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International Dept.

Otto-Lilienthal-Strasse 25 28199 Bremen GERMANY
Phone +49 (0)421 244 15-20 Fax+49 (0)421 244 15-39
d e r r i n g g e n e r ato r
ENERCON GmbH Austria ENERCON Service Italia S.r.l. ENERCON GmbH Brazil
Hauptstrasse 19 Via G. della Casa 7 Wobben Windpower Lda.
2120 Wolkersdorf AUSTRIA 82100 Benevento ITALY Av. Fernando Stecca n 100
Phone +43 (0)2245 82828 Phone +39 (0)082 425 257 Distrito Industrial CEP 18087450
Fax +43 (0)2245 82838 Fax +39 (0)082 4336 883 Sorocaba So Paulo BRAZIL
Phone +55 (0)15 2283 737
ENERCON Benelux B.V. ENERCON GmbH Portugal Fax +55 (0)15 2283 887
Paxtonstraat 1 a c/o Gellweiler Lda.
8013 RP Zwolle THE NETHERLANDS Travessa do Alecrim, 32 ENERCON GmbH Egypt
Phone +31 (0)38 4228 282 1200 Lisboa PORTUGAL c/o Zaki International Trading
Fax +31 (0)38 4228 010 Phone +351 (0)21 3420 021 23 Kasr El-Nil Street
Fax +351 (0)21 3420 026 Cairo 11111 EGYPT
ENERCON GmbH Great Britain Phone +20 (0)2 3923 670
Axiom House, Station Road ENERCON GmbH Spain Fax +20 (0)2 4170 023
Stroud, Glos. GL5 3AP Great Britain Valncia Parc Tecnolgic
Phone +44 (0)1493 782 018 Av. Juan de la Cierva, 27 ENERCON India Ltd.
Fax +44 (0)1493 789 094 46980 Paterna (Valncia) SPAIN Kolsite House, Plot No. 31
Phone +34 (0)961 366 290 Shah Industrial Estate
ENERCON GmbH Denmark Fax +34 (0)961 367 875 Veera Desai Road, Andheri (West)
Bredkr Parkvej 62 Mumbai 400 053 INDIA
8250 Egaa DENMARK ENERCON Hellas S.A. Phone +91 (0)22 569 248 48
Phone +45 (0)87 430 388 20, Pentelis Avenue Fax +91 (0)22 267 300 85
Fax +45 (0)87 430 344 15235 Vrilissia, Athens GREECE
Phone +30 (0)210 6838 490 ENERCON GmbH Canada
ENERCON GmbH Sweden Fax +30 (0)210 6838 489 Wind Power Inc.
c/o Energy Converter AB Suite # 222 Lebel Mansion
Stenldersgatan 19 ENERCON Servis Ltd.Sti. 696 Kettles Street, Pincher Creek
21376 Malm SWEDEN Bagdat Cad. No 187 A Blok daire 5 Alberta TOK 1WO CANADA
Phone +46 (0)40 143 580 Selamicesme Kadikoy Phone +1 (0)403 6272 923
Fax +46 (0)40 222 420 Istanbul TURKEY Fax +1 (0)403 6273 239
Phone +90 (0)216 3854 715
Fax +90 (0)216 3606 492

ENERCON GmbH Australia

Export Drive
Darwin Business Park Berrimah
0828 Northern Territory - AUSTRALIA
Phone +61 (0)889 470 933
Fax +61 (0)889 470 925

ENERCON GmbH Dreekamp 5 D-26605 Aurich Telefon (0 49 41) 9 27-0 Fax (0 49 41) 9 27-109
foreword 3


When he established ENERCON in 1984, the graduate engineer Aloys Wobben

initiated an economical/ecological success story of ENERCON. The depth of
innovation at ENERCON is determined by research and development. In 1991, the
company pioneered the development and manufacture of the worlds first gearless
wind energy system. This concept gave the decisive impetus for our commitment to
the goal of: Energy for the world.

ENERCON began series production of gearless wind turbines in 1993 in response to
high demand and fundamental advantages in terms of output, reliability and service
life. All key components such as the rotor, the ring generator and the grid feeding
system have always been developed and manufactured in-house. A concept with
which ENERCON has maintained its position as the German market leader and has
set standards in technology, quality and safety on all continents.

With the new E-70 power class, ENERCON is continuing the success story of
extremely economical wind power utilisation. The gearless turbine concept, which
has undergone further development in all system components, provides optimum
energy conversion and a high degree of deployment flexibility. With its innovative

grid feeding system, the E-70 meets the latest grid connection conditions and can

therefore be incorporated into all supply and distribution structures. Numerous
tower versions and hub heights of up to 113 metres also provide higher yield, both
in coastal areas and inland.


drive system 5

Innenansicht einer E-70 Gondel

drive system
ENERCON E-70 rotor blade

drive system 7

Tip of an E-70 rotor blade

drive system


The new rotor blade concept of the ENERCON E-70 sets new standards with regard
to yield, noise emission and stress minimisation. Because of their modified design,
the blades also use the inner part of the rotor area and considerably increase the
energy yield. The new E-70 rotor blades are also less susceptible to turbulence and
provide an even flow along the entire length of the blade profile.

Advantages of ENERCON rotor blades:

~ Higher efficiency due to modified blade geometry
~ Less noise emission because of optimised blade tips
~ Longer service life because of reduced stress
~ Easier transport because of streamlined blade geometry
ENERCON E-70 rotor blades are manufactured using the so-called sandwich
method. This comprises a laminate made from fibreglass-reinforced epoxy resin
with a dense foam and balsa wood core. A special vacuum infusion process used
during the production of the rotor blades guarantees pore-free material bonding
A new rotor blade geometry uses the even airflow around the nacelle and increases the energy yield and eliminates air pockets from forming in the laminate.

Top layer made of PUR gel coat varnish for optimum weather protection
Fibreglass-reinforced epoxy resin lends the blade its solid structure and
The blade tips have also been optimised with regard to noise emission and energy provides the required rigidity
yield. Turbulences that occur at the blade tips due to overpressure and underpressure
are effectively removed from the rotor plane. The entire length of the blade is High-resistance foam and balsa wood form the core of the lightweight
blade structure
therefore utilised without any loss of energy caused by turbulences.

Fibreglass-reinforced epoxy resin for solid structure and rigidity

Structure of an E-70 rotor blade (sandwich construction)

drive system 9

An ENERCON rotor blade with

a double-row screw connection
guarantees additional security
through even load distribution


The drive system of the ENERCON E-70 has simple logic: fewer rotating components
reduce mechanical stress and increase the technical service life of the equipment.
Maintenance and service costs of the wind turbine are lower (fewer wearing parts, no
gear oil change etc.) and operating expenses are reduced.

In the E-70, the rotor hub and the ring generator are directly attached to each other as
a fixed unit without gears. The rotor unit is mounted on a fixed axle, the so-called axle
pin. Compared to conventional geared systems that have a large number of bearing
points in a moving drive train, the drive system of the E-70 has just two slowly moving
roller bearings. The reason for this is the low speed of the ENERCON direct drive.

In order to effectively withstand wind stress over the entire usage period, the E-70
rotor blades have an extremely large blade flange diameter. The double-row screw
connection specially developed by ENERCON also provides additional strength by
creating even load distribution. This is an important factor, particularly in extreme
wind locations with large stress fluctuations.

Revs in bn
F (%) Apex
bolt load As indicated by the load diagram, the load (F) is reduced by
using a larger blade adapter diameter (D). In other words, the 8
300 Conventional
loading capacity increases. turbines


ENERCON direct drive: few rotating components 0
Fmax 1 2 D (m)
increase the lifespan 10 20 years

The generator of an E-70 undergoes the

same number of rotations in 20 years as the
generators in conventional wind turbines
in three months.
drive system 11

cast part processing

In addition to the ENERCON direct
drive, the mechanical load is further
reduced by a specially developed
power flow concept that carries
dynamic loads directly away from the
rotor unit to the tower. In order to avoid
possible excessive stress at welded
seams, only cast parts are used in the
vicinity of major components.

Constant further development of cast components takes place at ENERCON in close

collaboration with the foundries. All cast components are drawn on a 3D CAD
system and calculated using the finite element method to test strain increases at
the critical points. Functionality is tested and optimised by the designer during the
entire prototype phase. In order to guarantee the identification and traceability of
each cast component, when the goods are received by ENERCON, every part is
given a specific barcode, from which the serial number can be obtained in the event
of quality problems, for example. The cast components are not released for further
The ENERCON power
flow concept reduces
steps in the ENERCON manufacturing process until comprehensive quality testing
mechanical loads has taken place. This guarantees that the high ENERCON quality standards are also
fulfilled in the cast component supply sector.
A few years ago only the rotor hub was made from cast steel, nowadays the use of
modern spheroidal graphite cast iron makes it possible to manufacture other major
components such as blade adaptors, axle pins and main carriers with this process.
Quality testing procedure at ENERCON for cast components:
~ Structural investigation on the component
~ Ultrasound test
~ X-ray test
ring generator 13

ring generator
ENERCON E-70 ring generator production

ring generator 15

Stator and rotor of the

ENERCON E-70 ring generator

ring generator

The ENERCON ring generator is of primary importance in

the gearless system design of the E-70. Combined with
the rotor hub it provides an almost frictionless flow of
energy, while the gentle running of fewer moving
components guarantees minimal material wear. Unlike
conventional asynchronous generators, the ENERCON ring

generator is subjected to hardly any mechanical wear,

which makes it ideal for particularly heavy demands and a long service life.
Time-consuming repair work and the associated turbine downtimes are prevented at STATOR AND ROTOR
the same time. According to ENERCONs service life requirements the copper winding in the
stator, the stationary part of the ring generator, known as closed, single-layer
The ENERCON ring generator is a low-speed synchronous generator with no direct basket winding is produced in insulation class F (155 C). It consists of individual
grid coupling. The output voltage and frequency vary with the speed and are round wires that are gathered in bundles and varnish insulated. The copper winding
converted for output to the grid by a DC link and inverter. This achieves a high is installed by hand at ENERCON. In spite of increasing automation in other
degree of speed variability. manufacturing areas, preference has been given to manual work in this case for
good reason. It ensures that the insulating materials used can be fully tested.
Furthermore, a special processing method also allows for continuous windings to
be produced. Each winding phase is without interruption from the point of insertion
Advantages of the ENERCON ring generator: to the exit.
~ Yield-optimised control
~ High level of grid compatibility
~ No gear Advantages of continuous winding:
~ Low wear due to slow machine rotation ~ Prevents processing faults in the production of electrical
~ Low machine stress due to high level of speed variability connections
~ Maintains the high-quality copper wire insulating system
~ No contact resistance
~ No weak points susceptible to corrosion or material fatigue
ring generator 17

Pole shoes on the

ENERCON E-70 disk rotor

In order to guarantee the high
ENERCON quality, the ring generators
are all manufactured in the companys
own production facilities. Top-class
materials are used in all cases. Close

The magnetic field of the stator winding is excited via so-called pole shoes. These collaboration with supplier companies has proved to be a reliable way of providing

are located on the disk rotor, the moving part of the ENERCON ring generator. Since maximum material quality. For example, the enamelled copper wires are subjected
the shape and position of the pole shoes have a decisive influence on the noise to more testing than is specified in the standard and samples are archived, while
emission of the ring generator, the ENERCON Research & Development department surge voltage tests are performed on the pole shoes and chokes and then
has dedicated particular attention to this aspect. The result: optimum adaptation of documented in the computer system.
the pole shoes to the running of the slowly rotating ENERCON ring generator means
that no noise is generated.

The ENERCON ring generator features optimised temperature control. The hottest
areas in the ring generator are constantly monitored by a large number of
temperature sensors. The sensors activation temperature is well below the
continuous temperature resistance of the insulating materials used in the ring
generator. This means that overloading caused by excessive temperature is

Limit, enamelled
copper wire (200 C)
200 Limit, impregnating
resin (180 C) Limit, insulation
class F (155 C)
Actual temperature,
copper conductor
Actual temperature,
superficial insulation

Actual temperature,
impregnating resin Actual temperature,
winding surface
The highest operating
temperature in the ENERCON 0
E-70 ring generator is well
below the limits applicable Limits for the insulating materials used Operating temperatures in the ring generator
to the materials used

Surge voltage test

on pole shoes
system control 19

system control
ENERCON E-70 control panel in the tower

system control 21

system control

ENERCON E-70 wind turbines are equipped with state-of-the-art microelectronic

control technology developed in-house. The MPU (main processing unit), the central
element of the E-70 control system, is in continuous contact with the peripheral
control elements, such as the yaw control and active pitch control system. Its
function is to adjust the individual system parameters to ensure that the ENERCON
E-70 operates at optimum yield in all weather conditions.

ENERCON control system for a yield-optimised turbine

operation under all weather conditions
Wind sensor on the ENERCON E-70 nacelle
~ Adaptive yaw control of the nacelle by means of constant

evaluation of the measurement data from the wind sensor

~ Variable speed for optimal efficiency of the wind turbine at Ensuring correct feeding of electricity from the ENERCON E-70 into the grid requires
every wind strength, and elimination of undesirable output grid connection monitoring. Grid parameters such as voltage, current and frequency
peaks and high operating loads are measured on the low-voltage side between the ENERCON inverter and the
~ Active pitch control system to set the ideal flow angle at the system transformer. The measured values are continously transmitted to the E-70
system control, enabling the turbine to react immediately to changes in the grid
rotor blades ensures maximum yields and load reductions for
voltage or frequency. If the defined limit values of the system protection are
the entire wind turbine
exceeded, the E-70 wind turbine is reliably shut down and service is informed.
~ ENERCON brake system for extreme turbine reliability by As soon as the voltage and frequency return to within the permissible tolerances,
means of three independently operating pitch mechanisms with the E-70 wind turbine is automatically started up again. Prolonged downtimes
standby power supply (batteries) in case of supply failure are thus avoided.

~ Tower and generator monitoring by means of vibration and For more details, please refer to the Grid connection chapter

acceleration sensors to check the deflections in the tower

~ Temperature and air gap sensors between rotor and stator
ensure reliable operation in the ring generator System Grid
control measurement

Generator Rectifier Inverter Transformer

Monitoring the grid feeding

on ENERCON wind turbines
system control 23

ENERCON STORM CONTROL ENERCON E-70 wind turbines operate on a different

ENERCON E-70 wind turbines can optionally be operated with a special storm principle at high wind speeds. They are equipped with
control system, which enables reduced turbine operation in the event of very high special storm control software which prevents sudden
wind speeds. This avoids the otherwise usual stoppages and the considerable yield shutdowns.
losses that result.

The schematic diagram of the power curve of a wind turbine without ENERCON Power

storm control looks like this:



P(rated) V1 V2 VStorm Power curve of a
Wind speed
wind turbine with
ENERCON storm control

V1 V2 V4 V3 Power curve of a The power curve diagram with patented ENERCON storm control demonstrates
Wind speed
wind turbine without clearly that the E-70 wind turbine does not shut down automatically when a certain
ENERCON storm control
wind speed VStorm is exceeded, but merely reduces the power output by lowering the
rotational speed. This is achieved by turning the rotor blades slightly out of the
The diagram shows that the wind turbine stops at a defined shutdown speed V3. The wind. Once the wind speed drops, the E-70s blades turn back into the wind, and
reason being that a specified maximum wind speed has been exceeded. In the case the turbine immediately resumes operation at full power. Yield-reducing shutdown
of a turbine without storm control, this e. g. occurs at a wind speed in an average and start-up procedures are thus avoided.
of 20 seconds at a wind speed of 25 m/s. The turbine only starts up again when the
average wind speed drops below the shutdown speed or a possibly even lower
restart speed (V4 in the diagram; so-called strong wind hysteresis). In gusty wind,
this may take some time, which means that considerable yield losses are incurred.
Yield loss due to two days of gusty wind per year
2 days x 2,000 kW/h
= 96,000 kW/h
2 4 % of yearly income
grid connection 25

grid connection
ENERCON E-70 wind turbines

grid connection 27

grid connection

In collaboration with German and foreign grid operators, ENERCON Research and
Development has developed a grid connection system that provides problem-free
integration of E-70 wind turbines into existing power supply and grid structures.
~ If necessary, wind farms must be able to make a contribution to
maintaining voltage stability in the grid by supplying or
The ENERCON grid connection system meets all the new connection conditions for
accepting reactive power
wind turbines, such as those of E.ON Netz GmbH, and has been classified as very
good by power supply companies because of its adaptability and grid-supporting ~ Wind farms must be able to be integrated in the grid control
effect. E-70 wind turbines are available for integration in transmission grids centre for telemonitoring and remote control of all systems in
(Transmission version) or distribution grids (Distribution version). the grid

Typical requirements for wind turbines The energy generated in the ENERCON ring generator is fed to an inverter via a
in transmission grids. rectifier and a so-called DC link. This ensures that the output power is regulated in
~ Wind turbines must be able to remain connected to the grid accordance with grid specifications. For example, this is where the requirements to
be met by the individual wind turbines in a wind farm are implemented with regard
without power reduction even if considerable voltage and
to voltage, frequency and reactive power. The wind turbines transformer makes the
frequency deviations occur
conversion from 400 V to the suitable grid voltage.
~ If voltage dips occur because of grid problems, wind turbines

must remain connected to the grid for a defined period
~ Short circuit current feeding may be demanded during a grid

Wind farm 3 Wind farm 2 Wind farm 1
~ After a fault has been remedied, a wind farm must resume its
power feed as quickly as possible and within specified
maximum times
~ Wind farms must be able to be operated with reduced power Wind farm
Wind farm
Wind farm

output without any time restrictions

~ For coordinated load distribution in the grid, the increase in Substation ENERCON
substation control
20 kV

power output (power gradient), for example when the wind farm
Operating technology
is started up, must be able to be restricted in accordance with
110 kV
the grid operators specifications
~ Wind farms must make a contribution to the reserve power in Control station
grid operator
the grid. If the grid frequency increases, the power output of a
wind farm must be reduced
Connecting ENERCON wind farms to the grid
grid connection 29

Wind turbines in transmission grids must not disconnect from the grid as quickly as If a wind farm is connected to a transformer substation together with consumers, the
possible when short circuits occur, similar to the way in which power stations automatic voltage regulator (AVR) and the underlying voltage of the wind farm are
operate. They must have the capability of remaining connected to the grid for up to regulated by the ENERCON Voltage Control System (VCS). This specially developed
three seconds if voltage dips occur due to of grid problems. The ENERCON E-70 has system helps to maintain the quality of the grid voltage and also prevents voltage
this capability. If necessary, the turbine also supports the grid voltage if problems changes and grid shut-offs when rapid switching operations occur.
arise by feeding in a variable short circuit current. After the problem has been
remedied and the grid voltage has been restored, the E-70 wind turbine Wind turbine Transformer station Consumer

immediately continues feeding power.

Power WEC/current
P(rated) AVR

|Short circuit Voltage

control ENERCON
Power system substation
e.g. 0.5 P(rated) control
Voltage quality

Grid short circuit t


In order to provide reliable, economical grid operation, the timing of the power

infeed must be regulated. In order to ensure that this takes place, variable setpoint
COMPENSATING FOR REACTIVE POWER BALANCES values for maximum permitted power gradients can be specified for ENERCON E-70
Reactive power must be regulated when operating transmission and distribution grid infeeding. For example, when the wind turbine or wind farm is being started,
networks. It is required to compensate for transmission equipment such as cables the power infeed can be started up in a controlled manner in accordance with
and transformers, and to maintain voltage stability. The ENERCON E-70 has a wide specifications. This gives the grid operator the opportunity to adapt the load flow
operating range for exchanging reactive power that can be provided to the grid as a and voltage stability in the grid and the interaction between the power generators
system service. In this case the process data interface (PDI) of the ENERCON and consumers in the best possible way.
E-70 provides the necessary conditions for communication between grid operators
Wind farm power
and the wind turbine.
Grid failure Grid recovery

Real power
100 %

Time [minutes]
Power gradient

Reactive power, overexcited Reactive power, underexcited

Reactive power management
grid connection 31


It cannot be assumed that an adequate amount of transmission capacity will be The ENERCON 10-point grid formula
available for every weak load and strong wind situation in all regions. However, Optimum adaptation to many different grid types
wind farms can also be connected to grid regions of this nature using ENERCON
bottleneck management. If grid operation is threatened, the wind farm output can ~ Maximum utilisation of grid connection capacity for feeding in
easily be reduced on demand using the ENERCON process data interface (PDI). power
~ Sinusoidal infeed current
(e.g. Signals from the
Wind farm
Line 1
~ If grid problems occur (e.g., short circuit) the turbine remains
line 1 fails) grid operator Line 2 on the grid for up to 3 seconds and optionally supports the grid
P100% voltage by feeding in a short circuit current. When the problem
Wind farm output
(can be infinitely adjusted has been remedied the turbine immediately resumes the power
Overload during bottlenecks at the
grid operators request) infeed
I max

Current transmission line 2

~ During the start-up procedure the turbine is connected with
zero current and runs up to nominal power in a controlled
Bottleneck Time
rectified manner
Bottleneck management
~ The power factor of the turbine can be electronically adjusted
~ The flicker values are negligible

~ Active contribution to frequency stability by reducing power and

If the cumulative (nominal) output of a wind farm is greater than the grid connection
increasing the frequency, even if grid problems occur
capacity, ENERCON wind farm power regulation ensures that the capacity is used in
the best possible way at all times. If a wind turbine in the wind farm fails or generates ~ Voltage regulating facility in distribution grids, therefore
less power, the other turbines are operated at an appropriately higher capacity. This maintaining the voltage quality
is dealt with automatically by the ENERCON generation management system. ~ Optimum operation, even at weak grid points of common
Power output wind turbine

100% Rated power installed per turbine ~ No system perturbation caused by switching operations such as
P P generator stages or capacitors
Grid capacity = 80% of the
cumulative rated power
installed (equivalent to the
energy supply without
generation management)

1 2 3 4 5 Wind turbine

If there is no generation management for the energy supply in this case, the available grid
capacity cannot be exploited to the full.
Generation management
tower and foundation 33

tower and foundation

Assembly of an ENERCON prefab concrete tower

tower and foundation 35

Production of ENERCON prefab concrete towers

Depending on the location and the service conditions, different tower versions
made from steel and concrete are available for the ENERCON E-70.

Hub height Tubular steel tower Prefab concrete tower

64 m X
85 m X
98 m X X
113 m X
tower and foundation
ENERCON tower versions for E-70 wind turbines

ENERCON towers provide the best transportation, installation and usage conditions
because of their load-dynamic material and structural design. In addition to the
binding national and international standards that apply to tower construction Hub height Hub height
(e.g. DIN and Eurocode), ENERCON consistently develops its own product standards, 113 m
which are groundbreaking with regard to quality and safety.
98 m 98 m

Virtual 3D models of the tower designs are produced during the development phase
using the finite element method (FEM), with which all the stresses to which the 64 m
+33% +14%
wind turbine is subjected in reality are simulated. This means that accurate
predictions concerning the stability and service life of the towers are not left to

chance before building a prototype. The evaluation of additional measurements,

which ENERCON continuously carries out on existing turbines, contributes to
providing further verification of the calculated data. ENERCONs calculations are
Yield comparison of E-66 (E-70 predecessor) Yield comparison of E-66 (E-70 predecessor)
confirmed by the results produced by specially commissioned certification bodies, wind turbines with 64 and 98 m hub heights wind turbines with 98 and 113 m hub heights
research institutes and engineering firms. at the Aurich/Knigsmoor site (time-frame: at the Ermke site (time-frame: 12/03 to 03/04)
01/03 to 12/03)
tower and foundation 37

ENERCON foundation section

with adjust tubular steel tower
to the foundation


ENERCON tubular steel towers are manufactured in
several individual tower sections, which are connected
using component-protecting L-flanges. Unlike convent-
ional flange connections (such as those used in steel
chimney construction), the welding seam of the L-flange
is outside the stress area. Other advantages of this
connecting technology are:

dispenses with complex and costly welding work The ENERCON tubular steel towers are attached to the foundations using a specially
on site developed foundation section that is aligned with millimetre accuracy by means of
rapid, reliable assembly to the highest quality standard adjusting bolts before concreting takes place. The ENERCON form follows function
full corrosion protection, applied under best production principle has been efficiently applied in the development of the foundation section:
engineering conditions
high strength and good dimensional stability
ENERCON series quality components
Manufacturing of ENERCON tubular steel towers time-saving compact system assembly
less crane time saves money

Like all other components, the tubular steel towers are subject to the strict
ENERCON quality guidelines. Quality assurance is already integrated in the
development of new tower types during the construction phase. This determines
whether the prototype meets all requirements before it goes into series production.

In the case of the L-flange
used by ENERCON, the
welding seam is located
outside the tension range

Conventional flange
connections with a welding
seam (red) in the tension
tower and foundation 39

Reinforcing steel in the

ENERCON round foundation


ENERCON prefab concrete towers are made using specially developed prestressing
steel reinforcement. The individual tower sections and the foundation are fastened
together as an inseparable unit using bracing wires that run through the middle of
the concrete tower wall in jacket tubes. The tower sections themselves are
manufactured entirely in the precasting plant. The high degree of manufacturing
accuracy of the individual concrete sections is provided by specially constructed Since the ground can only absorb a certain amount of compressive strain
steel formwork. This manufacturing process minimises dimensional tolerances and depending on the location, the foundation surfaces must be adapted accordingly.
guarantees a high degree of fitting accuracy during erection. Here too, strict The design of the ENERCON round foundations, which are usually installed as a
checking by the ENERCON quality assurance department is mandatory. Detailed shallow foundation, is based on this extremely simplified finding. If necessary, (in
procedural and work instructions are available for each manufacturing area. This soft ground) a special deep foundation provides force distribution down to deeper
ensures that there is complete traceability of the individual work stages and the load-bearing soil strata. The piles have a symmetrical and slightly inclined
materials that have been used. arrangement so that the imagined extended pile centre lines meet at a point above
the centre of the foundation. This provides optimum power/load flow distribution
FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION over the entire surface.
The foundation transmits the weight and the wind
stress of the wind turbine into the ground. ENERCON
foundations are always circular.


The forces are equal in all wind directions, whereas
asymmetrical foundation pressure is possible with
square bases or cross-shaped foundations.
The circular design has been proven to reduce the

amount of reinforcement and concrete that is required.

Both pictures:
The circular design reduces the size of the formwork Weight distribution in the case of flat and deep
area. ENERCON round foundations

Filling the foundation with the soil from the excavation

pit goes into the structural analysis as a load. This
means that less reinforced concrete is needed to make
the foundation stable.

Tower segments for ENERCON prefab concrete towers

service and maintenance 41

service and maintenance

ENERCON on-site service

service and maintenance 43

Service at a local level the decentralised

ENERCON Service structure in Germany

service and


The aim of the ENERCON Service Department Each ENERCON E-70 wind turbine has a modem link to the central remote data
is to ensure and maintain the operational transmission facility. If the turbine signals malfunction, the Service Centre and the
readiness of all ENERCON wind turbines. In responsible service branch are notified via the SCADA remote monitoring system.
accordance with the Speedy service through The message is automatically transferred into the ENERCON deployment planning
local presence principle, approximately 650 software and displayed on the screen of the office employee. With the aid of a
employees at 87 service stations in Germany specially developed locating system (GIS Geoinformation System), the deployment
alone (as at 01/2004) provide the quickest planning system automatically locates the service team that is closest to the wind
possible maintenance and servicing of the wind turbine. The service teams can access all the turbine-specific documents and data
turbines. This guarantees short journeys for the using so-called pentops (robust, portable computers with a link to the Service
service engineers and provides a high degree of Centre). This guarantees that all maintenance is dealt with as quickly and efficiently
technical availability (average in 2003: 98.5 %). as possible. A new standard in service management.

A well-coordinated office team is also an

important factor for an efficient field service
Wind farm
organisation. More than 100 employees coordinate global service operations at
ENERCON, from both a technical and commercial point of view. Each customer has
a designated service centre contact. This generates trust and ensures that detailed Meteorological Customer Power Pentop service
analysis interface PDI management technicians
knowledge of the local conditions of the wind turbines is available.

Wind farm Prescribed set Set values

display value, utility

ENERCON Service performance profile:

~ Servicing and maintenance of all wind turbines erected by SCADA

ENERCON Remote control IP | Tel | GSM

~ Turbine monitoring via remote data transmission Customer

SMS | Fax | E-mail

~ Maintenance of technical availability of wind turbines serviced


~ Customer care in all technical and commercial matters ENERCON
Call-out planning

~ Operator training

ENERCON service management sets new benchmarks
service and maintenance 45

Service Information Portal (SIP)

The Service Information Portal (SIP) provides ENERCON customers with a simple
and rapid way of obtaining all the information they require about their own wind
turbines via the Internet from anywhere in the world. All that is needed to do this is
a computer with a so-called Web browser (e.g. Microsoft Internet Explorer) and an
Internet connection. A changing PIN, an individual password and encrypted
transmission routes provide three levels of data protection in accordance with the
latest security criteria.

The clear menu structure of SIP provides rapid and individual access to all turbine
data. Work processes that would normally take hours, such as producing analyses of
wind turbines, checking maintenance logs or producing up-to-date yield overviews can
be done in a matter of minutes using SIP. A boost to efficiency that does not just
increase customer satisfaction but also improves the flow of information (among
partners in a wind farm, for example). Damage caused by unforeseeable events such as acts of nature and vandalism can
be covered by a specially developed EPK additional insurance policy. Significantly
ENERCON PARTNERKONZEPT (EPK) cheaper than conventional machine failure insurance, the EPK additional insurance
The ENERCON PartnerKonzept (EPK) gives customers the guarantee of consistently is now available from all well-known insurance companies.
high turbine availability for the first twelve years of operation with calculable
operating costs. From servicing to safety work, maintenance and repairs, all
eventualities are covered by a single agreement. Because of its economical service
reliability, the EPK has long since become an acknowledged ENERCON quality
EPK at a glance:
feature. More than 90 % of all E-66 wind turbines (E-70 predecessor) operators ~ Guarantee of at least 97% technical availability
have signed an appropriate EPK agreement. ~ All servicing costs are covered
~ All maintenance costs are covered (including wear costs etc.)
~ All repair costs are covered
~ Agreement term of twelve years (with possible extension)
100% ~ Agreement can be terminated with three months notice at any
1513 time; ENERCON can only terminate the agreement at the end of


573 the term
66 280
50% 140

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

E-66 wind turbines (E-70 predecessor) with EPK

references and technical specifications 47

and technical specifications
Planning right from the start.


references and technical specifications 49


Turbine type: ENERCON E-70

Rated power: 2,000 kW
Rotor diameter: 71 m
Hub height: 64 113 m (various towers and bases)

Turbine concept: Gearless, variable speed, pitch regulation

Rotor with pitch regulation
Type: Upwind rotor with active pitch regulation
SYSTEM MANUFACTURING Direction of rotation: Clockwise
ENERCON E-70 wind turbines are individually manufactured taking the location, Number of blades: Three
the conditions of service and the applicable regulations and guidelines into Swept area: 3,959 m2

consideration. Blade material: Fibreglass (epoxy resin); integrated lightning protection

Speed: Variable, 621.5 U/min
Tip speed: 2280 mps
OPTIONS AND ACCESSORIES: Pitch control: ENERCON blade pitch system, one independent pitching
Tower versions system per rotor blade with allocated emergency supply
Drive train with generator
Hub: Rigid

Hub height Tubular steel tower Prefab concrete tower

Main bearings: Dual-row tapered/cylindrical roller bearings
64 m X
Generator: Direct-drive ENERCON ring generator
85 m X
98 m X X Grid feeding: ENERCON inverter
113 m X

Braking systems: Three independent blade pitch systems with

Climbing aid (for towers up to 98 m) emergency supply
Special tower painting Rotor brake
Shallow foundations and deep foundations Rotor lock
Grid characteristics (transmission / distribution / chopper cabinets / UPS)
Transformer substations Yaw control: Active via adjustment gears, load-dependent damping
Day and night identification / synchronisation

Shadow shut-off Cut-in wind speed: 2.5 mps
Blade heater
Heated anemometer Rated wind speed: 12.5 mps
External display
Viewing platform Cut-out wind speed: 2834 mps


Remote monitoring: ENERCON SCADA
references 51

Number of installed
wind turbines: 4,887
enercon wind turbines at a glance Total power: 4.7 GW

Number of installed wind turbines: 6,904
Total power: 6.0 GW

As at: 03/2004