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Big News “Turning point”

Student’s name

Name: Noora Ali Mohammad , ID: 200881090 part: 1 (page 2,3)

Name: Mariam Ali Abdulla Saleh , ID: 200815871 part: 2 (page 4,5)

Name: Amani Mohamad Abdulla, ID: 200702562 part: 3 (page 6,7)

Introduction:

Historically, our planet faced a lot of problems. Some of them were dangerous and
influential, others were less influential and the rest did not have massive influences. One of these
problems is “climate change”. Climate change is one of the threats that the earth faced for a long time.
Therefore, it is very essential and important to have an idea about it because that will help us to get rid of
its harmful effects or overcome it. climate change is a controversial issue, this is because many
environmental scientists believe that it’s a natural change that the earth faces. On the other hand, the rest
of the environmentalists argue that by saying that humans have contributed in the change because of their
activities. Because we are not scientists we could not determine who is right but as we are ordinary
people we believe that the climate is changing and it will continue change, but the changes that happened
previously were not as much as today’s change. For this reason, we have to do something to toward this
issue to mitigate its influences. Therefore, we decided as a team to collect information about the climate
change to make people aware of it. Thus, the efforts that will be made would become more effective and
successful. This report will talk about the definition of climate change in the first paragraph and the
reasons why governments have to have role in the issue and why they have to concern about climate
change. Then it will move on to discuss one of the significant effects of climate change. Finally, set of the
solutions will be explained at the end of this report to help the governments doing something toward
climate change.
Name: Noora Ali Mohammad , ID: 200881090 part: 1 (page 2,3)
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“Climate change”, of course you have heard about this concept at least once in your life. But, have
you ever asked yourself what is climate change. According to Encyclopedia Britannica (2008), climate
change is the alteration of the earth climate due to the changes that happen in the atmosphere as well as
the interaction between geologic, chemical, biological factors. In other word, Climate change is simply
the change of the weather in a particular area. It refers mostly to the temperature’s change. However, it
also includes the change of rainfall, wind, humidity and seasons (Houghton, 2004). These long-term
changes are considered significant results of the green house gases that play an important role at
increasing the temperature of the earth as well as other causes such as human activities, urbanization,
burning fossil fuels, natural causes like earth orbital change, fire forest and volcanic eruptions ( “causes
of climate change ”,n, d). Climate is always changing and it will continue to change. For example, for a
period of time, the ice age dominated most part of European countries, so climate change at this period
was known as “ice age”. Whereas, at the contemporary time, climate change is known as “global
warming”, this terminology might be changed in accordance to what would happen in the coming years
(Fagan, 2001). We have to keep in mind that there are significant differences between climate change and
global warming, however the two terminology are close to each other in term of the effects they caused at
the recent time. Climate change might be defined at the current time as the increase of the earth’s average
temperature as a result of the greenhouse gases and other causes. The global change that happened to the
earth’s climate is that the temperature has increased rapidly in the twentieth and twentieth-first century.
Svante Arrhenius, one of the earliest scientists who was concerned about the climate change, studied the
temperature in arctic region in 1859, he found that the temperature is increasing, he proposed that the
temperature would increase in this region to 8 °C or 9 °C, Arrhenius predicted that the temperature would
continue to increase not only in the region that he studied but also all over the world (DiMento &
Doughman, 2007). As it can be seen in the figure 1, the temperature of the globe has increased
dramatically last century. From 1880 to 1940, the increase was around 0.2 °C. After that, it continued to
increase till the increase
reached to 0.6 °C in 2008.
As it can be noticed, the
increase was gradual, but
after 1997s, the increase was
very dramatic. Although
there are same expectations
like at the beginning of the
1950s, the average
temperature decreased, these
expectations are not
significant because it was
not as much as the increase.
In general, what can be
understood from this figure is
that the average temperature has increased. Based on the observation, the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change (IPCC) suggested that the earth will be warmer in the coming years. There are many
evidences indicate that the Figure 1: Annual Average Global Surface Temperature Anomalies 1880-
climate change is real. For 2008. Courtesy NOAA (Surface temperature records such as the one shown
instance, the weather has here have been quality controlled to remove the effects of urbanization at
become warmer, sea’s level observing stations in and around cities). This figure is made by NOAA
has increased, glaciers have (National Oceanic and An atmospheric Administration)
melted and many species
extricated. As a result of
this, the governments of the countries try its best to reduce the effects of the climate change that might
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influence human life negatively. Climate change has became one of the major global issues worldwide
since the middle of this century. According to the environmental experts, climate change will not be
taken seriously unless the media does something about it (University of Liverpool, 2009). Because media
is one of the effective tools that can be used to encourage people and governments to do something about
the climate change, a lot of the programs, TV channels, newspaper, magazines and film, have discussed
and explain this phenomena. The reason why these tools have been used to do so is that many
governments have ignored climate change and considered it issue they have nothing to do with. However,
few years ago, media has highlighted some of the climate change aspects. Climate change has been one
of the common book topics to write about. Additionally, many movies and documentary film are talking
about climate change such as “inconvenient truth” by Al Gore. Thus, you can see that a significant effort
has been made at the last few years by journalists, writers, actors and in general media workers in order
to make governments do something about it. The individual efforts by those people make the
communities and governments concerned about climate change. Therefore, they started launched new
projects that would help them to aware public about its significance to lessen its effects over the
environment and human. The question that raised here is why we should involve the governments in
doing something toward the climate change. This is simply because the government is the influential
contributor that can do much to change people’s views and roles toward this issue. Moreover, climate
change is the major problem we are facing now that might lead to a huge catastrophe in the coming years
if we do not take it seriously. In addition to this point, we are now observing some of the climate change
impacts that likely to became worse as the years pass. As a result of this, at the contemporary time, the
world governments are much concerned about this issue than any time else (Egloso, 2010). The
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, a scientific intergovernmental body, mentioned in its report
five reasons that make us and our governments concerned about climate change. First of all, climate
change threatens unique and endangered systems and species such as the tropical glaciers, species in the
coral reefs and biodiversity. Secondly, climate change able to change the weather dramatically leading to
the extreme weather events such as floods, drought and wildfires. The third reason is the different
distribution of the impacts over people. In other words, some people might be affected negatively, others
could find some benefits, and others might be harmed less, (IPCC, n.d.). Last but not least, the aggregate
damages and destruction that can be made by climate change. The last reason that makes the
governments worried about climate change according to IPCC is the large scale risks such as the collapse
of the Antarctic due to the melting ice and the loss of many islands (Yohe, 2010). Moreover, there is
another reason why government should involve in doing something about climate change that was not
mentioned in the IPCC’s report. Climate change can affect our activities in the sea, lands and air, thus it
can influence the economics in a bad way. For example, the price of energy, goods and services will
increase as well as it impact of the gross domestic product (GDP) of the countries. It also will affect the
investment as many projects are built close to the beaches and sea. These lands might vanish because of
the increase of the sea’s level, so it might be very difficult to invest at these places( Sampson, 2008). I
think that the most important reason for government’s participation in this issue is to keep the
sustainability. As you know climate change is one of the challenges facing sustainable development since
it influences biodiversity, standard life and ecosystem communities. if sustainability is devastated, the life
will be difficult and impossible on the earth. Because of the reasons that I already mentioned above,
governments must take into account that climate change is a massive challenge. Therefore, its efforts to
mitigate the climate change influences must increase and this issue also should be one of its priorities.

Name: Mariam Ali Abdulla Saleh , ID: 200815871 part: 2 (page 4,5)

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Climate change has a lot of fingerprints such as heat waves, ocean warming, sea-level, glaciers
melting, arctic and Antarctic warming. Coming paragraph will discuss the most important fingerprint
which is ocean warming, sea –level rise and coastal flooding.
Measurements from around the world show that the global mean sea-level has raised an average of 18 cm
in the past 100 years. This is higher than the average rate of the last few thousands of years. There is no
evidence to show an increase in the sea-level for this century, and none is expected with the observed
climate change to date. The IPCC estimated a sea-level rise of 49 cm for the next 100 years, with a range
uncertainty of 20-86 cm. The projected sea-level rise is at least 2-4 times higher than the projections of
the last century.
The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets are a major source of uncertainty about sea-level rise. For
example, if the West Antarctic Ice Sheet where to disintegrate it could cause a sea-level rise of 4-6
meters. Although higher temperatures in this region would do little to cause melting, the warmer
temperatures could bring more snowfall. More snowfall would cause the mass balance of ice sheets to
rapidly increase, leading to more discharge of ice, thus increasing the sea-level.
Most scientists believe that it is unlikely for the West Antarctic Ice Sheet to collapse within the next
century, but there is concern for some permanent destabilizing. A new study suggests that the moderns
grounding line retreat is part of ongoing rescission that has been underway for a few thousand years.
The southern regions of Greenland are susceptible to climate change. This could contribute to a sea-level
rise because of the melting and runoff at the margins. There aren’t enough observations to determine if
the ice volume changed significantly in the past century. But there are resources to show that between
1993-1998 the southeastern part of the ice sheet thinned overall
Factors such as vertical land movement, wind and pressure patterns, ocean circulation, and rate of
warming cause sea-levels to vary in any given location. Areas like coastal wetlands and lowlands,
beaches and
barrier islands,
and ocean islands
and atolls are
especially
vulnerable.
Depending on
certain factors a
50 cm sea-level
could deluge up to
50% of North
American coastal
wetland. Meaning
a small sea-level
rise could do very
much damage.
These areas are very Figure two: shows you the increase of the sea’s level as the
important to wild years pass.
life, the ecosystem Glacial_Sea_Level_png
and so much more.
Even though most
areas have been able to keep up. But he high numbers predicted for the next 100 years may be too high
for nature to keep up.
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Sea-level rise leads to flooding of larger areas and higher elevations. A study estimated that a rise in sea-
level of 30 to 90 cm would increase the size of the 100-year floodplain in the United States by 10,000 to
20,000 km2 (FEMA, 1991). High tide peaks, for instance, that take place once every hundred years on
average may happen every ten years, rare events now becoming common. Heavy rainfall combined with
combined with coastal storms cause stronger storms.
Note: From 15,000 to 8,000 years ago the sea level rose more than 4 times faster than now (University of
Colorado). “During the last ice age, sea level was so low that people were able to walk from Siberia to
Alaska across the Bering Strait” (Anthony Watts, 2009).
As climate change has a lot of finger prints it also has a lot of harbingers such as spreading disease,
earlier spring arrival and coral reef bleaching. Coming paragraph will discuss the first harbinger which is
spreading disease.
Ever since scientists first proposed that our planet might be experiencing widespread climate change,
concerns have been raised about its implications for the spread of arboviruses- viruses carried by
arthropods such as mosquitoes, midges, and ticks. However, while alterations in temperature and rainfalls
are important factors in making new territory hospitable to an invading arbovirus, many other forces also
play significant parts in new patterns of vital emergence. [ScienceDaily (Feb. 9, 2009)]
A pathology professor from University of Texas medical branch at Galveston, Stephen Higgs, and an
Oxford University professor, Earnest A. Gould examined the spread of four viruses that have made
headlines in the last ten years and the relative importance of climate change. The West Nile virus,
Chikungunya virus, and Rift valley virus are transferred by mosquitoes, while the Bluetongue virus is
carried by midges. The activities and population of these living things usually increase in warm, moist
environments. One may consider that an alteration to a warmer, wetter climate may have been the cause
for their spread to a new region. According to Higgs, that’s not the only cause. “You can’t disassociate
arbovirus diseases from the climate,” says Higgs, “but many other factors affected the spread of
arboviruses.” The factors include genetic mutation, the introduction of new species of mosquitoes-
Chikungunya virus-; recurring periods of high rainfall, modern irrigation projects, and livestock trade
between Africa and southern Arabia-Rift Valley fever virus-; modern air transport, the availability of
compatible mosquito species and large numbers of virus-spreading migratory birds-West Nile virus-.
Climate change can presumably be given the largest portion of the credit for spread of Bluetongue virus.
The virus can cause a deadly disease in sheep, goats and cattle and was limited to Africa until about 10
years ago. Today, borne by other midge species, Bluetongue has spread to 12 European countries. “But it
seems clear that Bluetongue’s dispersal has been driven by the northward expansion of Culex imicola,
and that climate change may have contributed to that. If average temperatures increase in certain regions
of the world as predicted by some experts, then species of arthropod vectors may disperse beyond their
current geographic boundaries, and we need to be ready for the possibility that similar outbreaks could
occur,” says Higgs.

Name: Amani Mohamad Abdulla, ID: 200702562 part: 3 (page 6,7)

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No doubt that human activities are responsible for global warning. A lot has been said on the
issue, but a lot more need to be done to solve this great problem. The earth’s temperature is increasing.
And we all are participating in this terrible change in climate. In industrialized courtiers about 20% of the
population produce three quarters of the global greenhouse gas emission. Only awareness can solve this
problem. When people find it their responsibility to reduce the use of the things which produce Carbon
dioxide.

There are many causes in this increase in temperature or climate change. Deforestation is really a main
cause and it may be said that deforestation and climate change are two sides of a coin. Deforestation
releases too much carbon dioxide. Deforestation is a process of cutting down trees to make some pastures
or industry or to provide shelter to the highly increasing population. This cutting down of forest has
dangerous affect on the environment. Lots of trees must be planted in order to fight this change, because
all of us suffering with this hot climate all over the world.

The UAE is among the oil producing countries, and obviously the amount of Carbon dioxide produced
here in UAE is high. Abu Dhabi government is planning solar power projects to fight and play its role
against global warning or climate change. The plant will produce 100-megawatt solar system and can
expand its produced by 500-megawatt. The new city which I also the world first green city Masdar is also
a solid initiative. The aim is to produce zero Carbon dioxide emission and zero waste.

Everyone must play his due role in curbing climate change to solve these serious problem, we have to
grow more and more trees. We have to take care of the forest. Instead of destroying this blessing of
nature.

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On the global level, the Kyoto protocol o United Nations Frame work convention on climate
change (UNFCCC or FCCC) aimed to curb climate change. It is an international environmental treaty for
stabilization of green house gas concentration in the atmosphere. Under the protocol, 37 industrialized
Figure three: shows you the countries that sign the Kyoto protocol in 1997.
countries are committed to reduce green house gases.
Green color: :countries that have signed . Red color: unsigned countries. Grey
color: countries are not members in the United Nations.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyoto_Protocol

Conclusion

Climate change is one of the most urgent environmental challenges at the contemporary
time and it is the greatest catastrophe that has resulted in many alarmed effects. Climate change is a long-
term change of the weather that is known today as “global warming”. Most of you know that climate is
changing fast because you witness some of its effects like the extreme increase of the temperature. The
governments have to contribute in doing something about this phenomenon because the effects of
climate change would impact on the people’s life, the economics, the organisms and all aspects of life
sooner or later. media was one way that encourage the governments to participate in climate change issue
as it has very effective ways to attract people to involve and participate for helping the environment from
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the bad effects that the climate change did to the environment. That effects that varies from region to
region, are so catastrophic and dangerous since it influences the whole biological system whether the
things that are affected were living or nonliving things. Rising temperature, melting the ice, increasing
the level of sea, drought, hurricanes, flood, extinction of species and spreading of the diseases are some
of the horrific impacts of climate change. Because of these effects, we need to sole this issue by
cooperating with each other as it is global phenomena. Finally, we would like to say that we all have to
participate in doing something about climate change, we all need to save the place where we live before
something happens that might make the live impossible on the planet earth. In fact, the future of our
planet lies in our hands, and it is up to us if we want to change the future or not.

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