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ROOF TRUSS

Geometry
You can define geometry of a roof truss.

To begin defining a truss, open the Parametric Structures Truss dialog from:

Menu: Steel > Parametric structures > Roof truss


Ribbon: ASD - Model > Parametric structures > Roof truss

Toolbar: Parametric structures > Roof truss .

In the drawing area, click to specify the left and the right support points of the truss.

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Six groups of bars can be distinguished in a truss (see the drawing below):

Lower chord
Upper chord
Extreme diagonals
Remaining diagonals
Extreme verticals
Remaining verticals

Note: The number of extreme verticals and extreme diagonals is user-defined on the appropriate
tabs of the dialog.

Define profiles for the bars of a truss:

Upper chord: I-section, T-section, rectangular pipe, round pipe


Lower chord: all profiles listed for upper chord, and C-section positioned horizontally
(rotated)
Diagonals and verticals: angle, C-section, I-section, T-section, rectangular pipe, round
pipe

The options provided in the above dialog enable definition of geometry of a plane truss.

Under Roof variant, there are 4 truss shapes available (see the drawing below):

1. Rectangular
2. Triangular
3. Bi-trapezoidal
4. Bi-trapezoidal - truncated

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Under Truss geometry, specify geometric parameters for the truss types (see the drawing below):

Truss height h
Height d (at the support points for the third and fourth shape types)
Number of truss fields

Truss length L results from the positions of the defined support nodes of a truss.

The specified dimensions are truss dimensions measured to axis.

After you finish defining truss dimensions, click the Chords tab to display the Truss - chords
dialog.

Chords
After you finish defining Roof Truss - Geometry click the Upper chord tab or the Lower chord
tab. Using the options on either tab, you can assign bar profiles and types of bar families to the
bars of chords of the generated truss. In addition, it is possible to determine the method of
positioning profiles.

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Under Profile rotation, the method of profile positioning can be determined for I-sections and
rectangular pipes (see the drawing below).

Specify additional parameters:

Mirror - enables defining a position (top or bottom) of some asymmetric profiles with
respect to the horizontal plane (see the drawing below).

Profile location in relation to plate - enables defining a position of a profile with respect
to the gusset plate in the truss node (at the front of the plate, at the back of the plate, at
the center of the gusset plate. Profiles are fixed to the gusset plate by welding one of the
walls to the plate (positions at the back and at the front) or by setting a bar in position
onto the plate after notching the profile beforehand (position - center).

Profiles available on the selection lists are those defined in the Profile List dialog. To add a
profile to the list, click . The Profile list dialog displays, where you can select a profile.

Profile families available on the selection lists are those defined in the Family Manager dialog.
To add a family to the list, click . The Family manager dialog displays, in which you can
select a family.

Verticals
After you finish defining Roof Truss - Geometry click the Extreme verticals or Remaining
verticals tab. Using the options on either tab, you can assign bar profiles and types of bar
families to verticals.

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Under Profile rotation, the method of profile positioning can be determined for I-sections and
rectangular pipes (see the drawing below).

Specify additional parameters:

Mirror enables defining a position (top or bottom) of some asymmetric profiles with
respect to the horizontal plane (see the drawing below).

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Profile location in relation to plate - enables defining a position of a profile with respect
to the gusset plate in the truss node (at the front of the plate, at the back of the plate, at
the center of the gusset plate). Profiles are fixed to the gusset plate by welding one of the
walls to the plate (positions at the back and at the front) or by setting a bar in position
onto the plate after notching the profile beforehand (position - center).

On the Remaining verticals tab, you can determine the method of positioning asymmetric
profiles (one side or front-back alternately), as shown in the drawing below.

Profiles available on the selection lists are those defined in the Profile List dialog. To add a
profile to the list, click . The Profile list dialog displays, where you can select a profile.

Profile families available on the selection lists are those defined in the Family Manager dialog.
To add a family to the list, click . The Family manager dialog displays, in which you can
select a family.

Diagonals
After you finish defining Roof Truss - Geometry click the Extreme diagonals or Remaining
diagonals tab. Using the options on either tab, you can assign bar profiles and types of bar
families to the bars of diagonals of a generated truss.

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Under Profile rotation, the method of profile positioning can be determined for I-sections and
rectangular pipes (see the drawing below).

Specify additional parameters:

Mirror - enables defining a position (top or bottom) of some asymmetric profiles with
respect to the horizontal plane (see the drawing below).

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Profile location in relation to plate - enables defining a position of a profile with respect
to the gusset plate in the truss node (at the front of the plate, at the back of the plate, at
the center of the gusset plate). Profiles are fixed to the gusset plate by welding one of the
walls to the plate (positions at the back and at the front) or by setting a bar in position
onto the plate after notching the profile beforehand (position - center).

On the Remaining diagonals tab, you can determine the method of positioning asymmetric
profiles (one side or front-back alternately), as shown in the drawing below.

Profiles available on the selection lists are those defined in the Profile List dialog. To add a
profile to the list, click .; The Profile list dialog displays, where you can select a profile.

Profile families available on the selection lists are those defined in the Family Manager dialog.
To add a family to the list, click . The Family manager dialog displays, in which you can
select a family.

At the bottom of the dialog is the Use template selection field, which contains user-defined
templates (schemes) of trusses. After you define truss geometry, you can save the settings by
typing a name in the Use template field and clicking Save as template. In the future, after you
begin to define a truss, you can select the name of a saved template so that all its parameters will
be applied to the new truss.

Use the buttons at the bottom of the dialog:

Apply - after you click this, the truss defined in the dialog is generated on screen without
closing the dialog. This lets you check whether the truss has been generated correctly.
OK - click this to generate the defined truss and close the dialog.
Hide - after you click this, the dialog is no longer visible on screen. To restore the dialog
display on screen, press Esc.

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. DISTRIBUTION OF PURLINS
Use this macro to generate a distribution (spreading) of purlins in a selected area of the roof
plane. Distributed elements include purlins and brace rods.

To begin defining the purlin distribution, open the Purlin distribution dialog from:

Menu: Steel > Parametric structures > Purlin spreading


Ribbon: ASD - Model > Parametric structures > Purlin spreading

Toolbar Parametric structures > Purlin spreading .

In the drawing area, click to specify:

the beginning point of first purlin (P1)


the end point of first purlin (P2)
any point positioned on the last purlin (P3)

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The 3 points (P1, P2, and P3) must define a plane unambiguously (they may not be collinear).
Positions of these points determine the coordinate system (see the drawing below):

Point P1 is the origin of the coordinate system


Points P1 and P2 determine a direction of the X axis of the coordinate system
Point P3 determines a direction of the Y axis of the coordinate system.

The Z axis of the purlin profile is always perpendicular to the roof plane.

After the distribution is generated, it is assumed that all purlins are parallel to each other and of
the same length.

Use the options at the upper part of the Purlins tab to determine the location of distributed purlins
with respect to defined points P1, P2, and P3 (purlin length and distances of the first and last
purlins from the defined lines of purlin distribution).

Specify purlin parameters:

Profiles
Materials
Families

Profiles available on the selection list are those defined in the Profile List dialog. To add a profile
to the list, click . The Profile list dialog displays, where you can select a profile.

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Families available on the selection list are those defined in the Family Manager dialog. To add a
family to the list, click . The Family manager dialog displays, where you can select a
family.

Rotated - select this to change the setting of a purlin profile in the roof plane.
In the edit field, specify a value of the shift (distance between the bottom plane of the
lower flange of a purlin and the roof plane).

Brace Rod
Use the options on the Brace rods tab to define additional bars (brace rods) between axes of roof
girders.

In the Brace rods column, specify the rod shape:

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Single

Double

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If n purlins are generated, the oblique bar of a brace rod is positioned between purlins n-1 and n.
At the place where the oblique bar of a brace rod is connected with a purlin, the profile of the
brace rod is perpendicular to the purlin web (the oblique bar is bent).

All remaining purlins (from 1 to n-2) are connected with each other by means of a straight bar.

Properties of a brace rod and details of the connection are available in a separate dialog;
properties of brace rods are available after selecting one of them on the list (the brace rod is
highlighted in the table) and pressing the Properties button. Parameters of a selected brace rod
can be changed in the Properties of brace rods dialog.

Use the buttons at the bottom of the dialog:

Add > - after you click this, click in the drawing area to specify a point that determines
the location of a brace rod. A line is added to the brace rod table for the additional rod.
Add - after you enter a coordinate of the brace rod location into the edit field to the right
of the button and click this button, the software verifies if the value entered is correct. If
it is correct, another line displays in the brace rod table.
Remove - select a brace rod on the list (the table line is highlighted) and click this to
remove the highlighted line from the table.

Brace Rod Properties


After you select a brace rod on the list on the Brace rods tab and then click Properties, the
Properties of brace rods dialog displays.

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Define parameters of the connection of a brace rod with purlins:

Dimensions
Parameters of profiles of brace rods
Types of nuts and washers used in the connection

Dividing
Use the options on the Dividing tab to divide a purlin along its length. For Dividing points,
specify points at which purlins will be divided along their length. Locations of the points are
determined by specifying the X coordinate with respect to the coordinate system defined by
points P1, P2, and P3. For Splitting distance, specify a value of the distance between successive
parts of a purlin.

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If purlins are made of Z-profiles, they may be connected by a lap joint, and the options under
Lap connection will be available.

If the Generate bolts option is selected, this will be a bolted lap connection. Define parameters of
a bolted connection (a number of rows and columns of bolts, a bolt grade, and so on) in the lower
part of the dialog.

At the bottom of the dialog is the Use template selection field, which contains user-defined
templates (schemes) of purlin distributions. After you define a distribution of purlins, you can
save the settings by typing a name in the Use template field and clicking Save as template. In the
future, after you begin to define a purlin distribution, you can select the name of a saved template
so that all its parameters will be applied to the new purlin distribution.

Use the buttons at the bottom of the dialog:

Apply - after you click this, the purlin distribution defined in the dialog is generated on
the screen without closing the dialog. This lets you check whether the purlin distribution
has been generated correctly.
OK - click this to generate the defined purlin distribution and close the dialog.
Hide - after you click this, the dialog is no longer visible on the screen. To restore the
dialog display on the screen, press Esc.
Close - click this to close the dialog without generating the purlin distribution.

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