Her itage Education

Communit y Building

Dig Diar y

Junior Archaeologists

Passage Grave

Pa st Hor izons
Adventures in Archaeology
The stereobate (leveling) courses of stone were laid atop the clay, and then the temple proper was constructed. The temple was probably destroyed in the early 2nd century BC when Bylazora itself was sacked and then deserted. The ruins of the temple must have remained undisturbed for quite some time before later generations (the Romans?) came by and quarried the stones of the temple to burn down for lime mortar. We will have a more complete discussion of the evidence for the history of the temple, including its fate in the lime kilns, in our 2010 report.

Digging through the thick layer of green clay (left). Uncovering evidence of habitation beneath the green clay layer (right). Journal O nline
of volunteer archaeology and training
August 2010

Clearing the stones of the stereoba

A deep sounding was made through the green clay layer which uncovered walls of an earlier period.

A Field School volunteer explains li production.

Shielings:

L ife in the H i g h Pa s t u re s

Issue 13 August 2010 Editors: Felicity Donohoe Maggie Struckmeier Layout: Maggie Struckmeier Graphics David Connolly Past Horizons Traprain House Luggate Burn Haddington East Lothian EH41 4QA Tel: +44 (0)1620 861643 Email: editor@pasthorizons.com Web: www.pasthorizons.com Contributors: Stuart Dewey Judy Dewey Eulah Matthews Bill Neidinger Annie Evans Si Cleggett Fiona Baker George Nash Jane Summers

30 Delancey Park
Delancey Park on the island of Guernsey is a Neol i t h i c g a l l e r y grave. One of only three in the Channel Islands, i t c o m p r i s e s two parallel lines of stone that extend for around nin e - a n d - a - h a l f metres fr om east to west, and this year Clifford Anti q u a r i a n C l u b began excavations on the site with some promising r e s u l t s .

Front cover:

Jamie Humble, at 6’4”, modelling the sl e e p i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s a t a circula r ce l l s t y l e hu t a t A l l t Fearn a , S co t l a n d

Note Past Horizons can give no endorsement of any listed project or guarantee the accuracy of the information supplied. The editors accept no responsibility for any loss, injury, or inconvenience sustained by anyone using the resources contained within this magazine and/or the websites mentioned herein. When considering a project, be sure to contact the director with any questions you might have about conditions, travel, health issues, etc. Check for references from previous participants, seek advice where possible and select a project that will be of the greatest benefit to you, the project and the team.

20 Wallingford
With only limited display and storage space the Wa l l i n g f o r d museum i n England made plans to build a timber fram e e x t e n s i o n to their existing medieval building. In order to fulfil t h a t d r e a m , the townsfolk of Wallingford joined ranks to raise t h e n e c e s s a r y funds to give their museum a whole new lease of life .

All content is copyright and no reproduction of text or images is allowed without prior permission from the author. Past Horizons 2010

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Contents

Dig Diar y - Byla zora

8 Project Archaeology
A n award-winning educational team f r o m America explains why the use o f a r c h aeology is helping young peopl e a p p r eciate the places and objects tha t d e f i n e the past.

48 Bylazora

Follow the Texas Foundation for Archaeological and Historical Research in their quest to find Bylazora, the largest city of the Paionians, who occupied territory to the north of ancient Macedon. Find out how their third digging season is progressing through their weekly dig diary.

38 Lost?
Children and teachers from Aboyne academy in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, adopt a variety of archaeological techniques to discover more about the small, abandoned settlement of Auchtavan.

42 Shielings
Shielings played a significant part in the rural practices of the Highlands of Scotland until the 19th century. Archaeologist Fiona Baker explains where to locate them and describes their particular functions.

R e g u l a rs
5 Editorial 6 News
Making way for change. Stories from around the world.

47 Profile 54 Dig In

Fiona Baker. Current excavation opportunities.

14 Exhibition Focus

Alexander the Great and Unearthed’s ancient clay figures from East and West.

56 Dig Cook

Culinary escapades from Annie Evans.

28 A Digger’s Life

59 Viewpoint

Si Clegget discusses children in history.

David Connolly on the benefits of teaching cultural heritage.

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www.aerial-cam.co.uk

adam@aerial-cam.co.uk
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M akin g w a y f or ch a n g e . . . .
WELCOME to the new edition of Past Horizons . This issue includes a couple of articles on the new and exciting steps educators are taking towards history, heritage and archaeology in both the United States and the United Kingdom. Archaeology is now included at some schools as a means to equip children with the skills to explore h e r i t a g e i n a way that has never been presented to them before. The ability t o t h i n k c r i t i c ally is a very powerful tool and one that is extremely useful w h e n t r y i n g t o uncover the truth about the past; after all, pseudo-archaeology is e v e r y w h e r e a n d most of us have been fooled by it at some time or another. T h e I n d i a n a J ones movies and books such as The Da Vinci Code are mainly h a r m l e s s f u n b ut they can make fools out of people when they do not apply the b a s i c t e n e t s o f archaeology, which are the presence of physical evidence and c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g. Believing in something is one thing, but proving a theory can b e m u c h h a r d e r and in the end is a m uch more satisfying experience. H o w m a n y a r c haeologists would deny they have been influenced by Erik von D a n ik e n ’s s e r i e s of books, which carefully mix factual evidence with unsupported s p e c u l a t i o n l e a ving the reader with the impression that there must be some truth i n w h a t i s w r i t t en? It is usually with maturity of thought that the archaeologist i s a b l e t o l o o k back and dissect the supposed evidence leaving a less fanciful – b u t m o r e r e a l istic – picture of the past.

W h e n w e f i r s t c hallenge established beliefs and question what we have previously a c c e p t e d t h e n t he world appears a less certain place. However, the real evolution o f h u m a n i t y i s extraordinarily diverse and colourful, and the ability to observe, i n v e s t i g a t e a n d use forensic analysis opens up a whole new way of viewing the w o r l d a n d a l l o ws for genuine archaeological advancement – leaving less need t o b e l i e v e i n p yramids built by aliens. Truth can be stranger than fiction, after all. E m b r a c i n g c h ange enables learnin g, and utilising the tools available in a r c h a e o l o g y p r ovides an excellent framework to assess any situation whether a n e w s s t o r y o r an accepted theory. The same is true when others scrutinise our o w n w o r k a n d as archaeologists we have to be as open to challenge as we are to c h a l l e n g i n g o t hers.

C h a n g e c a n a l ways be a positive step and this is exactly the direction Past H o r i z o n s i s t a k ing. From next month, a new magazine format will be introduced t o b e t t e r d e a l with the ever-changing and fast-paced world of archaeological d i s c o v e r y. T h e quarterly flip-page magazine will make way for a rolling article b a s e d w e b s y s t em that will maintain the same high quality writing and images w h i l s t r e s p o n d i ng instantly to breaking news, bringing a better, more up-to-date s e r v i c e t o o u r readers.

editorial

editor@pasthorizons.com 

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Executed m e n we re o f Vi k i n g o r i gi n

news
E X P E RT S h a v e d e t e rmined that the human remains dis covered at R i d g e w a y H i l l , We y mouth, last year are most likely of Scandinavian o r i g i n . I s o t o p e a n a l y sis on the males, which included 51 decapitated s k u l l s , s h o w s t h a t t h at the men had grown up in countries where the c l i m a t e i s c o l d e r t h a n in Britain, with one individual thought to be f r o m n o r t h o f t h e A r c tic Circle. Studies also found that the men had a h i g h p r o t e i n - b a s e d d i et, comparable with known sites in Sweden.
S a mples taken from the teeth of 10 of the individuals have been p a i n s t a k i n g l y p r o cessed by Dr Jane E vans and Carolyn Chenery at the NERC G e o s c i e n c e s L a boratory, part of the British Geological survey, based in Nottin g h a m . E v a n s a n d Chenery analysed the samples for strontium and oxygen, which r e f l e c t l o c a l g e o logy and climate respectively, and carbon and nitrogen, which r e f l e c t d i e t . To g ether, these isotopes are a useful means of exploring where the in d i v i d u a l s a r e m o st likely to have originated. D r Evans said, “Isotopes from d r i nking water and food are fixed i n t he enamel and dentine of teeth a s t he teeth are formed in e arly life. By completing a careful preparation a n d chemical separation process i n the laboratory, the elements a r e extracted and their isotope c o mposition can be measured.” T h e extraordinary burial site was d i s covered in June 2009 during past horizons

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t h e e a r t h w o r k o peration for a relief road, and w a s e x c a v a t e d by Oxford Archaeology over t h e f o l l o w i n g months. The remains of bodies b e l o n g i n g t o t he skulls had been discarded h a p h a z a r d l y i n another area of the same grave, w h i c h w a s a r e - used quarry pit. M a n y o f t h e e xecuted men suffered multiple w o u n d s t o t h e skull and jaw as well as the u p p e r s p i n e , inflicted by a sharp-bladed w e a po n a n d t h o ught to relate to the process of d e c a p i t a t i o n . O ther wounds so far identified i n c l ud e a c u t t o the pelvis, blows to the chest a n d d e f e n s i v e i njuries to the hands. O x f o r d A r c h a e ology project manager David S c o r e s a i d , “ T he find of the burial pit on R i d g e w a y w a s remarkable and got everyone w o r k i n g o n s i t e really excited. To find out t h a t t h e y o u n g men executed were Vikings is a t h r i l l i n g d e v e lopment. “ A n y m a s s g r a ve is a relatively rare find, but t o f i n d o n e o n this scale, from this period of h i s t o r y, i s e x t r emely unusual and presents an i n c r e d i b l e o p p ortunity to learn more about w h a t i s h a p p e n ing in Dorset at this ti me.” R a d i o c a r b o n dating placed the rem ains between AD910 and AD1030, and sp e c i a l i s t s a r e c o n t in u i n g t o e xamine the remains to try to piece together the events surrounding t h e g r u e s o m e d i s c o v e r y.

I f y o u a r e v i e w i n g t h i s m a g azine on SCRIBD, then y o u w i l l n o t b e a b l e to see the video. Yo u c a n v i e w i t o n e i t h e r t h e full flip page version of t h e m a g a zine: w w w. p a s t h o r i z o n s . com/magazine OR H e r e : h t t p : / / w w w. youtube.com/ w a t c h ? v = 3 U V L G 7 j9zLA&NR=1

I mage s co u r te s y o f Ox fo rd Arc h a e o l o g y

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D ig di re c to r D. B a r r y H o b s o n ( h a n d ra i s e d i n w h i te shir t), a retired general prac titioner, welcomes a group of visitors to the excava t i o n s i te. D r. H o b s o n to o k a d e g re e i n A rc haeolo gy at Bradford Universit y a f ter his retirement. Tipi proj e c t

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CO NFR ONTING TH E CHALLENGE
of cultural her itage preser vation

In te ra c t i ve s h e l ter mo dules

I m a g e s a n d tex t by the Projec t Archaeology Team

IN TODAY’S wo r l d , w e f a c e m a n y c h a l l e n g e s in negotiating m u l t i c u l t u r a l l a n d s c a p e s , a n d to equip the next g e n e r a t i o n f o r t h i s t a s k , i t i s necessary to prov i d e t h e m w i t h a n e d u c a t i o n a l foundation that i s g r o u n d e d i n a r e s p e c t f o r social and cultur a l d i ff e r e n c e s . T h e d i s c i p l i n e of archaeology p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l t o o l t o h e l p instill a reverenc e f o r t h e p l a c e s a n d o b j e c t s t h a t define our past, a r e s p e c t f o r o u r s h a r e d c u l t u r a l heritage, and to e m p h a s i s e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f protecting it now a n d i n t h e f u t u r e .


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Worksh o p p a r t i c i p a nt s a t a b u f fa l l o j u m p s i te, M o ntana

I n t h e U n i t e d States, the Archaeological R e s ou r c e s P r o t ection Act (ARPA), amended i n 1 9 8 8 , i n s t r u cts Federal land managers to i m p l e m e n t e d u cational programmes to inform t h e p u b l i c a b o ut the significance of cultural a n d a r c h a e o l ogical resources on public l a n d s a n d t h e need to protect them. Project A r c ha e o l o g y w as founded two years later to e m p l o y e d u c a t i on in the protection of cultural r e s o u r c e s o n p u blicly owned lands throughout the nation. B e c a u s e t h e p rogramme is designed to be d e l i v e r e d p r i m arily by classroom teachers, a l l P r o j e c t A r c haeology educational materials p r o v i d e w a y s f or educators to teach science, s o c i a l s t u d i e s , language arts and mathematics, p r o m o t i n g c i t i zenship, civic dialogue, and cultural understanding through the examination o f h e r i t a g e p r e servation issues.

cultural legacy. That same year, t h e A m e r i c a 2000 Education Strategy called f o r F e d e r a l agencies to lead the way in p r o m o t i n g education objectives.

“ Pro j e c t Arc h a e o l o gy now i n c l u d e s 2 8 s t ate and re gi o n a l p ro gra m mes”

Under the heading Project Arch a e o l o g y, t h e BLM planned to develop a res o u r c e g u i d e and comprehensive heritage e d u c a t i o n a l programme for teachers and o t h e r y o u t h educators, which would use a v a r i e t y o f activities to teach pupils about th e s c i e n c e o f archaeology and the stewardship o f c u l t u r a l resources. It would also advance t h e g o a l s o f the America 2000 Education St r a t e g y w h i l e I n 1 9 9 0 , t h e Bureau of Land Management promoting the protection of Ameri c a ’s c u l t u r a l ( B L M ) , a n a g e ncy within the United States resources. D e p a r t m e n t o f t he Interior that administers the 2 5 3 m i l l i o n a c r es of public lands, developed In the late 1990s Project A r c h a e o l o g y a n e w h e r i t a g e education programme that sought out a partnership to help e x p a n d a n d w o u l d p r o m o t e an appreciation of the nation’s maintain the programme, and M o n t a n a S t a t e past horizons

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workshops, reaching an estima t e d 2 2 5 , 0 0 0 pupils each year. The curric u l u m g u i d e has been distributed throughou t t h e U S A and several other countries, an d h a s b e e n adapted by various organisations , s u c h a s t h e Smithsonian Institution, for othe r u s e s . The primary means of distribu t i n g P r o j e c t Archaeology curricular material s i s t h r o u g h professional development wor k s h o p s f o r teachers. The workshops offer a v a r i e t y o f engaging, hands-on experiences, a n d e d u c a t o r s often have the opportunity to exp e r i e n c e l o c a l archaeological sites and listen to s p e c i a l g u e s t speakers. In Montana, for exampl e , w o r k s h o p participants visit stone circle and b u ff a l o j u m p sites, and in 2009, educators cam p e d i n t i p i s on the edge of the Little Big Hor n B a t t l e f i e l d during Crow Native Days. Partic i p a n t s w o k e to bugle calls and the US Cav a l r y i n f u l l 19th century uniform crossing t h e r i v e r o n horseback headed to an annual r e - e n a c t m e n t of the Battle of the Little Bighor n . In 2009 Project Archaeology l a u n c h e d i t s first online course. In partnersh i p w i t h t h e University of Utah and the Utah M u s e u m o f Natural History, the course off e r s t e a c h e r s the opportunity to fit a worksho p i n t o t h e i r busy schedules, allowing them t o l o g i n and participate in the eight-wee k c o u r s e o n their own time. In addition, they c a n d i s c u s s implementation strategies with t h e i r p e e r s , fulfilling a need for professiona l i n t e r a c t i o n and mutual support. Teachers ha v e a c c e s s t o supplementary materials includ i n g r e g i o n a l investigations an d historic photographs on o u r w e b s i t e , allowing them t o l o c a l i s e the curricular materials, focusing on the i r s p e c i f i c region. The respon s e h a s b e e n overwhelmingly p o s i t i v e a n d three online wo r k s h o p s a r e scheduled for 2010 . Project Archaeolo g y a c t i v i t i e s are hands-on, inte r a c t i v e , a n d engaging opportu n i t i e s t h a t both teachers and p u p i l s e n j o y – and the experience l e a d s t o r e a l learning. The new c u r r i c u l u m , Project Arch a e o l o g y : 

U n i v e r s i t y, a l e ader in conservation education p r o g r a m m i n g , was selected. Operations were t r a n s f e r r e d t o Bozeman, Montana, in 2001. P r o j e c t A r c h a e ology now includes 28 state a n d r e g i o n a l p rogrammes and has published a n e w c u r r i c ulum, Project Archaeology: I n v e s t i g a t i n g Shelter, for teachers and p u p i l s i n u p p er elementary grades. Since t h e n , e d u c a t o r s in 30 states have attended P r o j e c t A r c h a e ology in-service or pre-service

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Shawn e e s i te s c i e n ce

I n v e s t i g a t i n g S helter, focuses on how people l i v e d l o n g a g o , and takes pupils through the p r o c e s s e s o f l e arning about a group of people f r o m t h e o b j e c t s and features they left behind. P u p i l s l e a r n t o think like archaeologists, u s i n g o b s e r v a t ion, inference, classification a n d c o n t e x t t o piece together the p uzzle of past lifeways.

four different perspectives of d e v e l o p e r s , archaeologists, new home o w n e r s a n d descendant community mem b e r s , and allows pupils to consider the i m p l i c a t i o n s of land use decisions. We hope t h a t p u p i l s develop understanding of social a n d c u l t u r a l differences, and carry this expe r i e n c e w i t h them into the future. The journey continues as Project A r c h a e o l o g y enters its 21st year. The organisati o n c o n t i n u e s to grow, and in 2010 and 2011 we w i l l e x p a n d the online courses, explore new o p p o r t u n i t i e s with informal science education, a n d c o n t i n u e to develop our network of ed u c a t o r s a n d archaeologists. Many countries face the problem o f l o o t i n g and site destruction. These issues a r e v a s t a n d complex, but education has enorm o u s v a l u e i n confronting them, and instilling r e s p e c t a n d understanding of the past in y o u n g p e o p l e can assist in protecting our cultu r a l h e r i t a g e . A programme like Project Arch a e o l o g y t h a t engages pupils in the past can f o s t e r t h e necessary sense of stewardship to h e l p p r o t e c t our cultural resources, now and i n t h e f u t u r e .
Projec t A rchaeolo gy recently won the Award for Excellence in Public Education from the S o ciet y for A merican A rchaeolo gy. For more infor mation on Projec t Archaeology : http://w w w.projec tarchaeology.org Facebook : http://w w w.facebook .com/home.php?#!/ group.php?gid=325400120483&ref=ts

“Pu p i l s lear n to think like a rc h a eologists, using o b s e r vation, inference, c l a s s i f i c ation and contex t to p i e ce to gether the puzzle of
past lifeways”

O n c e p u p i l s understand the basic skills, t h e y a p p l y t h em to a particular regional i n v e s t i g a t i o n t hat emphasises their own local h i s t o r y. I n e a c h regional investigation, pupils h a v e t h e o p p o rtunity to meet a descendant w h o g u i d e s t h em through the inves tigation. T h e d e s c e n d a n t representatives are integral t o l e a r n i n g a n d demonstrate to the pupils t h a t d e s c e n d a nt communities have not v a n i s h e d . T h e r e are currently eight regional i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and we plan to add more in the f u t u r e t o e n s u r e pupils have the opportunity t o s t u d y t h e i r l ocal history and environment. T h e f i n a l l e s son exposes learners to the past horizons

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WHS
F i n d i t H e re

W O R K H A R D O R S TA RV E

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exhibition focus

Th e I m m o r t a l Al ex a n d e r t h e Great
Alexander the Great will be brought to life nex t month at the Her mitage Amsterdam, the first time a D utch museum has devoted an exhibition to the M acedonian K ing. The I mmor tal Alexander the Great char ts the k ing’s jour ney to the East and explores the influence of Hellenism through the last 2500 years, with over 350 master pieces including the famous G onzaga cameo from the State Her mitage M useum in St Petersburg.

R e l i e f f ra g m e n t : Pe r s i a n s o l d i e r f ro m D arius or Xer xes’ royal g ua rd. I ra n . C . 5 0 0 B C . L i m e s to n e, 2 2 .3 x 20.2 cm

Th e e xhibition presents several themes exploring the myths, reality a n d h e r i t a g e o f A l exander (356-323 BC) using art, terracotta figurines, papyrus, t a p e s t r y a n d v a r i o us multimedia. Born in 356 BC as the son of King Philip II of M a c e d o n i a , A l e x a nder was taught by Aristotle who h a d a lasting influence. At just 20-yearso l d h e succeeded his father and two years l a t e r embarked on the great expedition t h a t would assure his fame, taking him to S y r i a , Egypt, Persia, Bac tria and India. H i s p resence in these regions had a lasting i m p a c t on architecture, art, language and c u l t u r e, and over time they displayed Greek i n f l u e nces in a process that became known a s H e llenism. Ex p l oring the myths of Alexander, this p a r t of the exhibition uses images from the s e v e n teenth to the nineteenth centuries and d e c o r ative arts display hi s heroic deeds a n d conquests, with paintings by Pietro A n t o nio Rotari and Sebastiano Ricci, and a t a p estry depicting The Family of Darius b e f o r e Alexander the Great.
A rchitec tural element with lion’s head (metop e) Par thia. 2nd centur y BC-1st centur y AD Terracotta, 25.3 x 14.4 cm

A l l i m a ge s © S t a te H e r m i t a g e M u s e u m, St Petersburg

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A n exploration of his life in Macedonia th e n e x a m i n e s his teachers, heroes and ideals, and a l s o i n c l u d e s his Great Expedition to the East, his c a m p a i g n o f conquest lasting over 10 years, supported b y a 5 0 , 0 0 0 strong army. Objects from Egypt and Per s i a , f r o m t h e nomads and the Babylonians, show the r i c h c u l t u r e s he encountered on his travels, and can b e t r a c e d b y visitors using interactive maps and comp u t e r s . Here, the exhibition also highlights the Greek influence on those cultures. Terracotta figurines d e p i c t i n g m e n and women, gods and satyrs, musicians a n d E r o s , a n d stone fragments of architecture, testify t o t h e a r t i s t i c wealth that characterised the Hellenisti c t e r r i t o r i e s from the fourth century BC to the first f e w c e n t u r i e s AD. While many of these works refle c t t h e G r e e k spirit of cheerfulness and playfulness, the G r e e k s a l s o took an interest in the atypical, such as d i s a b i l i t i e s and deformities.
Por trai t s t u d y o f a P to l e m a i c k i n g Egypt. 3 rd - 1 s t ce n t u r y B C Limesto n e, h 1 0 . 5 c m

Alexander ’s legacy is then explored t h r o u gh artefacts such as f ourthc e n t u r y reliefs from Palmyra d e m o nstrating the endurance of G r e e k traditions outside Greece, a l o n g with papyruses bearing texts i n G r eek, which were still being p r o d u ced in the ninth century. I n t h e fifteenth and sixteenth c e n t u r ies, he played a prominent r o l e i n Persian literature in which h e i s k nown as Iskander. He is also r e c o g nisable in finely-executed m i n i a t ures. Bringing Alexander i n t o t he present day, photographer E r w i n Olaf presents the king t h r o u gh a photographic series and s h o r t film, skilfully conveying his c h a r a cter traits and features. Spanning 2500 years, the exhibition r e f l e c ts the international, timeless a p p e a l of Alexander the Great, d e p i c t ing his life, legacy and r e l e v a nce even in modern times, a n d r u ns from 18 September, 2010 - 1 8 March, 2011 at the Hermitage A m s t e rdam.

Head of M ithridates VI Eupator Pergamon. 90-80 BC Fine - grained marble with yellow tint h 38 cm

HERMITAGE AMSTERDAM W: http://w w w.her mitage.nl E: mail@her mitage.nl A: Amstel 51, Amsterdam T: +31 (0)20 530 74 88

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exhibition focus

Unearthed
Unear thed, The latest exhibition from the S ainsbur y Centre for Visual Ar ts in Nor wich, England, promises to impress visitors with its collec tion of remar k able ancient clay figures, some 5000-years- old and drawn from t wo regions: Japan and the Balk ans. The collec tion at the Universit y of East Anglia has captured the imaginations of archaeologists and ar tists alike, explor ing the shape of the human for m in miniature. Affec tionately k nown as the Toy D epar tment, the exhibition hopes to push the limits of our understanding of ancient figu r ines and encourages viewers to think about their personal responses to the human for m in miniature.

Fi g u r i n e J a p a n , Fi n a l J ō m o n Pe r i o d - h. 19cm R o b e r t a n d L i s a S a i n s b u r y Co l l e c t i on U E A 1 0 9 1 , Ph o to : J a m e s Au s t i n

Th e oldest expressions of human form are very small, and the making a n d k e e p i n g o f s mall figurines is widely shared by certain human societies. In preh i s t o r i c J a p a n a n d t he Balkans people had begun to explore new ways of identifying t h e m s e l v e s , a n d f igurines played an important role in showing how these pioneeri n g v i l l a g e r s m a y have experienced the world and expressed their place within it. Ho w e v e r, a f t e r a c e n tury of painstaking archaeological investigation, recording and in t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e f igurines remain mysterious; some appear distinctly male or fem a l e w h e r e a s o t h e r s are less identifiable, and do not look human at all. However, sev e r a l t h e o r i e s f o r t heir purpose have be en proposed. Some archaeologists focus o n r i t u a l a n d s p i r i tual life as an explanation for the figurines, other interpretat i o n s s u g g e s t f u n c t ions such as magical items, afterlife accessories, fertility im a g e s , v o t i v e o b j e cts and initiation objects.

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Through sight and touch, these figurines provo k e a n u m b e r of responses in the viewer such as vulnerability, p r o t e c t i o n , excitement, fear, confusion and intimacy, and c o n t i n u e t o make an impact in the present. The exhibition si t s a l o n g s i d e contemporary artworks that invite visitors to und e r s t a n d a n d appreciate the objects in new ways, providing i n s p i r a t i o n for contemporary artists working in a variet y o f m e d i a , from prints and drawings to animation and perf o r m a n c e . The creators of these objects thousands of y e a r s a g o atte mpted to convey some meaning through the i r f i g u r i n e s , and the contemporary works remind us of the s p e c t r u m o f possibilities they embody. U nearthed is curated by Professor Douglass B a i l e y, S a n Francisco State University; Dr Andrew Cochrane , U n i v e r s i t y of East Anglia; Dr Simon Kaner, Sainsbury Inst i t u t e f o r t h e Study of Japanese Arts and Cultures, Univer s i t y o f E a s t Anglia, and developed by the Sainsbury Centr e f o r Vi s u a l Arts. The research project is led by the Sainsbu r y I n s t i t u t e for the Study of Japanese Arts and Cultures, U n i v e r s i t y of East Anglia, and is funded by the Arts and H u m a n i t i e s Res earch Council.

Figurin e N a ka m i c h i , J a p a n M iddle J ō m o n Pe r i o d 11.5 x 6 c m , N a g a o ka M u n i c i p a l S c i e n ce Museum , J a p a n

Ja p a n : Over 18,000 clay figures, or dogû (literally ‘spirit and clay’ ) h a v e n o w
b e e n r ecorded from across Japan. Those featured in unearthed are from c e n t r a l a n d e a s t e r n Japan, from Sannai Maruyama, and the important historical colle c t i o n s f r o m U n i v e rsity Museum at the University of Tokyo.

S a n n a i Maruyama, occupied from 4000-2500 BC, revealed over 1850 dogû f r a g m e n t s , a n d w i th their distinctive cross-shaped bodies they are called ‘slab-shap e d o g û ’ a n d ‘ c r u c i form dogû’. The featur es of their faces are depicted, including eyes , e y e b r o w s , n o s e s (and even nostrils) m ouths, and hair. Some are shown wearing o r n a m e n t s , a n d a l l have breasts indicating that they represent women. The larges t p r o p o r t i o n o f d o g û were found in a fragmentary state in the piled-earthen features w h i c h w e r e i m p o r t ant places for ritual practices, but other examples are complete.

J ō m o n f i g u r i n e s a n d f ra g m e n t s f ro m S a n n a i M a r u ya m a , J a p a n M i d d l e J ō m o n Pe r i o d © Ao m o r i Pre f e c t u ra l B o a rd o f Ed u ca t i o n

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Th e U n i v e r s i t y Museum, the University of Tokyo, holds approximately 450 pie c e s o f d o g û d a t i n g t o t h e J ô mon period. A large p art of this collection, kept by the museum’s D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and Prehistory, was made from the 1890s to the early 20th cent u r y, a p e r i o d w h e n a n t h r o p o l ogy and archaeology were being developed as scientific disciplin e s i n J a p a n , a n d i t s h i s t o r i cal value is significant. Among the dogû displayed in unearthe d , t h r e e a r e p e r h a p s o f p a r t icular interest. The shape of one (from Ikarigaseki, Aomori Pref e c t u r e , F i n a l J ô m o n ) a t t e s t s to a stylistic transition from the famous ‘goggle-eyed dogû’, w h i l e a n o t h e r ( To k o s h i n a i , A omori Prefecture, Middle-Final Jômon) shows a miniaturised repre s e n t a t i o n o f t h e t y p i c a l f e a t ures of the goggle-eyed dogû. A third example (Tozurasawa, Aomor i P r e f e c t u r e , L a t e J ô m o n ) h a s a very rare shape that reminds us of a monkey. Th i s i s t h e f i r s t time that the University Museum, University of Tokyo has all o w e d a n y o f t h e s e i m p o r t a n t objects to be displayed overseas.

B alk a n s : F a r ming, accompanied by pottery-making, first entered Europe from i t s r e g i o n o f

o r i g in , t h e c o - called Fertile Crescent of the Near East through Aantolia, modern - d a y Tu r k e y, a n d a c r o s s t h e Eastern Mediterranean. These early European farmers lived in v i l l a g e s a n d m a d e s m a l l c l a y figures. The majority of the figures from t h i s r e g i o n in unearthed come from Roman i a , o c c u p i e d early by farming groups who spre a d a l o n g t h e Danube and its tributaries. How e v e r, t h e r e are additional figurines from the R e p u b l i c o f Macedonia and Albania. The Republic of Macedonia wa s , u n t i l t h e 1990s part of the former Yug o s l a v i a , a n d some of the most remarkable c l a y f i g u r e s from the entire Balkans come fro m t h i s s m a l l , landlocked country. Most of the M a c e d o n i a n figures appear to depict women a n d a r e o f t e n discovered near the hearth, and p e r h a p s t h e most outstanding form is that of t h e b o d y o f a woman, wearing jewellery and wi t h a s p l e n d i d coiffure, fused on to the roof of t h e m o d e l o f a house. Over 20 examples of t h e s e G r e a t Mother or Magna Mater figures a r e k n o w n . The exhibition includes the newly - d i s c o v e r e d Portrait of an Eneolithic Ancesto r, e x c a v a t e d at the Shrine of St Atanesie. Un u s u a l l y, t h i s figurine was modelled on an th e f a c e o f a n adult male, his ears pierced for e a r r i n g s m a d e of some organic material. The Albanian figurines have not b e e n s h o w n outside of Albania until now. U n d e r t h e aegis of the University of East A n g l i a , a n e w generation of archaeologists a n d c u l t u r a l heritage specialists have been tra i n e d a n d a r e bringing the treasures of Alban i a n c u l t u r a l heritage into the 21st century.

Repli ca A n z a b e g ovo -Vr š n i k l l l, M a ce d o n i a 5300 - 4 2 0 0 B C - L N h . 3 9 c m Muse u m o f M a ce d o n i a

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Figurin e s a n d Fra g m e n t s f ro m Cu c u te n i , R o m a n i a , 4000 - 3500 BC, National Histor y Museum of Romania

Th e ex h i b i t i o n will run from 22 June - 29 August 2010
S ainsbur y Centre for Visual Ar ts Universit y of East Anglia Nor wich NR4 7TJ United K ingdom W: http://w w w.sc va.org.uk T: 01603 593199 E: sc va@uea.ac.uk

With thanks to: Okada Yasuyuki, Sannai M a r u y a m a s i t e d i r e c t o r, S a n n a i M a r u y a m a Dr Mats uda Akira, The U n i v e r s i t y M u s e u m , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f To k y o Irena Kolistrkoska Naste v a , c u r a t o r, M u s e u m o f M a c e d on i a , S k o p j e , R e p u b l i c o f M a c e d o n i a Nada Andonovska, transl a t o r, M u s e u m o f M a c e d o n i a , S k o p j e , R e p u b l i c o f M a c e d o n i a .

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Framing the Future with Walling ford M useum
Wallin g f o rd M u s e u m ( Fl i n t H o u s e )

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3D impres s ion of Flint Hous e wi th new a nnexe

B y Judy and Stuar t D e we y

FO R MER LY IN Be r k shire b u t n o w w ith in the b o un d ar ies o f Ox fo rd shi re, th e h istor ic to w n o f Wal lin g fo rd o r igin ated in th e 9 th c en tu ry as o n e o f th e two la rg est o f A lf r ed t he Great ’s p lan ne d to wn s or bu rh s . Th e ex te ns iv e S a xo n r a m pa r ts a nd m uc h o f th e Sax o n str e et p atter n s till su r v iv e, an d p art o f th es e b an ks su r r o u nd a g ree n o p en sp a ce in the h ea r t o f the to w n c all ed th e Kin ec r of t, p r ov id in g th e b ack d ro p f o r Wa lling f o r d M u se um . Th e fu ll y a cc r ed ite d an d ind ep e nd en t lo cal h istor y m u se um is ho u sed i n a Gra de I I lis te d m e diev a l timb er-fra med b u ild ing co v er e d by a f li nt fa çad e, a nd is a p pr o p r ia tely k no wn as Flin t H ou se .
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Aerial v i e w o f t h e e a r t hwo r k re m a i n s o f Wa l l i n g f ord Castle (foreground)

T h e i d e a f o r a l ocal history museum was born out of the success of The Wallingford Historical & A rc h a e o l o g i c al Society (TWHAS) formed in 1 9 7 4 . T h e r e w as a need to display the results o f e x c a v a t i o n s and to explain the rich story of t h e t o w n ’s h i s t ory from its Saxon origins to t h e M e d i a e v a l period when Wallingford was

the leading town of Berkshire, d o m i n a t e d b y its huge royal castle. It played an a c t i v e p a r t i n the war between Stephen and Ma t i l d a , w h i c h resulted in Matilda’s son, Henry I I , g r a n t i n g its first Charter of Liberties in 11 5 5 . Wallingford is one of only four towns mentioned in Magna Carta in 1215. Among t h e c a s t l e ’s many royal inhabitants were K i n g J o h n ; Richard Earl of Cornwall, broth e r o f H e n r y III; Edward the Black Prince an d h i s w i f e ; Henry V’s widow and her young s o n H e n r y V I with his guardian Owen Tudor, g r a n d f a t h e r of Henry VII. During the 17th c e n t u r y C i v i l War, Wallingford Castle was a ma j o r R o y a l i s t stronghold, and almost the last in t h e c o u n t r y to surrender after it had held out s u c c e s s f u l l y against a 12-week siege by Pa r l i a m e n t a r y troops. It was eventually destro y e d i n 1 6 5 2 but the impressive earthworks s t i l l s u r v i v e and are publicly accessible. The museum opened in 1981. I n i t i a l l y t h e galleries were only on the firs t f l o o r w i t h an attic store above and a g r o u n d f l o o r entrance lobby from a side door. I n 2 0 0 5 w e

Burh to B o ro ug h ca s t l e e xca va t i o n s

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“ D espite its long and signific ant histor y, Walling ford has rarely b ee n more than a footnote in mo s t academic tex ts”
w e r e o ff e r e d t h e lease on the ground floor as w e l l , s o i n t h e next year we reunited the two p a r t s o f t h e b u ilding and moved the entrance t o t h e m u c h m ore visible front door on the H i g h S t r e e t . A t the same time we became a c h a r i t a b l e c o m pany. D e s p i t e i t s l ong and significant history, Wa l l i n g f o r d h as rarely been more than a f o o t n o t e i n m ost academic texts but with t h e ‘ Wa l l i n g f o rd Burh to Borough Project’, f u n d e d b y t h e AHRC, things were to change. T h i s t h r e e - y e ar project is the result of c o l l a b o r a t i o n between the Universities of L e i c e s t e r, E x e t er and Oxford, with practical e x c a v a t i o n i n p ut and documentary research f r o m T W H A S , and hosted locally by the m u s e u m . A f t e r the first season of geophysics a n d d i g g i n g i n 2008, TWHAS organised a h i g h l y - s u c c e s s ful conference and the papers g i v e n , w i t h a d ditional material, have been p u b l i s h e d a s T he Origins of the Borough of Wa l l i n g f o rd – Archaeological and Historical P e r s p e c t i v e s. A second successful co nference o n M e d i e v a l Wallingford was organised l a s t y e a r o n b ehalf of the Burh to Borough P r o j e c t b y Wa l lingford Museum and a third, Wa l l i n g f o rd C a stle in Context, is pla nned for O c t o b e r 9 , 2 0 1 0. O r i g i n a l l y l a u nched as part of the Burh t o B o r o u g h P r oject but now with a life of i t s o w n i s a garden archaeology project u n d e r t h e a e g is of TWHAS. The intention i s t o d i g t e s t p its 1.5m by 1m and up to 1.2 m e t r e s d e e p i n 100 gardens scattered around t h e t o w n . E a c h pit is fully excavated and r e c o r d e d , f i n d s removed and analysed, and p r o v i d e s a c o mprehensive picture of strata a n d o c c u p a t i o n levels in different parts of the t o w n . W h i l s t t his technique has been used in a v i l l a g e s i t u a t ion, this is the first time it has

been tried in an urban context. To d a t e 3 0 p i t s have been excavated and reporte d . The museum has a vital role t o p l a y i n the developing picture of the h i s t o r y o f Wallingford, but there are future c o n c e r n s t o be addressed. Storage space for th e c o l l e c t i o n s has become a critical issue and w e h a v e b e e n actively seeking a solution to t h i s g r o w i n g problem for several years. The an s w e r l i e s i n the utilisation of the open yard i m m e d i a t e l y behind Flint House, which is p a r t o f o u r lease. After a couple of false st a r t s , w e h a d a breakthrough in September las t y e a r w h e n it was suggested that we build a t r a d i t i o n a l timber framed structure as a pub l i c s p e c t a c l e on the Kinecroft – a Festival o f Tr a d i t i o n a l Skills – and then crane the comp l e t e d f r a m e s into position behind the nearby F l i n t H o u s e . It was an exciting idea. 

G arden A rch aeolo gy 2010

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T h e b u i l d i n g could be entirely independent o f t h e l i s t e d building but would provide t w o s t o r e y s of important display space a n d s o m e w h e r e to address groups, adults a n d c h i l d r e n , as well as providing a muchn e e d e d c o l l e c tions management a rea and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l workshop. A disab led WC a n d a s e c o n d , ambulant WC, plus a covered a c t i v i t y a r e a for outdoor events such as F a m i l y A r c h a e ology Day, would comp lete the f a c i l i t i e s . ( S e e plan below.)
9.1m

Apart from the attraction of build i n g i n g r e e n oak and its environmental attribut e s , t h e r e i s a unique benefit to the proposed t i m b e r f r a m e . Each frame will be constructed in a d i ff e r e n t style so that from west to east, t h e t i m b e r work (visible to visitors within t h e b u i l d i n g ) will tell the story of developing t e c h n i q u e s from Mediaeval to Victorian, a ki n d o f 1 2 ” t o the foot scale model. It was proposed that we should wo r k w i t h T h e Carpenters’ Fellowship, the no t - f o r- p r o f i t trade body that represents and set s s t a n d a r d s for the structural timber frami n g i n d u s t r y in the UK. They were also resp o n s i b l e f o r the construction of the Abing d o n S c h o o l Boathouse and the award-winning N o r t h m o o r Trust building at Little Wittenham . The Carpenters’ Fellowship had a n a v a i l a b l e window in August which gave us a v e r y t i g h t schedule to design the building, g e t p l a n n i n g permission, cost it and raise t h e f u n d s . Preliminary plans were drawn up b y N o v e m b e r and presented to our landlords, Wa l l i n g f o r d

4.3m

CAR PARKING (Day Centre)

3.3m

Archaeology Workshop

Collections Management
/
1m

Activity Area/ Loading Bay

Coats etc

Display

3.3m

Fire Exit

1.5m

Canopy

2.9m

DISABLED WC 2.2x1.5

GRASS VERGE

0.9m

2.3m

FLINT HOUSE

WC 0.8x1.5
0.9m
6.2m

Lift & Stairs

Existing

New build external New build internal

NORTH

0

metres

5

sjd vs 16 Mar 2010

WALLINGFORD MUSEUM Framing the Future GROUND FLOOR

FLINT COTTAGE

9.5m
4.0m

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To w n C o u n c i l , who enthusiastically embraced t h e i d e a a n d g a ve it the go-ahead. We held a p r i v a t e l a u n c h i n our local hotel and presented t h e gu e s t s w i t h an information pack sponsored b y a l o c a l p r i n t er.

D e t a i l e d p l a n s were completed and the p l a n n i n g a p p l ication submitted i n early J a n u a r y 2 0 1 0 . Nearly 300 people wrote to the D i s t r i c t C o u n c il in support of the scheme, u rg i n g t h e p l a n ners to give it their permission, w h i c h w a s g r a nted in mid-March. Meanwhile a t a p u b l i c l a u n ch in the Town Hall nearly 100 p e o p l e s i g n e d up in support of the scheme and 8 0 t o o k a w a y f orms to sponsor beams in the Individual timber beams have be e n p r i c e d f o r p r o p o s e d b u i l d i ng. sponsorship, ranging from a comm o n r a f t e r f o r £25 to £2500 for the main west w i n d o w, w i t h F u n d - r a i s i n g f o r the target figure of £400,000 lots of beams at around £250-£50 0 . S p o n s o r s h a s t a k e n v a r i o us forms. A series of lectures will have their names carved in t o t h e b e a m s o n t h e h i s t o r y of Wallingford raised over by a local woodcarver. With item s d o n a t e d b y £ 3 0 0 0 a n d w e received generous donations local individuals and businesses, i n A p r i l w e held a grand auction which raise d £ 7 0 0 0 w i t h £5000 matched funding promised . A t t h e s a m e time, local woodland owners we r e c o n t a c t e d to ask them to donate oak trees to t h e p r o j e c t . The response was remarkable. We n o w h a v e all the oak we need, around 70 t r e e s i n t o t a l , all sourced within a radius of 10 m i l e s o f t h e museum. The tree operation has also b e e n a k e y educational tool. One of th e m u s e u m ’s education officers has been worki n g w i t h t h r e e local schools, each of which has ‘ a d o p t e d ’ a wood nearby. Children have visi t e d t h e s i t e s and watched the felling in progr e s s , a n d w i l l follow through with a replanting s c h e m e w e are organising to replace the timb e r t a k e n o u t (much of which has been removed f o r t h i n n i n g or because of dying trees). We have to date submitted n e a r l y 2 0 0 applications to grant-giving bod i e s b u t t h i s is where our tight timetable p r o v e d t o b e our temporary undoing. We dis c o v e r e d t h a t many of the Trustees meet only o n c e a y e a r and decisions were being made t o o l a t e f o r an August build. In the case o f t w o m a j o r applications for which we had h i g h h o p e s ( a total of £150,000) we were unable t o c o m p l e t e the applications in time because w e c o u l d n ’t get the required number of quotat i o n s f o r e a c h budget item before the deadline.

“ l o c a l wo o d l a n d owners we re co nt a c te d to a sk them to d o n ate o a k t re e s to the p ro j e c t. Th e re s p o n se was re m a r k a b l e. We n ow have a l l t h e o a k we n e e d, around 7 0 t re e s i n to t a l ”

Public l a u n c h i n Wa l l i n g f o rd tow n h a l l

f r o m p r i v a t e i n dividuals. We have sold many o f t h e 1 5 0 0 1 0 ” (250mm) oak pegs which will h o l d t h e t i m b e r frame together structurally, a n d p u r c h a s e r s may have the opportunity to k n o c k t h e i r p e gs in while the frames are still o n t h e g r o u n d . For children, we are holding a c o m p e t i t i o n f o r the best decorated peg.

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Public support continues and w e a r e s t i l l selling pegs and encouraging sp o n s o r s h i p o f beams as well as pursuing grant a p p l i c a t i o n s . Our next big fund-raising even t w i l l b e o n 21 August, 2010, a Mediaeval f a i r o n t h e Kinecroft. Attractions include a l i v i n g h i s t o r y display, craft demonstrations and ‘ h a v e - a - g o ’ opportunities, a pig roast, and m u c h m o r e . Further events are planned for th e f u t u r e . Despite the delay we are still full y c o m m i t t e d to the project, which is crucial f o r a n u m b e r of reasons. The volunteer-led s c h e m e h a s fired imaginations and seems to h a v e b e c o m e something of a flagship for the c o m m u n i t y, recognising its key role in th e e c o n o m i c viability of its future. The m u s e u m s t i l l desperately needs to expand f o r p r a c t i c a l reasons (collections, better mob i l i t y a c c e s s , space for larger groups etc.) but w e a l s o w i s h to seize the opportunity to enhanc e t o u r i s m f o r the good of the town as a whole, e x p a n d i n g o u r displays to put more emphasis on Wa l l i n g f o r d & the World featuring internation a l l y f a m o u s locals like Agatha Christie, Jeth r o Tu l l a n d Judge Blackstone. The annexe w i l l a l l o w u s to encompass all these things a n d c o n t i n u e honour the town’s heritage, an d w i t h m o r e support and funding we can make i t h a p p e n i n the coming year.

View of t h e K i n e c ro f t f ro m t h e mu s e u m

I n t h e e n d , w e decided that the build event w o u l d h a v e t o be postponed for a year, so we a r e n o w l o o k i ng at a September 2011 build. T h i s d o e s a t l e ast buy us time to raise more f u n d s a n d c o m plete the grant applications. T h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of The Carpenters’ Fellowship f o r n e x t y e a r is currently under review. If w e a r e u n a b l e to use them, we will have to s e e k a t i m b e r- f rame contractor, but one who i s p r e p a r e d t o build the frame in public view a n d m a i n t a i n the community invo lvement. M e a n w h i l e , r a i sing the funds is the key issue.

Finds washing at the museum

How You Can Hel p
• • • S p o n s or a beam (and get your name car ved on it): co nt a c t Stuar t D ewey at museum@piepowder.co.uk M a k e a donation: http://w w w.justgiving.com/walling fordmuseum Vi s i t o ur website http://w w w.walling fordmuseum.org.uk for the latest n e ws

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PAST HORIZONS TOOLSTORE

The archaeologists equipment store

PAST HORIZONS
offers a large selection of quality tools and equipment for your archaeological needs
# WHS Archaeology trowels # Leaf and Square / Trowel and Square # Rotring pens and pencils # Stanley measuring tapes : 5m - 8m - 30m - 60m # Plumb bobs and Line levels # Scale rulers and Folding rulers # Digital calipers (inside and outside) # Pottery combs # Drafting film in both roll and A3 cut sheet # Graph paper rolls and A3 pads
Drafting film roll
High-res contour gauge

4” WHS trowel

Stanley 30m Powerwinder

WHS softhandled trowel

Multiple scale ruler

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past horizons

A DIG G E R ’S L I F E
S u r f i n g f o r b a rrow ditches on wave s of wet c l a y, f i s h i n g for Rome in urban puddles, c h e w i n g t h e m etaphysical in the monumental, c r a w l i n g d e e p below ground in search of l i g h t, n e g o t i a t i ng with the dead or juggling w i t h a f t e r l i v e s ... Si Cleggett (a.k.a Troll) is a f i e l d a rc h a e ologist and loves it.

I N MY LAST offering, I discussed th e a l m o s t u n i v ersal thirst for shiny things and th e b i z a r r e h u n g er to re-establish the primacy of ‘ s t a t u s ’ . Perhaps this is a reflection of modern capitalism and t h e l oss of individual identity in a life d o m i n a t e d w i t h the relentless pursuit of social adva n c e m e n t . P a r a doxically, physical manifestati o n s of p e r c eived social dominance today may r e f l e c t a n e e d to climb out of an individual ide n t i t y a n d g a i n access to a social grouping we aspi r e t o b u t i n t e r pret in different ways. M o d ern archaeol ogists are consistently g u i l t y o f m a k i ng the assumption that the acqui s i t i o n o f m a t e rial goods in the distant past was an a c c e p t e d v e h i cle to asserting individual posi t i o n . B y e x t e nsion, this sated envy and signalled t o p e e r s t h a t some transformation had taken place , t h e r e b y g r a n ting access to a niche where so m e w e r e s e e m ingly promoted to a ‘superior ’ statu s . O f c ourse, material goods can equally be s e e n a s t o o l s , containers and necessary accoutrem e n t s f o r t h e p erceived journeys into afterlives de t e r m i n e d b y s ocial and cultural values, but a grav e s h o u l d n o t exclusively been seen as an opport u n i t y f o r a g g r andisement. Reading archaeology in t h i s w a y i s e x traordinarily naïve and archaeolog i s t s c a n o f t e n be guilty of judging a book by i t s c o v e r w h e n others have the foresight to read t h e b o o k first. Wi t h this in mind, it is possible to arg u e t h a t c h i l d ren – in prehistory at least – could b e v i e w e d

as prestige ‘goods’ in the sense that they convey a far more profound manifestation of social position than functional and attractive items placed within a burial context. The stresses of weaning, childhood mortality and birth itself would surely have presented something of a lottery to societies, communities and cultures who would had relied upon reproduction for their very survival almost as much as food sources. Philippe Ariés in his book Centuries of Childhood claimed that before the “invention of childhood” i n t h e Vi c t o r i a n p e r i o d , c h i l d r e n w e r e s i m p l y percieved as small adults. This was expanded upon in The Making of the Modern Family by Edward Shorter who claimed that in certain s o c i e t i e s m o t h e r s v i e w e d t h e d e ve l o p m e n t a n d h a p p i n e s s o f i n f a n t s w i t h i n d i ff e r e n c e o n t h e basis of high mortality rates. In her book A D i s t a n t M i r ro r B a r b a r a Tu c h m a n d e m o n s t r a t e d that during the Mediaeval period, an absence of i n t e r e s t i n c h i l d r e n a n d t h e i r p e r c ei v e d s t a t u s a s “unrewarding products” prevailed.* As these historians have shown, it is likely that for many cultures young children were often v i e w e d i n a p r a c t i c a l s e n s e . H o w e v e r, h i s t o r i c a l evidence also points to a deep emtional attachment of people to their children. For example, the diarist John Evelyn and his wife lost six of eight children in childhood and, after the death of his oldest child who died three days after his fifth birthday in 1658, he wrote, “Here ends the joy of m y l i f e ” . T h e w r i t e r Wi l l i a m B r o w n l o w l o s t o n e child every year for seven years admitting that the t r a g e d y “ h a s t b r o k e n m e a s u n d e r an d s h a k e n m e to pieces”. The loss of a child in the early modern era would be traumatic and emotional but in prehistory it may have had other dimensions. The transition i n f u n e r a r y p r a c t i s e s f r o m t h e N eo l i t h i c t o t h e B r o n z e A g e i n C y p r u s c o u l d a rg u a b l y b e s e e n as the polar opposite of those recorded in the

Ka fkall a Pl a te a u

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N e o / Bronze transition here in the Briti s h I s l e s . I n g eneral terms, the Cypriot Neolith i c ( f r o m 7 0 0 0 B.C) sees individual burial within d o m e s t i c c o n t exts (under house floors/hearths et c ) a n d a m o v e towards co llective burial within ch a m b e r e d t o m b s during the Bronze Age (from 2 5 0 0 B . C ) . T h e communal and often chambered tom b s o f t h e B r i t i sh Neolithic (from 4000 B.C) give w a y t o l a rg e ly individual burial in the Bronze A g e ( f r o m 2 5 0 0 B.C). I n 2 0 04, I took part in the excavation of an e x t e n s i v e B r o n ze Age cemetery complex in Deneia , C y p r u s . T h e s e cemeteries lie to the south of th e O v g o s v a l l e y and occupy around six hectare s o f t h e l i m e stone Kafkalla plateaux. With over a t h o u s a n d t o m b shafts visible across the area, Dene i a i s t h e l a rg e st known Bronze Age burial groun d o n t h e i s l a n d. Throughout the twentieth cent u r y a n d e v e n today, archaeologists working in C y p r u s h a v e paid little or no attention at all t o h u m a n r e m a ins. Material goods and ceramic ty p o l o g i e s h a v e characterised the island’s prehistor y a n d a s a r e sult it was accepted that children w e r e n o t a l l o c ated the same burial space as adult s d u r i n g t h e B ronze Age. I c a rried out a field assessment of th e h u m a n r e m a ins from a single tomb (789) and es t a b l i s h e d t h a t i t contained at least 46 individuals. Th i s f i g u r e v a s t l y outnumbered previously ackno w l e d g e d B r o n ze Age tomb populations on the is l a n d a n d i t q uickly became apparent that a si g n i f i c a n t p r o p ortion of the remains were actua l l y s u b a d u l t . After examination by an osteoarch a e o l o g i s t i t t u rned out that 31 of the 46 individua l s ( 6 7 % ) w e r e sub-adult. Of these, 19 were foeta l t o o n e y e a r of age, eight were young children (1- 6 y e a r s ) , t w o were older children (7-12 years) and t w o w e r e a d o l escents (13-18 years). This small s a m p l e r e p r e sents a me re 10% of the tomb c h a m b e r. C o n t rary to popular belief, it seems that t h e i n f a n t a n d sub-adult skeletons do survive as w e l l a s t h o s e of adults, and unless excavators r e c o g n i s e h u m an remains for what they are, anothe r c e n t u r y o f e r roneous and wildly inaccurate pub l i c a t i o n s a r e i nevitable. S o w hat does all this mean? It means that c h i l d r e n w e r e interred within the same burial s p a c e s a s a d u l t s during the Cypriot Bronze Age from a t l e a s t 2 5 0 0 B.C to around 1125 B.C (Late Cypr i o t e I I I a ) a n d that more adults occupied tombs t h a n w a s p r e v iously understood. The ability to p r o d u c e v i a b l e offspring must have been fundam e n t a l t o t h e v ery survival of prehistoric communi t i e s . T h e p r o p ortion of sub-adults within one sma l l s a m p l e o f a single tomb that was in use for perh a p s o v e r

500 years suggests that the number of sub-adults who survived to adulthood must have been very much higher than believed. Archaeologists really have little notion of the place of sub-adults within the daily lives of prehistoric communities and yet here at least, in death, there is no major distinction between them and adults. If archaeologists accept the idea that Bronze Age communities in Cyprus had a developed and structured concept of afterlives, it would follow that sub-adults also had a place or a perceived role to play also, hence burial in the same tomb s p a c e s . A rg u a b l y, t h e a b i l i t y t o p r o d u c e c h i l d r e n amongst the female members of society may have resulted in an elevated status within the community and children may have been viewed as prestige achievements of these women: new members of the community to farm, hunt, produce goods and enrich the fabric of society for the future. Children were potential assets; pots were for storing and eating.

Museum analysis

A community that sees a place and a role for children in an afterlife is hardly likely to devalue them during life, and on an island subject to flux, change and cultural influence, the survival and viability of new members would have been vital. F o r o v e r a c e n t u r y, B r o n z e A g e c h i l d r e n h a v e b e e n playing hide and seek with archaeologists who have failed to grasp the concept that an essential part of the game is to search for them. It really was a once in a lifetime experience to take part in s u c h a n i m p o r t a n t e x c a v a t i o n . Wi t h a n y l u c k t h e discovery of these remains will alter the way we view Bronze Age Cyprus and force a change in excavation strategies that will give a voice back to these ‘invisible’ children. * Ariés, Philippe, Centuries of Childhood: A S o c i a l H i s t o r y o f F a m i l y L i f e ( N e w Yo r k , 1 9 6 2 ) S h o r t e r, E d w a r d , T h e M a k i n g o f t h e M o d e r n F a m i l y ( N e w Yo r k , 1 9 7 5 ) Tu c h m a n , B a r b a r a W. , A D i s t a n t M i r ro r, 1 9 7 8 ( N e w Yo r k , 1 9 7 8 )

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Del a n cey Pa rk
Excavating a Neolithic G aller y Grave on Guer nsey
by G e o rg e N a sh S I N C E t h e a d vent of a fully integrated planning process in the early 1990s, a r c h a e o l o g y societies in the UK have found it increasingly difficult to o rga n i s e a n d run excavation programmes. The view post PPG 16 (and n o w P P S 5 * ) has been to preserve, where possible in situ archaeological r e m a i n s , i n p articular sites such as prehistoric burial-ritual monuments. B e a r i n g t h i s i n mind, and the limited opportunities to excavate sites of this a g e a n d q u a l i ty in Britain, members of the Clifton Antiquarian Club, were d e l i g h t e d t o e xcavate one of Guernsey’s premier prehistoric monuments, D e l a n c e y P a r k. Prior to this the last excavation on Guernsey of a Neolithic b u r i a l - r i t u a l monument was undertaken in 1979 at Les Fouillages.

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Aerial v i e w o f D e l a n ce y Pa r k s h ow i n g t h e o n g o i n g excavation Clif to n A n t i q ua r i a n C l u b

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D elance y Pa r k i n a s o r r y s t a te i n l a te 2 0 0 9

F o r t h e c l u b , interest in Delancey Park 24 are located in northern Franc e a n d t w o i n b e g a n i n 2 0 0 8 when negotiations to survey Wales. a n d e x c a v a t e were finalised with Guernsey M u s e u m . T h e following year a small team c a m e o v e r t o s earch the museum archive and c o n d u c t t h e f i r st ever detailed survey of the m o n u m e n t s i n c e its discovery in 1919. This i n i t i a l p h a s e o f work led to an archaeological e v a l u a t i o n t h a t included the excavation of six t r e n c h e s i n J u l y this year. D e l a n c e y P a r k , one of 18 or so free-standing s t o n e l a t e p r e h i storic burial-ritual monuments, c o m p r i s e s t w o parallel lines of stone that e x t e n d f o r s o m e nine-and-a-half metres eastw e s t . T h i s m o nument is one of three gallery g r a v e s i n t h e Channel Islands; a further two s t a n d i n n e i g h bouring Jersey and a further past horizons

D elancey Park during the 1932 excavation with archaeolo gist M iss Vera C.C. Collum

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B a s e d o n t h e architecture and artefacts r e c o v e r e d f r o m two previous excavations, the D e l a n c e y P a r k monument appears to date to t h e L a t e N e o l i t hic period and therefore later t h a n t h e p a s s a ge grave tradition, a group of m o n u m e n t s t h a t more or less dominate the N e o l i t h i c b u r i al-ritual landscape of Jersey a n d G u e r n s e y, s uch as Le Varde and Le Dehus i n t h e n o r t h o f Guernsey.

workforce to treat the site with g r e a t c a r e , believing the stones formed part o f a d o l m e n . According to newspaper accounts a t t h e t i m e , further stones were uncovered, n e a r l y a l l ‘oblong’ in shape and in a ‘perfe c t l y n a t u r a l condition’. It is not clear if a n o ff i c i a l excavation took place as no reco r d s s u r v i v e . However, a small number o f a r t e f a c t s , many probably contemporary w i t h t h e u s e

G I S vie w of D elancey Pa r k a n d n e i g h b o ur i n g monu ments and f ind s p ot s - cour tes y of Guerns ey Mu s eum s

I n t h e p a s t D elancey Park has undergone s e v e r a l l a n d s c aping and planting regimes. H o w e v e r, d u r i n g the Neolithic the site would h a v e p r o b a b l y had uninterrupted views of t h e co a s t l i n e t o the north and west. Prior to t h e 1 8 t h c e n t u ry, the monument sto od on a p r o m i n e n t h e a d land that overlooked a channel t h a t s e p a r a t e d the main island from a small island. F o l l o w i n g t h e initial discovery in 1919, t h e G u e r n s e y States architect instructed the

of monument, were recovered f o l l o w i n g its discovery including fragmen t s o f b o n e belonging to an ox, a few limpet s h e l l s , s t o n e tools and pottery. The stone tools included a fra g m e n t o f a greenstone axe (or rubber) tha t h a d b e e n cracked by fire, a small collect i o n o f f l i n t chips, four gun flints (probably 1 8 t h c e n t u r y ) and coarse, gritty pottery.


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L a t e r i n 1 9 3 2 a two-day excavat ion was u n d er t a k e n b y Miss Vera C. C. Collum who, b a s e d o n s e v e r al site photographs, conducted a ‘ p r o d d i n g a n d recording’ exercise between t h e s t o n e s . T he excavation yielded further p r e h i s t o r i c f i nds and possible structures r e l a t i n g t o t h e construction of the m onument i n c l u d i n g a number of possible uprights l o c a t e d a l o n g t he northern line of stones (and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e stone packing). Investigations w e r e a l s o c o n ducted around the western end o f t h e m o n u m e nt. Following the ex cavation M s C o l l u m r e ferred to Delancey Park as

larger stones were removed off s i t e f o r t h i s excavation; their in situ position a r e s u p p o r t e d by digital images that were taken p r i o r t o t h e 2010 excavation and show that on l y o n e s t o n e has been removed, its whereabou t s u n k n o w n . Although its archaeological d i s c o v e r y i s attributed to 1919 Ms Collum d o e s s u g g e s t that a number of the capstones w e r e r e m o v e d and broken up around 1878 for f o u n d a t i o n material to support the nearby A d m i r a l d e Saumarez monument, but it is not c l e a r w h i c h ones were removed.

Plan o f t h e D e l a n ce y M o nu m e n t a n d t re n c h i n g J u ly 2010 by D onovan Hawley

a n a l l é e c o u v e rte. This type of monument, c o n s t r u c t e d s i milarly to the gallery grave t r a d i t i o n , i s u sually found in cen tral and n o r t h e r n F r a n c e and generally comprises a r e c t a n g u l a r c h amber delineated by a series o f l a rg e u p r i g h ts (there are some instances of s m a l l e r a n t e c h ambers leading off around the m a i n c h a m b e r entrance). Based on the 1932 s i t e p h o t o g r a p hs it appears that none of the past horizons

The 2010 season concentrated on t h e n o r t h e r n part of the site where, based o n a r c h i v e photographic evidence, little dist u r b a n c e h a d occurred. Four of the six trenches r a n r o u g h l y parallel with the northern line of f a l l e n s t o n e uprights. It is within several of th e s e t r e n c h e s that the previous spoil heap o f t h e 1 9 3 2 excavation was recorded. Underly i n g t h i s w e r e several accumulative deposits c o m p r i s i n g

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Exca va t ion of Tre nc h 1 , w h ic h wa s orgi n a l l y covered by on e of t he fa llen upright s

wind-blown sand. It was consid e r e d b y t h e Clifton team that the southern s i d e o f t h e monument had been severely d i s t u r b e d a n d that little of the prehistoric arch a e o l o g y h a d probably survived, the result of s e v e r a l r e c e n t landscaping regimes. However, a s m a l l s l o t was excavated within the west pa r t o f s i t e t h a t revealed potential in situ cultu r a l d e p o s i t s , a few centimetres below the pre s e n t g r o u n d level. Located in one trench within the n o r t h - w e s t e r n section of the site were several clear structures, their function unknown. Asso c i a t e d w i t h these were a small but significa n t c o l l e c t i o n of locally worked flint and prehis t o r y p o t t e r y. A similar artefact assemblage w a s r e c o v e r e d from the other five trenches sug g e s t i n g t h a t the site was busy, either during o r a f t e r t h e monument was in use. Two trenches, were solely d e d i c a t e d t o recording the soil deposition t h a t h a d occurred over the past four to fiv e m i l l e n n i a . These trenches were delibera t e l y l o c a t e d away from recent archaeological a c t i v i t y b u t both yielded significant quanti t i e s o f l a t e r prehistoric flint and pottery. In t e r p r e t a t i o n

I n s i t u p ack ing f or a rem ove d upr i g h t

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past horizons

A r tist i m p re s s i o n o f D e l a n ce y Pa r k by E l l i e M c Q u een

o f s o i l p r o f i l e s uggests that wind-blown silty- The stone was carefully moved on J u l y 2 0 a n d s a n d d e p o s i t s covered the site shortly after a trench laid out which extended n o r t h w a r d s t h e M i d d l e t o L ate Bronze Age. into Collum’s spoil heap. Revea l e d w a s t h e accumulated detritus – broken bo t t l e s , l i t t e r, I n a n o t h e r t r e n ch, close to the western end of leaf mould and several coins th a t m a n a g e d t h e s i t e , s m a l l fragments of burnt, possibly to creep within exposed niches b e t w e e n t h e c r e ma t e d ( h u m an?) bone were found . Based ground surface and the stone. U n d e r n e a t h p a r t l y o n t h e burial deposition from other this recent cultural deposit was e v i d e n c e o f g a l l e r y g r a v e s ites and bone recovered from the 1932 excavation, including a p r o b a b l e t h e 1 9 3 2 e x c a vation, the western end of the trench edge, and beneath this was a t a n t a l i z i n g m o n u m e n t m a y have been the area where the glimpse into the early history of th e m o n u m e n t a n c e s t o r s w e r e finally laid to rest. including possible in situ stone p a c k i n g f r o m both the northern and southern li n e o f s t o n e s T h e f i n a l a n d most exhausting achievement and a small but significant as s e m b l a g e o f o f t h i s s e a s o n ’s work was to remove one of worked flint and pottery. t h e f a l l e n u p r i ghts, centrally located along t h e n o r t h e r n l i ne of stones. Due in part to This season’s work has proved a g r e a t s u c c e s s r e c e n t f i r e h e arth activity, this stone and and has identified those areas of t h e s i t e t h a t o t h e r s n e a r b y were fractured. However, potentially have significant a r c h a e o l o g y. b a s e d o n t h e 1932 photographic archive, it As part of the post-excavation p r o c e s s , t h e a p p e a r s t h a t t h i s and other fallen uprights had Clifton team employed a number o f s p e c i a l i s t s r e m ai n e d i n s i t u. If this was the case then in who will analyse the pottery, fl i n t a n d s o i l s i t u N e o l i t h i c / Early Bronze Age deposits may chemistry. In addition, a numbe r o f o rg a n i c e x i s t u n d e r n e a t h. samples taken from clear prehisto r i c h o r i z o n s past horizons

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w i l l h o p e f u l l y provide radiocarbon dates for p a r t i c u l a r s e q u ences, the first from a gallery g r a v e s i t e i n t he Channel Islands. Several m e m b e r s o f t h e team also researched those u n s t r a t i f i e d a r tefacts, in particular faunal r e m a i n s o b t a i n ed from the 1919 and 1932 excavation. T h i s r e s e a r c h will hopefully paint a clearer p i c t u r e o f w hat was happening at this m o n u m e n t b e t ween c. 2500 and 3000 BC. A s f o r n e x t y e ar, we hope to target an open a r e a t r e n c h a l o ng the northern line of fallen u p r i g h t s , b a s e d on the results from this s e a s o n . I f t h e r esults of this year are anything t o g o b y, t h e D elancey Park monument should p o s e a v e r y i n teresting prospect. However, a s w i t h a l l p r o jects like this, there are more q u e s t i o n s t h a n answers, reminding us that e v e n d u r i n g t h e Neolithic, life and death was a c o m p l i c a t e d matter. P ro j e c t d i re c t o r and club member Dr George N a s h l e c t u re s part-time at the University o f B r i s t o l . H e is also senior researcher at t h e M u s e u m o f Prehistoric Art (Quaternary a n d P re h i s t o r y Geosciences Centre), Maçao, P o r t u g a l , a n d associate professor within t h e D e p a r t m e n t of Architecture, Spiru Haret U n i ve r s i t y i n B ucharest, Romania. * P P S 5 i s a p lanning policy document that s e t s o u t t h e U K govern ment’s polic ies on the c o n s e r v a t i o n o f the historic environment. Fu r t h e r R e a d i ng J o h n s t o n , D . E., The Channel Islands: An Archaeological Guide (Chichester, Phillimore, 1 9 8 1) K e n d r i c k , T. D ., The Archaeology of the C h a n n e l I s l a n d s Volume 1: The Bailiwick of G u e r n s e y ( L o n don: Methuen, 1928) K i n ne s , I . A . & Grant, J., Les Fouaillages a n d t h e M e g a l ithic Monuments of Guernsey ( G u e r n s e y : A m persand Press, 1983) K i n ne s , I . A . , “ Les Fouaillages and Megalithic O r i g i n s ” , A n t i quity (56:216, 24-30, 1982) L u k i s , F. C . , “Observations on the Celtic M e g a l i t h s ” , Archaeologia (35, 232-288, 1 8 5 1) S e b i r e , H . , T h e Archaeology and Early History o f t h e C h a n n e l Islands (Tempus, 2005)

G et Involved
CLIFTON ANTIQUARIAN CL U B Originally formed in 1884, Th e C l i f t o n Antiquarian Club, based in C l i f t o n , Bristol, lasted 28 years before o p e r a t i o n s resumed in 2006. We seek to p r o m o t e a better understanding of our archaeological heritage and meet on several o c c a s i o n s during the year for lectures, t o u r s a n d research projects. Please fee l f r e e t o contact us if you have any que r i e s o r a r e interested in getting involved. W: http://www.cliftonantiquari a n . c o . uk E: theeditor@cliftonantiquaria n . c o . uk

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Br ingi n g Lo s t ? Com m u n i t i e s Bac k to L i fe

WH E N m o d e r n s t u d i e s t e a c h e r Jane Summers got involved with Scotland’s Rura l P a s t , a p r o j e c t o rg a n i s e d by the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Hist o r i c a l M o n u m e n t s o f S c o t l and (RCAHMS), two years ago, she had no idea just h o w m u c h o f a n i m p a c t h e r volunteer work was to have. A year later she was still i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e R C A H M S project, had completed two weeks’ excavation on a S c o t t i s h h i l l f o r t a n d s i g ned up for a part-time degree in archaeology at the U n i v e r s i t y o f A b e r d e e n . H er enthusiasm culminated in the groundbreaking Lost ? p r o j e c t i n v o l v i n g 1 3 0 p u pils of Upper Deeside in bringing the history of loca l c l e a r a n c e s b a c k t o l i f e .
T h e L o s t ? p r o j ect, thought to be the largest o f i t s k i n d i n Scotland, began when Jane s u b m i t t e d a p r oposal for ‘Archaeology in the s e c o n d a r y s c h o ol curriculum’ to Michael Foy, p r i n c i p a l t e a c her of humanities at Aboyne A c a d e m y i n Scotland. The main ambition o f t h e p r o j e c t was to raise awareness of the c l e a r a n c e c o mmunities and to ge t young p e o p l e d i r e c t l y involved in supporting and d e v el o p i n g a c ommunity enterprise. Working w i t h l o c a l a n d national archaeology groups, t h e p r o j e c t b e gan in June this year with the h e l p o f A r c h a e ology Scotland who r an skills w o r k s h o p s f o r primary seven pupils of all 10 a c a d e m y f e e d e r schools, preparing them to t a k e t h e l e a d r ole in their project. These sessions were run by Meg F a r a g h e r a n d Ruth Bortoli, supported by Jane a n d M i c h a e l . Pupils developed map and aeria l p h o t o g r a p h interpretation skills and artefact r e c o g n i t i o n , handling and reconstruction skill s . T h e p u p i l s also learned the benefits of exc a v a t i o n a n d worked on a simulated excavati o n , l e a r n i n g to piece facts together to tell a b i g g e r s t o r y, with the opportunity to handle 4 0 0 0 - y e a r- o l d artefacts from the National Muse u m . With this experience in place, th e p u p i l s a r e now working over an eight-mon t h p e r i o d t o research, survey and record th e c l e a r a n c e areas of Auchtavan and Loin a t I n v e r c a u l d Estate in Glen Feardar, around 1 5 m i l e s f r o m the school in the Cairngorms N a t i o n a l P a r k .

right: re s to re d co t t a g e a t Au c h t a va n


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past horizons

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past horizons

Sur vey i n g w i t h t h e u s e o f a p l a n e t a b l e, l o o k i n g a t old maps and planning using a grid

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Map s h ow i n g t h e d e s e r te d settlem e n t o f Au c h t a va n . Th e projec t w i l l a l s o b e s e a rc h i n g for an o l d c h a p e l w h i c h i s though t to h a ve e x i s te d a t Balno e.

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Wo r k i n g w i t h Braemar Castle run by Braemar C o m m u n i t y L t d, the youngsters will plan and d e s i g n a p e r m a nent display to be hosted in the c a s t le , w h i c h w ill tell the story of the ordinary c o m m u n i t i e s o f the estate and showcase the w o r k o f t h e p r o ject. It is hoped that Auchtavan a n d t h e c a s t l e will be available as permanent l e a r n i n g r e s o u r ces for the community schools and beyond.

which looks set to be engagin g , e n j o y a b l e and rewarding for the pupils an d t h e w i d e r community. Archaeology involv e s s t u d y i n g people in the past by examining t h e o b j e c t s , buildings and landscapes they l e f t b e h i n d . By investigating the abandoned s e t t l e m e n t at Auchtavan the pupils will fi n d o u t w h a t the ruined buildings can tell us a b o u t a n o w vanished rural way of life, and h e l p v i s i t o r s to the area understand the storie s b e h i n d t h e Wo r k i n g w i t h t he support of Scotland’s Rural many deserted settlements foun d t h r o u g h o u t P a s t a n d A r c h a eology Scotland the pupils will Deeside and across Scotland. u n d e r t a k e a f u l l site survey, field sketches and s i t e d e s c r i p t i o ns for each of the properties “The Lost? project will also t e a c h t h e m t o f o r m t h e b asis of a series of in-school archaeological survey skills t o c r e a t e a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c ts. Ultimately, the site survey valuable detailed record of Auch t a v a n . T h e i r w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to records on the Canmore drawings and descriptions of t h e t o w n s h i p D a t a b a s e . I t i s hoped that the pupils will not will be submitted to the Royal C o m m i s s i o n o n l y b e a b l e t o record the substantial township on the Ancient and Historical M o n u m e n t s o f i n t h e g l e n b u t also build up a wider picture of Scotland, and make a real contrib u t i o n t o o u r w h a t l i f e m i g h t have been like for the people understanding of rural life in the p a s t . ” o f t he s e s e e m i ngly remote communities. Although the work presents quite a c h a l l e n g e B r i a n Wi l k i n son, education officer for to the budding archaeologists , J a n e a n d S c o t l a n d ’s R u r al Past, said, “It is very exciting Michael are confident the pup i l s w i l l r i s e t o b e i n v o l v e d i n this innovative school project, to the occasion, and are now p l a n n i n g a n past horizons

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A c a d e m y A r c h aeology club to support the p r o j e c t a n d o p en the experience to all year g r o u p s . H a v i n g done some work previously w i t h p u p i l s o n site surveys, Jane recognised t h a t a r c h a e o l o gy could appeal to children of a l l a b i l i t i e s a n d interests. S h e s a i d , “ We hope that pupils will learn a b o ut d i s t i l l a t ion and the use of lime in s c i e n c e , c r e a t i ng 3D images from their plane t a b l e d r a w i n g s , recreating the homes and the a t m o s p h e r e o f the community using artistic s k i l l s , r e s e a r c h ing the lives and culture of the p e o pl e a t d i ff e r ent periods, as well as looking a t t h e w i d e r h i story of Scotland.

history. Until then, the pupils c o n t i n u e t o enjoy the challenge of bringing t h e i r L o s t ? community back to life. Auchtavan and Loin in Glen F e a r d a r m a k e up a large township at 430m abo v e s e a l e v e l . The buildings range from ank l e - h i g h t u r f constructions to an intact lat e Vi c t o r i a n cottage. A previous project rescu e d o n e o f t h e cottages which retained an origi n a l h a n g i n g chimney (hingin’ lum) and the re m a i n s o f i t s cruck framed, lichen thatched roo f . A u c h t a v a n has 17 unroofed buildings alone a n d t h e w h o l e site has at least two corn kilns and a h u g e l i m e kiln, the highest building on th e s i t e . F r o m estate records Jane has already pu t t e n a n t s a n d subtenants’ names to the ruins, an d o n e o f t h e projects will be to research the n a m e s a n d t h e families that lived there, aided b y S c o t l a n d ’s People which has provided acce s s t o c e n s u s material and parish records.

“ T h e s e h i s t o r i es should be brought alive by t h e c r e a t i o n o f living history dramas about t h e c o m m u n i t i es and the events linked to t h e m . T h e r e a r e massive opportunities to do s o m e e x p e r i m e ntal archaeology, too . In fact t h e r e a r e s o m a ny creative ideas com ing from t h e a r c h a e o l o g y it is difficult to keep a lid on The project will also attempt to lo c a t e t h e l o s t them all.” chapel at Balnoe below Auchtava n . A l t h o u g h there are a number of references t o t h e c h a p e l , T h e p r o j e c t will end with a ceilidh and which is recorded on RCAHMS, i t h a s n e v e r e x h i b i t i o n o f t he interpretation and research been found, and Jane has enlisted t h e s u p p o r t p r o d u c e d . T h e ceilidh will also showcase the of local archaeology group OFA R S t o h e l p d r a m a s c r e a t e d to reflect the life and culture solve the mystery. o f t h e s e t t l e m ents at various points in its

SCOTL AND ’S RUR AL PAST is a five -year initiative run by R C AHMS with par tnership fundin g. The projec t, launched in O c tober 2006, is wor k ing with local communities to research, record and promote S cotland ’s vanishing histor ic rural settlements and landscapes. S cotland ’s Rural Past was awarded H ighly Commended in the B est Archaeological Projec ts categor y in the prestigious Br itish Archaeological Awards from the Br itish Academy. This was in recognition of the valuable wor k being achieved by volunteer par ticipants across S cotland. http://w w w.scotlandsruralpast.org.uk ARCHAEOLOGY SCOTL AND br ings together those for whom archaeology is an interest, an ac tive pastime or a career, suppor ting local archaeological ac tion and campaigns for the best possible conser vation and mana gement of her itage. http://w w w.scottisharchaeology.org.uk

For more information on Lost? contact: Jane Summers modernmrss@googlemail.com Michael Foy saafoym@aboyneacademy.aberdeenshire.sch.uk T: 013398 85201 M: 07971 062994
Interio r o f re s to re d co t t a g e w i t h ‘h i n g i n g l u m’ a t Auchtavan photo: Nigel Corby

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S h ielings

Life in the H igh Pastures

Fiona B a ke r o f Fi ra t A rc h a e o l o g i ca l S e r v i ce s L td. monitoring machine clearance of overburden at a shieling hut.

past horizons

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By Fiona Baker T h e r u r a l l a n d s cape of Scotland is dotted with thousands of huts where, for hundr e d s o f y e a r s , p e o pl e s p e n t t h eir summer months grazing cattle on high pastures. These simpl e s t r u c t u r e s , c a l l ed s h i e l i n g s, were such a common and normal part of Scottish country life th a t l i t t l e w a s w r i t t e n a b o u t t hem during their period of use, and they are often not even mark e d o n e s t a t e m a p s a n d p l a n s . Due to their location they are not usually threatened by major d e v e l o p m e n t : f o r e s t r y, w i n d farms, hydroelectricity pipelines and power lines usually mana g e t o a v o i d t h e m a l t o g e t h e r, but despite their endurance they are rarely excavated for ar c h a e o l o g i c a l purposes.

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A t ypica l re c t a n g u l a r s h i e l i n g hu t a t A rd vo r l i c h , overgrown with tur f and moss on the stones

S h i e l i n g s n o r m ally range in size from groups o f f i v e t o 1 5 h uts, and on the few o ccasions w h e re t h e y h ave been excavated, earlier s e t t l e m e n t h a s sometimes been found beneath t h e o b v i o u s h u t. Not only were the shieling h u t s t h e m s e l v e s rebuilt several time s during t h e i r y e a r s o f use, but the hut builders seem t o h a v e h a v e deliberately selected existing m o u n d s f o r b etter drainage. The existing m o u n d o n w h i c h the shieling hut would have b e e n b u i l t m a y represent a natural landscape f e a t u r e o r p e r h aps an earlier archaeological site. T h e s h i e l i n g s can be found in the high p a s t u r e s a n d w ere often located on the upper r e a c h e s o f s t r e ams that flowed dow n to the m a i n s e t t l e m e n t, usually on estate boundaries, w h i c h w e r e o f t e n delineated by water courses. A l t h o u g h s o m e were perhaps only two or three m i l e s f r o m t h e main township, others were up t o 1 0 o r 1 2 m i les away, taking several days t o m o v e t h e s t ock and equipment u p to the h i g h e r g r o u n d f rom the lower lying areas. It i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the families moved between d i ff e r e n t s h i e l i ng huts over the course of a s u m m e r o r u s e d different sites in different y e a r s , b u t e a c h year the inhabitants would r e t u r n t o t h e t o wns at the end of the summer f o r t h e b e g i n n i ng of the harvest. I n 2 0 0 8 , i n a dvance of an NPower hydroe l e c t r i c i t y s c h eme, Fiona Baker of Firat A r c ha e o l o g i c a l Services Ltd. carried out a d e s k - b a s e d a s sessment and excavation of past horizons

old shielings around Douglas Wa t e r a n d i t s tributaries in Argyllshire, Scot l a n d , u s i n g ordnance survey maps from 18 7 4 o n w a r d s . The three main settlement are a s i n c l u d e d Achnagoul, Auchindrain and K i l e a n / K i l i a n , the largest townships in the area, a n d p r o b a b l y the main homes for the seasonal o c c u p a n t s o f the shielings at Allt Fearna, Allt n a m M u c a n d Lagantour. The shieling excavated at All t F e a r n a , a settlement made up of around fi v e b u i l d i n g s and most likely associated with th e s e t t l e m e n t of Kilian, was found to overlie a p r e h i s t o r i c burnt mound. The burnt mound sit e w o u l d h a v e left a noticeable small mound, a n d f o l l o w i n g total excavation of the site it appe a r s t h e b u r n t mound inhabitants also selecte d a n a t u r a l small mound for their activities. The lower lying or main fermtou n s e t t l e m e n t of Kilian included a burial gr o u n d t o t h e north east where a cist is also m a r k e d . A n entry from the National Monum e n t s R e c o r d of Scotland notes that the cover i n g s t o n e o f the cist was removed for buildi n g t h e f a r m house at Kilian but the owner d i d n o t w a n t to use a ‘gravestone’ and the lo s t c i s t c o v e r stone is reputed to lie somewhere b e t w e e n t h e farmhouse and the cist. The Ne w S t a t i s t i c a l Account of 1845 mentions Kilia n a s a p l a c e where children and infants wer e b u r i e d i n the 18th century, and a chapel d e d i c a t e d t o St John is recorded. However, i t r e m a i n s undiscovered and it is assumed th a t a n e a r l i e r

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Timber would have been used d e p e n d i n g o n availability, and the constructio n t e c h n i q u e was largely determined by the m a t e r i a l s t o hand. The shape ranged from circ u l a r o r o v a l chambers, to small stone cells and r e c t a n g u l a r structures, and all main types are o f t e n f o u n d on artificial mounds or with artif i c i a l m o u n d s created around them, probably fro m c o l l a p s e d turf construction and discarded ro o f i n g t h a t c h around the building as well as mi d d e n s . The rectangular huts, which w o u l d h a v e required additional roofing mat e r i a l s , o f t e n appear to be more substantial c o n s t r u c t i o n s and may be later in date, or w e r e p o s s i b l y occupied for longer periods. F o r e x a m p l e , in Caithness and in Glenlyon, P e r t h s h i r e , in 1725, some of the shieling hu t s r e m a i n e d r e l i g i o u s b u i l d ing may lie beneath – or was occupied by herdsmen looking a f t e r y o u n g i n c o r p o r a t e d i nto – the main complex of cattle or horses in the winter. H o w e v e r t h e b u i l d i n g s . A l t e rnatively, it may be close by shieling system was in use for c e n t u r i e s a n d a n d w a s n o l o n ger visible by 1874. some change in building style ov e r t i m e i s t o be expected. T h e s h i e l i n g sites, which generally went o u t o f u s e i n t he late 18th century (although Shieling huts were often re-used a n d u p g r a d e d s o m e m a y s u rvived into the early 19th to provide more permanent acc o m m o d a t i o n c e n t u r y ) , a r e a ll in a ruined state, and very for shepherds, and foresters i n p a r t i c u l a r l i t t l e i s k n o w n about how they were roofed. who often lived at estate bounda r i e s t o k e e p A s s i m p l e a nd temporary constructions, an eye on the movement of game . A s c a n b e t h e h u t s d e c a y ed over the winter and would seen at Allt Fearna and Allt nam M u c , s e v e r a l h a v e n e e d e d r efurbishment every summer, shielings have later constructio n s i n t h e m , a n d m a p a n a l y sis suggests that by the 1870s often shooting butts or small shee p p e n s . S o m e t h e s h i e l i n g s were disused, probably quite of the shieling mounds have quit e s u b s t a n t i a l d e n u d e d a n d o v ergrown with little sh owing at stone foundations built on them, s u c h a s t h o s e ground level. at Allt nam Muc and Allt Fearna , w h i c h m a y be later in date and represent ad a p t a t i o n f o r I t s e e m s l i k e l y that the timber roofing beams use as bothies or shepherds’ huts . o r c a b e r s , w e r e taken up to the shieling every y e a r a n d a n e w roof built of turf and / or The eighteenth century Welsh n a t u r a l i s t a n d b r a c k e n , h e a t h er or rush thatch each season writer Thomas Pennant visited so m e s h i e l i n g s a n d t h e r o o f d i smantled and the precious roof on the Isle of Jura in 1772. He de s c r i b e d t h e m c r u c k s a n d c a bers taken back down to the as, “a grotesque group; some ob l o n g , m a n y m a i n s e t t l e m e n t for storage over the winter, conic, and so low that entrance i s f o r b i d d e n a p r a c t i c e t h a t has been recorded throughout without creeping through the lit t l e o p e n i n g , t h e H i g h l a n d s and the Hebrides. The stone which has no other door than a f a g g o t o f c e l l t y p e o f s hielings, such as Allt Fearna, birch twigs, placed there occasio n a l l y. T h e y m a y h a v e h a d c orbelled stone roofs similar to are constructed of branches of tr e e s , c o v e r e d b e e h i v e h u t s f o und on St Kilda and the Isle of with sods; the furniture is a b e d o f h e a t h , Lewis. placed on a bank of sod; two bla n k e t s a n d a rug; some diary vessels; and ab o v e , c e r t a i n S h i e l i n g s v a r i ed in plan and design, some pendant shelves, made of basket w o r k , t o h o l d c o n s t r u c t e d e ntirely of turf, ot hers of the cheese, the produce of summ e r ” . s t o n e o r a c o mbination of stone and turf. 

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past horizons

Jamie H u m b l e, a t 6 ’ 4 ”, m o d e l l i n g t h e s l e e p i n g p o ssibilities at a circular cell st yle hut at Allt Fearna.

A l t h o u g h P e n n ant makes life at the shielings s o u n d m i s e r a b l e, other accounts from t he 1880s r e c a ll h o w p l e a sant shieling life could be. It w a s c o n s i d e r e d by many to be a holiday from l i f e a t t h e m a i n settlement with only milking a n d d a i r y p r o d u ction work to be done, and even i n t h e 1 7 t h c e n tury when cattle thieving was r i f e t h e s h i e l i n gs may have afforded a respite f r o m c l a n r a i d i ng, concealing precious cattle a n d p r o t e c t i n g the main source of we alth.

Sheep farming was introduced i n t h e m i d 18th century and made a dramat i c i m p a c t o n agricultural practices. Soon aft e r t h e 1 7 4 5 Jacobite Rebellion many parishes w e r e s e t t l e d with graziers from the south a n d b l a c k faced Linton type sheep replace d t h e n a t i v e Highland sheep. The ancient Hi g h l a n d b l a c k cattle, or kyloes, were also disp l a c e d b y t h e blackface sheep and their numb e r s d r o p p e d dramatically. The sheep also d r o v e o u t r e d deer and the vegetation of the sh e e p p a s t u r e s T h e a n n u a l m o ve to the shieling took place changed from heather and rough g r a s s t o s h o r t , o n t w o p h a s e s : first the young men repaired fine green grass within about 30 y e a r s o f t h e i r t h e s h i e l i n g h u ts, re-thatched roofs, prepared introduction. h e a t h e r b e d s a n d gathered peat for fuel. A few w e e k s l a t e r t h e women arrived with the milk The role of cattle in the lives of t h e s h i e l i n g c o w s. T h e m e n usually stayed at the main inhabitants was crucial to surviva l , p r o v i d i n g f a r m ( f e r m t o u n) settlement. Work centred both wealth from market trading a n d a n n u a l o n da i r y i n g a n d making butter and cheese, fairs and, in times of famine, b l o o d - l e t t i n g . a l t h o u g h i t i s possible some distilling also The efforts of the Agricultural I m p r o v e m e n t t o o k p l a c e . S pinning and knitting were also Movement combined with th e i n d u s t r i a l p r i m a r y a c t i v i t ies at the shielings, and some revolution and clearances altered t h e S c o t t i s h t i m e w o u l d h a v e been spent collecting lichens, landscape enormously and led to t h e e v e n t u a l r o o t s a n d p l a n t s for making dyes. demise of shielings. However, h u n d r e d s o f years of occupation of these si t e s h a s l e f t S e v e r a l f a c t o r s , beginning with agr icultural a potentially rich source of ar c h a e o l o g i c a l i m p r o v e m e n t s i n the late 18th and early 19th evidence, and with further e x c a v a t i o n a c e n t u r y, l e d t o the demise of the shieling valuable record of these forgott e n d w e l l i n g s s y s t e m b u t t h e main reason was the massive can be more accurately reconstru c t e d , a d d i n g e x p a n s i o n o f c o mmercial sheep farming in the to the existing data and bringi n g l i f e a n d 1 9 t h c e n t u r y. memory back to the shielings of A rg y l l s h i r e . past horizons

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rofile P

Fiona Baker

FIONA BAKER graduated from the Universit y of D ur h a m i n 1 9 8 8 with a BA in archaeology. She then set off to excavate m a ny s i te s across the UK , Europe and the M iddle East, and in 1 9 9 2 s e t u p Firat Archaeological S er vices Ltd. to take advantage of a c h a n g e i n planning laws and new roles for commercial wor k in a rc h a e o l o g y. This helped establish a long-ter m career in field wor k a n d p rov i d e d oppor tunities for travel and sunshine excavations in Eg y p t a n d the M iddle East. Her time off is devoted to her dog, g a rd e n , a n d amateur dramatics.
What is your current obsession? I d o n ’t k n o w a b o u t a n o b s e s s i o n b u t m y r a n t o f the moment is the devaluing of the archaeological p r o f e s s i o n w i t h c o n t r a c t o r s n o t c h a rg i n g e n o u g h for professional services. Those of us that started in commercial archaeology when the planning regulations were new spent years getting archaeology taken seriously in the construction and development industries. That is now being u n d e r m i n e d b y c o n t r a c t o r s c h a rg i n g l e s s f o r a n archaeologist than the digger driver gets paid. When the recession is over the cheap rates policy will come back to bite us. It may get folk work just now but it is unsustainable. Also the generally poor standard of archaeological field skills university graduates possess when they enter the profession. Do you prefer the heat of the desert or the rain of Scotland? B o t h h a v e t h e i r m e r i t s b u t a f t e r b e i n g b l o w n o ff my feet in horizontal rain on Arran recently the current answer would be the heat of the desert. If you could return to a period in the past, where and when would it be? The lifetime of Alexander the Great as a member of his inner circle. I f y o u w e r e i n t h e d e s e r t a n d h a d a ch o i c e b e t w e e n t e a o r c o ff e e w h a t w o u l d i t b e ? Te a , d o u b l e d b o i l e d w i t h l a s h i n g s o f s u g a r a n d some mint or other desert herb as only the Bedouin can make it. If you were able to find anything in the world, what would it be? A painted cave. I f y o u w e r e n o t a n a r c h a e o l o g i s t , wh a t w o u l d y o u be? A gardener or an actress, or maybe a three-day e v e n t e r.

W h a t is your earliest archaeological mem o r y ? T h e Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National P a r k i n C o l o rado, when I was about six years old . L a r a Croft or Gertrude Bell? G e r t rude Bell. D i d you come to archaeology or did arc h a e o l o g y c o m e to you? I t c a me to me I guess, a school trip to P o m p e i i w h e n I was 14 made a big impression. A l t h o u g h I w e n t to university to study anthropology f i r s t a n d f o r e most, archaeology sucked me in. Yo u r top three essential items for travel? E a r l Grey tea S w i s s Army knife A b i g scarf – head cover, shawl, towel, s h e e t … D o y ou have a fa vourite memory of a cou n t r y y o u h a v e been to? O o h , difficult question as there are ma n y. T h e f i r s t time I saw the Treasury at Petra I w a s m o v e d t o t ears; I watched the moon rise il l u m i n a t e i t s f açade one night which was magic a l . T h e H y p o style Hall at Karnak left me dumbst r u c k ; t h e D a r t River and Glenorchy, New Zealand, i s o n e o f t h e most beautiful places on earth, and w a s h i n g a n e l e p hant in Sri L anka was a privilege. D o y ou listen to music while you work ? I f s o , w h a t is currently your music of choice? I ’ m a Radio 4 gi rl, really, but somethin g m e l l o w l i k e Van Morrison if I’m at the comp u t e r a n d m a y b e Bob Marl ey if there is lots of sh o v e l l i n g t o b e done. I f y o u had an unlimited budget, what w o u l d y o u d o w ith it? Research and write, follow up various archaeological i n t e r ests and help others do interesting p r o j e c t s . W h e re do you feel most at peace? I n a desert.

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past horizons

Dig Diary - B y l a z o r a
I N N O V E M BER 2008 Past Horizons carried a story on the Bylazora exca v a t i o n s i n t h e F o r m e r Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). Since then, the t e a m h a s r i g o r o u s l y r e corded their activities and opened their diaries to us to show the p r o g r e s s o f t h e d i g . F o r those who missed the original story, to recap, in 1 9 7 6 P r o f e s s o r I v a n M i k u l č i ć ,
a f ter a survey of central FYROM (th e F o r m e r Yu g o s l a v i a n R e p u b l i c o f M a c e d o n i a ) , s u g g e s t e d t h at a large plateau near the town of S v e t i N i k o l e m i g h t p r o v e t o b e a p r o m i s i n g s i t e t o h u n t f o r B ylazora, the largest city of the ancie n t P a i o n i a n s . E x p l o r a t o r y s o u n d i n g s m a d e b e f o r e a n d a f t e r F YROM independence in 1991 suppor t e d t h i s . T hen, in 2008 Mr. Aleksandar Danev, d i r e c t o r o f t h e P e o p l e ’s M u s e u m o f S v e t i N i k o l e , c o n t a c t e d T he Texas Foundation for Archaeolog i c a l a n d H i s t o r i c a l R e s e a r c h ( T FA H R ) . F a m i l i a r w i t h t h e i r i n ternational field school work, he inv i t e d t h e g r o u p t o i n i t i a t e a n i n - d e p t h , l o n g - t e r m p r o j e c t t o e xcavate the site.

Wh o w e r e t h e Paionians?

T he earliest mention of the Paionians i n a n c i e n t G r e e k l i t e r a t u r e i s i n H o m e r ’s I l i a d , i n w h i c h t h ey appear as allies of the Trojans ag a i n s t t h e G r e e k s ( I l i a d I I : 8 4 8 s e q . ) . H e r e , H o me r m e n t i o n s t h e Paionians as being from Amydon o n t h e “ b r o a d s t r e a m o f t h e A x i o s ” , f i g h t i n g w i t h c u r v e d b ows and being led by a certain Pyrai c h m e s ( I l i a d X : 4 2 8 s e q . ) .

Ex t r a c t f r o m the 2009 TFAHR report:

“ It is hard digging on the acropolis o f a n a n c i e n t c i t y a n d n o t t o i m a g i n e t h a t t h e re i s a t e m p l e s o mewhere nearby. The massive propy l o n c o m p l e x l e a d i n g i n t o t h e a c ro p o l i s f u e l l e d o u r h o p e s t h at it might lead to a temple. The dis c o v e r y o f t h e p a v e d p e b b l e ro a d w a y l e a d i n g f u r t h e r u p h i l l b eyond the propylon only postponed t h e s e h o p e s t o a n o t h e r s e a s o n . T h e d i s c o v e r y o f t r i g l y p h a nd metope fragments added “more f u e l t o t h e f i re ” . M o re o v e r, a c ro s s t h e s i t e w e h a v e b e e n f i nding numerous miniature vessels a n d s m a l l a n i m a l f i g u r i n e s . S u c h m i n i a t u re s a n d f i g u r i n e s h ave traditionally been interpreted as e i t h e r g r a v e o f f e r i n g s ( u n l i k e l y h e re o n t h e a c ro p o l i s ) o r c hildren’s toys (possibly) or votive gi f t s l e f t i n a s h r i n e o r t e m p l e ( i n t r i g u i n g ) . I n an y c a s e , w e s h all continue to excavate in a meth o d i c a l f a s h i o n , d e t e r m i n e d t o d i s c o v e r t h e f i rs t P a i o n i a n t e mple.” Eulah Matthews and Bill Ne i d i n g e r ( s i t e d i r e c t o r s ) http://w w w.tfahr.org T he team’s de termination paid off and a t e m p l e w a s e v e n t u a l l y d i s c o v e r e d a t t h e s i t e . R e a d t h e T FAHR weekl y dig diary, kept by the s i t e d i r e c t o r s , f o r a n a c c o u n t o f t h e f i r s t f i v e w e e k s o f t h e 2 010 excavations...
B ackground photo: the TFAHR team in their first season (2008) at B ylazora

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48

Wee k 1 , J u n e 2 0 1 0 o p ening o l d trenches

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e ha ve comp leted ou r fir st week of t he TFA HR exca vatio ns. Ou r s t a rting tea m c onsi sts o f 13 memb ers of th e i n t er nat ional field scho ol (f rom the U SA, A u s t ralia, England , Irel and, and Po lan d ), 7 M ac ed onian-base d vo lunt eers from t he Un i t ed S ta te s Peace Co rps, o ur coll eagu es f r om t he Pe op le ’s M useu m of Svet i Nikole, a n d 10 wo rk men f rom Svet i Ni ko le an d K n ezje . A f t e r a b rief orient ation for the new team m em be rs , and a clean- up o f the d am age d o n e b y t he w in ter s now and rain, we beg an e x c a va ting again in some of o ur old tren ch es o n the ac rop olis . We deci ded t o dig deeper in a f e w s pots bef ore we expa nded the e xca vation h o r i zont ally across the a crop olis. W e uncove red what app ears to b e a larg e d r a i n running un dern eath the ru ins of t h e build ings o f the la st phase o f life in B y l a z ora . Th is in dicat es t hat there are p r o b ab ly s ub sta nti al ea rlier buil din gs to b e d i sc over ed be nea th. We als o un cov ered a m a ss ive stone wall runn ing paral lel to th e d e f ens ive w all of the acropoli s. W e will expo se mo re of thi s wa ll in t he u p c o ming w ee k s. This m ay mean th at th e a c r opo lis w as f ortif ied and defen ded wi th a c a se mate w al l (p arall el wa lls joined by i n t er mit tent sp ur w alls) . A s he rd w as fou nd n ear t he ca sema te wall. I t i s t he ba se of a n importe d Athenia n black g l a ze p iec e o f p ottery. There i s a g raffito s c ra tche d into t he un ders ide o f the bas e. It a p p ears to be the sym bol of the Pho en ician g o d de ss Ast ar te , a goddess of, a mon gs t o th e r th ings , fe rtili ty an d g ood f ortune. I t i s an int rigu ing piece to find here in a n c i ent Paionia .

Orienta tion fo r the n of the ew mem e x c a va t bers ion tea m

tre nch es Get tin g bac k int o the old

We have beg un with our us u a l w e e k l y lect ures; th e stu dent s were gi v e n a n introd uction to th e hi story of By l a z o ra an d th e excavati ons . In ad d i t i o n , o n e of the s tud ents pres ented a w o r k s h o p on pottery profi le d rawi ng . A nd a n experien ced volun teer g ave a n i n- th e tren ch d emon s tration of how t o d r a w stratigraph ical s ec tion s. Th anks to so me very g en erous d o na ti o ns that are s till com ing in , we w i l l b e a b l e to hire ad d ition al local wo r k er s a n d mach inery to open up a new s e c t i o n o f th e acropolis adj acen t to the area w e a r e no w excavatin g.


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past horizons

It has been a spectacular week in the trenches. We are completing our picture of t h a s the e e n a spectacular the acropolis ofthe b monumental propylon of week in t r e n c hBylazora. are completing our picture of e s . W e Parts of the propylon which we t h e m o n u m eonly hypothesized last year have now had n t al propylon of the acropolis of been r t s of the seems that which we had B y l a z o r a . P auncovered. Itpropylon after Bylazora had been abandoned, people came now o n l y h y p o t h e s ised last year have to the been u n c o v e r edeserted eems that after Bylazora had d . I t s site and quarried away many of the larger stones of the propylon. This meant b e e n a b a n d o n e d, people came to the deserted that only the deepest foundations of the s i t e a n d propylonied away many of the larger q u a r r were left for us to discover.

Dear - a and Supporters of TFAHR: We e k 2 Friends spectacular week

I

s t o n e s o f t h e p r opylon. This meant that only t h e d e e p e s t f o u ndations of the propy lon were l e f t f o r u s t o d iscover.

W e a r e a l s o extending our excavation to u n c o v e r m o r e of what now appears to be the c a s e m a t e w a l l of the acropolis. As usual, the f i r s t t h i n g s w e encounter in diggin g are

Cleaning the eastern wall of the rectangular room of the propylon.

We are also extending our excavation to uncover more of what now appears to be the casemate wall of the acropolis. As usual, the first things we encounter in digging are the ramshackle buildings of the last days of Bylazora (our so-called Second Squatter Period). Beneath this stratum, we anticipate encountering a halfmeter layer of sterile soil, and then the remains of the casemate wall. In another area of Sector 3, we have dismantled some of the walls of the Second Squatter Period to reveal earlier habitation levels. We have uncovered floors, drainsU n c o and storage vessels, but we have not yet ve the w ring a determined the precise date of these structures. sto all
n wal l of the Cle ani ng the eas ter on ar roo m of the pro pyl rec tan gul
build ing

ra of a Secon ge jar be d Squ atter neath Perio d

Finally, TFAHR and the People’s M u s e u m o f t h e r a m s h a c k l e buildings of the last days Sveti Nikole have some great ne w s t o s h a r e . o f B y l a z o r a ( o ur so-called Second Squatter In preparation for the application f o r a l i c e n s e P e r i o d ) . B e n e a th this stratum, we anticipate and state funding for the 2011 e x c a v a t i o n e n c o u n t e r i n g a half metre layer of sterile season, we have put down some e x p l o r a t o r y s o i l , a n d t h e n the remains of the casemate probes atop the acropolis. One of t h e s e p r o b e s has revealed some very intriguin g f i n d i n g s : wall. several carved stones which ar e t y p i c a l o f Clearing a roof tile fall of thetemple Squatter Period all over the Me d i t e r r a n e a n In another area of Sector 3, we have dismantled Second architecture (left). s o m e o f t h e Uncovering athe Second Squatter of a Second Squatter Period building (right). t e n d o u r w alls of storage jar beneath the wall area. Pending permission to e x P e r i o d t o r e v e a l earlier habitation levels. We excavation area to include thes e p r o b e s , w e h a v e u n c o v e r e d floors, drains and storage hope to dig in the area around t h e s e s t o n e s v e s s e l s , b u t w e have not yet determ ined the to determine the location of the t e m p l e f r o m which these stones came. p r e c i s e d a t e o f these structures. past horizons

50

W e e k 3-

a Hellenistic temple of the Doric order collection. When the weather fina l l y c l e a r e d , we were able to get back out to th e s i t e . A s w e mentioned in last week’s update , p r o b e s a t o p the acropolis revealed several ca r v e d s t o n e s which are typical of temple arc h i t e c t u r e a l l over the Mediterranean area. We are pleased to report that T F A H R a n d the People’s Museum of Sveti N i k o l e w e r e granted permission to dig thi s s e a s o n i n this new area, Sector 6. We have o p e n e d n e w squares in order to determine wh a t b u i l d i n g these carved stones came from. T h i s w e e k ’ s excavations have uncovered more o f t h e c a r v e d stones. So far we have triglyph a n d m e t o p e blocks, cornice pieces, column d r u m s a n d a column “base” - in short, all the e l e m e n t s a r e present of a traditional temple o f t h e D o r i c order.

A

f t e r t w o weeks of oppressive heat in S v e t i N i kole, the weather in the past w e e k g a v e w a y to a cold front which brought r a i n a n d a b i t ing wind. So much rain fell t h a t o u r d i g site was rendered too muddy t o w o r k . B u t t he TFAHR international field s c h o o l t o o k a d v antage of the day off for other l e a r n i n g a c t i v ities. I n v i t e d b y t he director of the People’s M u s e u m o f S veti Nikole, one of the field s c h o o l v o l u n t eers who is experienced in c o l l e c t i o n s m a nagement in a museum in S y d n e y , A u s tralia, guided a g roup of o t h e r f i e l d s c h ool students in the basics of d e s i g n f o r a n archaeological exhibition and b a s i c c o l l e c t i o ns management. The museum k i n d l y o f f e r e d hands-on experience to the s t u d e n t s i n w o rking with the archaeological

Cornice

Doric c apital

Anta Column drums Column base Cornice Triglyph and metop e
O u r p r e l i m i n a ry research suggests that, stylistically, this building is Hellen i s t i c , r a t h e r t h a n C l a s s i c a l . From what we have so far discovered, we can fairly well reco n s t r u c t t h e e l e v a t i o n o f t h e temple. Our next task is to find the platform of the temple (st y l o b a t e a n d s t e r eo b a t e c o u r ses), which will give us the length and width of the temple.

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Week 4 -

excavating the temple

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e c o n t i n ued working in Sector 6 on t h e r e m ains of the Doric temple we d i s c o v e r e d t w o weeks ago. We are beginning t o p i e c e t o g e t her not only the style and d i m e n s i o n s o f the temple, but al so some o f t h e d e t a i l s of the history of the temple. A s w e m e n t i o n ed in last week’s up date, we c a n t e n t a t i v e l y date the temple on stylistic g r o u n d s t o t h e Hellenistic era. When this t e m p l e w a s b u i l t, a tremendously thick layer o f g r e e n c l a y was laid down on this part of t h e a c r o p o l i s as a levelling course for the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the temple. T h e s t e r e o b a t e (levelling) courses of stone w e r e l a i d a t o p the clay, and then the temple p r o p e r w a s c onstructed. The tem ple was p r o b a b l y d e s t r oyed in the early 2nd century B C w h e n B y l a z ora itself was sacked and then d e s e r t e d . T h e r uins of the temple must have r e m a i n e d u n d i sturbed for quite some time b e f o r e l a t e r g e nerations (the Romans?) came b y a n d q u a r r i ed the stones of the temple to b u r n d o w n f o r lime mortar. We will have a m o r e c o m p l e t e discussion of the evidence for t h e h i s t o r y o f the temple, including its fate i n t h e l i m e k i l ns, in our 2010 report.

P o s s ib l e

foundat

io n o f a colonna

de

We found mixed amongst the d e b r i s o f t h e ruins of the temple a number of h u m a n a n d animal remains, as well as a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of datable burnt pottery . We have started moving some o f o u r c r e w back to Sector 3 where we excava t e d i n 2 0 0 8 and 2009. One of the discov e r i e s i n t h e last weeks of the 2009 season w a s a l a r g e ramshackle building built by s q u a t t e r s i n the last days of the life of B y l a z o r a . W e have begun dismantling that b u i l d i n g a n d have so far uncovered evidence of a t l e a s t t w o earlier phases of habitation. In t h e u p c o m i n g weeks we will continue diggin g d e e p e r i n this area, as well as opening n e w t r e n c h e s alongside the acropolis wall. This coming week will see t h e T F A H R international field school at i t s g r e a t e s t number, with new people arr i v i n g f r o m Spain, Germany and the USA.

sku lls Un cov eri ng hu ma n deb ris of th e tem ple

in

th e
ce o iden er g ev y erin y la ncov een cla U gr the bit f ha atio n be

neat

h

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52

Week 5 -

more intriguing discoveries

These deep stereobate courses, wh i c h t h e l i m e burners did not take the trouble t o e x c a v a t e , are providing us with enough inf o r m a t i o n t o estimate the size of the temple. I n a d d i t i o n , In Sector 6, where we discovered t h e r e m a i n s of the temple, we have continued u n c o v e r i n g more of the stereobate (levelling c o u r s e s o f the foundation) of the temple. W i t h e a c h d a y more evidence suggests that our t e m p l e m e t its end in a lime kiln. in Friday’s excavations we unco v e r e d a v e r y large wall which appears to ru n a d j a c e n t to the temple and possibly co n n e c t s w i t h the defensive wall of the acropo l i s . W e h o p e in next week’s excavations to m a k e t h i s connection.

me d c o n g lo A c la y a n

u c tu r r a te st r

e

W

e h a v e passed the halfway point in t h e 2 0 1 0 excavation season, and we c o n t i n u e t o m a ke intriguing discoveries. In S e c t o r 3 w e c o n tinued dismantling the large r a m s h a c k l e s t ructure built by squatters in t h e l a s t d a y s of Bylazora. Beneath some of t h e w a l l s o f t h at building, a number of large p i t h o i ( s t o r a g e vessels) came to light directly b e n e a t h t h e l a t er walls. In one room of that b u i l d i n g w e e x c avated beneath the floor levels o f t h e H e l l e n i stic and Classical eras, and f o u n d a s t r a n ge structure built entirely of c l a y a n d c o n g l omerate rock. Unfortunately, t h e fe w p o t s h erds found provide no precise d a t i n g f o r t h i s building. A l s o i n t h e S e ctor 3 excavations we exposed t h e f u l l l e n g t h of an anomalous s tructure t h a t w e f i r s t b e gan to uncover last week. The f i e l d s c h o o l v o l unteers have expertly mapped e v e r y s i n g l e s t one and tile of this structure; y e s t e r d a y w e b egan excavating trial trenches o n e i t h e r s i d e of this structure. We hope by t h e n e x t u p d a t e to be able to explain what t h i s s t r u c t u r e is.

Draw ing a plan of the anom alou s stru ctur e in Sect or 3

Spear point found in Sector 3 e x c a v a t i o n s . Some of the field school studen t s h a v e n o w completed their time with us and a r e o n t h e i r way home. They have expressed th e i r g r a t i t u d e to TFAHR and the donors for m a k i n g t h i s experience possible for them.

We are looking forward to three more exciting weeks at Bylazora.
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past horizons

D ig In
A selectio n of archaeolo g i c a l p r ojects around the worl d
Cyp ru s Pa p h o s Th e at re Arc h aeological Projec t
Work in 2010 will concentrate in the area of a Roman road to the south of the theatre. Successful applicants will work all aspects from excavation and site recording to basic finds processing. The theatre was constructed around 300BC and used for performance and entertainment for over six centuries until its final destruction by earthquake around 365AD. There is also considerable Late Roman and Mediaeval period activity on the site. Dates : 2 October-7 November 2010 (express ions of interest also sought for 2011 season) Costs: Students-$1300AUD, volunteers-$3000 AUD (does not include airfare) Contact: craig.barker@sydney.edu.au Web: http://www.paphostheatre.co m

Eng l a n d R o m a n Tow n o f D u rolevum
Excavation of a Roman cemetery to reveal a possible 1st century Roman invasion marching camp at Syndale Park, Faversham. Recent geophysical survey and excavation in the summer of 2009 has identified Roman burials and 1st century Roman double ditches alongside the Roman Watling Street. Beginners are welcome to the training course on the Monday 23rd to Friday 27th August, with the option to continue for further days. Dates: 14 August-24 September 2010 Costs: See website for details Contact: info@kafs.co.u k Web: http://www.kafs.co.u k

Bul g a r i a Tu n d z h a R e gi o n a l Archaeological Projec t
The project is looking for a committed group of people to continue a regional archaeological survey of the Tundzha river valley. Team members participate in a variety of tasks including field walking, paper and digital documentation, artefact collection and pro cessing, remote sensing and ground truthing, environmental sampling and trial excavation. The team normally comprises 15-25 researchers, students and volunteers. Dates: 2 October-15 November 2010 Costs: Approximately £250 per week for shared room and full board Contact: adelas@umich.ed u Web: http://www.citiesindust.org/index.htm l

Eng l a n d Wa l b e r to n R o m a n Vi lla Excavation
This is the fifth season of excavations of a large 3rd century Roman villa and will concentrate on the bath house furnace , and the possible late iron age/early roman ditches surrounding the villa itself. Previous excavations firmly established the floor plan of a five-room corridor villa. Wall foundations to a depth of 83cm were recorded but there appear to be no surviving floor levels. Dates: 21 August-4 September 2010 Costs: Attendance is free, but for insurance purposes you must join the Society. Annual membership is £15 Contact: contact@worthingarch.co.uk Web: http://www.worthingarch.co.u k

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Uni te d St ate s G a r f i e l d Fa r m
Excavation of the original log house site at this 1840s historically intact former Illinois prairie farmstead and teamster inn, which is being restored as an 1840s working farm museum. This newly-established five year archaeology investigation will allow volunteers to help excavate, screen, wash and catalogue artefacts in the vicinity of the original 1836 Culverson family log house, the first settling family of Garfield Farm. Dates: 22 September-3 October 2010 Costs: contact dig organisers Contact: info@garfieldfarm.org Web: http://www.garfieldfarm.org

Israe l Th e N e w Ti b e r i a s E xc avation Projec t
A building, originally declared a covered market, has recently been restudied and shown to be a congregational mosque dating from the Early Islamic period. The main aim of the present project is twofold: to define the phases and architectural development of the hypostyle building by exploring its unexcavated eastern portion, and to establish its urban context. Dates : 3-29 October 2010 Cost: $400-$500 per week Contact: tiberiasexcavation@yahoo.com Web: http://archaeology.huji.ac.il/Tiberias/Default.aspx

St. Vi n ce nt a n d t h e G re n a d i nes Public Archaeology Program
Preliminary survey of the site has revealed numerous postholes, some of which appear to be in a linear pattern, as well as two burials, one of which appears to be a human in flexed position. Artefacts identified on the surface include ceramics, stone tools, beads and food remains, indicating that occupation spans from the Saladoid period to Colonial and present times – a span of 2000 years. Excavations will commence in 2011. Dates: 9 January-5 February 2011 Costs: $1795 CAD per week and includes accommodation and meals. Airfare not included. Contact: info@svgdigs.co m Web: http://www.svgdigs.co m

I ta l y I n f ra - s i te a n d M a gn e t i c Sur vey in the Carapelle R iver Valley
Three areas of the valley were subjected to systematic archaeological survey between 2006 and 2007, revealing the remains of Neolithic villages, Daunian settlements, Roman villas and farms, and mediaev al houses. The 2010 project will consist of infra-site analysis and magnetic survey on some sampled archaeological sites revealed by previous field walking and aerial-photographs. Dates: 25 October-27 November 2010 Costs: No fee but participants will be charg ed €40 per day for food and board Contact: r.goffredo@unifg.it Web: http://www. archeologia.unifg.it

To view lots more projec ts go to: htt p : / / w w w. p a s t h o r i zo n s. co m / Wo rl d Pro j e c t s

P L E A S E N O T E: The dates for the 2011 projects will start being posted by the en d o f 2 0 1 0 a t t h e ea r l i e s t . I f there are any projects that interest you for 2011 get in touch with t h e r e l e v a n t f i e l d d i r e c t o r e xpressing your interest as early as possible.

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Recipes for Archaeologists
VA R I E T Y A N D T H E S P I C E O F L I F E
THE FOOD that I p r o d u c e o n a d i g varies according to t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s and the needs of the t e a m . teams, re-assembled and re-bound in m a n y f a r- f l u n g p l a c e s o v e r t h e y e a r s . Some of the pages from this book can be seen on my website, and some of the recipes which have featured right here in Past Horizons can be downloaded as P D F f r o m w w w. d i g c o o k . c o m. One of the challenges of my work is in finding the right ingredients, not o n l y i n a n u n f a m i l i a r v il l a g e s h o p o r supermarket but with the handicap of a l a n g u a g e d i ff e r e n c e . T h i s i s n o t a problem to me as I dislike the idea of a homogenized world where everything is the same. I believe that the fact that certain ingredients are not available in a p l a c e i s a r e m i n d e r o f c u l t u r a l d i ff e r e n c e and is something to be celebrated. But the cook is sometimes dealing with a group of people who have certain expectations, and he or she has to be able t o w o r k a r o u n d t h e p r a c t i ca l i t i e s o f s u c h i s s u e s . H o w e v e r, w h e n y o u ’ r e o u t i n t h e country in a location far from home it m a y b e d i ff i c u l t t o o b t a i n s u p p l i e s t o cook ethnic food from elsewhere in the world, and this is where some culinary l a t e r a l t h i n k i n g b e c o m e s n e c e s s a r y. T h e r e h a v e b e e n t i m e s wh e n I ’ v e u s e d spaghetti as noodles in Asian dishes a n d n o o n e h a s b e e n a n y t h e w i s e r. I m a k e a g o o d s u b s t i t u t e f or k e c a p m a n i s (Indonesian sweet soy) by simmering one cup of soy sauce and 2/3 cup brown s u g a r o v e r a l o w h e a t u n ti l i t ’s s l i g h t l y t h i c k a n d s y r u p y.

Annie Evans The Dig Cook

It might be comfort foo d f r o m t h e c o u n t r y where the participant s c o m e f r o m , q u i t e often using recipes fro m s o m e o f t h e t e a m members. Or I might c h o o s e q u a s i - l o c a l cuisine that becomes m o r e a u t h e n t i c a s I gradually familiarise m y s e l f w i t h l o c a l ingredients and metho d s o f p r e p a r a t i o n . Living in Australia, I’ v e l e a r n e d t o c o o k a wide variety of dis h e s b e c a u s e w e ’ r e a nation of immigran t s . O u r r e s t a u r a n t s and home kitchens o ff e r a n e n o r m o u s diversity of food fr o m m a n y c u l t u r e s with supplies of ingre d i e n t s t o m a t c h . For variety and to giv e e v e r y o n e a b o o s t I cook Asian dishes s u c h a s T h a i a n d Indian curries, and s o m e I n d o n e s i a n noodle dishes which p r o v i d e p l e n t y o f interest and exciteme n t t o t h e d i g m e n u . The balance of my m e n u r e p e r t o i r e includes dishes that h a v e p r o v e d v e r y popular over the year s . These come from th e o l d h a n d - m a d e recipe book I compi l e d t h e f i r s t t i m e I cooked for a dig b a c k i n 1 9 9 8 . A t that time, I left m a n y b l a n k p a g e s for additional recipe s . I s t i l l u s e t h a t battered, splattered a n d f o o d - e n c r u s t e d tome which is now f u l l t o o v e r f l o w i n g with recipes from eve r y w h e r e I ’ v e b e e n since my first project i n C y p r u s w h e n I cooked for a team fr o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Glasgow. Some of t h e s e a r e o r i g i n a l recipes that I would n e v e r a t t e m p t t o make for a large gro u p i n a p r i m i t i v e kitchen with inadequ a t e f a c i l i t i e s ; a f t e r all, there’s dinner p a r t y c o o k i n g a n d then there’s dig coo k i n g , a n d t h e t w o are very different thin g s .

I also travel with foil sac h e t s o f T h a i curry pastes and the fo l l o w i n g i s a recipe for making cocon u t m i l k f r o m desiccated coconut, wh i c h i s a l s o a handy ingredient to hav e i f a n y o n e I wouldn’t dream of g o i n g o n a d i g on the team is lactose in t o l e r a n t . without my recipe b o o k . I t h a s b e e n
photocopied by me m b e r s o f v a r i o u s
The Dig Cook’s website
http://www.digcook.com

© Annie E v a n s 2 0 1 0

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Coco n u t M i l k
2 1 ⁄ 2 cups water 2 c u ps desiccated coconut P i n c h of salt P l a c e water and coconut in a s a u c epan, heat gently until almost b o i l i ng then allow to cool to l u k e warm. Blend half the mixture, a n d then blend the second half. Strain through muslin then s q u e eze the muslin bag to extract t h e maximum milk. Do not discard t h e coconut. Repeat the process w i t h a further 2 1⁄2 cups water. C o m bine with the first infusion a n d add a small pinch of salt. M a k es 2 1⁄2 cups.

I a l s o like to serve chutney with curries b u t i t i s s o m e t i m e s v e r y h a r d t o f i n d . T h i s c h u t n e y r e c i p e i s e a s y and the ingredients are usually read i l y a v a i l a b l e .

Apr i co t c h u t n e y
2 5 0 grams dried apricots 2 c u ps boiling water 2 0 0 grams sultan as or raisins 1 1 ⁄ 2 cups brown sugar 1 c u p vinegar 1 ⁄ 2 t easpoon ground cloves or 6 whole cl o v e s 2 t e a spoons mustard seeds or one teaspoo n m u s t a r d p o w d e r 2 t e a spoons ground ginger (optional) C o v e r apricots with boiling water and a l l o w t o s t a n d a n d s o f t e n f o r t w o h o u r s . A d d r e m a i n i n g i n g r e dients and stir over a low heat until s u g a r d i s s o l v e s . B r i n g t o t h e b o i l . R e d u c e h ea t a n d s i m m e r u n c o vered for one hour or until the mixtu r e i s t h i c k . Wa t c h c a r e f u l l y f o r t h e l a s t 1 5 m i n u t e s . P o u r i n t o s t e r i lized jars and seal. Makes one litre. T h e following tandoori spice mix makes a q u i c k a n d e a s y p a s t e t o w h i c h y o u a d d y o g h u r t a n d m a r i n a t e s m a l l pieces of chicken. After two hou r s m a r i n a t i o n c o o k u n d e r o r o n a g r i l l . S e r v e w i t h t o a s t e d f l a k e d almonds, rice, pappadums and apr i c o t c h u t n e y. A d d a s p r i n k l e o f c h o p p e d c o r i a n d e r. D e l i c i o u s ! D e p e nding on where I’m going I may put a f e w p a c k s o f p a p p a d u m s i n t o m y l u g g a g e t o h a v e w i t h t h i s c u r r y.

Tand o o r i p a s te
1 t a b lespoon pap rika 1 t a b lespoon ground coriander seed 1 t a b lespoon ground cumin seed 3 t e a spoons ground ginger 1 t e a spoon turmeric 1 ⁄ 2 t easpoon ground chili powder 1 t a b lespoon veg etable oil M i x all of the above ingredients into a p a s t e . T h i s i s v e r y g o o d s t u ff !

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U
past horizons

Birmingham provides the ideal footing for anyone wanting to begin a career in archaeology or the heritage environment. Along with diverse skills and opportunities provided, I also got to experience city life in Britain’s second city. Thanks to the course, I have been employed in archaeology since I graduated in 2007. Emma Sautejeau, MA Practical Archaeology

B

The Institute of Archaeology and Antiquity offer a range of postgraduate and professional training courses aimed to provide you with the skills you need to work in the heritage environment today. From project management techniques in archaeology to the visualisation of past environments, we aim to give you practical experience in the diverse range of techniques and approaches available to heritage practitioners. All of the courses we offer can be tailored to your individual interests and needs, and can be delivered full-time or part-time degrees. Campus-based programmes MA/PG Diploma in Practical Archaeology MA/PG Diploma in Landscape Archaeology, GIS & Virtual Environments MSc in Environmental Archaeology & Palaeoenvironments MA in Conflict Archaeology M Phil (B) in Archaeological Practice Distance Education programmes MA/PG Diploma in Practical Archaeology (DE) MA/PG Diploma in Landscape Archaeology, GIS & Virtual Environments (DE) To find out more, go to http://www.iaa.bham.ac.uk/Postgraduate/ or email us at archpgrad@lists.bham.ac.uk

Emma holding a medieval leather shoe recovered from excavations in Birmingham

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Viewpoin t
The b e n e f i ts o f tea c h i n g cul tural her i t age
T H E FEAR of cuts and cutbacks has now b e c o m e a r e a lity for many of us in the heritage i n d u s t r y, from possible closure of ‘non-pr o f i t a b l e ’ m u s e ums, to the pruning of essential serv i c e s t h a t d o n ot include archaeology within its rin g - f e n c e d p r o t ection. So, is this a sad reality that w e m u s t a c c e pt with a shrug and a weak smile whic h a d m i t s t h a t maybe archaeology is not very impor t a n t a f t e r a l l ? It is fair to say that given a choice b e t w e e n b i n collection, street repairs, and fun d i n g f o r s c h o ols and hospitals, versus handing o u t m o n e y t o a r chaeology and other cultural platfo r m s , t h e n e e d s for basic services will always w i n o u t . H o w ever, there may be valuable points w e h a v e f a i l e d to consider in the cost-cutting fre n z y. R e a d ing about the Project Archaeology v e n t u r e ( p a g e 8) I am inclined to think there a r e o t h e r p o t e ntial losses which are easy to lose s i g h t o f w h e n budgets are being drawn up. When c u t s a r e m a d e , (and it is when rather than if), the l o n g - t e r m l o s s e s to heritage must be taken into consi d e r a t i o n ; a f t e r all, talented individuals, museums , a n d t h e p a s t identity of a community cannot be p u t i n t o s t o r a ge while money is being saved. O n c e l o s t t h e s e are generally lost for good, and wha t w e o n c e c o n s idered to be luxuries, or interesting p l a c e s o r h o b b ies, turn out to be far more deep-ro o t e d t h a n w e h ad ever have imagined. O v e r the last year I have been fortunate e n o u g h t o t e a c h evening cl asses in archaeology, w h i c h h a s a l l o wed me a whole new perspective on th e n o t i o n o f p ublic archaeology. None of my clas s h a s a n y i n t e n tion of taking up archaeology as a ca r e e r, b u t b y t heir own ad mission it has made th e m v i e w t h e world in a different way. It has giv e n t h e m t h e s kills to analyse the environment w e l i v e i n , g i v i n g confidence in real life situations, a n d e v e n m a k i ng sense of Pythagoras (how else do y o u g e t a r i g h t angle on a t rench!). They have deve l o p e d a n appreciation of where they are and who they are; t h e y d i s c u s s t h i s w i t h f r i e n d s a n d f a m i l y, p a s s i n g on new knowledge and sharing the excitement. This can be about working out the location of v i e w p o i n t s i n a n o v e rg r o w n 1 8 t h c e n t u r y g a r d e n or finding a WWII metalled road. Archaeology is not just about hacking through jungles to find lost civilisations; discovery can happen anywhere and at any time, especially if you have been taught the appropriate skills. The principal is one of holistic understanding of community where interpersonal skills, outdoor fitness, careful thought and study combine with t h e m a i n i n g r e d i e n t w h i c h i s e n j oy m e n t . G r o u p bonding comes with finding a common purpose and realistic goals give everyone a sense of achievement. This is a basic necessity for the h e a l t h y s o c i e t y t h a t w e a l l s t r i v e f o r. Yo u n g a n d o l d , r i c h o r p o o r, i t r e a l l y d o e s n o t m a t t e r w h e n y o u a r e a l l i n i t t o g e t h e r, a n d t h i s i s w h e r e t h e need for decent facilities and good educators comes in. Lose them and you lose a foundation s t o n e . Te a c h i n g a n d c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e s a r e n o t w i n d o w d r e s s i n g f o r a n a ff l u e n t p u b l i c : t h e y h a v e been, and will continue to be, important to our wellbeing. So what can we do to protect our cultural heritage? In a way we are both powerless and powerful. F i n a n c i a l c u t s w i l l t a k e p l a c e . H o w e v e r, w h e n it comes to losing something that has been wellestablished in the hearts and minds of a nation (such as Project Archaeology), it becomes harder to make these cuts. When there is a grass roots support from a majority of people who have benefited from heritage education then they will fight to keep rather than cut. After all, the value of heritage cannot always be measured in economic t e r m s a n d w h e n t h e f i n a n c ia l c r i s i s i s o v e r i t s n o t s o m et h i n g t h a t w e c a n j u s t p u r c h a s e b a c k .

D avid Connolly is the direc tor of British A rchaeolo gical J obs and Resources (B AJR) Web: http://w w w.bajr.org

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WHS
F i n d i t H e re

W O R K H A R D O R S TA RV E

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