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Winter 1996

Vol. 7, No. 1






Small Community Wastewater Issues Explained to the Public


treatment may be a
any homes in the U.S. are For this reason, aerobic systems cost the soil quality is not appropriate

M located in small or rural

communities where houses
are spaced widely apart. In
more to operate and need more routine
maintenance than most septic systems.
However, when properly operated and
for a septic system,
there is high groundwater or
shallow bedrock,
these communities, central sewerage maintained, aerobic systems can provide a higher level of wastewater
systems are often not cost-effective, so a high quality wastewater treatment treatment is required,
many homeowners rely on septic systems alternative to septic systems. a septic system has failed, and/or
or other systems that treat and dispose of there is not enough land available
household wastewater onsite. Some Why choose aerobic treatment? for a septic system.
homes for which septic systems are not a
good option rely on individual home Although there have been home aerobic
aerobic systems for wastewater treatment. systems in the U.S. for more than 50 not be the best wastewater treatment
Aerobic systems are similar to septic years, their use has been fairly limited. option.
systems in that they both use natural This is due, in part, to the widespread use For example, septic systems are not
processes to treat wastewater. But unlike of septic systems. suitable for every lot. In fact, approxi-
septic (anaerobic) treatment, the aerobic Septic tank-soil absorption systems are mately two-thirds of all the land area in
treatment process requires oxygen. relatively inexpensive and are easy to the U.S. is estimated to be unsuitable for
Aerobic treatment units, therefore, use a maintain. They are the most common the installation of septic systems. Some
mechanism to inject and circulate air onsite wastewater treatment systems used homes may not have enough land area or
inside the treatment tank. This mechanism in rural areas. However, there are many appropriate soil conditions to accommo-
requires electricity to operate. households for which a septic system may date the soil absorption drainfield. In
some communities, the water table is too
high to allow the drainfield to give
adequate treatment to the wastewater
before it is returned to the groundwater.
Other site-related concerns include
homes located on wooded lots or on lots
close to a body of water. Homeowners in
wooded areas may not want to clear
enough land to install a septic tank and
drainfield, and the wastewater treated by a
septic system is often not of high enough
quality to be discharged very close to a
body of water.
But one of the most common reasons
that aerobic wastewater treatment units
are chosen by communities is to replace
failing septic systems. Failing septic

Continued page22 1
PIPELINE - Winter 1996; Vol. 7, No. 1 National Small Flows Clearinghouse 1-800-624-8301

Are Aerobic Systems Right for My Aerobic Treatment

Pros and Cons
Aerobic treatment systems are not Standard 40 may carry the NSF mark (see Can provide a higher level of treat-
accepted in all areas. Regulations for onsite mark below). ment than a septic tank
systems can vary from state to state and In addition to testing their units, NSF Helps to protect valuable water
from one local government to the next. requires manufacturers to include the cost resources where septic systems are
One possible reason that the acceptance of the first two years of service in the price failing
of aerobic systems has been slow in some of purchase. During this initial service Provides an alternative for sites not
communities may be that local regulators contract, each piece of equipment must be suited for septic systems
May extend the life of a drainfield
dont have much experience with them. serviced a minimum of two times per year,
May allow for a reduction in drainfield
Unless aerobic systems are already in use and emergency service must be available
locally, there is little opportunity for to the homeowner. Manufacturers must
officials to become familiar with their also offer the homeowner the option of Disadvantages
performance in different situations. renewing the service contract after the two More expensive to operate than a

A major reason that aerobic systems are years. septic system
not more widely used is concern about In most cases, the service contract is Requires electricity
improper operation and maintenance by carried out by the dealer selling the aerobic Includes mechanical parts that can
homeowners. Aerobic systems require unit, who represents the manufacturer. break down
regular maintenance, and abuse or neglect Standard 40 details what type of service is Requires more frequent routine
can easily lead to system failure. R and what records need to
to be performed maintenance than a septic tank
In answer to these concerns, NSF be kept. Both the manufacturers and their Subject to upsets under sudden
heavy loads or when neglected
International (formerly the National distributors are inspected annually by NSF
May release more nitrates to ground-
Sanitation Foundation) has tested aerobic to ensure continued compliance with the water than a septic system
units according to the requirements of requirements. (For more information, read
ANSI/NSF Standard 40. NSF International the article Aerobic System Maintenance
is a nonprofit organization devoted to the on page 6).
protection of public health and the Some state and local governments that
environment through the development of allow aerobic treatment require that units
product standards, product evaluations, carry the NSF approval. Your local health TREATMENT: AN ALTERNATIVE TO
research, education, and training. The department will be familiar with the SEPTIC SYSTEMS
American National Standards Institute regulations and permit requirements for
(ANSI) is the recognized accreditor in the your area, as well as which onsite options
Continued from page 1
U.S. for organizations that develop are best for your particular property. systems are a major source of groundwater
consumer standards and for those that (To inquire about regulations or permit pollution in some areas. If a failed septic
provide independent product evaluations. requirements in your area, contact your system needs to be replaced or if a site is
NSF is accredited by ANSI for both of local health department. Helpful contacts inappropriate for conventional systems,
these areas of service. Aerobic units that for aerobic systems are listed on page 7.) aerobic wastewater treatment becomes a
satisfy the requirements of ANSI/NSF viable option.
This issue of Pipeline focuses on indi-

I N T H I S I S S U E vidual home aerobic units as an alternative

for onsite wastewater treatment. Please feel
free to share, copy, or distribute this
1 Home aerobic wastewater treatment: 6 How much does aerobic
information to others in your community.
an alternative to septic systems treatment cost?
Articles in Pipeline can be reprinted in local
2 Are aerobic systems right for my 6 Aerobic system maintenance
newspapers or included in flyers, newslet-
community? 7 Contacts ters, and educational presentations. We ask
2 Aerobic treatment pros and cons 7 NSFC databases offer wastewater only that you send us a copy of the reprinted
3 How aerobic treatment works information article for our files.
5 Aerobic system dos and donts 7 Wastewater courses offered . . . If you have any questions or require
5 Warning signs of aerobic system 7 Standard 40 and other resources further information about any of the topics
problems available from NSF International in this newsletter, please contact the
8 Resources available from NSFC National Small Flows Clearinghouse at
(800) 624-8301.
PIPELINE - Winter 1996; Vol. 7, No. 1 National Small Flows Clearinghouse 1-800-624-8301


Aerobic systems treat wastewater using Suspended Growth Units by a pumping device). The sludge contains
natural processes that require oxygen. The process most aerobic units use to bacteria that also aid in the treatment
Bacteria that thrive in oxygen-rich treat wastewater is referred to as suspended process. Although, in theory, the aerobic
environments work to break down and growth. These units include a main com- treatment process should eventually be
digest the wastewater inside the aerobic partment called an aeration chamber in able to consume the sludge completely, in
treatment unit. which air is mixed with the wastewater. practice, the sludge does build up in most
Like most onsite systems, aerobic Since most home aerobic units are buried units and will need to be pumped out at
systems treat the wastewater in stages. underground like septic tanks, the air must least once a year so that solids dont clog
Sometimes the wastewater receives the unit.
pretreatment before it enters the aerobic
unit, and the treated wastewater leaving the Attached Growth Units
unit requires additional treatment or An alternative design for aerobic
disinfection before being returned to the AERATOR
treatment is the attached growth system.
environment. These units treat wastewater by taking a
Such a variety of designs exist for home surface made of material that the bacteria
aerobic units and systems that it is IN OUT
can attach to, and then exposing that
impossible to describe a typical system. surface alternately to wastewater and air.
Instead, it is more practical to discuss how COMPAARTMENT
This is done either by rotating the surface
some common design features of aerobic SETTLING in and out of the wastewater or by dosing
systems work and the different stages of ROTOR
the wastewater onto the surface. Pretreat-
aerobic treatment. SLUDGE RETURN ment is required. The air needed for the
process is either naturally present or is
PRETREATMENT supplied mechanically.
Figure 1An example of a possible aerobic Attached growth systems, such as trick-
unit design ling filters and rotating disks, are less
Some aerobic systems include a Adapted with permission from Pennsylvania State
pretreatment step to reduce the amount of University College of Agriculture Extension Service common than suspended growth systems,
solids in the wastewater going into the but have certain advantages. For example,
aerobic unit. Solids include greases, oils, be forced into the aeration chamber by an there is no need for mixing, and solids are
toilet paper, and other materials that are put air blower or a compressor. less likely to be washed out of the system
down the drain or flushed into the system The forced air mixes with wastewater in during periods of heavy household water
(see the list of what not to flush on page 5). the aeration chamber, and the oxygen use.
Too much solid material can clog the unit supports the growth of aerobic bacteria that
and prevent effective treatment. digest the solids in the wastewater. This Flow Design
Some pretreatment methods include a mixture of wastewater and oxygen is called The way and the rate in which wastewa-
septic tank, a primary settling compartment the mixed liquor. ter is received by and flows through the
in the treatment unit, or a trash trap. The treatment occurring in the mixed aerobic unit differs from design to design.
Pretreatment is optional but can greatly liquor is referred to as suspended growth Continuous flow designs simply allow the
improve a units performance. because the bacteria grow as they are wastewater to flow through the unit at the
suspended in the liquid unattached to any same rate that it leaves the home. Other
surface. designs employ devices (such as pretreat-
AEROBIC TREATMENT UNITS Unfortunately, the bacteria cannot digest ment tanks, surge chambers, and baffles) to
all of the solids in the mixed liquor, and control the amount of the incoming flow.
The main function of the aerobic unit is to these solids eventually settle out as sludge. Batch process designs use pumps or
collect and treat household wastewater, Many aerobic units include a secondary siphons to control the amount of wastewa-
which includes all water from toilets, chamber called a settling chamber or ter in the aeration tank and/or to discharge
bathtubs, showers, sinks, and laundry. clarifier (see figure 1) where excess solids the treated wastewater in controlled
Aerobic units themselves come in many can settle. Other designs allow the sludge amounts after a certain period of time.
sizes and shapesrectangular, conical, and to accumulate at the bottom of the tank Controlling the flow of wastewater helps
some shapes that defy classification. Figure (see figure 2 on page 4). to protect the treatment process. When too
1 on this page and figure 2 on page 4 show In aerobic units designed with a separate much wastewater is flushed into the system
two aerobic unit design possibilities. settling compartment, the sludge returns to all at once, it can become overburdened,
the aeration chamber (either by gravity or
Continued on page 4 3
PIPELINE - Winter 1996; Vol. 7, No. 1 National Small Flows Clearinghouse 1-800-624-8301

HOW AEROBIC soil or directly to a body of water. Your outside the home, and alarms can be
health department is familiar with local visible, audible, or both.
regulations and the treatment options that Homeowners should make sure that
Continued from page 3 are best in your area and for your property. controls and alarms are always protected
Soil absorption fields (or drainfields) are from corrosion, and that the aerobic unit is
and the quality of treatment can suffer. The
the most common method of final turned back on if there is a power outage or
disadvantages to mechanical flow control
treatment used for septic systems. If an if it is turned off temporarily.
devices are that, like all mechanical
aerobic system is being used in place of a
components, they need maintenance and
septic system or to replace a failing septic Size
run the risk of malfunctioning.
system, a drainfield may not be an option. Aerobic units should be large enough to
Homeowners can help their systems
However, an aerobic unit can sometimes allow enough time for the solids to settle
help to prolong the life of a drainfield. and for the wastewater to be treated. The
The amount of dissolved oxygen size of most units range from 300 to 1,500
contained in wastewater from an aerobic gallons per day, but local regulations often
unit can help the growth of microorgan- require that the unit be at least large
isms that treat the wastewater in the soil, enough to handle 500 gallons of wastewa-
and can help prevent the pores in the soil ter per day.
from clogging. However, when aerobic The needed size of an aerobic unit is
units malfunction, they can release solids often estimated the same way the size of a
that can clog the drainfield, which may septic tank is estimated, by the number of
cancel out any potential benefits. bedrooms (not bathrooms) in the house. It
TUBE Evapotranspiration beds are a less com- is assumed that each person will use
mon method of final treatment and use approximately 50 to 100 gallons of water
vegetation and evaporation to naturally per day, and that each bedroom can accom-
treat the wastewater. Drip irrigation is modate two people. When calculated this
Figure 2Another example of a possible another less commonly used method to way, a three-bedroom house will require a
aerobic unit design treat and dispose of wastewater. unit with a capacity of 300 to 600 gallons
Adapted with permission from Pennsylvania State
University College of Agriculture Extension Service
Sand filters are sometimes used to treat per day.
the wastewater from aerobic units. The Some health departments require that
wastewater is pumped evenly over several aerobic units be sized at least as large as a
performance by conserving water. Leaking
layers of sand and gravel, which are septic tank in case the aerobic unit
faucets and running toilets should be
located either above or below ground. As malfunctions and oxygen doesnt mix with
repaired, and washing machines and dish-
with soil treatment systems, the purifica- the wastewater. In such cases, the aerobic
washers should be used only when full.
tion process is aided by bacteria that occur unit will work as a septic tankwhich
Installing water saving devices in toilets,
naturally in the sand. will, at least, provide partial treatment for
faucets, and showers can reduce water use
Disinfection is another method of the wastewater.
by up to 50 percent. Also, homeowners
treatment commonly used with aerobic
should try to space out activities requiring
units. Some units have the disinfection
heavy water use (like laundry) to avoid Temperature
process incorporated into the unit design.
overloading their systems. Lower temperatures tend to slow down
In some cases, disinfection may be the
most biological processes, and higher
only treatment required of the wastewater
temperatures tend to speed them up. The
from an aerobic unit before the water is
FINAL TREATMENT AND released into the environment. One
aerobic process itself creates heat, which,
along with the heat from the electrical
DISPOSAL disadvantage of this method is the added
components, may help to keep the
cost of the disinfectants, such as chlorine.
treatment process active. However, cold
Although properly operated and
weather can have adverse effects on the
maintained aerobic units are very effective,
performance of aerobic units.
the wastewater leaving the units is not OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS In one study of aerobic units, there were
ready to be returned to the environment
problems when the temperature of the
and must receive final treatment or Controls and Alarms wastewater inside some of the units fell
disinfection. Methods for final treatment Most aerobic units have controls that can below 15 degrees Celsius (59 degrees
include discharge to a soil absorption field, be switched on and off by the homeowner Farenheit). Problems can sometimes be
a sand filter, or an evapotranspiration bed. in case of emergency. Aerobic units also avoided by insulating around the units.
Sometimes, the wastewater receives are required to have alarms to alert the Your health department should know
disinfection before being discharged to the homeowner of malfunctions. Depending whether aerobic systems are suitable for
on the design of the system, controls and your area.
4 alarms can be located either inside or

PIPELINE - Winter 1996; Vol. 7, No. 1 National Small Flows Clearinghouse 1-800-624-8301


Do maintain the contract service Dont allow anyone to drive over or park
arrangement offered by the manufacturer on any part of the system.
after the initial two-year period has
expired (unless your community offers its Dont make or allow unauthorized
own management program). It is ex- repairs or changes to your aerobic system
tremely important that aerobic systems without obtaining the required health
receive regular maintenance. department permits.

Do keep your system accessible for Dont use your toilet as a trash can or
inspections and pumping, yet protected poison your treatment system and the
from unauthorized entrance. If access to groundwater by pouring harmful chemi-
your system is locked, make sure that cals down the drain. Harsh chemicals can
your service contractor has a key. kill the beneficial bacteria that treat your
Do call a service professional whenever
you experience problems with your Dont use a garbage disposal without
system, whenever the alarm is activated, checking with your local regulatory
or whenever there are any signs of system agency to make sure that your aerobic
failure. system can accommodate this additional
Do keep detailed records about your
aerobic system, including a map of where Dont attempt to clean or perform DO NOT FLUSH...
it is, and general information, such as maintenance on any sealed aerobic unit
model name, capacity, state license, date components. coffee grounds
installed, contract service agreement,
dental floss
records of service visits, and maintenance
disposable diapers
kitty litter
Do conserve water to avoid overloading WARNING SIGNS sanitary napkins
the system. Be sure to repair any leaky of Aerobic System Problems tampons
faucets or toilets. cigarette butts
! Alarms or lights going off condoms
Do divert other sources of water, like ! Any changes in the systems gauze bandages
roof drains, house footing drains, and normal operating sound fat, grease, or oil
sump pumps away from the aerobic paper towels
! Any changes in the normal
color of the wastewater in
and never flush chemicals, such as:
Do become familiar with how your own the aeration chamber (for paints
particular system operates, and the way it example, if the color is varnishes
looks, sounds, and smells when it is greyish brown rather than thinners
working correctly. This way, you may be chocolate brown, this waste oils
able to identify problems before they
can sometimes indicate photographic solutions
become serious and alert your service
provider to anything unusual. problems) pesticides
! Excessive solids, foam, or
Do be sure to ask your service provider scum in the unit These items can overtax or destroy the
questions about how to know if your unit ! Plumbing backups biological digestion taking place
is malfunctioning. within your system.
! Sewage odors in the house
or yard

PIPELINE - Winter 1996; Vol. 7, No. 1 National Small Flows Clearinghouse 1-800-624-8301

Aerobic System Maintenance

? Q& A
How much does aerobic
treatment cost?
It is important that mechanical compo-
nents in aerobic systems receive regular
inspection and maintenance. For example,
air compressors sometimes need to be oiled,
and vanes, filters, and seals may need to be
replaced. Malfunctions are common during
the first few months after installation. In
most cases, homeowners do not have the
to know how to shut the system down in the
off season and start it again when needed.
After the first visit, the maintenance service
contract is issued to the homeowner.
The maintenance contract may include at
least two service visits per year for the next
two years. The number of visits and service
performed will differ from unit to unit and
expertise to inspect, repair, and maintain location to location depending on manufac-
their own systems. turers recommendations and local
The cost of aerobic treatment varies If your unit carries the NSF approval, it regulations.
depending on factors, such as design, will include the first two years of service During a typical visit, the service provider
size, location, and operation and visits with the purchase price and an option will remove the units cover and check its
maintenance requirements. Some of the to renew the service contract after two general appearance. He or she will check
factors affecting the cost of aerobic years. It is a good idea for homeowners to pipes and the inside of the aeration chamber,
treatment are as follows: renew their service agreements after two and will note the appearance of the waste-

years, or to find another service organization water inside the unit and its color and odor.
unit price, to take over the job. If the unit includes a chlorinator, this too
cost of unit installation and electri- In addition to routine maintenance, NSF will be checked and may be cleaned.
cians fees, requires service contractors to stock Samples may be taken of the mixed liquor
replacement parts for mechanical compo- from the aeration chamber, as well as the
cost of construction of the drainfield
or cost of other method of additional
nents and to be available for emergency final treated wastewater. The operator will
treatment if required, servicing. Under the original two-year also check to see that all mechanical parts,
agreement, failed equipment is replaced at alarms, and controls are in working order,
cost of electricity (per year), no additional cost to the homeowner. and that solids are pumped from the system
maintenance service contract fee The service contract may or may not if needed.
(per year), and cover such problems as damage from The soil absorption field, sand filter, or
power failures, breaking or crushing of other method of final treatment may also be
cost of disinfection (if applicable). pipes leading to and from the system, inspected by the service provider.
flooding, fires, homeowner misuse, and
The price of some of these factors,
such as unit price, may be adversely
other catastrophies beyond the control of the Record Keeping
affected by the lack of demand for Service visits will most likely be carried
aerobic systems in certain areas. It is a good idea for the homeowner or the
out by the dealer or another independent service provider to keep detailed records
Installation costs may be higher for service organization that has an agreement
aerobic units than for septic tanks about the system and service visits. NSF-
with the manufacturer. In other cases, health approved units are required to include a
because of the electrical work required. departments will have maintenance
All of these factors need to be users manual that describes such things as
management programs, such as sanitary the manufacturers recommendations for
carefully considered when determining districts, for aerobic systems and other
the cost-effectiveness of aerobic the unit, the system design, how to operate
onsite systems in their area. and maintain it, as well as how to tell if it is
treatment versus other treatment
methods. Your local health official can working properly. The state license, the date
help you evaluate your options.
What To Expect at a Typical the system was installed, the type of
Service Visit disinfection, and any modifications to the
system should also be recorded.
The first service visit should be scheduled Other important information to keep on
immediately after the system is installed to hand includes where to contact the owner if
make sure that everything is working nobody is home, where to find a key to the
correctly. The service contractor may also system, and the schedule for service visits.
arrange a meeting with the homeowner to Homeowners should keep their own
go over issues, such as proper operation, copies of all records and permits.
what to do in case of emergency, etc. For
seasonal properties, homeowners will need

PIPELINE - Winter 1996; Vol. 7, No. 1 National Small Flows Clearinghouse 1-800-624-8301


NSFC databases offer wastewater

The National Small Flows Clearing- Database (Item #WWPCCM16) to get a
house (NSFC) maintains a Manufacturers list of aerobic unit manufacturers. Or a
and Consultants Database to provide community official interested in installing
callers with contacts for wastewater
products and professional consulting.
an aerated lagoon or other innovative
system can request a search of the
NSFC also has a Facilities Database to Facilities Database (Item #WWPCCM15)
assist callers in contacting facilities using to get information about other communi- NSF International
innovative and alternative wastewater ties that have already installed the system. (formerly the National Sanitation Foundation)
technologies. Both databases serve as Efforts are currently underway to update NSF International is a private,
resources for homeowners, engineers, and and expand both databases. To request a nonprofit organization devoted to
small community officials. search, contact NSFC technical assistance research, education, service, and
For example, homeowners interested in at (800) 624-8301. Please specify the topic training that tests and publishes
information on the different models of of the search and the item number. The standards for products relating to
home aerobic units available on the market price is 15 cents per page, and the number public health and the environment.
could call the NSFC and request a search of pages varies by search. A shipping and To order the ANSI/NSF Standard 40,
of the Manufacturers and Consultants handling charge will apply. see the listing at the bottom of this
page. For more information, you may
contact NSF at (800) NSF-MARK.
Wastewater courses offered for
trainers, assistance providers Health Department
Homeowners interested in home
aerobic wastewater treatment units
The National Environmental Training City, Missouri. This course will include
or other onsite systems should
Center for Small Communities (NETCSC), the types, design, and demonstration of
contact their local health department
a sister organization of the National Small these systems.
for more information about local
Flows Clearinghouse (NSFC), is offering ENVIIndustrial
RO Pretreatment and Hazardous
regulations and requirements.
three wastewater courses developed A NRecognition is scheduled for
trainers and technical assistance providers: April 21 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Held in
(Health departments are usually listed


in the government section or blue


Onsite Wastewater System Operation conjunction with the National Environ- pages of local phone directories.)

and Maintenance will be held March 18- mental Training Associations annual
20 in Morgantown, West Virginia. Cospon- conference, this half-day trainer education
sored by the NSFC, this course will cover program focuses on the identification and National Small Flows
subsurface system components, basic rules management of industrial and commercial Clearinghouse (NSFC)

and concepts, and system operation and discharges to wastewater treatment plants. The National Small Flows


maintenance to ensure long-term A success. For more information about Clearinghouse (NSFC), located at
Land Application of Wastewater:I N E N training programs or to
Operation and Maintenance of Overland
register for these courses, contact Sandy
West Virginia University, is a good
contact for homeowners and
Flow and Surface (Spray) Irrigation Miller at (800) 624-8301, ext 536. community officials for more informa-
Systems is set for April 13 in Kansas tion about home aerobic units, septic
systems, and alternative systems.
The NSFC is funded by the U.S.
Standard 40 and other resources Environmental Protection Agency and
offers technical assistance and a
available from NSF International variety of free and low-cost products
to help small communities with
Related Products, Components, and wastewater issues. Some of these
Copies of ANSI/NSF Standard 40 Individual
NSFC products are listed on the back
Aerobic Wastewater Treatment Plants are Materials. The book is updated three times a
page. You may contact the NSFC at
available to the public. This standard details all year and includes a complete list of manufac-
(800) 624-8301.
of the product requirements that NSF uses for turers and models meeting NSF requirements.
the evaluation of aerobic systems leading to The price is $8.
NSF approval. The price is $25. For more information or to order these
NSF also publishes a book, titled NSF products, contact NSF International at (800)
Listings of Wastewater Treatment Systems and NSF-MARK.
PIPELINE - Winter 1996; Vol. 7, No. 1 National Small Flows Clearinghouse 1-800-624-8301
To order any of the following products, call Fact Sheet Package: Onsite Systems HELP! EPA Resources for Small Governments
the National Small Flows Clearinghouse Various onsite systems are described in This booklet is designed to help small
(NSFC) at (800) 624-8301, or write to these fact sheets, including community community officials find technical,
NSFC, West Virginia University, P.O. Box soil absorption systems, septic tank educational, and financial assistance.
6064, Morgantown, WV 26506-6064. mound systems, tank truck collection, and The price is $14.10. Item #GNBLGN01.
Be sure to request each item by title and sand filters. The price for the package is
item number. A shipping and handling
$1.90. Item #WWPCGN26.
charge will apply.
Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal PIPELINE
Customized Bibliographic Database Search Systems Pipeline is published quarterly by the National Small
As with the Manufacturers and Consult- Technical information on onsite wastewa- Flows Clearinghouse at West Virginia University,
P.O. Box 6064, Morgantown, WV 26506-6064.
ants and Facilities databases described on ter treatment and disposal systems is
page 7, individual, customized computer provided in this design manual. It Pipeline is sponsored by:
searches are available by request from discusses site evaluation procedures, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Washington, D.C.
NSFCs Bibliographic Database. The characteristics of wastewater, different Steve HogyeProject Officer
Bibliographic Database includes hundreds treatment and disposal methods, residuals Municipal Support Division
of articles and technical documents on disposal, and management of onsite Office of Wastewater Management
wastewater topics, such as systems. The manual is written for National Small Flows Clearinghouse
home aerobic treatment engineers and other technical profession- West Virginia University
systems. The price is 15 als. The price for this 410-page book is Morgantown, WV
Peter CaseyProgram Coordinator
cents per page, and the $45. Item #WWBKDM35. Jill Ross Publications Supervisor
number of pages varies by Jennifer HauseSpecial Technical Advisor
search. Please specify the Financial Capability Summary Foldout: A Cathleen Falvey Editor
Simplified Approach Daniel GloydGraphic Designer
topic of the search.
Item #WWPCCM12. This booklet provides a simplified Permission to quote from or reproduce articles in
approach to evaluating which alternative this publication is granted when due acknowledgement
is best for a community from a technical, is given. Please send a copy of the publication in which
Free State Regulatory Contacts List information was used to the Pipeline editor at
This free list of contacts from states that financial, and managerial viewpoint. After the address above.
have onsite wastewater regulations selecting a plan, this booklet can help ISSN: 1060-0043
includes a contact persons name, determine if a community has the PIPELINE is funded by the United States Environmental Protection
Agency. The contents of this newsletter do not necessarily reflect the
department, address, and telephone financial and management capabilities to views and policies of the Environmental Protection Agency, nor does
construct, operate, and maintain the the mention of trade names or commercial products constitute
number. A shipping and handling charge endorsement or recommendation for use.
still applies. Item #WWPCRG34. facility. The price for the booklet is $1.05.
Item #FMBLFNO4. Printed on recycled paper

For Wastewater Information, Call the NSFC at 1-800-624-8301.

National Small Flows Clearinghouse Nonprofit Organization



West Virginia University U.S. Postage Paid

P.O. Box 6064

E Permit No. 34

Morgantown, WV 26506-6064 Morgantown, WV

PIPELINE - Winter 1996; Vol. 7, No. 1 National Small Flows Clearinghouse 1-800-624-8301