, write A = IA and apply a sequence of

row operations on (A = IA) till we get, I = BA. The matrix B will be the inverse of A.

Similarly, if we wish to find A1 using column operations, then, write A = AI and apply a

sequence of column operations on A = AI till we get, I = AB.

Note : In case, after applying one or more elementary row (or column) operations on

A = IA (or A = AI), if we obtain all zeros in one or more rows of the matrix A on L.H.S.,

then A1 does not exist.

46 MATHEMATICS

Short Answer (S.A.)

Example 1 Construct a matrix A = [a ij] 22 whose elements a ij are given by

aij = e2ix sin jx .

Solution For i = 1, j = 1, a 11 = e2x sin x

For i = 1, j = 2, a 12 = e2x sin 2x

For i = 2, j = 1, a 21 = e4x sin x

For i = 2, j = 2, a 22 = e4x sin 2x

e 2 x sin x e 2 x sin 2 x

Thus A = 4x 4x

e sin x e sin 2 x

2 3 1 3 2 1 4 6 8

Example 2 If A = ,B= ,C= ,D= , then

1 2 4 3 1 2 5 7 9

Solution Only B + D is defined since matrices of the same order can only be added.

Example 3 Show that a matrix which is both symmetric and skew symmetric is a zero

matrix.

Solution Let A = [aij] be a matrix which is both symmetric and skew symmetric.

Since A is a skew symmetric matrix, so A = A.

Thus for all i and j, we have aij = aji. (1)

Again, since A is a symmetric matrix, so A = A.

Thus, for all i and j, we have

aji = aij (2)

Therefore, from (1) and (2), we get

aij = aij for all i and j

or 2aij = 0,

i.e., aij = 0 for all i and j. Hence A is a zero matrix.

MATRICES 47

1 2 x

Example 4 If [ 2 x 3] = O , find the value of x.

3 0 8

Solution We have

1 2 x x

[2x 3] = O 2x 9 4x 8

= 0

3 0 8

or 2 x2 9x 32 x = 0 2 x 2 23x 0

23

or x(2 x 23) 0 x = 0, x =

2

Example 5 If A is 3 3 invertible matrix, then show that for any scalar k (non-zero),

1 1

kA is invertible and (kA)1 = A

k

Solution We have

1 1 1

(kA) A = k. (A. A1) = 1 (I) = I

k k

1 1 1 1

Hence (kA) is inverse of A or (kA)1 = A

k k

Long Answer (L.A.)

Example 6 Express the matrix A as the sum of a symmetric and a skew symmetric

matrix, where

2 4 6

A= 7 3 5 .

1 2 4

Solution We have

2 4 6 2 7 1

A= 7 3 5 , then A = 4 3 2

1 2 4 6 5 4

48 MATHEMATICS

11 5

2

4 11 5 2 2

11 3

A + A 1 11 6 3 = 3

Hence = 2 2

2 2 5 3 8

5 3

4

2 2

3 7

0

0 3 7 2 2

3 7

A A 1 3 0 7 = 0

and = 2 2

2 2 7 7 0

7 7

0

2 2

Therefore,

11 5 3 7

2 2 2

0

2 2 2 4 6

A + A A A 11 3 3 7

+ = 3 + 0 = 7 3 5 = A

2 2 2 2 2 2 .

1 2 4

5 3 4

7 7

0

2 2 2 2

1 3 2

Example 7 If A = 2 0 1 , then show that A satisfies the equation

1 2 3

A34A23A+11I = O.

1 3 2 1 3 2

Solution A2 = A A = 2 0 1 2 0 1

1 2 3 1 2 3

MATRICES 49

1 + 6 + 2 3+0+ 4 2 3 + 6

2 + 0 1 6+02 4 + 0 3

=

1 + 4 + 3 3+ 0+ 6 2 2 + 9

9 7 5

= 1 4 1

8 9 9

9 7 5 1 3 2

and A3 = A2 A = 1 4 1 2 0 1

8 9 9 1 2 3

9 14 5 27 0 10 18 7 15

= 1 8 1 3 0 2 2 4 3

8 18 9 24 0 18 16 9 27

28 37 26

= 10 5 1

35 42 34

28 37 26 9 7 5 1 3 2 1 0 0

10 5 1 4 1 4 1 3 2 0 1 +11 0 1 0

=

35 42 34 8 9 9 1 2 3 0 0 1

28 36 3 + 11 37 28 9 + 0 26 20 6 + 0

10 4 6 + 0 5 16 + 0 + 11 1 4 + 3 + 0

=

35 32 3 + 0 42 36 6 + 0 34 36 9 + 11

50 MATHEMATICS

0 0 0

= 0 0 0 =O

0 0 0

2 3

Example 8 Let A = . Then show that A2 4A + 7I = O.

1 2

Using this result calculate A5 also.

2 2 3 2 3 1 12

Solution We have A = = ,

1 2 1 2 4 1

8 12 7 0

4A= and 7 I = .

4 8 0 7

1 8 + 7 12 12 + 0 0 0

Therefore, A2 4A + 7I = = =O

4 + 4 + 0 1 8 + 7 0 0

A2 = 4A 7I

Thus A3 = A.A2 = A (4A 7I) = 4 (4A 7I) 7A

= 16A 28I 7A = 9A 28I

and so A5 = A3A2

= (9A 28I) (4A 7I)

= 36A2 63A 112A + 196I

= 36 (4A 7I) 175A + 196I

= 31A 56I

2 3 1 0

= 31 56

1 2 0 1

118 93

=

31 118

MATRICES 51

Choose the correct answer from the given four options in Examples 9 to 12.

Example 9 If A and B are square matrices of the same order, then

(A + B) (A B) is equal to

(A) A2 B2 (B) A2 BA AB B2

(C) A2 B2 + BA AB (D) A2 BA + B2 + AB

Solution (C) is correct answer. (A + B) (A B) = A (A B) + B (A B)

= A2 AB + BA B2

2 3

2 1 3

Example 10 If A = and B = 4 2 , then

4 5 1

1 5

(C) AB and BA both are defined (D) AB and BA both are not defined.

Solution (C) is correct answer. Let A = [aij]23 B = [bij]32. Both AB and BA are

defined.

0 0 5

Example 11 The matrix A = 0 5 0 is a

5 0 0

(C) unit matrix (D) square matrix

Solution (D) is correct answer.

Example 12 If A and B are symmetric matrices of the same order, then (AB BA)

is a

(A) Skew symmetric matrix (B) Null matrix

(C) Symmetric matrix (D) None of these

Solution (A) is correct answer since

(AB BA) = (AB) (BA)

52 MATHEMATICS

= (BA AB)

= (AB BA)

Fill in the blanks in each of the Examples 13 to 15:

Example 13 If A and B are two skew symmetric matrices of same order, then AB is

symmetric matrix if ________.

Solution AB = BA.

Example 14 If A and B are matrices of same order, then (3A 2B) is equal to

________.

Solution 3A 2B.

Example 15 Addition of matrices is defined if order of the matrices is ________

Solution Same.

State whether the statements in each of the Examples 16 to 19 is true or false:

Example 16 If two matrices A and B are of the same order, then 2A + B = B + 2A.

Solution True

Example 17 Matrix subtraction is associative

Solution False

Example 18 For the non singular matrix A, (A)1 = (A1).

Solution True

Example 19 AB = AC B = C for any three matrices of same order.

Solution False

3.3 EXERCISE

Short Answer (S.A.)

1. If a matrix has 28 elements, what are the possible orders it can have? What if it

has 13 elements?

a 1 x

2 3 x2 y

2. In the matrix A = , write :

2

0 5

5

MATRICES 53

(ii) The number of elements

(iii) Write elements a23, a31, a12

3. Construct a2 2 matrix where

(i 2 j ) 2

(i) aij =

2

4. Construct a 3 2 matrix whose elements are given by aij = ei.xsinjx

5. Find values of a and b if A = B, where

a 4 3b 2a 2 b2 2

A= , B=

8 6 8 b 2 5b

3 1

6. If possible, find the sum of the matrices A and B, where A = 3 ,

2

x y z

and B =

a b 6

3 1 1 2 1 1

7. If X= and Y = , find

5 2 3 7 2 4

(i) X +Y (ii) 2X 3Y

(iii) A matrix Z such that X + Y + Z is a zero matrix.

8. Find non-zero values of x satisfying the matrix equation:

2 x 2 8 5 x ( x 2 + 8) 24

x + 2 4 4 x = 2

3 x (10) 6x .

0 1 0 1

9. If A = and B = , show that (A + B) (A B) A2 B2.

1 1 1 0

54 MATHEMATICS

1 3 2 1

1 x 1 2 5 1 2 = O.

15 3 2 x

5 3

11. Show that A = satisfies the equation A2 3A 7I = O and hence

1 2

find A1.

12. Find the matrix A satisfying the matrix equation:

2 1 3 2 1 0

A =

3 2 5 3 0 1

4 4 8 4

13. Find A, if 1 A= 1 2 1

3 3 6 3

3 4

2 1 2

14. If A = 1 1 and B = , then verify (BA)2 B2A2

1 2 4

2 0

4 1

2 1 2 2 3 .

A= ,B=

1 2 4

1 2

1 4

2 4 0 2 8 . Is (AB) = BA?

17. Given A = and B =

3 9 6 1 3

MATRICES 55

2 3 8

x + y + = O.

1 5 11

19. If X and Y are 2 2 matrices, then solve the following matrix equations for X and Y

2 3 2 2

2X + 3Y = , 3X + 2Y = .

4 0 1 5

21. Give an example of matrices A, B and C such that AB = AC, where A is non-

zero matrix, but B C.

1 2 2 3 1 0

22. If A = , B= and C = , verify :

2 1 3 4 1 0

x 0 0 a 0 0

23. If P = 0 y 0 and Q = 0 b 0 , prove that

0 0 z 0 0 c

xa 0 0

PQ = 0 yb 0 = QP.

0 0 zc

1 0 1 1

24. If : 2 1 3 1 1 0 0 = A, find A.

0 1 1 1

5 3 4 1 2 1

25. If A = 2 1 , B = and C = , verify that

8 7 6 1 0 2

A (B + C) = (AB + AC).

56 MATHEMATICS

1 0 1

26. If A = 2 1 3 , then verify that A2 + A = A (A + I), where I is 3 3 unit

0 1 1

matrix.

4 0

0 1 2

27. If A = and B = 1 3 , then verify that :

4 3 4

2 6

(i) (A) = A

(ii) (AB) = BA

(iii) (kA) = (kA).

1 2 1 2

28. If A = 4 1 , B = 6 4 , then verify that :

5 6 7 3

(i) (2A + B) = 2A + B

(ii) (A B) = A B.

29. Show that AA and AA are both symmetric matrices for any matrix A.

30. Let A and B be square matrices of the order 3 3. Is (AB)2 = A2 B2 ? Give

reasons.

31. Show that if A and B are square matrices such that AB = BA, then

(A + B)2 = A2 + 2AB + B2.

1 2 4 0 2 0

32. Let A = , B= , C = and a = 4, b = 2.

1 3 1 5 1 2

Show that:

(a) A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C

(b) A (BC) = (AB) C

MATRICES 57

(c) (a + b)B = aB + bB

(d) a (CA) = aC aA

(e) (AT)T = A

(f) (bA)T = b AT

(g) (AB)T = BT AT

(h) (A B)C = AC BC

(i) (A B)T = AT BT

33. If A = , then show that A2 = .

sin cos sin2 cos2

0 x 0 1

34. If A = , B= and x2 = 1, then show that (A + B)2 = A2 + B2.

x 0 1 0

0 1 1

35. Verify that A2 = I when A = 4 3 4 .

3 3 4

36. Prove by Mathematical Induction that (A)n = (An), where n N for any square

matrix A.

37. Find inverse, by elementary row operations (if possible), of the following matrices

1 3 1 3

(i) (ii) .

5 7 2 6

xy 4 8 w

38. If = , then find values of x, y, z and w.

z 6 x y 0 6

1 5 9 1

39. If A = and B = , find a matrix C such that 3A + 5B + 2C is a null

7 12 7 8

matrix.

58 MATHEMATICS

3 5

40. If A = , then find A2 5A 14I. Hence, obtain A3.

4 2

a b a 6 4 a b

3 = + .

c d 1 2d c d 3

2 1 1 8 10

1 0 A = 1 2 5 .

3 4 9 22 15

1 2

43. If A = , find A2 + 2A + 7I.

4 1

cos sin

44. If A = , and A 1 = A , find value of .

sin cos

0 a 3

45. If the matrix 2 b 1 is a skew symmetric matrix, find the values of a, b and c.

c 1 0

cos x sinx

46. If P (x) = , then show that

sinx cosx

P (x) . P (y) = P (x + y) = P (y) . P (x).

47. If A is square matrix such that A2 = A, show that (I + A)3 = 7A + I.

48. If A, B are square matrices of same order and B is a skew-symmetric matrix,

show that ABA is skew symmetric.

Long Answer (L.A.)

49. If AB = BA for any two sqaure matrices, prove by mathematical induction that

(AB)n = An Bn.

MATRICES 59

0 2 y z

50. Find x, y, z if A = x y z satisfies A = A1.

x y z

51. If possible, using elementary row transformations, find the inverse of the following

matrices

2 1 3 2 3 3 2 0 1

(i) 5 3 1 (ii) 1 2 2 (iii) 5 1 0

3 2 3 1 1 1 0 1 3

2 3 1

52. Express the matrix 1 1 2 as the sum of a symmetric and a skew symmetric

4 1 2

matrix.

Objective Type Questions

Choose the correct answer from the given four options in each of the Exercises

53 to 67.

0 0 4

53. The matrix P = 0 4 0 is a

4 0 0

(C) unit matrix (D) none

54. Total number of possible matrices of order 3 3 with each entry 2 or 0 is

(A) 9 (B) 27 (C) 81 (D) 512

2x y 4x 7 7 y 13

55. If = , then the value of x + y is

5x 7 4x y x 6

(A) x = 3, y = 1 (B) x = 2, y = 3

(C) x = 2, y = 4 (D) x = 3, y = 3

60 MATHEMATICS

x x

sin 1 ( x ) tan 1

cos 1 ( x ) tan 1

1 1

56. If A = 1 x , B = x , then

sin cot 1 ( x) sin 1

tan 1 ( x)

A B is equal to

1

(A) I (B) O (C) 2I (D) I

2

57. If A and B are two matrices of the order 3 m and 3 n, respectively, and

m = n, then the order of matrix (5A 2B) is

(A) m3 (B) 3 3 (C) m n (D) 3 n

0 1

58. If A = , then A2 is equal to

1 0

0 1 1 0

(A) (B)

1 0 1 0

0 1 1 0

(C) (D)

0 1 0 1

= 0 if i = j

then A2 is equal to

(A) I (B) A (C) 0 (D) None of these

1 0 0

60. The matrix 0 2 0 is a

0 0 4

(C) skew symmetric matrix (D) none of these

MATRICES 61

0 5 8

61. The matrix 5 0 12 is a

8 12 0

(C) skew symmetric matrix (D) scalar matrix

62. If A is matrix of order m n and B is a matrix such that AB and BA are both

defined, then order of matrix B is

(A) mm (B) nn

(C) nm (D) mn

63. If A and B are matrices of same order, then (ABBA) is a

(A) skew symmetric matrix (B) null matrix

(C) symmetric matrix (D) unit matrix

64. If A is a square matrix such that A2 = I, then (AI)3 + (A + I)3 7A is equal to

(A) A (B) IA (C) I+A (D) 3A

65. For any two matrices A and B, we have

(A) AB = BA (B) AB BA

(C) AB = O (D) None of the above

66. On using elementary column operations C2 C2 2C1 in the following matrix

equation

1 3 1 1 3 1

= , we have :

2 4 0 1 2 4

1 5 1 1 3 5

(A) 0 4 = 2 2 2 0

1 5 1 1 3 5

(B) 0 4 = 0 1 0 2

62 MATHEMATICS

1 5 1 3 3 1

(C) =

2 0 0 1 2 4

1 5 1 1 3 5

(D)

2 0

=

0 1 2 0

67. On using elementary row operation R1 R1 3R2 in the following matrix equation:

4 2 1 2 2 0

= , we have :

3 3 0 3 1 1

5 7 1 7 2 0

(A) =

3 3 0 3 1 1

5 7 1 2 1 3

(B) =

3 3 0 3 1 1

5 7 1 2 2 0

(C) =

3 3 1 7 1 1

4 2 1 2 2 0

(D) =

5 7 3 3 1 1

68. _________ matrix is both symmetric and skew symmetric matrix.

69. Sum of two skew symmetric matrices is always _________ matrix.

70. The negative of a matrix is obtained by multiplying it by _________.

71. The product of any matrix by the scalar _________ is the null matrix.

72. A matrix which is not a square matrix is called a _________ matrix.

73. Matrix multiplication is _________ over addition.

74. If A is a symmetric matrix, then A3 is a _________ matrix.

75. If A is a skew symmetric matrix, then A2 is a _________.

MATRICES 63

(i) (AB) = _________.

(ii) (kA) = _________. (k is any scalar)

(iii) [k (A B)] = _________.

77. If A is skew symmetric, then kA is a _________. (k is any scalar)

78. If A and B are symmetric matrices, then

(i) AB BA is a _________.

(ii) BA 2AB is a _________.

79. If A is symmetric matrix, then BAB is _________.

80. If A and B are symmetric matrices of same order, then AB is symmetric if and

only if _________.

81. In applying one or more row operations while finding A1 by elementary row

operations, we obtain all zeros in one or more, then A1 _________.

State Exercises 82 to 101 which of the following statements are True or False

82. A matrix denotes a number.

83. Matrices of any order can be added.

84. Two matrices are equal if they have same number of rows and same number of

columns.

85. Matrices of different order can not be subtracted.

86. Matrix addition is associative as well as commutative.

87. Matrix multiplication is commutative.

88. A square matrix where every element is unity is called an identity matrix.

89. If A and B are two square matrices of the same order, then A + B = B + A.

90. If A and B are two matrices of the same order, then A B = B A.

91. If matrix AB = O, then A = O or B = O or both A and B are null matrices.

92. Transpose of a column matrix is a column matrix.

93. If A and B are two square matrices of the same order, then AB = BA.

94. If each of the three matrices of the same order are symmetric, then their sum is

a symmetric matrix.

64 MATHEMATICS

95. If A and B are any two matrices of the same order, then (AB) = AB.

96. If (AB) = B A, where A and B are not square matrices, then number of rows

in A is equal to number of columns in B and number of columns in A is equal to

number of rows in B.

97. If A, B and C are square matrices of same order, then AB = AC always implies

that B = C.

98. AA is always a symmetric matrix for any matrix A.

2 3

2 3 1

99. If A = and B = 4 5 , then AB and BA are defined and equal.

1 4 2

2 1

101. (AB)1 = A1. B1, where A and B are invertible matrices satisfying commutative

property with respect to multiplication.

Chapter 4

DETERMINANTS

4.1 Overview

To every square matrix A = [aij] of order n, we can associate a number (real or complex)

called determinant of the matrix A, written as det A, where aij is the (i, j)th element of A.

a b

If A , then determinant of A, denoted by |A| (or det A), is given by

c d

a b

|A| = = ad bc.

c d

Remarks

(i) Only square matrices have determinants.

Let A = [a] be the matrix of order 1, then determinant of A is defined to be equal to a.

4.1.2 Determinant of a matrix of order two

a b

Let A = [aij] = be a matrix of order 2. Then the determinant of A is defined

c d

as: det (A) = |A| = ad bc.

4.1.3 Determinant of a matrix of order three

The determinant of a matrix of order three can be determined by expressing it in terms

of second order determinants which is known as expansion of a determinant along a

row (or a column). There are six ways of expanding a determinant of order 3

corresponding to each of three rows (R1, R2 and R3) and three columns (C1, C2 and

C3) and each way gives the same value.

66 MATHEMATICS

A a21 a22 a23

a31 a32 a33

|A| = a11 (1)1+1 a a33 + a 21

(1) 2+1

a32 a33 + a 31

(1)3+1

a22 a23

32

= a11(a22 a33 a23 a32) a21 (a12 a33 a13 a32) + a31 (a12 a23 a13 a22)

Remark In general, if A = kB, where A and B are square matrices of order n, then

|A| = kn |B|, n = 1, 2, 3.

4.1.4 Properties of Determinants

For any square matrix A, |A| satisfies the following properties.

(ii) If we interchange any two rows (or columns), then sign of the determinant

changes.

(iii) If any two rows or any two columns in a determinant are identical (or

proportional), then the value of the determinant is zero.

(iv) Multiplying a determinant by k means multiplying the elements of only one row

(or one column) by k.

k, then value of the determinant is multiplied by k.

sum of two or more elements, then the given determinant can be expressed as

the sum of two or more determinants.

DETERMINANTS 67

corresponding elements of other rows (columns) are added, then value of

determinant remains same.

Notes:

(i) If all the elements of a row (or column) are zeros, then the value of the determinant

is zero.

(ii) If value of determinant becomes zero by substituting x = , then x is a

factor of .

(iii) If all the elements of a determinant above or below the main diagonal consists of

zeros, then the value of the determinant is equal to the product of diagonal

elements.

4.1.5 Area of a triangle

Area of a triangle with vertices (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) is given by

x1 y1 1

1

x2 y2 1

2 .

x3 y3 1

(i) Minor of an element aij of the determinant of matrix A is the determinant obtained

by deleting ith row and jth column, and it is denoted by Mij.

of a row (or a column) with corresponding co-factors. For example

|A| = a11 A11 + a12 A12 + a13 A13.

(iv) If elements of a row (or column) are multiplied with co-factors of elements of

any other row (or column), then their sum is zero. For example,

a11 A21 + a12 A22 + a13 A23 = 0.

4.1.7 Adjoint and inverse of a matrix

(i) The adjoint of a square matrix A = [aij]nn is defined as the transpose of the matrix

68 MATHEMATICS

[aij]nn, where Aij is the co-factor of the element aij. It is denoted by adj A.

If A a21 a22 a23 , then adj A A12 A 22 A 32 , where Aij is co-factor of aij.

a31 a32 a33 A13 A 23 A 33

|A| 0, respectively.

(iv) If A is a square matrix of order n, then |adj A| = |A|n1.

(v) If A and B are non-singular matrices of the same order, then AB and BA are

also nonsingular matrices of the same order.

(vi) The determinant of the product of matrices is equal to product of their respective

determinants, that is, |AB| = |A| |B|.

A and is written as B = A1. Also B1 = (A1)1 = A.

(viii) A square matrix A is invertible if and only if A is non-singular matrix.

1

(ix) If A is an invertible matrix, then A1 = (adj A)

|A|

(i) Consider the equations: a1x + b1 y + c1 z = d1

a2x + b2 y + c2 z = d2

a3x + b3 y + c3 z = d3,

In matrix form, these equations can be written as A X = B, where

a1 b1 c1 x d1

a b2 c2 , X y and B d2

A= 2

a3 b3 c3 z d3

DETERMINANTS 69

exists or not.

(iv) For a square matrix A in matrix equation AX = B

(a) If |A| 0, then there exists unique solution.

(b) If |A| = 0 and (adj A) B 0, then there exists no solution.

(c) If |A| = 0 and (adj A) B = 0, then system may or may not be consistent.

4.2 Solved Examples

Short Answer (S.A.)

2x 5 6 5

Example 1 If , then find x.

8 x 8 3

2x 5 6 5

Solution We have . This gives

8 x 8 3

2x2 40 = 18 40 x2 = 9 x = 3.

1 x x2 1 1 1

Example 2 If = 1 y y , 1 = yz

2

zx xy , then prove that + 1 = 0.

1 z z2 x y z

1 1 1

Solution We have 1 yz zx xy

x y z

1 yz x x xyz x2

1

1 1 zx y = y xyz y2

xyz

1 xy z z xyz z2

70 MATHEMATICS

x 1 x2

xyz

y 1 y2

= xyz Interchanging C1 and C2

z 1 z2

1 x x2

(1) 1 y y2

=

1 z z2

1 + = 0

cosec 2 cot 2 1

2 2

cot cosec 1

= 0.

42 40 2

cot 2

cosec 2

1 cosec 2

1 0 cosec 1 = 0 2

=

0 40 2 0 40 2

x p q

Example 4 Show that p x q = (x p) (x2 + px 2q2)

q q x

x p p q 1 p q

p x x q ( x p) 1 x q

0 q x 0 q x

DETERMINANTS 71

0 p + x 2q

= ( x p) 1 x q Applying R1 R1 + R2

0 q x

( x p) ( px x 2 2q 2 ) = ( x p) ( x 2 px 2q 2 )

0 b a c a

Example 5 If a b 0 c b , then show that is equal to zero.

a c b c 0

0

a b a c

Solution Interchanging rows and columns, we get b a 0 b c

c a c b 0

0b a c a

3

(1) a b 0 c b

a c b c 0

2 =0 or =0

Example 6 Prove that (A1) = (A)1, where A is an invertible matrix.

Solution Since A is an invertible matrix, so it is non-singular.

We know that |A| = |A|. But |A| 0. So |A| 0 i.e. A is invertible matrix.

Now we know that AA1 = A1 A = I.

Taking transpose on both sides, we get (A1) A = A (A1) = (I) = I

Hence (A1) is inverse of A, i.e., (A)1 = (A1)

Long Answer (L.A.)

x 2 3

Example 7 If x = 4 is a root of 1 x 1 = 0, then find the other two roots.

3 2 x

72 MATHEMATICS

x 4 x 4 x 4

1 x 1 .

3 2 x

1 1 1

( x 4) 1 x 1

3 2 x

1 0 0

( x 4) 1 x 1 0 .

3 1 x 3

= (x + 4) [(x 1) (x 3) 0]. Thus, = 0 implies

x = 4, 1, 3

Example 8 In a triangle ABC, if

1 1 1

1 sin A 1 sin B 1 sin C 0 ,

2 2 2

sinA +sin A sinB+sin B sinC+sin C

1 1 1

1 sin A 1 sin B 1 sin C

Solution Let =

sinA +sin 2 A sinB+sin 2 B sinC+sin 2 C

DETERMINANTS 73

1 1 1

1 sin A 1 sin B 1 sin C

= R3 R3 R2

cos 2 A cos 2 B cos 2 C

1 0 0

1 sin A sin B sin A sin C sin B

= . (C3 C3 C2 and C2 C2 C1)

cos 2 A cos 2 A cos 2 B cos 2 B cos 2 C

= (sinB sinA) (sin2C sin2B) (sinC sin B) (sin2B sin2A)

= (sinB sinA) (sinC sinB) (sinC sin A) = 0

either sinB sinA = 0 or sinC sinB or sinC sinA = 0

A = B or B = C or C = A

i.e. triangle ABC is isoceles.

3 2 sin 3

1

Example 9 Show that if the determinant 7 8 cos 2 0 , then sin = 0 or .

2

11 14 2

3 2 sin 3

5 0 cos 2 4sin 3 0

10 0 2 + 7sin3

or 2 + 7sin3 2cos2 8sin3 = 0

or 2 2cos 2 sin 3 = 0

sin (4sin2 + 4sin 3) = 0

74 MATHEMATICS

1

or sin = 0 or sin = (Why ?).

2

Objective Type Questions

Choose the correct answer from the given four options in each of the Example 10 and 11.

Ax x2 1 A B C

2

Example 10 Let By y 1 and 1 x y z , then

2 zy zx xy

Cz z 1

(A) 1 = (B) 1

(C) 1 = 0 (D) None of these

A B C A x yz

Solution (C) is the correct answer since 1 x y z =B y zx

zy zx xy C z xy

Ax x2 xyz Ax x2 1

xyz

1

y2 By y2 1

= By xyz = xyz =

xyz 2 Cz z2 1

Cz z xyz

cos x sin x 1

Example 11 If x, y R, then the determinant sin x cos x 1 lies

cos( x y ) sin( x y ) 0

in the interval

DETERMINANTS 75

cos x sin x 1

sin x cos x 1 .

0 0 sin y cos y

= (siny cosy) (cos2x + sin2x)

1 1

= (siny cosy) = 2 sin y cos y

2 2

= 2 cos sin y sin cos y = 2 sin (y 4 )

4 4

Hence 2 2.

Fill in the blanks in each of the Examples 12 to 14.

sin 2 A cotA 1

sin 2 B cotB 1 ................

2

sin C cotC 1

23 + 3 5 5

Example 13 The determinant = 15 + 46 5 10 is equal to ...............

3 + 115 15 5

C1 C3 3 C2, we get the desired result.

Example 14 The value of the determinant

76 MATHEMATICS

2 2

sin 67 sin 23 cos 2 180 ..........

cos180 sin 2 23 sin 2 67

State whether the statements in the Examples 15 to 18 is True or False.

Example 15 The determinant

sin x cos x sin y

cos x sin x cos y

is independent of x only.

Solution True. Apply R1 R1 + sinyR2 + cosy R3, and expand

Example 16 The value of

1 1 1

n n+ 2 n+ 4

C1 C1 C1

is 8.

n n+ 2 n+ 4

C2 C2 C2

Solution True

x 5 2

Example 17 If A 2 y 3 , xyz = 80, 3x + 2y + 10z = 20, then

1 1 z

81 0 0

A adj. A 0 81 0 .

0 0 81

Solution : False.

DETERMINANTS 77

1 5

4

0 1 3 2 2

1 3

Example 18 If A 1 2 x , A 1 3

2 2

2 3 1

1 1

y

2 2

then x = 1, y = 1.

Solution True

4.3 EXERCISE

Short Answer (S.A.)

Using the properties of determinants in Exercises 1 to 6, evaluate:

a x y z

x2 x 1 x 1 x a y z

1. 2.

x 1 x 1 x y a z

0 xy 2 xz 2 3x x y x z

2 2

x y 0 yz x y 3y z y

3. 4.

2 2

x z zy 0 x z y z 3z

x 4 x x a b c 2a 2a

5. x x 4 x 6. 2b b c a 2b

x x x 4 2c 2c c a b

y2 z2 yz y z y z z y

2 2

z x zx z x 0 z z x x 4 xyz

7. 8.

2 2

x y xy x y y x x y

78 MATHEMATICS

a 2 2a 2a 1 1

2a 1 a 2 1 (a 1)3

9.

3 3 1

1 cos C cos B

10. If A + B + C = 0, then prove that cos C 1 cos A 0

cos B cos A 1

11. If the co-ordinates of the vertices of an equilateral triangle with sides of length

2

x1 y1 1

3a 4

a are (x1, y1), (x2, y2), (x3, y3), then x2 y2 1 =

4 .

x3 y3 1

1 1 sin 3

12. Find the value of satisfying 4 3 cos 2 = 0 .

7 7 2

4 x 4 x 4 x

13. If 4 x 4 x 4 x 0 , then find values of x.

4 x 4 x 4 x

ar 1 ar 5 ar 9

ar 7 ar 11 ar 15

is independent of r.

ar 11 ar 17 ar 21

15. Show that the points (a + 5, a 4), (a 2, a + 3) and (a, a) do not lie on a

straight line for any value of a.

16. Show that the ABC is an isosceles triangle if the determinant

DETERMINANTS 79

1 1 1

= 1 + cos A 1 + cos B 1 + cos C = 0 .

cos 2 A + cos A cos 2 B + cos B cos 2 C + cos C

0 1 1

A 2 3I

17. 1

Find A if A 1 0 1 and show that A 1 .

2

1 1 0

1 2 0

18. If A = 2 1 2 , find A1.

0 1 1

x 2y = 10 , 2x y z = 8 , 2y + z = 7.

19. Using matrix method, solve the system of equations

3x + 2y 2z = 3, x + 2y + 3z = 6, 2x y + z = 2 .

2 2 4 1 1 0

20. Given A 4 2 4 ,B 2 3 4 , find BA and use this to solve the

2 1 5 0 1 2

system of equations y + 2z = 7, x y = 3, 2x + 3y + 4z = 17.

a b c

21. If a + b + c 0 and b c a = 0 , then prove that a = b = c.

c a b

bc a 2 ca b 2 ab c 2

2

22. Prove that ca b ab c 2 bc a 2 is divisible by a + b + c and find the

ab c 2 bc a 2 ca b 2

quotient.

80 MATHEMATICS

xa yb zc a b c

23. If x + y + z = 0, prove that yc za xb = xyz c a b

zb xc ya b c a

Choose the correct answer from given four options in each of the Exercises from 24 to 37.

2x 5 6 2

24. If , then value of x is

8 x 7 3

(A) 3 (B) 3

(C) 6 (D) 6

a b b +c a

ba c+a b

25. The value of determinant

ca a+b c

(A) a3 + b3 + c 3 (B) 3 bc

(C) a3 + b3 + c3 3abc (D) none of these

26. The area of a triangle with vertices (3, 0), (3, 0) and (0, k) is 9 sq. units. The

value of k will be

(A) 9 (B) 3

(C) 9 (D) 6

b2 ab b c bc ac

2

27. The determinant ab a a b b2 ab equals

bc ac c a ab a 2

(C) (a + b + c) (b c) (c a) (a b) (D) None of these

DETERMINANTS 81

28. The number of distinct real roots of cos x sin x cos x 0 in the interval

cos x cos x sin x

x is

4 4

(A) 0 (B) 2

(C) 1 (D) 3

29. If A, B and C are angles of a triangle, then the determinant

1 cos C cos B

cos C 1 cos A is equal to

cos B cos A 1

(A) 0 (B) 1

(C) 1 (D) None of these

cos t t 1

f (t )

30. Let f (t) = 2sin t t 2t , then lim 2 is equal to

t 0 t

sin t t t

(A) 0 (B) 1

(C) 2 (D) 3

1 1 1

31. The maximum value of 1 1 sin 1 is ( is real number)

1 cos 1 1

1 3

(A) (B)

2 2

2 3

(C) 2 (D)

4

82 MATHEMATICS

0 x a x b

32. If f (x) = x a 0 x c , then

x b x c 0

(C) f (0) = 0 (D) f (1) = 0

2 3

33. If A = 0 2 5 , then A1 exists if

1 1 3

(A) =2 (B) 2

(C) 2 (D) None of these

34. If A and B are invertible matrices, then which of the following is not correct?

(A) adj A = |A|. A1 (B) det(A)1 = [det (A)]1

(C) (AB)1 = B1 A1 (D) (A + B)1 = B1 + A1

1 x 1 1

35. If x, y, z are all different from zero and 1 1 y 1 0 , then value of

1 1 1 z

x1 + y1 + z1 is

(A) xyz (B) x1 y1 z1

(C) x y z (D) 1

x x y x 2y

36. The value of the determinant x 2 y x x y is

x y x 2y x

(C) 3y2 (x + y) (D) 7x2 (x + y)

DETERMINANTS 83

1 2 5

37. There are two values of a which makes determinant, = 2 a 1 = 86, then

0 4 2a

sum of these number is

(A) 4 (B) 5

(C) 4 (D) 9

Fill in the blanks

38. If A is a matrix of order 3 3, then |3A| = _______ .

39. If A is invertible matrix of order 3 3, then |A1 | _______ .

2 2

2x 2 x 2x 2 x 1

2 2

40. If x, y, z R, then the value of determinant 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 1 is

2 2

4x 4 x 4x 4 x 1

equal to _______.

2

0 cos sin

41. If cos2 = 0, then cos sin 0 = _________.

sin 0 cos

42. If A is a matrix of order 3 3, then (A2)1 = ________.

43. If A is a matrix of order 3 3, then number of minors in determinant of A are

________.

44. The sum of the products of elements of any row with the co-factors of

corresponding elements is equal to _________.

x 3 7

45. If x = 9 is a root of 2 x 2 = 0, then other two roots are __________.

7 6 x

0 xyz xz

46. yx 0 yz = __________.

zx z y 0

84 MATHEMATICS

(1 + x)17 (1 + x)19 (1 + x) 23

47. If f (x) = (1 + x) 23 (1 + x) 29 (1 + x)34 = A + Bx + Cx 2 + ..., then

(1 + x) 41 (1 + x) 43 (1 + x) 47

A = ________.

State True or False for the statements of the following Exercises:

1 1 3

48. A3 = A , where A is a square matrix and |A| 0.

1 1

49. (aA)1 = A , where a is any real number and A is a square matrix.

a

51. If A and B are matrices of order 3 and |A| = 5, |B| = 3, then

|3AB| = 27 5 3 = 405.

52. If the value of a third order determinant is 12, then the value of the determinant

formed by replacing each element by its co-factor will be 144.

x +1 x + 2 x + a

53. x + 2 x + 3 x + b = 0 , where a, b, c are in A.P.

x + 3 x + 4 x+c

55. The determinant sin B cos A sin B+ cos B is equal to zero.

sin C cos A sin C + cos B

x a p u l f

56. If the determinant y b q v m g splits into exactly K determinants of

z c r+w n h

order 3, each element of which contains only one term, then the value of K is 8.

DETERMINANTS 85

a p x p+ x a+ x a+ p

57. Let b q y 16 , then 1 = q + y b + y b + q = 32 .

c r z r + z c+ z c+r

1 1 1

1

58. The maximum value of 1 (1 sin ) 1 is .

2

1 1 1 cos

Chapter 5

CONTINUITY AND

DIFFERENTIABILITY

5.1 Overview

Let f be a real function on a subset of the real numbers and let c be a point in the

domain of f. Then f is continuous at c if

lim f ( x) = f (c)

x c

More elaborately, if the left hand limit, right hand limit and the value of the function

at x = c exist and are equal to each other, i.e.,

x c x c

5.1.2 Continuity in an interval

(i) f is said to be continuous in an open interval (a, b) if it is continuous at every

point in this interval.

(ii) f is said to be continuous in the closed interval [a, b] if

f is continuous in (a, b)

xa+

x b

CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 87

(i) Function f will be continuous at x = c if there is no break in the graph of the

function at the point ( c, f (c ) ) .

(ii) In an interval, function is said to be continuous if there is no break in the

graph of the function in the entire interval.

5.1.4 Discontinuity

(i) xlim

a

f (x) and xlim

a+

f (x) exist but are not equal.

(ii) xlim

a

f (x) and xlim

a+

f (x) exist and are equal but not equal to f (a).

Function f (x) Interval in which

f is continuous

1. The constant function, i.e. f (x) = c

2. The identity function, i.e. f (x) = x R

3. The polynomial function, i.e.

f (x)= a0 xn + a1 x n1

+ ... + an1 x + an

4. | x a | ( , )

5. xn, n is a positive integer ( , ) {0}

6. p (x) / q (x), where p (x) and q (x) are R { x : q (x) = 0}

polynomials in x

7. sin x, cos x R

8. tan x, sec x R { (2 n + 1) : n Z}

2

9. cot x, cosec x R { (n : n Z}

88 MATHEMATICS

10. e x R

11. log x (0, )

12. The inverse trigonometric functions, In their respective

i.e., sin1 x, cos1 x etc. domains

Let f and g be real valued functions such that (fog) is defined at a. If g is continuous

at a and f is continuous at g (a), then (fog) is continuous at a.

5.1.7 Differentiability

f ( x + h) f ( x )

The function defined by f (x) = lim , wherever the limit exists, is

h 0 h

defined to be the derivative of f at x. In other words, we say that a function f is

f (c + h ) f (c )

differentiable at a point c in its domain if both lim , called left hand

h 0 h

f (c + h ) f (c )

derivative, denoted by Lf (c), and lim+ , called right hand derivative,

h0 h

denoted by R f (c), are finite and equal.

it is differentiable at every point of (a, b)

(ii) The function y = f (x) is said to be differentiable in the closed interval [a, b]

if R f (a) and L f (b) exist and f (x) exists for every point of (a, b).

(iii) Every differentiable function is continuous, but the converse is not true

If u, v are functions of x, then

d (u v) du dv d dv du

(i) = (ii) (u v) = u + v

dx dx dx dx dx dx

du dv

v u

(iii) d u = dx 2 dx

dx v v

CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 89

dt dv df dv dt

t = u (x) and both and exist then = .

dx dt dx dt dx

5.1.10 Following are some of the standard derivatives (in appropriate domains)

d 1 d 1

1. dx (sin x) = 2. dx (cos x) =

1 1

1 x2 1 x2

d 1 d 1

3. (tan 1 x) = 4. (cot 1 x) =

dx 1 + x2 dx 1 + x2

d 1

5. dx (sec x) = , x >1

1

x x2 1

d 1

6. dx (cosec x) = , x >1

1

x x2 1

(i) The exponential function with positive base b > 1 is the function

y = f (x) = bx. Its domain is R, the set of all real numbers and range is the set

of all positive real numbers. Exponential function with base 10 is called the

common exponential function and with base e is called the natural exponential

function.

(ii) Let b > 1 be a real number. Then we say logarithm of a to base b is x if bx=a,

Logarithm of a to the base b is denoted by logb a. If the base b = 10, we say

it is common logarithm and if b = e, then we say it is natural logarithms. logx

denotes the logarithm function to base e. The domain of logarithm function

is R+, the set of all positive real numbers and the range is the set of all real

numbers.

(iii) The properties of logarithmic function to any base b > 1 are listed below:

1. logb (xy) = logb x + logb y

x

2. logb = logb x logb y

y

90 MATHEMATICS

3. logb xn = n logb x

log c x

4. logb x = log b , where c > 1

c

1

5. logb x = log b

x

d x

(iv) The derivative of ex w.r.t., x is ex , i.e. (e ) e x . The derivative of logx

dx

1 d 1

w.r.t., x is ; i.e. (log x) .

x dx x

5.1.12 Logarithmic differentiation is a powerful technique to differentiate functions

of the form f (x) = (u (x))v(x), where both f and u need to be positive functions

for this technique to make sense.

5.1.13 Differentiation of a function with respect to another function

Let u = f (x) and v = g (x) be two functions of x, then to find derivative of f (x) w.r.t.

du

to g (x), i.e., to find , we use the formula

dv

du

du dx

=

dv dv .

dx

d dy d2y

is called the second order derivative of y w.r.t. x. It is denoted by y or

dx dx dx 2

y2 , if y = f (x).

5.1.15 Rolles Theorem

Let f : [a, b] R be continuous on [a, b] and differentiable on (a, b), such that f (a)

= f (b), where a and b are some real numbers. Then there exists at least one point c in

(a, b) such that f (c) = 0.

CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 91

Geometrically Rolles theorem ensures that there is at least one point on the curve

y = f (x) at which tangent is parallel to x-axis (abscissa of the point lying in (a, b)).

5.1.16 Mean Value Theorem (Lagrange)

Let f : [a, b] R be a continuous function on [a, b] and differentiable on (a, b). Then

f (b) f (a)

there exists at least one point c in (a, b) such that f (c) = .

b a

Geometrically, Mean Value Theorem states that there exists at least one point c in

(a, b) such that the tangent at the point (c, f (c)) is parallel to the secant joining the

points (a, f (a) and (b, f (b)).

5.2 Solved Examples

Example 1 Find the value of the constant k so that the function f defined below is

1 cos 4 x

continuous at x = 0, where f ( x) = 2

,x0 .

8x

k , x=0

x0

f (x) = f (0)

1 cos 4 x

lim =k

x 0 8x2

2sin 2 2 x

lim =k

x 0 8x2

2

sin 2 x

lim =k

x 0

2x

k=1

Thus, f is continuous at x = 0 if k = 1.

Example 2 Discuss the continuity of the function f(x) = sin x . cos x.

Solution Since sin x and cos x are continuous functions and product of two continuous

function is a continuous function, therefore f(x) = sin x . cos x is a continuous function.

92 MATHEMATICS

x 3 + x 2 16 x + 20

,x2

Example 3 If f ( x) = ( x 2) 2 is continuous at x = 2, find

, = 2

k x

the value of k.

Solution Given f (2) = k.

x 3 + x 2 16 x + 20

Now, lim f ( x) = lim+ f ( x) = lim

x 2 x2 x 2 ( x 2) 2

( x 5)( x 2)2

= lim lim( x 5) 7

( x 2)2

x 2 x 2

As f is continuous at x = 2, we have

lim f ( x) = f (2)

x2

k = 7.

Example 4 Show that the function f defined by

1

x sin , x 0

f ( x) = x

0, x = 0

is continuous at x = 0.

Solution Left hand limit at x = 0 is given by

1 1

lim f ( x) = lim x sin = 0 [since, 1 < sin < 1]

x 0 x 0 x x

1

Similarly lim f ( x) lim x sin 0 . Moreover f (0) = 0.

x 0 x 0 x

Thus xlim

0

f ( x) lim f ( x)

x 0

f (0) . Hence f is continuous at x = 0

1

Example 5 Given f(x) = . Find the points of discontinuity of the composite

x 1

function y = f [f(x)].

1

Solution We know that f (x) = is discontinuous at x = 1

x 1

Now, for x 1 ,

CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 93

1 x 1

1

1

f (f (x)) = f

x 1

= 1 2 x ,

x 1

which is discontinuous at x = 2.

Hence, the points of discontinuity are x = 1 and x = 2.

Example 6 Let f(x) = x x , for all x R. Discuss the derivability of f(x) at x = 0

x 2 , if x 0

Solution We may rewrite f as f ( x ) = 2

x ,if x < 0

f (0 + h) f (0) h2 0

Now Lf (0) = lim = lim = lim h = 0

h 0 h h 0 h h0

f (0 + h) f (0) h2 0

Now Rf (0) = lim+ = lim+ = lim h = 0

h 0 h h0 h h0

Since the left hand derivative and right hand derivative both are equal, hence f is

differentiable at x = 0.

Example 7 Differentiate tan x w.r.t. x

Solution Let y = tan x . Using chain rule, we have

dy 1 d

.

(tan x )

dx 2 tan x dx

1 d

= .sec 2 x ( x)

2 tan x dx

1 1

= (sec2 x )

2 tan x 2 x

(sec 2 x )

= .

4 x tan x

dy

Example 8 If y = tan(x + y), find .

dx

Solution Given y = tan (x + y). differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have

94 MATHEMATICS

dy d

sec2 ( x y) (x y)

dx dx

dy

= sec2 (x + y) 1

dx

dy

or [1 sec2 (x + y] = sec2 (x + y)

dx

dy sec 2 ( x y )

Therefore, = cosec2 (x + y).

dx 1 sec 2 ( x y )

Example 9 If ex + ey = ex+y, prove that

dy

= e yx .

dx

Solution Given that ex + ey = ex+y. Differentiating both sides w.r.t. x, we have

dy dy

ex + ey = ex+y 1

dx dx

dy

or (ey ex+y) = ex+y ex,

dx

dy ex y ex ex e y ex

which implies that ey x

.

dx e y ex y e y ex e y

dy 3x x3 1 1

Example 10 Find , if y = tan1 2

, <x < .

dx 1 3x 3 3

Solution Put x = tan , where << .

6 6

3tan tan 3

Therefore, y = tan 1 2

1 3tan

= tan1 (tan3 )

=3 (because 3 )

2 2

= 3tan1x

CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 95

dy 3

Hence, = 2 .

dx 1 x

dy

Example 11 If y = sin1 x 1 x x 1 x 2 and 0 < x < 1, then find .

dx

2 2

Therefore, y = sin1 sin A 1 sin B sin B 1 sin A

= sin1 sin(A B) = A B

Differentiating w.r.t. x, we get

dy 1 1 d

. x

dx 2 2 dx

1 x 1 x

1 1

= 2 2 x 1 x.

1 x

dy

Example 12 If x = a sec3 and y = a tan3 , find at .

dx 3

Solution We have x = a sec3 and y = a tan3 .

Differentiating w.r.t. , we get

dx d

3a sec 2 (sec ) 3a sec3 tan

d d

dy d

and = 3a tan 2 (tan ) = 3a tan 2 sec2 .

d d

dy

dy d 3a tan 2 sec2 tan

sin

Thus dx dx 3a sec3 tan sec .

d

96 MATHEMATICS

dy 3

Hence, sin

dx at

3

3 2 .

dy log x

Example 13 If xy = exy, prove that = .

dx (1 log x)2

Solution We have xy = exy . Taking logarithm on both sides, we get

y log x = x y

y (1 + log x) = x

x

i.e. y = 1 log x

1

(1 log x).1 x

dy x log x .

2

dx (1 log x) (1 log x) 2

d2y cos x

Example 14 If y = tanx + secx, prove that = .

dx 2 (1 sin x) 2

Solution We have y = tanx + secx. Differentiating w.r.t. x, we get

dy

= sec2x + secx tanx

dx

1 sin x 1 sin x 1+ sin x

= 2 2 = 2 = (1 + sin x)(1 sin x) .

cos x cos x cos x

dy 1

thus = 1 sin x .

dx

Now, differentiating again w.r.t. x, we get

d 2 y cos x cos x

= 2

dx 2 (1 sin x) (1 sin x) 2

3

Example 15 If f (x) = |cos x|, find f .

4

CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 97

Solution When < x < , cosx < 0 so that |cos x| = cos x, i.e., f (x) = cos x

2

f (x) = sin x.

3 3 1

Hence, f = sin =

4 4 2

6

Solution When 0 < x < , cos x > sin x, so that cos x sin x > 0, i.e.,

4

f (x) = cos x sin x

f (x) = sin x cos x

1

Hence f = sin cos = (1+ 3) .

6 6 6 2

2

2

2

always continuous.

(ii) f (x) = 2cos 2x, exists in 0, , hence f is derivable in 0, .

2 2

2 2

Conditions of Rolles theorem are satisfied. Hence there exists at least one c 0,

2

such that f (c) = 0. Thus

2 cos 2c = 0 2c = c= .

2 4

98 MATHEMATICS

in [3, 5].

Solution (i) Function f is continuous in [3, 5] as product of polynomial functions is a

polynomial, which is continuous.

(ii) f (x) = 3x2 36x + 99 exists in (3, 5) and hence derivable in (3, 5).

Thus conditions of mean value theorem are satisfied. Hence, there exists at least one

c (3, 5) such that

f (5) f (3)

f (c )

5 3

8 0

3c2 36c + 99 = =4

2

13

c= 6 .

3

13

Hence c 6 (since other value is not permissible).

3

2 cos x 1

Example 19 If f (x) = ,x

cot x 1 4

4 4

2 cos x 1

Solution Given, f (x) = ,x

cot x 1 4

2 cos x 1

lim f ( x) lim

Therefore, x x cot x 1

4 4

( )

2 cos x 1 sin x

= lim cos x sin x

x

4

= lim .

cos x sin x

.

cos x sin x

.sin x

x 2 cos x 1

4

CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 99

lim . .( sin x )

= x

cos 2 x sin 2 x 2 cos x + 1

4

lim . .( sin x )

= x

cos 2 x 2 cos x + 1

4

cos x sin x

lim sin x

= x 2 cos x 1

4

1 1 1

2 2 2 1

= 1 2

2. 1

2

1

lim f ( x)

Thus, x 2

4

1

If we define f = , then f (x) will become continuous at x = . Hence for f to be

4 2 4

1

continuous at x , f .

4 4 2

1

ex 1

1

, if x 0

Example 20 Show that the function f given by f ( x)

ex 1

0, if x 0

is discontinuous at x = 0.

Solution The left hand limit of f at x = 0 is given by

1

ex 1 0 1

lim f ( x) lim 1

1 .

x 0 x 0 0 1

ex 1

100 MATHEMATICS

1

ex 1

Similarly, lim f ( x) lim 1

x 0 x 0

ex 1

1

1 1 1

lim ex 1 ex 1 0

= x 0

1

1 = xlim0 1

1 0

1

1

1 e x

ex

Thus lim f ( x) lim f ( x), therefore, lim f ( x) does not exist. Hence f is discontinuous

x 0 +

x 0 x 0

at x = 0.

1 cos 4 x

, if x 0

x2

Example 21 Let f ( x) a , if x 0

x

, if x 0

16 x 4

1 cos 4 x 2sin 2 2 x

lim f ( x) lim lim

x 0 x 0 x2 x 0 x2

2

sin 2 x

lim 8 = 8 (1)2 = 8.

2x 0 2x

and right hand limit of f at 0 is

x

lim f ( x) lim

0 0

x x

16 x 4

x ( 16 x 4)

= xlim0

( 16 x 4)( 16 x 4)

CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 101

x ( 16 x 4)

= lim lim 16 x 4 8

x 0 16 x 16 x 0

x 0 x 0

Example 22 Examine the differentiability of the function f defined by

2 x 3, if 3 x 2

f ( x) x 1 , if 2 x 0

x 2 , if 0 x 1

Solution The only doubtful points for differentiability of f (x) are x = 2 and x = 0.

Differentiability at x = 2.

f (2 h) f (2)

Now L f (2) = lim

h 0 h

2(2 h) 3 (2 1) 2h

= lim lim lim 2 2 .

h 0 h h 0 h h 0

f (2 h) f (2)

and R f (2) = lim

h 0 h

2 h 1 ( 2 1)

= lim

h 0 h

h 1 (1) h

= lim lim 1

h 0 h h 0 h

Similarly, for differentiability at x = 0, we have

f (0 h) f (0)

L (f (0)= lim

h 0 h

0 h 1 (0 2)

= lim

h 0 h

h 1 1

= hlim0 lim 1

h h 0 h

which does not exist. Hence f is not differentiable at x = 0.

102 MATHEMATICS

1 x2 2

Example 23 Differentiate tan -1

x with respect to cos-1 2 x 1 x , where

1

x ,1 .

2

1 x2 2

Solution Let u = tan-1 x and v = cos-1 2 x 1 x .

du

du dx

We want to find dv dv

dx

1 x2

Now u = tan -1

. Put x = sin. << .

x 4 2

1 sin 2

Then u = tan -1

= tan-1 (cot )

sin

= tan-1 tan = sin 1 x

2 2 2

du 1

Hence dx .

1 x2

= sin1 (2x 1 x2 )

2

= sin1 (2sin 1 sin 2 ) = sin 1 (sin 2)

2 2

= sin1 {sin ( 2)} [since < 2 < ]

2 2

CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 103

= ( 2 ) 2

2 2

v= + 2sin1x

2

dv 2

.

dx 1 x2

du 1

du dx

= = 1 x 2 = 1 .

Hence dv dv 2 2

dx 1 x2

Choose the correct answer from the given four options in each of the Examples 24 to 35.

sin x

cos x,if x 0

Example 24 The function f (x) = x

k , if x 0

is continuous at x = 0, then the value of k is

(A) 3 (B) 2

(C) 1 (D) 1.5

Solution (B) is the Correct answer.

Example 25 The function f (x) = [x], where [x] denotes the greatest integer function,

is continuous at

(A) 4 (B) 2

(C) 1 (D) 1.5

Solution (D) is the correct answer. The greatest integer function[x] is discontinuous

at all integral values of x. Thus D is the correct answer.

1

Example 26 The number of points at which the function f (x) = x [ x] is not

continuous is

(A) 1 (B) 2

(C) 3 (D) none of these

104 MATHEMATICS

discontinuous for all x Z.

Example 27 The function given by f (x) = tanx is discontinuous on the set

(A) n :n Z (B) 2n : n Z

n

(C) (2n 1) :n Z (D) :n Z

2 2

Solution C is the correct answer.

Example 28 Let f (x)= |cosx|. Then,

(A) f is everywhere differentiable.

(B) f is everywhere continuous but not differentiable at n = n, n Z .

(C) f is everywhere continuous but not differentiable at x = (2n + 1) ,

2

n Z .

(D) none of these.

Solution C is the correct answer.

Example 29 The function f (x) = |x| + |x 1| is

(A) continuous at x = 0 as well as at x = 1.

(B) continuous at x = 1 but not at x = 0.

(C) discontinuous at x = 0 as well as at x = 1.

(D) continuous at x = 0 but not at x = 1.

Solution Correct answer is A.

Example 30 The value of k which makes the function defined by

1

sin , if x 0

f ( x) x , continuous at x = 0 is

k , if x 0

(A) 8 (B) 1

(C) 1 (D) none of these

1

Solution (D) is the correct answer. Indeed lim sindoes not exist.

x 0 x

Example 31 The set of points where the functions f given by f (x) = |x 3| cosx is

differentiable is

CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 105

(C) (0, ) (D) none of these

Solution B is the correct answer.

Example 32 Differential coefficient of sec (tan1x) w.r.t. x is

x x

(A) (B)

1+ x 2

1+ x 2

1

2

(C) x 1+ x (D)

1+ x 2

Solution (A) is the correct answer.

1 2 x 2x du

Example 33 If u = sin 2 and v =

tan 1 2 , then is

1 + x 1 x dv

1 1 x 2

(A) (B) x (C) (D) 1

2 1+ x 2

Solution (D) is the correct answer.

Example 34 The value of c in Rolles Theorem for the function f (x) = ex sinx,

x [0, ] is

3

(A) (B) (C) (D)

6 4 2 4

Solution (D) is the correct answer.

Example 35 The value of c in Mean value theorem for the function f (x) = x (x 2),

x [1, 2] is

3 2 1 3

(A) (B) (C) (D)

2 3 2 2

Solution (A) is the correct answer.

Example 36 Match the following

COLUMN-I COLUMN-II

sin 3x

, if x 0

(A) If a function f ( x) x (a) |x|

k

, if x 0

2

is continuous at x = 0, then k is equal to

106 MATHEMATICS

(C) An example of a function which is continuous (c) 6

everywhere but not differentiable at exactly one point

(D) The identity function i.e. f (x) = x xR is a (d) False

continuous function

Solution A c, B d, C a, D b

Fill in the blanks in each of the Examples 37 to 41.

1

Example 37 The number of points at which the function f (x) = log | x | is

discontinuous is ________.

Solution The given function is discontinuous at x = 0, 1 and hence the number of

points of discontinuity is 3.

ax +1if x 1

Example 38 If f ( x) = is continuous, then a should be equal to _______.

x + 2if x <1

Solution a = 2

1

Solution ( log10 e ) .

x

1 x + 1 1 x 1 dy

Example 40 If y = sec + sin , then is equal to ______.

x 1 x +1 dx

Solution 0.

Example 41 The deriative of sin x w.r.t. cos x is ________.

Solution cot x

State whether the statements are True or False in each of the Exercises 42 to 46.

a+ x a

Solution True.

Example 43 y = |x 1| is a continuous function.

Solution True.

Example 44 A continuous function can have some points where limit does not exist.

Solution False.

Example 45 |sinx| is a differentiable function for every value of x.

CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 107

Solution False.

Example 46 cos |x| is differentiable everywhere.

Solution True.

5.3 EXERCISE

1. Examine the continuity of the function

f (x) = x3 + 2x2 1 at x = 1

Find which of the functions in Exercises 2 to 10 is continuous or discontinuous

at the indicated points:

1 cos 2 x

3x + 5, if x 2 , if x 0

2. f ( x) = 2 3. f (x) = x2

x , if x < 2 5,

if x = 0

at x = 2 at x = 0

2 x 2 3x 2 x4

, if x 2 , if x 4

4. f ( x) = x2 5. f ( x) = 2( x 4)

5, if x = 2 0, if x = 4

at x = 2 at x = 4

1 1

x cos , if x 0 x a sin , if x 0

6. f ( x) = x 7. f ( x) = xa

0, if x = 0 0, if x = a

at x = 0 at x = a

1 x2

ex , if 0 x 1

, if x 0 2

8. f ( x) = 1

9. f ( x ) =

1+ e 2 x 2 3x + 3 , if 1< x 2

x

0, if x = 0 2

at x = 0 at x = 1

10. f ( x) = x + x 1 at x = 1

108 MATHEMATICS

Find the value of k in each of the Exercises 11 to 14 so that the function f is continuous

at the indicated point:

2 x 2 16

3 x 8, if x 5 , if x 2

11. f ( x) at x 5 12. f ( x) 4 x 16 at x 2

2k , if x 5

k , if x 2

1 kx 1 kx

, if 1 x 0

f ( x) x

13. 2x 1 at x = 0

, if 0 x 1

x 1

1 cos kx

x sin x , if x 0

14. f ( x ) = at x = 0

1 , if x = 0

2

15. Prove that the function f defined by

x

2

, x0

f ( x) = x + 2 x

k , x=0

remains discontinuous at x = 0, regardless the choice of k.

16. Find the values of a and b such that the function f defined by

x4

x 4 + a , if x < 4

f ( x) = a + b , if x = 4

x4

+ b , if x > 4

x 4

is a continuous function at x = 4.

1

17. Given the function f (x) = x + 2 . Find the points of discontinuity of the composite

function y = f (f (x)).

CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 109

1 1

18. Find all points of discontinuity of the function f (t ) = , where t = .

2

t +t 2 x 1

Examine the differentiability of f, where f is defined by

x[ x], , if 0 x < 2

20. f (x) =

( x 1) x, if 2 x < 3

at x = 2.

2 1

x sin , if x 0

21. f (x) = x

0 , if x=0

at x = 0.

1 + x , if x 2

22. f (x) =

5 x , if x>2

at x = 2.

23. Show that f (x) = x 5 is continuous but not differentiable at x = 5.

24. A function f : R R satisfies the equation f ( x + y) = f (x) f (y) for all x, y R,

f (x) 0. Suppose that the function is differentiable at x = 0 and f (0) = 2.

Prove that f (x) = 2 f (x).

Differentiate each of the following w.r.t. x (Exercises 25 to 43) :

8x

x8

27. (

log x + x 2 + a )

28. (

log log log x5

) 29. sin x + cos 2 x 30. sin n (ax 2 + bx + c )

1

31. (

cos tan x +1 ) 32. sinx2 + sin2x + sin2(x2) 33. sin 1

x +1

34. ( sin x )cos x 35. sinmx . cosnx 36. (x + 1)2 (x + 2)3 (x + 3)4

110 MATHEMATICS

sin x + cos x 1

1 cos x

37. cos 1 , 4 < x < 4 38. tan 1 + cos x , 4 < x < 4

2

39. tan 1 (sec x + tan x), < x <

2 2

a cos x b sin x a

40. tan 1 , < x < and tan x > 1

b cos x + a sin x 2 2 b

1 1 3a 2 x x3 1 x 1

41. sec 1 3 , 0< x< 42. tan

1

,

4 x 3x 2 a 3 3ax 2 3 a 3

1+ x2 + 1 x2

43. tan 1 , 1< x <1, x 0

1+ x2 1 x2

dy

Find of each of the functions expressed in parametric form in Exercises from 44 to 48.

dx

1 1 1 1

44. x=t+ , y=t 45. x = e + , y = e

t t

46. x = 3cos 2cos3, y = 3sin 2sin3.

2t 2t

47. sin x = 2

, tan y = .

1+ t 1 t 2

1+ log t 3 + 2log t

48. x= , y= .

t2 t

dy y log x

49. If x = ecos2t and y = esin2t, prove that dx = x log y .

dy b

=

50. If x = asin2t (1 + cos2t) and y = b cos2t (1cos2t), show that dx at t = a .

4

dy

51. If x = 3sint sin 3t, y = 3cost cos 3t, find at t = .

dx 3

CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 111

x

52. Differentiate w.r.t. sinx.

sin x

1 + x 2 1

Differentiate tan1 w.r.t. tan1 x when x 0.

53. x

dy

Find when x and y are connected by the relation given in each of the Exercises 54 to 57.

dx

x

54. sin (xy) + y = x2 y

55. sec (x + y) = xy

56. tan1 (x2 + y2) = a

dy dx

58. If ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0, then show that dx . dy =1 .

x

dy x y

59. If x = e , prove that dx = x log x .

y

dy (1 + log y )

2

y x

If y = e , prove that =

x

60. .

dx log y

61. If y = (cos x)

(cos x )

, show that = .

dx y log cos x 1

dy sin 2 (a + y )

62. If x sin (a + y) + sin a cos (a + y) = 0, prove that = .

dx sin a

dy 1 y2

63. If 1 x 2 + 1 y 2 = a (x y), prove that = .

dx 1 x2

d2y

64. If y = tan x, find

1

in terms of y alone.

dx 2

112 MATHEMATICS

Verify the Rolles theorem for each of the functions in Exercises 65 to 69.

65. f (x) = x (x 1)2 in [0, 1].

66. f (x) = sin4x + cos4x in 0, .

2

67. f (x) = log (x2 + 2) log3 in [1, 1].

68. f (x) = x (x + 3)ex/2 in [3, 0].

69. f (x) = 4 x 2 in [ 2, 2].

70. Discuss the applicability of Rolles theorem on the function given by

x 2 1, if 0 x 1

f ( x) .

3 x, if 1 x 2

71. Find the points on the curve y = (cosx 1) in [0, 2], where the tangent is

parallel to x-axis.

72. Using Rolles theorem, find the point on the curve y = x (x 4), x [0, 4], where

the tangent is parallel to x-axis.

Verify mean value theorem for each of the functions given Exercises 73 to 76.

1

73. f (x) = 4 x 1 in [1, 4].

74. f (x) = x3 2x2 x + 3 in [0, 1].

75. f (x) = sinx sin2x in [0, ].

76. f (x) = 25 x 2 in [1, 5].

77. Find a point on the curve y = (x 3)2, where the tangent is parallel to the chord

joining the points (3, 0) and (4, 1).

78. Using mean value theorem, prove that there is a point on the curve y = 2x2 5x + 3

between the points A(1, 0) and B (2, 1), where tangent is parallel to the chord AB.

Also, find that point.

79. Find the values of p and q so that

CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 113

x 2 + 3 x + p, if x 1

f ( x) =

qx + 2 , if x > 1

is differentiable at x = 1.

80. If xm.yn = (x + y)m+n, prove that

dy y d2y

(i) = and (ii) =0 .

dx x dx 2

d2y dy

81. If x = sint and y = sin pt, prove that (1x2) 2 x

+ p2 y = 0 .

dx dx

dy x 2 +1

82. Find , if y = xtanx + .

dx 2

Objective Type Questions

Choose the correct answers from the given four options in each of the Exercises 83 to 96.

x2

83. If f (x) = 2x and g (x) = + 1 , then which of the following can be a discontinuous

2

function

(A) f (x) + g (x) (B) f (x) g (x)

g ( x)

(C) f (x) . g (x) (D) f ( x)

4 x2

84. The function f (x) = is

4 x x3

(A) discontinuous at only one point

(B) discontinuous at exactly two points

(C) discontinuous at exactly three points

(D) none of these

85. The set of points where the function f given by f (x) = 2 x 1 sinx is differentiable is

1

(A) R (B) R

2

114 MATHEMATICS

86. The function f (x) = cot x is discontinuous on the set

(A) { x = n : n Z} (B) { x = 2n : n Z}

n

(C) x = ( 2n +1) ; n Z (iv) x = ; n Z

2 2

x

87. The function f (x) = e is

(A) continuous everywhere but not differentiable at x = 0

(B) continuous and differentiable everywhere

(C) not continuous at x = 0

(D) none of these.

2 1

88. If f (x) = x sin , where x 0, then the value of the function f at x = 0, so that

x

the function is continuous at x = 0, is

(A) 0 (B) 1

(C) 1 (D) none of these

mx+ 1 , if x 2

89. If f (x) = , is continuous at x = , then

sin x + n, if x > 2

2

n

(A) m = 1, n = 0 (B) m = +1

2

m

(C) n = (D) m = n =

2 2

90. Let f (x) = |sin x|. Then

(A) f is everywhere differentiable

(B) f is everywhere continuous but not differentiable at x = n, n Z.

(C) f is everywhere continuous but not differentiable at x = (2n + 1) ,

2

n Z.

(D) none of these

1 x 2 dy

91. If y = log 2 , then is equal to

1 + x dx

CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY 115

4 x3 4x

(A) (B)

1 x 4 1 x 4

1 4 x3

(C) (D)

4 x4 1 x4

dy

92. If y = sin x + y , then is equal to

dx

cos x cos x

(A) 2 y 1 (B) 1 2y

sin x sin x

(C) 1 2y (D) 2 y 1

93. The derivative of cos1 (2x2 1) w.r.t. cos1x is

1

(A) 2 (B)

2 1 x 2

2

(C) x (D) 1 x2

d2y

94. If x = t2, y = t3, then is

dx 2

3 3

(A) 2 (B) 4t

3 3

(C) 2t (D) 2t

95. The value of c in Rolles theorem for the function f (x) = x3 3x in the interval

[0, 3 ] is

(A) 1 (B) 1

116 MATHEMATICS

3 1

(C) 2 (D)

3

1

96. For the function f (x) = x + , x [1, 3], the value of c for mean value theorem is

x

(A) 1 (B) 3

(C) 2 (D) none of these

Fill in the blanks in each of the Exercises 97 to 101:

97. An example of a function which is continuous everywhere but fails to be

differentiable exactly at two points is __________ .

98. Derivative of x2 w.r.t. x3 is _________.

4

3

dy 1 1

101. For the curve x y 1, at , is __________.

dx 4 4

State True or False for the statements in each of the Exercises 102 to 106.

102. Rolles theorem is applicable for the function f (x) = |x 1| in [0, 2].

103. If f is continuous on its domain D, then | f | is also continuous on D.

104. The composition of two continuous function is a continuous function.

105. Trigonometric and inverse - trigonometric functions are differentiable in their

respective domain.

106. If f . g is continuous at x = a, then f and g are separately continuous at x = a.

Chapter 6

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES

6.1 Overview

6.1.1 Rate of change of quantities

d

For the function y = f (x), (f (x)) represents the rate of change of y with respect to x.

dx

ds

Thus if s represents the distance and t the time, then represents the rate of

dt

change of distance with respect to time.

6.1.2 Tangents and normals

A line touching a curve y = f (x) at a point (x1, y1) is called the tangent to the curve at

dy

that point and its equation is given y y1 = ( x , y ) ( x x1 ) .

dx 1 1

The normal to the curve is the line perpendicular to the tangent at the point of contact,

and its equation is given as:

1

y y1 = ( x x1 )

dy

(x , y )

dx 1 1

The angle of intersection between two curves is the angle between the tangents to the

6.1.3 Approximation

f ( x + x) f ( x)

Since f (x) = lim , we can say that f (x) is approximately equal

x 0 x

f ( x + x) f ( x)

to

x

approximate value of f (x + x) = f (x) + x .f (x).

118 MATHEMATICS

A continuous function in an interval (a, b) is :

(i) strictly increasing if for all x1, x2 (a, b), x1< x2 f (x1) < f (x2) or for all

x (a, b), f (x) > 0

(ii) strictly decreasing if for all x1, x2 (a, b), x1 < x2 f (x1) > f (x2) or for all

x (a, b), f (x) < 0

6.1.5 Theorem : Let f be a continuous function on [a, b] and differentiable in (a, b) then

(i) f is increasing in [a, b] if f (x) > 0 for each x (a, b)

(ii) f is decreasing in [a, b] if f (x) < 0 for each x (a, b)

(iii) f is a constant function in [a, b] if f (x) = 0 for each x (a, b).

6.1.6 Maxima and minima

(i) local maxima, if there exists an h > 0 , such that f (c) > f (x), for all x in

(c h, c + h).

(ii) local minima if there exists an h > 0 such that f (c) < f (x), for all x in

(c h, c + h).

A function f defined over [a, b] is said to have maximum (or absolute maximum) at

x = c, c [a, b], if f (x) f (c) for all x [a, b].

Similarly, a function f (x) defined over [a, b] is said to have a minimum [or absolute

minimum] at x = d, if f (x) f (d) for all x [a, b].

f (c) = 0 or f is not differentiable is called a critical point of f.

c, then c is a point of local maxima, and f (c) is local maximum value.

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 119

c, then c is a point of local minima, and f (c) is local minimum value.

neither a point of local minima nor a point of local maxima. Such a

point is called a point of inflection.

c I. Let f be twice differentiable at c. Then

(i) x = c is a point of local maxima if f (c) = 0 and f (c) < 0. In this case

f (c) is then the local maximum value.

(ii) x = c is a point of local minima if f (c) = 0 and f (c) > 0. In this case

f (c) is the local minimum value.

(iii) The test fails if f (c) = 0 and f (c) = 0. In this case, we go back to

first derivative test.

6.1.8 Working rule for finding absolute maxima and or absolute minima :

Step 2 : At all these points and at the end points of the interval, calculate the

values of f.

Step 3 : Identify the maximum and minimum values of f out of the values

calculated in step 2. The maximum value will be the absolute maximum

value of f and the minimum value will be the absolute minimum

value of f.

Example 1 For the curve y = 5x 2x3, if x increases at the rate of 2 units/sec, then

how fast is the slope of curve changing when x = 3?

dy

Solution Slope of curve = = 5 6x2

dx

d dy dx

= 12x.

dt dx dt

120 MATHEMATICS

= 12 . (3) . (2)

= 72 units/sec.

Thus, slope of curve is decreasing at the rate of 72 units/sec when x is increasing at the

rate of 2 units/sec.

Example 2 Water is dripping out from a conical funnel of semi-vertical angle at the

4

uniform rate of 2 cm2 /sec in the surface area, through a tiny hole at the vertex of the

bottom. When the slant height of cone is 4 cm, find the rate of decrease of the slant

height of water.

Solution If s represents the surface area, then

r

ds

d t = 2cm /sec

2

2 h

s = r.l = l . sin .

l= l l

4 2

p/4

ds 2 dl dl

Therefore, = l. = 2l .

dt 2 dt dt

dl 1 1 2 Fig. 6.1

when l = 4 cm, dt = 2.4 .2 = 2 2 = 4 cm/s .

Solution Solving the given equations, we have y2 = x and x2 = y x4 = x or x4 x = 0

x (x3 1) = 0 x = 0, x = 1

Therefore, y = 0, y = 1

i.e. points of intersection are (0, 0) and (1, 1)

dy dy 1

Further y2 = x 2y =1 =

dx dx 2y

dy

and x2 = y = 2x.

dx

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 121

At (0, 0), the slope of the tangent to the curve y2 = x is parallel to y-axis and the

tangent to the curve x2 = y is parallel to x-axis.

angle of intersection =

2

1

At (1, 1), slope of the tangent to the curve y2 = x is equal to and that of x2 = y is 2.

2

1

2

2 3 3

tan = 1+1 = 4 . = tan1 4

Example 4 Prove that the function f (x) = tanx 4x is strictly decreasing on , .

3 3

When < x < , 1 < secx < 2

3 3

Thus for < x < , f (x) < 0

3 3

Hence f is strictly decreasing on , .

3 3

4 x3

Example 5 Determine for which values of x, the function y = x4 is increasing

3

and for which values, it is decreasing.

4 x3 dy

Solution y = x4 = 4x3 4x2 = 4x2 (x 1)

3 dx

122 MATHEMATICS

dy

Now, = 0 x = 0, x = 1.

dx

Therefore f is decreasing in ( , 1] and f is increasing in [1, ).

(1, ).

Example 6 Show that the function f (x) = 4x3 18x2 + 27x 7 has neither maxima

nor minima.

3

f (x) = 0 x = 2 (critical point)

3 3

Since f (x) > 0 for all x < and for all x >

2 2

3

Hence x = is a point of inflexion i.e., neither a point of maxima nor a point of minima.

2

3

x= is the only critical point, and f has neither maxima nor minima.

2

1 0.008

0.082 = 0.09 0.008 . 2 0.09 = 0.3

0.6

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 123

x2 y 2

Example 8 Find the condition for the curves = 1; xy = c2 to intersect

a 2 b2

orthogonally.

x2 y 2 2 x 2 y dy dy b 2 x

= 1 = 0 =

a 2 b2 a 2 b 2 dx dx a 2 y

b 2 x1

slope of tangent at the point of intersection (m1) = 2

a y1

dy dy y y1

Again xy = c2 x + y= 0 = m2 = x .

dx dx x 1

b2

For orthoganality, m1 m2 = 1 2 = 1 or a2 b2 = 0.

a

Example 9 Find all the points of local maxima and local minima of the function

3 4 3 45 2

f (x) = x 8 x x +105 .

4 2

= 3x (x2 + 8x + 15) = 3x (x + 5) (x + 3)

f (x) = 0 x = 5, x = 3, x = 0

f (x) = 9x2 48x 45

= 3 (3x2 + 16x + 15)

f (0) = 45 < 0. Therefore, x = 0 is point of local maxima

f (3) = 18 > 0. Therefore, x = 3 is point of local minima

124 MATHEMATICS

1

Example 10 Show that the local maximum value of x + is less than local minimum

x

value.

1 dy 1

Solution Let y = x + =1 2,

x dx x

dy

dx = 0 x = 1 x = 1.

2

= + 3 , therefore (at x = 1) > 0 and (at x = 1) < 0.

dx 2 x dx 2 dx 2

Therefore, local maximum value (2) is less than local minimum value 2.

Example 11 Water is dripping out at a steady rate of 1 cu cm/sec through a tiny hole

at the vertex of the conical vessel, whose axis is vertical. When the slant height of

water in the vessel is 4 cm, find the rate of decrease of slant height, where the vertical

angle of the conical vessel is .

6

dv

Solution Given that = 1 cm 3/s, where v is the volume of water in the

dt

conical vessel.

3 l

From the Fig.6.2, l = 4cm, h = l cos = l and r = l sin = .

6 2 6 2

1 2 l2 3 3 3

Therefore, v = r h = l l .

3 3 4 2 24

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 125

dv 3 2 dl r

= l

dt 8 dt

3 dl

Therefore, 1 = 16. h

8 dt l

p/6

dl 1

= cm/s.

dt 2 3

1 Fig. 6.2

Therefore, the rate of decrease of slant height = cm/s.

2 3

Example 12 Find the equation of all the tangents to the curve y = cos (x + y),

2 x 2, that are parallel to the line x + 2y = 0.

dy dy

Solution Given that y = cos (x + y) = sin (x + y) 1+ dx ...(i)

dx

dy sin ( x + y )

or =

dx 1+ sin ( x + y )

1

Since tangent is parallel to x + 2y = 0, therefore slope of tangent =

2

sin ( x + y ) 1

Therefore, 1+ sin x + y = sin (x + y) = 1 .... (ii)

( ) 2

1 = y2 + 1 or y = 0.

Therefore, cosx = 0.

Therefore, x = (2n + 1) , n = 0, 1, 2...

2

126 MATHEMATICS

3 3

Thus, x = , , but x = , x = satisfy equation (ii)

2 2 2 2

3

Hence, the points are , 0 , ,0 .

2 2

1

Therefore, equation of tangent at , 0 is y = x or 2x + 4y = 0, and

2 2 2

3 1 3

equation of tangent at ,0 is y = x + or 2x + 4y + 3 = 0.

2 2 2

Example 13 Find the angle of intersection of the curves y2 = 4ax and x2 = 4by.

Solution Given that y2 = 4ax...(i) and x2 = 4by... (ii). Solving (i) and (ii), we get

2

x2

= 4ax x4 = 64 ab2 x

4b

1 2

or x (x 64 ab ) = 0 x = 0, x = 4a 3 b 3

3 2

1 2 2 1

Therefore, the points of intersection are (0, 0) and 4a 3 b 3 , 4a 3 b 3 .

dy 4a 2a dy 2 x x

Again, y2 = 4ax = = and x2 = 4by = =

dx 2 y y dx 4b 2b

Therefore, at (0, 0) the tangent to the curve y2 = 4ax is parallel to y-axis and tangent

to the curve x2 = 4by is parallel to x-axis.

Angle between curves =

2

1

1 2 2 1

a 3

At 4 a 3 b 3 , 4a 3 b 3

, m1 (slope of the tangent to the curve (i)) = 2

b

1 1 2 1

2a 1 a 3 4a 3 b 3 a 3

= 2 1

= , m2 (slope of the tangent to the curve (ii)) = =2

2 b 2b b

4a 3 b 3

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 127

1 1

a 3 1 a 3 1 1

m2 m1 2

b 2 b 3a . b 3

3

Therefore, tan = 1+ m m = 1 1 =

1 2 2 2

a 1a

3 3 2 a 3 + b3

1+ 2

b 2 b

1 1

3a 3 . b 3

Hence, = tan1 2

3

2

+ 3

2

a b

Example 14 Show that the equation of normal at any point on the curve

x = 3cos cos3, y = 3sin sin3 is 4 (y cos3 x sin3) = 3 sin 4.

dx

Therefore, = 3sin + 3cos2 sin = 3sin (1 cos2) = 3sin3 .

d

dy

= 3cos 3sin2 cos = 3cos (1 sin2) = 3cos3

d

dy cos3 sin 3

= . Therefore, slope of normal = +

dx sin 3 cos3

sin 3

y (3sin sin3) = [x (3cos cos3)]

cos3

y cos3 3sin cos3 + sin3 cos3 = xsin3 3sin3 cos + sin3 cos3

128 MATHEMATICS

3

= sin2 . cos2

2

3

= sin4

4

1

f (x) = 0 tanx = 0 or secx = 2 or cosx =

2

5

x= or x=

3 3

f = 2 (4 + 3 4) = 6 > 0. Therefore, x = is a point of minima.

3 3

5 5

f = 2 (4 + 3 4) = 6 > 0. Therefore, x = is a point of minima.

3 3

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 129

Maximum Value of y at x = is 1 + 0 = 1

1

Minimum Value of y at x = is 2 + 2 log = 2 (1 log2)

3 2

5 1

Minimum Value of y at x = is 2 + 2 log = 2 (1 log2)

3 2

Example 16 Find the area of greatest rectangle that can be inscribed in an ellipse

x2 y 2

+ = 1.

a 2 b2

Solution Let ABCD be the rectangle of maximum area with sides AB = 2x and

x2 y 2

BC = 2y, where C (x, y) is a point on the ellipse + = 1 as shown in the Fig.6.3.

a 2 b2

The area A of the rectangle is 4xy i.e. A = 4xy which gives A2 = 16x2y2 = s (say)

x2 2 16b 2

Therefore, s = 16x 1 2 . b =

2

(a2x2 x4)

a a2 (0, b)

D C

y

ds 16b 2

= 2 . [2a2x 4x3]. (a, 0) (0, 0) x (a, 0)

dx a

A B

(0, b)

ds a b

Again, =0 x= and y = Fig. 6.3

dx 2 2

d 2 s 16b 2

Now, = 2 [2a2 12x2]

dx 2 a

a d 2 s 16b 2 2 2 16b 2

At x= , 2

= 2

[2 a 6 a ] = 2

( 4a 2 ) < 0

2 dx a a

130 MATHEMATICS

a b

Thus at x = ,y= , s is maximum and hence the area A is maximum.

2 2

a b

Maximum area = 4.x.y = 4 . . = 2ab sq units.

2 2

Example 17 Find the difference between the greatest and least values of the

function f (x) = sin2x x, on , .

2 2

f (x) = 2 cos2 x 1

1 or

Therefore, f (x) = 0 cos2x = 2x is or

2 3 3x= 6 6

f = sin ( ) + =

2 2 2

2

f = sin + = 3 +

6 6 6 2 6

2

f = sin = 3

6 6 6 2 6

f = sin ( ) =

2 2 2

Clearly, is the greatest value and is the least.

2 2

Therefore, difference = + =

2 2

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 131

a. Show that the area of triangle is maximum when = .

6

Solution Let ABC be an isosceles triangle inscribed in the circle with radius a such

that AB = AC.

1

Therefore, area of the triangle ABC i.e. = BC . AD

2

1

= 2a sin2 . (a + a cos2)

2

= a2sin2 (1 + cos2)

1 2

= a2sin2 + a sin4

2

d

Therefore, = 2a2cos2 + 2a2cos4

d

= 2a2(cos2 + cos4)

d

= 0 cos2 = cos4 = cos ( 4)

d

Therefore, 2 = 4 =

6

d 2

2 = 2a (2sin2 4sin4) < 0 (at = ).

2

d 6

Therefore, Area of triangle is maximum when = .

6

132 MATHEMATICS

Choose the correct answer from the given four options in each of the following Examples

19 to 23.

Example 19 The abscissa of the point on the curve 3y = 6x 5x3, the normal at which

passes through origin is:

1 1

(A) 1 (B) (C) 2 (D)

3 2

Solution Let (x1, y1) be the point on the given curve 3y = 6x 5x3 at which the normal

dy

passes through the origin. Then we have = 2 5 x12 . Again the equation of

( x1 , y1 )

dx

x1 3

the normal at (x 1, y1) passing through the origin gives 2 5 x12 = = .

y1 6 5 x12

Since x1 = 1 satisfies the equation, therefore, Correct answer is (A).

(C) cut at an angle (D) cut at an angle

3 4

dy

Solution From first equation of the curve, we have 3x2 3y2 6xy =0

dx

dy x2 y 2

= = (m1) say and second equation of the curve gives

dx 2 xy

dy dy dy 2 xy

6xy + 3x2 3y2 =0 = 2 = (m2) say

dx dx dx x y2

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 133

Example 21 The tangent to the curve given by x = et . cost, y = et . sint at t = makes

4

with x-axis an angle:

(A) 0 (B) (C) (D)

4 3 2

dx dy

Solution = et . sint + etcost, = etcost + etsint

dt dt

dy cos t + sin t 2

Therefore, dx t = = = and hence the correct answer is (D).

4 cos t sint 0

Example 22 The equation of the normal to the curve y = sinx at (0, 0) is:

dy 1

Solution = cosx. Therefore, slope of normal = cos x = 1. Hence the equation

dx x =0

of normal is y 0 = 1(x 0) or x + y = 0

Example 23 The point on the curve y2 = x, where the tangent makes an angle of

with x-axis is

4

1 1 1 1

(A) , (B) , (C) (4, 2) (D) (1, 1)

2 4 4 2

dy 1 1 1

Solution = = tan = 1 y = x=

dx 2 y 4 2 4

134 MATHEMATICS

are______.

dy a

Solution = 0 2x + a = 0 i.e. x= ,

dx 2

a2 a

Therefore, + a + 25 = 0 a = 10

4 2

1

Example 25 If f (x) = 2 , then its maximum value is _______.

4 x + 2 x +1

1 2 1 3

4x2 + 2x + 1 = 4 (x + ) + 1 giving the minimum value of 4x2 + 2x + 1 = .

4 4 4

4

Hence maximum value of f = .

3

f (c) > 0, then c is a point of ______.

Example 27 Minimum value of f if f (x) = sinx in , is _____.

2 2

Solution 1

Solution 2.

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 135

Example 29 The rate of change of volume of a sphere with respect to its surface

area, when the radius is 2 cm, is______.

Solution 1 cm3/cm2

4 3 dv ds dv r

v= r = 4r 2 , s = 4r 2 = 8r = = 1 at r = 2.

3 dr dr ds 2

6.3 EXERCISE

1. A spherical ball of salt is dissolving in water in such a manner that the rate of

decrease of the volume at any instant is propotional to the surface. Prove that

the radius is decreasing at a constant rate.

2. If the area of a circle increases at a uniform rate, then prove that perimeter

varies inversely as the radius.

10 m/s, how fast is the string being let out; when the kite is 250 m away from

the boy who is flying the kite? The height of boy is 1.5 m.

4. Two men A and B start with velocities v at the same time from the junction of

two roads inclined at 45 to each other. If they travel by different roads, find

the rate at which they are being seperated..

5. Find an angle , 0 < < , which increases twice as fast as its sine.

2

7. Find the approximate volume of metal in a hollow spherical shell whose internal

and external radii are 3 cm and 3.0005 cm, respectively.

2

8. A man, 2m tall, walks at the rate of 1 m/s towards a street light which is

3

1

5 m above the ground. At what rate is the tip of his shadow moving? At what

3

136 MATHEMATICS

1

rate is the length of the shadow changing when he is 3 m from the base of

3

the light?

litres of water in the pool t seconds after the pool has been plugged off to drain

and L = 200 (10 t)2. How fast is the water running out at the end of 5

seconds? What is the average rate at which the water flows out during the

first 5 seconds?

10. The volume of a cube increases at a constant rate. Prove that the increase in

its surface area varies inversely as the length of the side.

11. x and y are the sides of two squares such that y = x x2 . Find the rate of

change of the area of second square with respect to the area of first square.

12. Find the condition that the curves 2x = y2 and 2xy = k intersect orthogonally.

14. Find the co-ordinates of the point on the curve x y = 4 at which tangent

is equally inclined to the axes.

16. Prove that the curves y2 = 4x and x2 + y2 6x + 1 = 0 touch each other at the

point (1, 2).

17. Find the equation of the normal lines to the curve 3x2 y2 = 8 which are

parallel to the line x + 3y = 4.

to the y-axis?

x

x y

19. Show that the line = 1, touches the curve y = b . e a at the point where

a b

the curve intersects the axis of y.

1+ x 2 x is increasing in R.

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 137

4

Also find the maximum slope.

25. If the sum of the lengths of the hypotenuse and a side of a right angled triangle

is given, show that the area of the triangle is maximum when the angle between

them is .

3

26. Find the points of local maxima, local minima and the points of inflection of the

function f (x) = x5 5x4 + 5x3 1. Also find the corresponding local maximum

and local minimum values.

27. A telephone company in a town has 500 subscribers on its list and collects

fixed charges of Rs 300/- per subscriber per year. The company proposes to

increase the annual subscription and it is believed that for every increase of

Re 1/- one subscriber will discontinue the service. Find what increase will

bring maximum profit?

x2 y2

28. If the straight line x cos + y sin = p touches the curve 2 = 1, then

a b2

prove that a2 cos2 + b2 sin2 = p2.

29. An open box with square base is to be made of a given quantity of card board

c3

of area c2. Show that the maximum volume of the box is cubic units.

6 3

30. Find the dimensions of the rectangle of perimeter 36 cm which will sweep out

a volume as large as possible, when revolved about one of its sides. Also find

the maximum volume.

138 MATHEMATICS

31. If the sum of the surface areas of cube and a sphere is constant, what is the

ratio of an edge of the cube to the diameter of the sphere, when the sum of

their volumes is minimum?

32. AB is a diameter of a circle and C is any point on the circle. Show that the

area of ABC is maximum, when it is isosceles.

33. A metal box with a square base and vertical sides is to contain 1024 cm3. The

material for the top and bottom costs Rs 5/cm2 and the material for the sides

costs Rs 2.50/cm2 . Find the least cost of the box.

34. The sum of the surface areas of a rectangular parallelopiped with sides x, 2x

x

and and a sphere is given to be constant. Prove that the sum of their volumes

3

is minimum, if x is equal to three times the radius of the sphere. Also find the

minimum value of the sum of their volumes.

Choose the correct answer from the given four options in each of the following questions

35 to 39:

35. The sides of an equilateral triangle are increasing at the rate of 2 cm/sec. The

rate at which the area increases, when side is 10 cm is:

10 2

(A) 10 cm2/s (B) 3 cm2/s (C) 10 3 cm2/s (D) cm /s

3

36. A ladder, 5 meter long, standing on a horizontal floor, leans against a vertical

wall. If the top of the ladder slides downwards at the rate of 10 cm/sec, then

the rate at which the angle between the floor and the ladder is decreasing

when lower end of ladder is 2 metres from the wall is:

1 1

(A) radian/sec (B) radian/sec (C) 20 radian/sec

10 20

(D) 10 radian/sec

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 139

(D) no tangent

38. The equation of normal to the curve 3x2 y2 = 8 which is parallel to the line

x + 3y = 8 is

(A) 3x y = 8 (B) 3x + y + 8 = 0

39. If the curve ay + x2 = 7 and x3 = y, cut orthogonally at (1, 1), then the value of

a is:

41. The equation of tangent to the curve y (1 + x2) = 2 x, where it crosses x-axis

is:

(A) x + 5y = 2 (B) x 5y = 2

(C) 5x y = 2 (D) 5x + y = 2

42. The points at which the tangents to the curve y = x3 12x + 18 are parallel to

x-axis are:

43. The tangent to the curve y = e2x at the point (0, 1) meets x-axis at:

1

(A) (0, 1) (B) ,0 (C) (2, 0) (D) (0, 2)

2

(2, 1) is:

140 MATHEMATICS

22 6 6

(A) (B) (C) (D) 6

7 7 7

4 3 2 6

46. The interval on which the function f (x) = 2x3 + 9x2 + 12x 1 is decreasing is:

3

(A) 1 < x < 3 (B) x < 0 (C) x > 0 (D) 0 < x <

2

49. The function f (x) = 4 sin3x 6 sin2x + 12 sinx + 100 is strictly

3

(A) increasing in , (B) decreasing in ,

2 2

(C) decreasing in , (D) decreasing in 0,

2 2 2

2

decreases.

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES 141

(A) two points of local maximum (B) two points of local minimum

(C) one maxima and one minima (D) no maxima or minima

1 1

(A) (B) (C) 2 (D) 2 2

4 2

5

56. At x = , f (x) = 2 sin3x + 3 cos3x is:

6

(C) zero (D) neither maximum nor minimum.

1

(A) x = e (B) x = (C) x = 1 (D) x = e

e

x

1

59. The maximum value of is:

x

1

1 1 e

(A) e (B) e e

(C) e e (D)

e

142 MATHEMATICS

point_____.

62. The values of a for which the function f (x) = sinx ax + b increases on R are

______.

2 x 2 1

63. The function f (x) = , x > 0, decreases in the interval _______.

x4

b

64. The least value of the function f (x) = ax + (a > 0, b > 0, x > 0) is ______.

x

ANSWERS 287

ANSWERS

1.3 EXERCISE

2. [-5,5]

3. 4 x 2 4x 1

1 x 3

4. f x

2

5. f 1 {( b, a ) , ( d , b ) , ( a, c ) ,(c, d )}

6. f f x x 4 6 x3 10 x 2 3x

7. 2, 1

8. (i) represents function which is surjective but not injective

(ii) does not represent function.

12. (i) f is not function (ii) g is function (iii) h is function (iv) k is not function

1

14. ,1

3

17. Domain of R = {1,2,3,4, ..... 20} and

Range of R = {1,3,5,7,9, ..... 39}. R is neither reflective, nor symmetric and nor

transitive.

21. (i) f is one-one but not onto , (ii) g is neither one-one nor onto (iii) h is bijective,

(iv) k is neither one-one nor onto.

22. (i) transitive (ii) symmetric (iii) reflexive, symmetric and transitive (iv) transitive.

288 MATHEMATICS

(ii) gof x 2 x2 6x 1

(iii) fof x x4 6 x 3 14 x 2 15 x 5

(iv) gog x 4x 9

26. (ii) & (iv)

27. (i) 28. C 29. B 30. D

31. B 32. B 33. A 34. C

35. C 36. B 37. D 38. A

39. B 40. B 41. A 42. A

43. C 44. B 45. D 46. A

49. R = {(1,1) , (1, 2 ) , ( 2,1) ,(2, 2),(2,3), (3,2), (3,3), (3,4), (4,3), (4,4), (5,5)}

1

x

52. f 1 ( x ) = 7 + ( 4 x )

3

51. fofof x

3x 2 1

53. False 54. False 55. False 56. False

57. True 58. False 59. False 60. True

61. False 62. False

2.3 EXERCISE

1. 0 2. 1 4. 5.

12 3

14 3 3

7. 0, 1 8. 11. ,

15 4 4

ANSWERS 289

4 an a1

13. tan 1 x 17. 19. 1 + a a

3 4 1 n

24. A 25. A 26. B 27. C

28. A 29. B 30. A 31. D

32. D 33. B 34. A 35. C

36. A 37. A

2 2

38. 39. 40. 3 41.

3 5

2

42. 43. 44. 0 45. 1

3 3

46. 2, 2 47. xy > 1 48. cot 1 x

49. False 50. False 51. True 52. True

53. True 54. False 55. True

3.3 EXERCISE

1. 28 1, 1 28, 4 7, 7 4, 14 2, 2 14. If matrix has 13 elements then its order

will be either 13 1 or 1 13.

2. (i) 33, (ii) 9, (iii) a23 x 2 y , a31 0, a12 1

1 9

1 4

3. (i) 2 2 (ii)

0 2 1 2

e x sin x e x sin 2 x

e 2 x sin x e 2 x sin 2 x

4. 5. a = 2, b = 2 6. Not possible

e3 x sin x e3 x sin 2 x

5 2 2 0 1 1

(i) X + Y = (ii) 2X 3Y =

10 18

7.

12 0 1 11

290 MATHEMATICS

5 2 2

(iii) Z =

12 0 1

8. x=4 10. 2, 14

1 2 3 1 1

11. A 1 12. A =

7 1 5 1 0

13. A = [ 1 2 1]

9 6 12

12 9

15. AB=

12 15 BA = 7 8 16 18. x = 1, y = 2

4 5 10

2 0 2 1 k k k

19. X = ,Y= 20. ,

2k

etc.

1 3 2 2 2k 2k

where k is a real number

24. A = [ 4] 30. True when AB = BA

1 7 -3

22 5 1

37. (i) (ii) not possible

38. x = 2, y = 4 or x = 4, y = 2, z = 6, w = 4

24 10 3 187 195

39. 40. A

28 38 156 148

1 2 5

41. a = 2, b = 4, c = 1, d = 3 42.

3 4 0

18 8

43. 44.True for all real values of

16 18

45. a = 2, b = 0, c = 3

ANSWERS 291

1 1 1

50. x= , y= ,z=

2 6 3

7 9 10 3 1 1

12 15 17 15 6 5

51. (i) (ii) inverse does not exist (iii)

1 1 1 5 2 2

5 3

2 2

2

0 1

2

2 3 1

1 + 1 0

2 2

52.

5 3 3 1

2 0

2 2 2 2

57. D 58. D 59. A 60. B

61. C 62. D 63. A 64. A

65. D 66. D 67. A 68. Null matrix

69. Skew symmetric matrix 70. 1 71. 0

72. Rectangular matrix 73. Distributive

74. Symmetrix matrix 75. Symmetrix matrix

76. (i) B A (ii) kA (iii) k A B 77. Skew Symmetric matrix

78. (i) Skew symmetric matrix

(ii) neither symmetric nor skew symmetric matrix

79. Symmetric matrix 80. AB = BA 81. does not exist

82. False 83. False 84. False 85. True

86. True 87. False 88. False 89. True

90. False 91. False 92. False 93. False

94. True 95. False 96. True 97. False

98. True 99. False 100. True 101. True

292 MATHEMATICS

4.3 EXERCISE

1. x x + 2

3 2

2. a2 (a + x + y + z) 3. 2x3y3z3

4. 3 (x + y + z) (xy + yz + zx) 5. 16 (3x + 4) 6. (a + b + c)3

n

12. = n or n + ( 1) 13. x = 0, 12 18. x = 0, y = 5, z = 3

6

19. x = 1, y = 1, z = 1 20. x = 2, y = 1, z = 4

24. C 25. C 26. B 27. D

28. C 29. A 30. A 31. A

32. C 33. D 34. D 35. D

1

36. B 37. C 38. 27 A 39. A

1

40. Zero 41. 42. (A 1) 2 43. 9

2

44. Value of the determinant 45. x=2y=7

46. (y z) (z x) (y x + xyz) 47. Zero 48. True

49. False 50. False 51. True 52. True

53. True 54. False 55. True 56. True

57. True 58. True

5.3 EXERCISE

1. Continuous at x =1 2. Discontinuous 3. Discontinuous 4. Continuous

5. Discontinuous 6. Continuous 7. Continuous 8. Discontinuous

7 1

9. Continuous 10. Continuous 11. k = 12. k =

2 2

13. k = 1 14. k = 1 16. a = 1, b = 1

5 1

17. Discontinuous at x = 2 and x 18. Discontinuous at x = 1, and 2

2 2

20. Not differentiable at x = 2 21. Differentiable at x = 0

2

22. Not differentiable at x = 2 25. (log 2) sin 2 x 2cos x

ANSWERS 293

8x 8 1 5

26.

x8 log8 x 27. 2 28. x log x 5 log log x 5

x a

cos x sin 2 x

29. 30. n 2ax b sin

n 1

ax 2 bx c cos ax 2 bx c

2 x 2 x

1

31. sin tan x 1 sec 2 x 1

2 x 1

2

1

32. 2 x cos x 2 x sin 2 x 2 sin 2 x 33. 2 x x 1

cos x cos 2 x

34. sin x

sin x

sin x .log sin x 35. sin mx x cos n x ( n tan x + m cot x )

2 3

36. x 1 x 2 x 3 9 x2 34 x 29

1 1

37. 1 38. 39. 40. 1

2 2

3 3a x t2 1

41. 42. 43. 44. 2

1 x2 a2 x2 1 x4 t 1

2 - + ++1

3 2

+ +1

1 tan x x 1

48. t 51. 52. 53.

3 sin 2 x 2

54. 2 2 55.

xy cos xy x y sec x y tan x y x

x y 4 x3 4 xy 2

56. 57. 64. 2sin y cos3 y

y 4 yx 2 + 4 y 3 x

70. Not applicable since f is not differentiable at x = 1

294 MATHEMATICS

7 1 3

71. , 2 72. (2, 4) 77. , 78. ,0

2 4 2

2 tan x x

79. p 3, q 5 82. xtanx sec x log x + x + 83. D

2 x 2 +1

84. C 85. B 86. A 87. A

88. A 89. C 90. B 91. B

92. A 93. A 94. B 95. A

2 1

96. B 97. x x 1 98. 99.

3x 2

3 +1

100. 2 101. 1 102. False 103. True

104. True 105. True 106. False

6.3 EXERCISE

3. 8 m/s 4. ( )

2 2 v unit/sec. 5. =

3

6. 31.92

2

7. 0.018cm3 8. 2 m/s towards light, 1 m/s

3

9. 2000 litres/s, 3000 litre/s 11. 2x3 3x + 1

1 4 2

12. k2 = 8 14. (4, 4) 15. tan 7 17. x + 3 y = 8

18. (3, 2), (1, 2) 23. (1, 16), max. slope = 12

26. x = 1 is the point of local maxima; local maximum = 0

x = 3 is the point of local minima; local minimum = 28

x = 0 is the point of inflection.

27. Rs 100 30. 6cm, 12 cm, 864 cm3

ANSWERS 295

2 3 2

31. 1:1 33. Rs 1920 34. x 1 +

3 27

35. C 36. B 37. A 38. C

39. D 40. A 41. A 42. D

43. B 44. B 45. C 46. B

47. D 48. A 49. B 50. C

51. A 52. C 53. B 54. C

55. B 56. A 57. B 58. B

59. C 60. (3, 34) 61. x + y = 0 62. ,1

7.3 EXERCISE

x2 x3

3. x + 3log x + 1 + c 4. c 5. log x sin x c

2 3

x tan 5 x tan 3 x

6. tan + C 7. c 8. x + c

2 5 3

x x x x x

9. 2cos 2sin c 10. 2 3 2 + x log x +1 + c

2 2

x x2 4 3/ 4

3

11. a cos 1 + 1 +c 12. 3 x log 1 + x

4 +c

a a 2

3

1 1 2 1 1 3x

13. 1+ 2 + c 14. sin c

3 x 3 4

1 1 4t 3

15. sin c

2 3

2

16. 3 x 9 log x x2 9 c

296 MATHEMATICS

x 1

17. 5 2 x + x 2 + 2log x 1+ 5 2 x + x 2 + c

2

1 1 1+ x 1 1

18. log x 2 1 log x 2 1 c 19. log tan x + c

4 4 1 x 2

x a a2 xa x sin 1 x

20. 2ax x 2 + sin 1 + c 21. + log 1 x 2

2 2 a 1 x 2

1

22. sin 2 x sin x c 23. tan x cot x 3x + c

2

2 1 x3

24. sin c 25. 2 sin x + x + c

3 a3

1 1 2 26

26. sec ( x ) + c 27.

2 3

1

log m

28. e 2 1 29. tan e 30. 31.

4 m2 1

2 2

32. 2 1 33. 34. tan 1

3 2 3

1 x2 3 x

35. log + tan 1 +c

7 x+2 7 3

1 x x

36. 2 2

a tan 1 b tan 1

c 37.

a b a b

x3

38. log c 1 x

1 1 39. xe tan +c

x 1 6 x 2 3

x 1 x x x 3

40. a a tan + tan 1 + c 41.

a a a 2

ANSWERS 297

e 3 x 3e 3 x

42. [sin 3x cos 3x ] + [sin x 3cos x ] + c

24 40

tan 1 + log +c

43.

2 tan x + 2 tan x +1

2 tan x 2 2

a2 + b2 3

2

1 1

44. 3 3 45. log 3 46. log 47. log

4 a b 8 2 2 4 2

48. A 49. C 50. A 51. C

52. D 53. C 54. D 55. D

56. D 57. A 58. D 59. e 1

ex 1 1 2cos x

60. c 61. 62. tan 1 c 63. 0

x 4 2 2 3 3

8.3 EXERCISE

1 4 2 16

1. sq.units 2. p sq. units 3. 10 sq.units 4. sq.units

2 3 3

27 9 32

5. sq.units 6. sq. units 7. sq. units 8. 2 sq.units

2 2 3

4 16 a 2

9. sq.units 10. 96 sq.units 11. sq.units 12. sq. units

3 3 4

1 9 8

13. sq. units 14. sq. units 15. 9 sq.units 16. 2 sq.units

6 2 3

15

2

sq. units 19.

4

3

( )

3 + 2 a 2 sq. units

15

20. 6 sq.units 21. sq. units 22. 8 sq.units 23. 15 sq.units

2

24. C 25. D 26. A 27. B

298 MATHEMATICS

32. B 33. A 34. C

9.3 EXERCISE

d2y e6 9

1. 2 x

2 y k 2. 0 3.

dx 2 2

x 1

4. ( 1

y x 2 1 = log

2

) +k

x +1

5. y = c.e x x

2

6. ( a + m ) y = e mx + ce ax 7. (x c) ex+y + 1 = 0

x2 x2 1

8. y = kx e 2 9. y tan x 2 10.

x y y2 c 11.

3

d2y dy dy

2

13. (1 x ) 2

x 2=0 14. x2 y 2 2 xy 0

dx dx dx

4 x3 1 y

15. y

3 1 x2 16. tan = log x + c

x

1 x

18. tan + log y = c

1 1

17. 2 xe tan y

= e 2 tan y

+c

y

cos 2 x 3

21. y sin x = +

3

19. x y k ex y 20. x 2 y 3 ey 2

2 2

1

( ) ( )

2

xy y + x ( y ) yy = 0 tan 1 x + log 1 + y 2 = c

2

22. 23.

2

24. x 1 y2 0 25. y cos x cx 2

dx x x2 3 9

ANSWERS 299

x y

26. x sin y cos y sin y c e y 27. log 1 tan x c

2

3sin 2 x 2cos 2 x

28. y ce3 x 2

29. 2 x y

2

3x

13

30. y 1 x 1 2x 0 31. k e 2 x 1 x y 1 x y

x

32. xy 1 33. log = cx 34. D 35. C

y

36. A 37. C 38. B 39. C

40. C 41. D 42. A 43. C

44. D 45. B 46. B 47. C

48. C 49. D 50. A 51. A

52. B 53. B 54. B 55. B

56. C 57. B 58. A 59. A

60. C 61. C 62. D 63. C

64. C 65. A 66. D 67. D

68. C 69. C 70. A 71. A

72. A 73. C 74. B 75. A

76. (i) not defined (ii) not defined (iii) 3

= Q1 e 1 dy + c

dy p1dy p dy

(iv) + py = Q (v) x e

dx

x2 2 2

(vi) y cx (vii) 3 y 1 x 4 x3 c

4

x sin x cos x

(viii) xy = Aey (ix) y ce

2 2

ex

(x) x = c sec y (xi)

x

77. (i) True (ii) True (iii) True (iv) True

(v) False (vi) False (vii) True (viii) True

(ix) True (x) True (xi) True

300 MATHEMATICS

10.3 EXERCISE

1 1 1

1. 2i j 2 k 2. (i) 2i j 2 k (ii) j 6 k

3 3 37

1 G 3b a

3. 2i 3 j 6 k 4. c = 5. k = 2 6. 2 i j k

7 2

2 3 6 1

, , ;4i,6 j, 12k 8.

1

7. 2i 4 j 4k 9. cos

7 7 7 156

10. Area of the parallelograms formed by taking any two sides represented by a , b and

c as adjacent are equal

2 274

11. 12. 21 13.

7 2

G G G G G G

a b b c c a 62

16. n G G G G G G 17.

a b b c c a 2

1 G G G

18. 5i 2 j 2k

3

19. C 20. D 21. C 22. B

23. D 24. A 25. D 26. D

27. D 28. A 29. C 30. A

31. C 32. C 33. B

34. If a and b are equal vectors

1 G2 G2

35. 0 36. 37. k ] 1,1[ k 38. a b

4 2

G

39. 3 40. a 41. True 42. True

43. True 44. False 45. False

11.3 EXERCISE

1. 5i +5 2 j +5 k 2. (x 1) i + (y + 2) j + (z 3) k = (3j 2j + 6k)

3. (1, 1, 1)

ANSWERS 301

19

4. cos 1 7. x + y + 2z = 19 8. x+y+z=9

21

9. 3x 2y + 6z 27 = 0 10. 21x + 9y 3z 51 = 0

x y z x y z

11. = = and = = 12. 60

1 2 1 1 1 2

14. ax + by + cz = a2 + b2 + c2 14. (1, 1)

15. 15 or 75 16. (2, 6, 2) 3 5

17. 7 18. 6

20. 18x + 17y + 4z = 49 21. 14 22. 51x + 15y 50z + 173 = 0

24. 4x +2y 4z 6 = 0 and 2x + 4y + 4z 6 = 0

26. 3i +8j +3 k, 3i 7j + 6k 29. D 30. D

31. A 32. D 33. D 34. A

x y z

35. D 36. C 37. + + =1

2 3 4

2 2 1

38. , , 39. ( x 5)i + ( y + 4) j + ( z 6) k = (3i + 7j + 2k)

3 3 3

40. ( x 3)i + ( y 4) j + ( z + 7)k = (2i 5j + 13k) 41. x + y z = 2

42. True 43. True 44. False 45. False

46. True 47. True 48. False 49. True

12.3 EXERCISE

1. 42 2. 4 3. 47 4. 30

5. 196 6. 43 7. 21 8. 47

1

9. Minimum value = 3 10. Maximum = 9, minimum = 3

7

302 MATHEMATICS

12. Minimise Z 400 x 200 y , subject to:

5 x 2 y 30

2 x y 15

x y , x 0, y 0

13. Maximise Z = 100 x 170 y subject to :

3 x 2 y 3600, x 4 y 1800, x 0, y 0

14. Maximise Z = 200 x 120 y subject to :

x y 300, 3x y 600, y x 100, x 0, y 0

15. Maximise Z = x y, subject to

2x + 3y 120, 8x + 5y 400, x 0, y 0

16. Type A : 6, Type B : 3; Maximum profit = Rs. 480

17. 2571.43 18. 138600

19. 150 sweaters of each type and maximum profit = Rs 48,000

2 10

20. 54 km. 21. 3

7 11

22. Model X : 25, Model Y : 30 and maximum profit = Rs 40,000

23. Tablet X : 1, Tablet Y : 6 24.Factory I : 80 days, Factory II : 60 days

25. Maximum : 12, Minimum does not exist

26. B 27. B 28. A 29. D

30. C 31. D 32. D 33. A

34. B 35. Linear constraints36. Linear 37. Unbounded

38. Maximum 39. Bounded 40. Intersection 41. Convex

42. True 43. False 44. False 45. True

ANSWERS 303

13.3 EXERCISE

25

1. Independent 2. not independent 3. 1.1 4.

56

1 5 7

5. P(E) = , P(F) : , P(G) = , no pair is independent

12 18 36

3 1 1 5 3 3

7. (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) 8. ,

4 2 4 8 4 10

9. (i) E1 and E2 occur

(iii) Either E1 or E2, or both E1 and E2 occurs

(iv) Either E1 or E2 occurs, but not both

1 23 3 1

10. (i) , (ii) 12. 13. Rs 0.50 14.

3 18 2 10

85 7

15. Expectation = Rs 0.65 16. 17.

153 15

5 1 5 7

18. 19. 20. 21.

9 270725 16 128

8

4547 9

22. 23. 1 24. (i) .1118 (ii) .4475

8192 10

8 14 1

25. (i) , (ii) , , (iii) 1 26. 0.7 (approx.) 27. 0.18

15 15 15

1

28. 29. X 0 1 2

2

P (X) .54 .42 .04

10

49 45(49)8 59(49)9

31. (i) (ii) (iii)

50 (50)10 (50)10

304 MATHEMATICS

1 9 p 1

32. 33. 34.

3 44 n 1

35. X 1 2 3 4 5 6

P(X) 36 36 36 36 36 36

1 665 775

36. p= 37. 38.

2 324 7776

7 11 2 9

39. not independent 41. (i) , (ii) 42. (i) , (ii)

18 18 11 11

7 11

43. (i) 0.49, (ii) 0.65, (iii) .314 44. 45.

11 21

1 110 5

46. 47. 48.

3 221 11

1

49. (i) , (ii) 5.2, (iii) 1.7 (approx.) 50. (i) 3, (ii) 19.05

50

15

51. (i) 4.32, (ii) 61.9, (iii) 52. 10

22

2 1

53. Mean , S.D. = 0.377 54.

13 2

55. Mean = 6, Variance = 3

56. C 57. A 58. D 59. C

60. C 61. D 62. B 63. D

64. C 65. D 66. D 67. D

68. C 69. D 70. D 71. D

72. C 73. C 74. C 75. B

76. B 77. D 78. C 79. A

80. D 81. B 82. C 83. C

84. A 85. B 86. A 87. C

88. D 89. D 90. A 91. B

ANSWERS 305

96. False 97. False 98. True 99. True

100. True 101. True 102. False 103. True

1 10 1

104. 105. 106.

3 9 10

107. pi xi2 ( pi xi )

2

108. independent

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