You are on page 1of 20

u&ifah wmfveS af &;

ae@xl;ae@jrwfrsm;

(tusOf;)

zl;paumv,fawm.
oifwef;rSwpf x
k rJ S
xkwEf w
k ,
f o
l nf?

1-1-2003
rmwdum pmrsuEf mS

1? u&ifEpS o
f pfu;l ae@ 3

2? u&ifah wmfveS af &;ae@ 6

3? autJe,
f al e@ 10

4? u&iftrsKd ;om;ae@ 11

5? aumfo;l avae@ 13

6? aumfo;l avwyfrawmfae@ 14

7? autJe'f t
D akd e@ 16

8? u&iftrsKd ;om;tmZmenfae@ 17

2
zl;paumv,fawm{?f oifwef;rSwfpkxJrS xkwfEkwf,lonf
u&ifhawmfvSefa&; ae@xl;ae@jrwfrsm;
(tusO;f )

1? u&ifEh pS o
f pfu;l ae@(oavvqef;-1 &ufae@)
u&ifonf vlrsdK;wpfrsdK;jzpfonf? vlwrsdK;rSm&Sdtfyfonfh t*F gvuQ&yfrsm;rSm
(1)wlnDaomajymqdkonfhbmompum;
(2)wlnDaomordkif;
(3)wlnDaom ,Ofaus;r_"avhxHk;pH
(4)wlnDaomaexdkif&me,fajr
(5)wlnDaompD;yGm;a&;pepfrsm;jzpfonf?
(unD) trsdK;om;rsm;onf vlwrsdK;jzpfonfh tm;avsmfpGm oD;jcm;
,Ofaus;r_"avhx;kH pHrsm;&So
d nf? acwftqufquf ya'o&mZf ajr&Sirf sm;. zdEydS u f |ef
jyKr_rsm;a=umifh u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;."avhxHk;pH tawmfyaysmufoGm;aomfvnf;
u&ifESpf/ u&ifv/ u&ifESpfopful;ponfh "avhxHk;pHrsm; xdrf;odef;EdkifcJhonf?
ajr,mvkyif ef;rsm;udk vkyu
f ikd o
f rl sm;jzpfonft
h avsmuf vrsm;udk rdrw
d @kd
vkyu f ikd o
f nfh &moDtvduk f tvkyrf sm;tay: trSjD yKI ac:qdo k nfukd awG@&onf?

paum u&ifvrsm;
(1)ovhR vhR'lvRh o.(ESpo f pfawmif,mtwGuf &SmazG/ "m;aoG;ausmufcsonfv h )?
(2)xhuml f (awmif,mckwo f nfv h ) (xhz;J )vnf;ac:onf?
(3) oG@uD tcsKd @u(o>uD)(wwd,ESihf ckwcf sonfh tyifrsm;aevSr;f onfv h )?
(4)vgcsH rsKd ;aphrsm;ppduk o
f nfvh (15)&uf?
(5)'h.ng 'h.ng(SSilies) yGizhf ;l onfv h (15)&uf?
(6) vgck pdu k cf if;onf awmif,mpyg;rsm;ayguI f vef;qef;vmonf? tcsKd @rsm;u
vgck-ajcmuf(Ck) udkumva&ì@avsmI ck-ck; jzpfoGm;onf? tcsdK@rSmT (vgck;) r&Sd?
(7) vgEHG (7)vajymif;yifrsm; rkwq f wd u
f saomv?
(8) vgC;d (8)v tcsKd @rsm;u(vgC)d ajymif;zl;zkwpf m;onfv h ?
(9) vgck; (9)v cGH-udk umva&G@avsmI cl-cl;jzpfoGm;onf? tcsdK@rsm;u
‘wck;’zGwfusaom v[kvnf; ac:onf?
3
'l;yvm,mc&kdifrS xkwfa0onf
(10)qH;rk>f rd;k ukecf ge;D aeudk aetcsed pf awG@aomv?
(11)qH;q. ntcsdef=u,frsm; aumif;pGmay:aomv?
(12)vgeD ESr;f (eH.'D;eDySRx>zdS.uhRtvg)
(13)vgysKRKR eH.uw>>ffySR[lxD.rdRxD.ysK ysKRRtvgtvg? w>f'k. w>fxktvg
vgt.d (13)vg b.q.unDrRxgx.D cf sv H DR ng ESpx f yfEpS =f uD;rsm;
vgcsHESifh '.ng(2)vtjynfhpD&SdI &dk;&dk;ESpfrsm;wGif yxrv0ufwGif vgcsH vqkwfwGif
'.ng [k,=l uonf/ tcsKd @rsm;u vmcl;(6)v wvudrk xm;bJ/ wESp(f 12)vom &Sd
onf[k az: jyonf? v.emrnfudk =unfhjcif;tm;jzifh wESpf(13)v vu ydkrSef
rnfjzpfonf? ESpf}uD;rsm;wGif vgck; udkxm;+yD; &kd;&dk;ESpfrsm;wGif(vgck;)udk rxnfh
olrsm;vnf; &Sdonf?
xdek nf;wlpmG ae@emrnfrsm;/ u&ifvkd rSnahf c:=uonf? vESihf
ae@rsm;emrnfudk ,cifu&ifv owif;pmrsm;jzpfonfh(q.wl>*D >*DR/ q q.wl
.wl>[g >[g)
>[g
rsm;Y apmpGmuwnf;u awG@&Sdonf?
oavvonf yXvjzpfI ESpaf [mif;ukeI f ESpof pfa&mufwikd ;f ESpo f pf
ul;ESpu
f kd usi;f yonfh tavhtx&Scd o hJ nf? zgyeG cf &dik f (,cifoH vGicf &dik t
f a&;ydik )f onf
u&ifrsm;. ESpfopful;ESpfudk todtrSwfjyKI zgyGefc&dkiftwGif; &Hk;ydwf&uftjzpf
owfrSwf jyKvkyfcJhonf?
jrefrmjynf tdEdN,ESifhcGJonfh 1937ckEpS w f iG f u&iftrsKd ;om;rsm;vnf; ([dpk Of
u)a':uvl(KNA) u&ifhtcGifhta&;rsm; pwifawmif;qdkcJhonf? u&ifhESpfopful;
ae@udk &Hk;ydwf&uftjzpf owfrSwf&efjzpfonf?

1? u&ifEpS o
f pfu;l ae@uu
kd &ifv(kd ) vqef;(1) &ufae@ukd tm;vH;k oabmwl=uonf?
2? oav(1)&ufonf/ jrefrmouU&mZftm;jzifh bmae@vjJ yoemrSm tjiif;yGm;=uonf?
[dkpOfcgu zgyGefbufwGif u&ifjyuQ'def(2)ckay:xGufonf? wckrSm( ) c&pf,mefbm
omrS OD;pD;xkwfaom jyuQ'defESifh usefwckrSm apmarmifa&ì (rif;eef;EG,f&Gm-Ak'<bm
om)rS xkwfaomjyuQ'defjzpfonf? v$wfawmf u&iftrwfrsm;txJwGif c&pf,mef
trsm;pkjzpfonfuwa=umif;/ vìwfawmfudkwifzdk@ &ufuyfaeonfu wa=umif;
a=umifh okawoe wduspmG rvkyaf wmhbJ zl;,m;ae. jyuQ'ed u f kd ,lI(rS;D I)oav
onf jymodv k jzpfonfukd twnfjyK+yD;/ apmifarmifa&ì (oavv)onf wyd@k wv JG jzpf
onfudky,favonf?

4
zl;paumv,fawm{?f oifwef;rSwfpkxJrS xkwfEkwf,lonf
3? u&ifEpS u f kd b,fEpS u
f prvJqwkd J jh y\emrSm tawmf tjiif;yGm;cJo h nf? tcsKd @rsm;u
c&pf,mefESpftwdkif;/ tcsdK@urBmhESpf/(c&pfESpfš4000)udk tqdkjyK=uonf? tcdK@u
udok mjzL c&pf,mefpwif,=kH unfvuQo H nfah e@ukd tqdjk yK=uonf? aemufq;kH wGif u&if
trsKd ;om;rsm; jrefrmjynfo@kd pa&mufonfah e@rS tpjyKI tm;vH;k oabmwl=uonf?
xd@k a=umifh u&ifEpS u
f kd c&pfawmf ray:rSD bDp-D 739ckEpS rf S tpjyKa&wGuo f nf?

4? 1938ck E S p f vì w f a wmf w G i f ES p f o pf u l ; ae@ud k tod t rS w f j yKzd k @ wif o G i f ; onf h


u&iftrwfrSm apm*$sefqif'Dzdk;rif;(0g)zl;wmrl;jzpfonf?
5? u&ifhv$wfawmftrwfrsm; tm;vHk; uef@uGufolr&Sd axmufcH=uonfomru
tjcm;trwf r sm;tm;vH k ; axmuf c H o jzif h u&if h E S p f o pf u l ; ae@onf u&if
trsd K ;om;rsm;twG u f o mru jref r mjynf wjynf v H k ; twG u f &H k ; yd w f & uf = uD ;
vnf;jzpfonf?
u&ifESpfopful;ae@udk u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;taeESifh 1939ckESpfwGif
yxrqH;k t=udrf w&m;0if usi;f y&onf? c&pf,mefrsm; wuf=uGpmG usi;f yaomfvnf;
/ Ak'<bmomESifh ewfpm; u&iftcsdKYu vufrcHbJ bdk;bGm;bDbifvufxufu
wG u f q =uonf h t wd k i f ; wyd k @ wG J v qef ; (1)&uf a e@wG i f usif ; y+uonf ?
ol w d k @ wG u f q =uonf r S m jymod k v qef ; onf u&if ( vgysKR)vjzpf o nf ?
vkyfief;udkifief;rsm;ESifh rudkufnD[kvnf; ta=umif;jyonf?
1955ckESpf KRC tjrJwrf;aumfrwD rdk;&moD pnf;a0;yGJwGif
rl ; qd k ; aumupmrS Od ; pD ; jyD ; u&if E S p f o pf u l ; aE@ oavvqef ; (1)&uf a e@ud k
wydk@wGJvqef;(1)&ufae@[k jyefajymif;owfrSwfonf?

ta=umif ; jycsuf
1? jymodkvonf(vgysKR)v omjzpfjcif;/ (t&dk;aumufv/ ta&Smifv)?
2?bdk;bGm;,Ofaus;r_udk xdef;odrf;onfh u&ifa&S;vl=uD;rsm;u oavudk wydk@wGJ
[k,ljcif;?
3?u&ifrsm;onf rGe*f ;kd vD;,m;rS w&kwjf ynf,el efujkd zwfI jrefrmjynfo@kd a&mufonf?
w&kwEf pS o
f pfu;l ae@onf trsm;tm;jzifh wyd@k wJG vqef;(1)&uf/ xd@k tjyif AD,uferf?
uarB m 'D ; ,m;/ avm trsd K ;om;rsm;. ES p f o pf u l ; ae@onf wyd k @ wG J
vqef;(1)&ufjzpfjcif;?

5
'l;yvm,mc&kdifrS xkwfa0onf
4? u&ifEpS of pfu;l ae@ukd jymodv k qef; (1)&ufae@[, k ul urBmjh yuQ'ed f wESpEf pS w
f iG f
u&ifESpfopful; w}udrfrS r&SdbJ Oyrm-1981 u&ifESpfopful; (2)}udrf&Sdjcif;? 1981
Zefe0g&D(6)&ufESifh 'DZifbm(26)&ufrsm; u&ifESpfopful;ae@ jzpfonf? wydk@wGJv
qef;(1) &uf,lygu wESpf w=udrfom&Sdonf?
1970ckESpf trsdK;om;uGef*&ufwGif wrsdK;om;vHk; pnf;vHk;nD
nGwfa&;udk xdef;odrf;&ef/ rlv u&iftrsdK;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;owfrSwfxm;onfh
jymodkvqef;(1)&ufudk jyefvnfowfrSwfonf?
,cktcg jrdK@wiG ;f rSm;(&efuek t
f ygt0if)ESihf awme,frsm; txl;ojzifh
jrpf0u$sef;ay:rsm;wGif u&ifESpfopful;ae@udk jymodkvqef;(1)&ufae@ESifh wydk@wGJv
qef;(1&ufae@[I l (2)rsKd ;jzpfavonf? a&$usi/f ausmuf=uD;e,frsm;wGif a&S;uwnf;u
wydk@wGJvqef;(1)&ufae@udk u&ifESpfopful;ae@tjzpf usif;y=uonf?
rSwcf su-f ,ae@umvwGif u&ifrsKd ;om; pnf;vH;k nDnw G af &;udk a&S@&KS jyD;
jymodkvqef;(1)&ufae@udk u&ifESpfopful;ae@tjzpf usif;y&rnfjzpfonf?

2? u&ifah wmfveS af &;ae@ ZE


ZEMM0g0g&D(31)&ufae@

u&iftrsKd ;om;rsm;onf vlrsKd ;wrsKd ;.t*F g&yfEiS hf jynfph +kH yD;/


,cktac: jrefrmjynfodk@ yxrOD;qHk;0ifa&mufvmaom vlrsdK;jzpfonf? tcsdK@aom
vlrsdK;rsm;xuf ESpfaygif;(200)ausmf apmI0ifvmonf?
od@k &mwGif rGe/f Arm ajr&Siyf a'o&mZfpepf/ r[mvl
rsdK;=uD;rsm;. usL;ausmfwdkufcdkuf zdESdyfnSif;yrf;r_rsm;a=umifh wdkif;jynfqHk;&SHK;&onf?

'kwd,urBppf rjzpfyGm;rD u&ifjynftwGuf wdkufyGJ0ifolrsm;?


1? Mr smeaton ol @ pmtk y f T he loyal Karen of Burma t*F v d y f r sm;
u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;udk oD;jcm;u&ifjynfxlaxmifay;&ef?
2? 1923-25 a'guf w m'garzd k ; rif ; qif j zLawmf E S i f h t wl jAd w d e f E S i f h tar&d u
odk@vSnfhvnfI/ u&ifrsm; u&ifjynf&&Sdoifha=umif;a[majymonf?
3? 1928- qmpHpDzdk; ol@pmtkyf Burma and the Karen weoFm&Dwikd ;f udk u&if
jynftjzpf t*Fvdyfu owfrSwfay;&efwifjyonf?

6
zl;paumv,fawm{?f oifwef;rSwfpkxJrS xkwfEkwf,lonf
4? 1945 ckESpf tdEdN,jynfa&muf u&ifwyfrSL;(40)onf tdEdN,jynfY &SdaepOf
'kwd,urBmppf=uD;jyD;u t*Fvdyfrsm; u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;twGuf u&ifjynfay;&ef
wifjyawmif;qdkonf?
t*Fvdyfrsm; jrefrmjynfodk@ jyef0ifonfh tcsdefrSpI(ppf=uD;rjyD;ao;)
u&ifacgif;aqmifrsm;onf u&ifjynftwGuf qufvuf qdkuft=yGJ0ifcJhavonf?
yXrqHk; -tpnf;ta0; &efukef- 1945ckESpf ZGef 20-&ufae@rS Zlvdkif(5)&ufae@/
- *syefacwfrzS pJG nf;cJo h nfh KCO udjk yefvnfz@JG pnf;jcif;?
- u&ifjynfukd t&awmif;qdw k ukd yf 0JG ifrnf qH;k jzwfjcif;?
,ckuo hJ @kd u&ifjynftwGuf jyif;jyaom qENrsm;rSm 'kw, d urBppftwGi;f
cg;oD ; emusnf ; zG , f cH p m;&csuf r sm;eS i f h twW v ef w d w f p mcsKyf t & vl r sd K ;wd k i f ;
udk,fydkifjyXmef;cGifh &&sda&;rlt&jzpfonf?
'kw,d tpnf;ta0; 1946ckEpS f azazmf0g&v D (4)&uf/
-u&ifjynf&onftxd pnf;onf;vH;k vH;k wdu k yf 0JG if=u&ef/
-t*Fvyd t f pd;k &xH u&ifjynfawmif;&ef/
-t*Fvefodk@ u&ifrdwfquftzGJ@v$wf&ef/ qHk;jzwf=uonf? KYO
ac:u&ifvil ,ftzG@J ukd KCO .vuf&ek ;f tjzpf zG@J pnf;onf? ref;bcdik /f ref;0if;armif/
apmausmfpdefwdk@OD;aqmifonf?
wwd, tpnf;ya0; 1947ckESpf azazmf0g&D(3)&ufrS (5)&uftxd?
-&S d o r# u&if t rsd K ;om;tpnf ; t&H k ; rsm; tm;vH k ; ac: jyD ;
u7iftrsKd ;om;a&;v_y&f mS ;r_wiG f wpkwpnf;xJ wdu k yf 0JG ifEikd &f ef tzG@J tpnf;rsm;tmvH;k
pkpnf;zdk@jzpfonf? (KNUta=umif;udk=unfhyg)?
-xdk@a=umifh KNUudk zGJ@pnf;jyD; acgif;aqmifrsm;a&G;aumufonf?
apmpHzdk;oif/ zdk;vSaz/ apmomxdk/ ref;*sdrf;xGef;atmif/ ref;bcif/ apmbOD=uD;/
apmom'ifrsm;jzpf=uonf?
-atmifqef;tufwvDpmcsyk u f kd vufrcH?
-jAwd o #pd k ; &xH u&if t rsd K ;om;rsm;. vd k v m;csuf r sm;ud k yd k @ rnf ?
t*Fvdyftpdk;&u rwfv (31)&ufae@ aemufqHk; oabmxm; ta=umif;jyefay;&ef/
oabmxm; jyefray;ygu/ vufrcHEdkifu/ wdkif;jyKjynfjyKv$wfawmfa&G;aumufyGJufk
oyd w f a rS m uf r nf ? u&if j ynf u d k rl t & vuf c H & ef / ,if ; oabmxm;rsm;ud k
vufrcHEdkifygu/ apmbOD;=uD; 0ef=uD;&mxl;rS E_wfxGuf&ef?

7
'l;yvm,mc&kdifrS xkwfa0onf
- t*Fvdyftpdk;&xHrS auseyfaom jyef=um;csufr&I/ wdkif;jyKjynfjyK
v$wfawmfa&G;aumufyGJudk u&ifwrsdK;om;vHk;atmifjrifpGm oydwfarSmufrnf?
-1947ck E S p f {jyD v (4)&uf / KNU tvk y f t r_ a qmif aumf r wD
tpnf;ta0;ac:onf? tpnf;a0;wGif ref;bcdkif/ ref;0if;armif/ apmausmfpdef/
atmify([oFmw)ponfhKYO acgif;aqmifrsm;xGufoGm;onf? apmpHzdk;oifvnf;
vdkufygoGm;onf?
-1947ckESpf/ {jyD(10)&uf KNUjyefvnfzGJ@pnf;onf? apmbOD;=uD;/
ref;apmbk/ apmomxd/k ref;*srd ;f xGe;f atmif/ ref;bcif/ apmom'if/ apm[efwmomarG;/
paumarmav;/ apmatmif0if;/ apmpdkif;au/
OD;ZH/ apmbJav/ ref;bZH/ rpPuv f el w
D @kd ukd tr_aqmiftjzpf a&G;jc,fvu kd o f nf/
-1947ckEpS f / Zlvikd (f 16)&ufae@ KNDOudzk @JG onf?(KNDO ae@u=kd unfyh g)?
-1947ck E S p f / atmuf w d k b m(10)&uf / armf v jrd K if u G e f * &uf w G i f
udk,fpm;vS,f(700)ausmfwufonf? rGefacgif;aqmifrsm;yg0ifonf?
-jrefrmjynfvw $ af wmfwiG f u&iftrwf tppftrSef rygojzif/h v$waf wmf
rSjyXmef;onfh Oya'rsm;udk u&ifrsm;u vufrcH/
-u&ifjynfta&;udk urBmh ukvor*~o@kd wif&ef/
-u&ifjynf. tus,t f 0ef;udo k wfrw S o
f nf/
-u&idjynfonf weoFm&Dwikd ;f (a[mif;) wwdik ;f vH;k /
-{&m0wDwikd ;f wwdik ;f vH;k /
-tif;pdeEf iS hf om,m0wDc&dik /f
-anmifav;yif Subdivision (aemufwiG f ysO;f rem;awmifwef;a'oygonf)?
-u&ifEiS hf rGeaf cgi;f aqmifrmS ; pnf;vH;k nDnw G af &;ESihf u&ifreG jf ynftwGuf
vufwGJwdkufyGJ0if=u&ef/
-1948ckEpS /f ZEM0g&(D 4)&ufrS jrefrmjynf vGwv f yfa&;udk u&ifrS vufrcHb/J
u&ifvGwfvyfa&; ae@udk ZEM0g&D(5)&ufae@wGif a=unmonf/
-1948azazmf0g&D(11)&ufae@-u&iftrsdK;om;vlxk qEN j yyG J / (u&if
trsdK;om;ae@udk=unfhyg)?
-1948ckEpS f rwfv (28)&ufae@- A u y awmcdo k nf?
-1948ckEpS f ZGev f (14)&ufae@/ OD;Ekr(l 15)csut f ay: zqyv ESihf &Jabmf PVO
oabmxm;uGv J jJG yD;/ PCP jynfo@l &aJ bmftzG@J awmcdo k nf?

8
zl;paumv,fawm{?f oifwef;rSwfpkxJrS xkwfEkwf,lonf
-1948ckESpf/ =o*kwfvwGif o&uf+rdK@&Sd wyf&if;(1)ESifh r*Fvm'Hk&Sd Armh
wyfrawmf wyf&if;(3)awmcdo k nf? xdpk Of/ u&ifv h ufeufuikd w f yfrsm;u zqyv.
wm0efay;csut f &/ axmuf=uH@/ vSn;f ul;/ wGaH w;/ &efuek f ponf+h rdK@rsm;udk vHjk cHKa&;
wm0ef,lay;&onf?
-&efoo l wif;pmrsm; vlrsKd ;a&;v_@H aqmfrr_ sm; a&;om;vm=uonf?
-um;qdyt f m;vH;k wGif &HyakH iG twif;awmif;onf?
-vJA;D wyf&if;aygi;f (50)udk 1948ckEpS w f iG f t& zG@J pnf;&ef/
-xd@k aemuf u&ifaus;&Gmrsm;udk pwifp+yD;/ vufeufrsm; podr;f vmonf?
-1948=o8kwv f (31)&ufrS pufwifbm(1)&ufwiG f
-u&ifrsm; armv+rdKif/ oxH/k a&$usi/f ausmuf}uD;rsm;udk odr;f ydu k vf u
kd of nf?
jyefvnfaphpyfI u&ifrsm; ,if;+rdK@rsm;udk jyefay;vdkufonf?
-xd@k aemuf u&ifvufeufuikd rf sm;xHrS vufeufrsm;udk odr;f jyefonf?
-u&ifacgi;f aqmifrsm;udk zrf;qD;axmifcsonf?
-u&if&mG rsm;udk pwif wdu k cf ukd cf o
hJ nf?
-tcsuf t jcmae&m tcsd K @wG i f um;wG i f p D ; eif ; vd k u f y gvmaom
u&ifrsm;udkqif;cdkif;jyD; owfypfonf?
-1949ckepS f ZEM0g&(D 27)&ufae@ u&ifrsm; awmifiu l okd rd ;f onf?
-1949ckepS f ZEM0g&(D 28)&ufae@ ykord u f kd odr;f ydu
k Ef ikd &f ef twGuf wdu k of nf? wduk f
cdkuf&m nDnGwfr_r&Sdojzifh aemufjyefqkwf&onf?
-1949ckepS f ZEM0g&(D 28)&ufae@n zqyv wyfrsm;&efuek /f tvH/k prf;acsmif;/
u&if&yfuGufrsm;udk 0dkif;0ef;wdkufcdkufI tdrftcsdK@ rD;&SdK@/ trsdK;orD;tcsdK@ rk'def;usifh/
ypPnf;rsm; vk,lonf?
-1949ck e S p f ZEM 0 g&D ( 30)&uf a e@ wG i f KNU ES i f h K NDO ud k rw&m;
toif;a=unmonf?
-1949ckepS f ZEM0g&(D 31)&ufae@ KNDOXmecsKyfukd 0dik ;f 0ef;wdu k cf u
kd of nft h wGuf
wjynfvHk;&Sd u&ifrsm; jyefvnfckcH wdkufcdkuf&mrS u&ifhvufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;
pjzpfay:vmavawmhonf?
-rdrw
d @kd u&ifrsm; jyefrwdu k v f sif touft;kd tdrpf nf;pdrrf sm; vHjk cHKr_r&Sjd cif;a=umifh
touf&Sif&yfwnfEdkifa&;twGuf jyefvnfwdkufcdkuf&onf?
-}uD;rm;onfh atmifyrJG sm;udv k nf; yxrv tenf;i,ftwGi;f qGwcf ;l &&So d nf?

9
'l;yvm,mc&kdifrS xkwfa0onf
3? autJe,
f al e@ (K.N.UDAY)
azazmf0g&v D (5)&ufae@

u&iftrsKd ;om;ta&;aqmif&u G &f mwGif wrsKd ;om;vH;k . pnf;vH;k nDnw G af &;onf


ta&;}uD;onf/? xdk@a=umifh 1947ckESpf azazmf0g&D(3)&ufrS (5)&ufae@txd &Sdor#
u&iftrsdK;om; tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;udk ac:+yD;/ &efukefwGif pnf;a0;=uonf?
‚if ; tcsd e f & S d o nf h u&if t rsd K ;om;tzG J @ tpnf ; rsm;rS m
(1) a'guvl KNA Karen National Association 1881-ckEpS w f iG f a'guw f m
wDojH ym/ q&mjrwfp/H q&m,mbxdv k kd ponfrsm;zG@J pnf;onf? xif&mS ;aom
acgif;aqmifrsm;rSm apm'Dzdk;rif;/ apmqmpHpDzdk;/ q&m pHabmfrsm;jzpfonf?
*syefacwfwiG f OuUX apmbarmif rrmruse;f I vnf;aumif;/ *syefrv S nf;
u&if r sm;ud k txif r S m ; tjrif r S m ;Ivnf ; aumif ; / acgif ; aqmif r sm;
rv_yf&Sm;&JbJ jzpfcJhonf?
(2) BKNA (Ak ' < b mom u&if t rsd K ;om; tpnf ; t&H k ; ) 1940ck E S p f w G i f
zG@J pnf;onf? OD;yÀ0Ho/ apmjrode;f / q&m ref;a&$bwd@k OD;pD;onf?
(3) KCO(u&ifA[dktzGJ@csKyf) 1943ckESpfwGif zGJ@pnf;onf? *syefacwfjzpfI/
u&ifhtrsdK;om;ta&;udk aqmif&Guf&ef? qmpHpDzdk;rS OD;pD;zGJ@pnf;onf?
(4) KYO (u&ifvli,ftpnf;t&Hk;)1946ckESpfwGif zGJ@pnf;onf?
KCOrSvuf&Hk;tjzpf/ oabmxm; zGJ@pnf;onf? ref;bcdkif/ ref;0if;armif/
apmausmpf ed w f @kd O;D aqmifonf? (xd@k aemuf ,if;tzG@J acgi;f aqmifrsm;onf &ef
olrS/ zJhpnf;&Hk;jcif;udk cH&+yD;/ u&iftrsdK;om; v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk qef@usif
=uonf)?
Tpnf;ta0;yGJwGif u&iftrsdK;om; tpnf;t&Hk;rsm; tm;vHk;udk wckwnf;aom
tzG@J tpnf;tjzpf jyefvnf yl;aygi;f &ef/ tawmf=umaqGaEG;=uonf? tif;pdecf &dik f OuUX
q&mzd;k at;u (KNU Karen National Union)[kac:qd&k ef t=uHjyKojzifh tzG@J
av;zG@J pvH;k rS vufc=H uI 1947ckEpS f azazmf0g&(D 5)&ufae@(KNU Karen National
Union)[kac:qd&k ef pwifz@JG pnf; xlaxmifco hJ nf?
yxrqH;k autJe, f l A[dk acgi;f aqmifrsm;rSm OuUXapmpHz;kd oif/ 'kOuUX OD;vSaz/
twGi;f a&;r_; q&momxd/k ref;*sed ;f xGe;f atmif/ ref;bcif/ apmbOD;=uD;/ q&mom'ifrsm;

10
zl;paumv,fawm{?f oifwef;rSwfpkxJrS xkwfEkwf,lonf
yg0ifonf? autJe, f o
l nf u&iftrs;kd om;nDnw G af &; wyfaygi;f pkEiS hf u&iftrsKd ;om;
a&S@aqmifwyfOD; jzpfavonf?
u&if v uf e uf u d k i f a wmf v S e f a &;jzpf + yD ; aumf o l ; av ppf t k y f
csKyfa&;(KMA)csonft h cg/ vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &;umv/ rnfonft h zG@J tpnf;rS
rxm;&S&d ef [lI trde@f xw k jf yef&m/ (KNU )ab;csw d cf &H onf?
1953ckESpfaemufydkif;/ autJef,ludk jyefvnfazmfxkwfonf? odk@aomf yg
wD(KNUP,KRC) KNUPudka&S@aqmif wyfOD;/ KRC[kudk tm%mydkiftzGJ@/ au
tJe, f u
l kd trsKd ;om;tpnf;t&H;k awmfveS af &; ausmaxmufaemufcH &d;k &d;k tjzpf xm;
&Sdonf?
1970ckEpS rf S aemufyikd ;f / ,ae@xd autJe, f u l kd u&ifah &S@aqmifwyfO;D / trsKd ;om;
nDnGwfa&; wyfaygif;pk/ u&ifhawmfvSefa&;. tajccHausmaxmufaemufcHESifh/ aumf
ol;avtm%mydik t f zG@J tjzpf/=uD;av;aom wm0ef=uD;rsm;udk xrf;aqmif &avonf?

4?u&iftrsKd ;om;ae@(unD'u D vkmrf >k ef HR)


azazmf0g&(D 11)&ufaee@@
'kw,d urBmppf}uD; +yD;qH;k onft h csed rf pS I u&ifwrsKd ;om;vH;k onf
u&ifjynftwGuf awmif;qdk wdu k yf 0JG ifc=hJ uonf? od@k aomf tm%m& tkypf ;kd ol zqyv
tpdk;&u-u&ifjynfawmif;qdkwm vufwqkufpm u&ifomjzpfa=umif;/ t*Fvdyf
e,fcsJ@rsm;u tm;ay;tm;ajrSmufa=umif;/ t*FvdyfusGefjyKvdkol u&ifrsm;jzpfa=umif;
ponf r sm;jzif h r[k w f r rS e f oG m ;yk y f a vvG i f h pG y f p G J a jymqd k o nf ?
1948ckEpS f azazmf0g&(D 3)&ufae@wiG f autJe, f u l zqyv tpd;k &xH u&ifjynfay;zd@k
pma&;awmif;qdkonf? pmudk wv twGif; 1948ckESpf rwfv(3)&ufae@ aemuf
qHk;xm;+yD; ta=umif;jyef&ef-ajypmr&&Sdu odk@wnf;r[kwf u&ifjynfay;zdk@jiif;qdku
u&iftrsdK;om;rsm; ajcwvSrf;wufvSrf;rnf[kyg&Sdonf?
,if;u&ifjynfawmif;qdkonfhpm ydkrdkav;eufap&ef azazmf
0g&Dv(11)&ufae@Y jrefrmjynf wjynfvHk;&Sd u&iftrsdK;om;rsm; tm;vHk; u&ifjynf
vdkvm;a=umif; +rdK@ay:odk@wufI u&ifvlxkqENjyyGJ usif;y&efqHk;jzwfonf?
,if;qH;k jzwfcsutf wdik ;f azazmf0g&v D (11)&ufae@wiG f jrefrmjynfwjynfv;kH &Sd
u&iftrsdK;om;rsm; jrdK@rsm;ay:wufI u&ifjynfvdkvm;a=umif; u&ifvlxkqEN
jyyGJusif;yavonf?

11
'l;yvm,mc&kdifrS xkwfa0onf
atmufArmjynf u&ifrsm;&ma'owGio f mru ajrmufzuf jrpf}uD;em;rS
awmifzuf +rdw+f rdK@txd/ &Sr;f jynfwiG f erf;cg;/ uGwcf ikd /f vm;&SKd ;/ awmif=uD;/ usKd if;wH/k
jrefrmjynftv,fydkif;wGif rdwˆDvm/ acsmuf/ a&eHacsmif;ponfjzifh wjynfvHk;wGif
qENjy=uonf?
&efol zqyvrSvnf; +cdrf;ajcmufjcif; aESmuf,Sufjcif;rsm; jyKvkyf
ao;onf? od@k aomf u&if wrsKd ;om;vH;k 2&uf 3&ufc&D;rsm; csw D ufI qENjy=u&m
u&iftrsKd ;om; trsKd ;orD;aygi;f (4)ode;f ausmf qENjy=uI-xdak e@&uftxd jrefrmjynf
ordkif;wGif t=uD;rm;qHk; qENjyyGJjzpfcJhonf/
qENjy&mwGif
(1) u&ifjynf csufjcif;ay;(vGwfvyfa&;)?
(2) u&ifwusyf Armwusyfcsufcsif;jy(wef;wla&;ESifh 'Drdkua&pDa&;)?
(3) vlrsdK;a&; t"du&k%f;tvdkr&Sd(vlrsdK;pHk cspf=unfa&;)
(4) jynfwGif;ppf tvdkr&Sd(jidrf;csrf;a&;)-[lonfha=uG;a=umfoHrsm; udkifpGJI +rdK@
wGif;rsm;wGif vSnfhvnfjyD; +idrf;csrf;pGm qENjy=u&m jrefrmjynfordkif;wGif
pnf;urf;t&SdqHk; qENjyyGJtjzpf ordkif;wGif&pfcJhonf?
(5) xdk qENjyyGaJ e@wiG f u&iftrsKd ;om;acgi;f aqmifrsm;u u&ifjynfvv kd m;+yD;
u&ifjynfudk t&,lrnf ponfjzifh&J&Jawmuf rdef@cGef;rsm;ay;onfhenf;wl
u&ifwrsdK;om;vHk;vnf; ZmwdaoG;/ Zmwdrmefrsm;jzifh wuf=uGpGm nD
nGwfpGm yg0if=uonf?

u&if t rsd K ;om;ae@ u&if v l x k qE


qENN jyyG
j yyGJ - azazmf 0 g&D ( 11)&uf
azazmf0g&Dta&;awmfyHk.EdkifiHa&; t"dy`g,f g,f

(1) u&if w rsd K ;om;vH k ; . Ed k i f i H a &;tod / rsd K ;cspf jynf c spf p d w f " gwf u d k
arG;xkwfjyoonfhae@/
(2) u&ifwrsdK;om;vHk;. pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;udk xkwfazmfjyoonfhae@/
(3) u&if t rsd K ;om;rsm;. Zmwd a oG ; Zmwd r mef u d k &J & J a wmuf xk w f
az: jyonfhae@/
(4) EdkifiHa&; vufOD;r_udk u&ifrsm;&,lonfhae@
(5) u&ifukd urBmu ydo k ad ponfah e@/

12
zl;paumv,fawm{?f oifwef;rSwfpkxJrS xkwfEkwf,lonf
txufyg ta=umif;&yfrsm;a=umifh 1953ckEpS f Ed0k ifbm 23-25 &uf
ae@rsm;Y zmyGe+f rdK@wiG f usi;f yaom aumfo;l av jynfv;kH qdik &f m uGe*f &ufwiG f
azaz:0g&D ( 11)&uf u d k – u &if t rsd K ;om;ae@’[k owf r S w f u sif ; y&ef
jrpf0useG ;f ay: trSw(f 1) c&dik Of u`uX OD;ausmaf t;u tqdjk yKjyD; jrpf0useG ;f ay:
trSwf(1)wyfrrSL; Adkvfrª;csKyfaumfxl;u axmufcHI uGef*&uf udk,f pm;
vS,frsm;u uef@uGufol vHk;0r&SdbJ wnDwnGwfwnf; twnfjyKvdkuf&m
u&if v l x k qEN j yyG J j zpf o nf h azaz:0g&D v (11)&uf a e@onf
u&iftrsdK;om;ae@jzpfvmavonf?

5? aumfo;l avae@(KAWTHOOLEI DAY)


ZGev
f (14)&ufae@

wdkif;jynfwjynfxlaxmif&mwGif EdkifiHwumrsm;. usifhxHk;t& urBmodk@


yxrOD;qH;k a=unmjyD; urBmay:&Sd wdik ;f jynfrsm;rS avhvmjyD; todtrSwjf yK=u&ef vdk
tyfavonf? u&ifhvufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;paomf yxrwGif}uD;rm;aom atmif
jrifr_rsm;&&SdEdkifcJhaomfvnf; acgif;aqmifrsm; tm;vHk;vdkvdk tif;pdefjrdK@wGif &efol.
0dkif;0ef;r_udk cH&I rdrdvGwfvyfa&;udk a=unm&ef tajctaeray;tyfcJhacs?
tif;pdeu
f qkwcf mG +yD;A[du k kd awmifi+l rdK@o@kd ajymif;a&G@&m
1949ckeSpf ZGefv(14)&ufae@wGif awmifil+rdK@Y tpnf;a0;=uD;w&yf ac:,lusif;yjyD;
aumfol;av tpdk;&tzGJ@udk atmufygtwdkif; a&G;aumufzGJ@pnf;avonf?
(1)apmbOD;=uD; (0ef=uD;csKyf)
(2)OD;vSaz (Edik if jH cm;a&;)
(3)apmzd;k armif (jynfxaJ &;)
(4)apma&$av; (umuG,af &;)
(5)apmwl&OD; (b¾ma&;)
(6)apmbxGe;f (ynma&;)
(7)apm*seG qf if'zD ;kd rif; (vrf;yef;ESio hf ,f,yl @kd aqmifa&;)
(8)apmpdew f if (opfawmESiv hf ,f,m)

13
'l;yvm,mc&kdifrS xkwfa0onf
xd k a e@naetcsd e f w G i f aumf o l ; av toH v $ i f h X merS aumf o l ; av
u&ifjynfxlaxmifjcif;ESifh aumfol;av tpdk;&udk zGJ@pnf;vdkufa=umif; urBmodk@
a=unmavonf? tjcm;wdkif;EdkifiHrsm;jzpfaom tdEdN,( All India Radio) /
ygupPwef(Radio Pakistan)? +Adwo d #(BBC) / tar&duef(VOA) ESihf =opa=w;vs
toHv$ifhXmersm;rSvnf; aumfol;av toHv$ifhXmerS v$ifhvdkufaom aumfol;av
u&ifjynfxlawmifjcif;ESifh aumfol;av tpdk;&zGJ@pnf;xl;axmifjcif;rsm;udk wqifh
toHvi$ ahf vonf? xd@k tjyif tjcm;Edik if rH sm;rS owif;pmtcsKd @onf pmvH;k }uD;rsm;ESihf
xdkowif;rsm;udk a&;om;a=unmavonf?
aumfo;l av u&ifjynfxal xmifa=umif;a=unmjyD;aemuf ygupPwefEiS hf
=opa=w;vsEd k i f i H r sm;rS aumf o l ; avu&if j ynf o d k @ avh v ma&;tzG J @ rsm;
apv$ w f c J h a o;onf ? &ef o l r S jyef v nf x d k ; ppf q if I rd r d w d k @ taeES i f h e,f a jrrsm;
pGe@f vw
$ &f jcif;ESihf rdrw
d @kd .Edik if aH &; tm;enf;csuf pnf;urf;avsm&h rJ _ ponfrsm;a=umifh
,ae@txd rnf o nf h E d k i f i H r sm;rS aumif o l ; avud k w&m;0if tod t rS w f
rjyKbJ&Sdaeao;onf? xdkaumfol;av u&ifjynfudk xlaxmifa=umif;ESifhaumfol;av
tpk;&udkzGJ@pnf;xlxmifa=umif;udk urBmodk@a=unmvdkufonfh ZGefv(14)&ufae@udk
aumfol;avae@[k owfrSwfjcif;jzpfonf?

6? aumfo;l av wyfrawmfae@ (KAWTHOOLEI ARMY DAY)


Zlvikd v
f (5)&uf?
wyfrawmfr&Sv d sif wdik ;f jynfr&SEd ikd f [lIvnf;aumif;/ wyfrawmfonf
vlrsdK;wrsdK;.&ifaoG;? vlrsdK;wrsdK;. vuf&Hk;[lIvnfaumif; tqdk&Sd&m vlrsdK;wdkif;
wdkif;jynfwGif rdrdwyfrawmfudk cspfjrwfEdk;jyD; av;pm;=uonfhenf;wl rdrd.wyfr
awmf a e@ud k v nf ; tjrwf w Ed k ; xm;I *k % f j yK=uonf ? usG E f k y f w d k @ u&if t rsd K ;
om;rsm;w&yf v H k ; onf rd r d . trsd K ;om;wyf r awmf u d k txl ; cspf j rwf E d k ; I
av;pm;*k%fjyK&efvdkonf? tb,fa=umifhqdkaomf (KNLA) u&iftrsdK;om;vGwf
ajrmufa&;wyfrawmfonf
(1) u&iftrsKd ;om; Edik if aH &; &nfreS ;f csujf zpfaom u&ifjynfukd vufawG@
taumiftxnfaz:olrsm;jzpfjcif;?
(2) u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;/ jynfolrsm;. ouftdk;tdrf pnf;pdrfrsm;udk um
uG,fapmifha&Smuf olrsm;jzpfjcif;ESifh

14
zl;paumv,fawm{?f oifwef;rSwfpkxJrS xkwfEkwf,lonf
(3) rd r d u d k , f u m,ud k &if a jruwk w f v k y f + yD ; touf u d k ay;vS L
olrsm;jzpfjcif;a=umifh jzpfonf?
u&if h v uf e uf u d k i f a wmf v S e f a &;twG u f (KNDO) ud k u&if h
tajccHvufeufudkif wyfrawmf tjzpf OD;pGmzGJ@pnf;cJhonf? (KNDO) udkzGJ@
pnf;onfEiS hf wcsed w f nf; tkypf ;kd ol zqyv vufatmufwiG f tr_xrf;=uaom
vuf e uf u d k i f wyf r sm;tm;vH k ; (uk e f ; wyf / a&wyf / avwyf ) ud k v nf ;
=ud K ;pm;quf o G , f pnf ; &H k ; cJ h o nf ? xd k u J h o d k @ quf o G , f p nf ; &H k ; onf h t wd k i f ;
u&ifv h ufeufuikd af wmfveS af &; pwifawmfveS o f nft h cg Karen Rifile, UMP,
Police, Armed Forest, Signal tajrmufwyf/ a&wyftcsKd @onf u&ifh vuf
eufudkifwyfodk@ yg0ifvm=uonf?
TuJhodk@ yg0ifvm=uojzifh pnf;urf;&Sd&SdESifh csKyfudkifEdkif&ef
aumfo;l av tpd;k &(Government of Kawthoolei) zG@J pnf;onfh tcsed w f iG f u&ifh
vuf e uf u d k i f a wmf v S e f a &;Y yg0if v m=uuk e f a om u&if h v uf e uf u d k i f r sm;
tm;vH;k udk KAF(Kawthoolei Armed Forces) aumfo;l av vufeufuikd w f yf
aygi;f pktjzpf zG@J pnf;jyD; wc&dik u f kd wyfr[m(1)cktjzpf zG@J pnf;&m ta&S@wikd ;f wGif
wyfr(1)ck/ wyfr[m(6)ckESif jrpf0usGef;ay:wGif wyfr(1)ck/ wyfr[m(6)ckzGJ@
pnf;cJhonf? 1952ckESpfwGif ta&S@wdkif;wGif wyfr(2)ck/ jrpf0usGef;ay:wGif
wyf r (2)ck j zif h wd k ; csJ h zG J @ pnf ; cJ h o nf ? (KAF) zG J @ pnf ; yH k r S m t*F v d y f w yf
zG@J pnf;yHak y:tajccHojzifh awmfveS af &;eSihf rudu k n f o
D nfrsm;vnf;&SI d awmfveS af &;
usaom wyfrawmf w&yfukd zG@J pnf;zd@k tajctaeawmif;qdo k nft h wdik ;f 1956
ckeSpf Zlvdkifv(5)&ufae@wGif u&ifhawmfvSefa&; ppfa&;vrf;pOfESifh u&ifhvGwf
ajrmufa&;wyfrawmf ,cif(K.P.L.A.F, K.P.L.A, K.P.G.F, K.N.D.O),ck
(K.N.L.A) zG@J pnf;yHu k dk twnfjyKojzifh xdk Zlvikd v f (5)&ufae@ukd aumfo;l av
wyfrawmfae@ (Kaw thoo lei Army Day)[k uGe*f &ufu qH;k jzwfavonf?
,cif(K.A.F)ESihf (K.N.L.A). t"dujcm;em;csurf mS ,ck awmfveS af &;
wyfrawmfonf wyfrawmf. wm0ef=uD; (3)&yf jzpfonfh
(1)wdu k cf u kd af &;wm0ef
(2)pnf;&H;k a&;wm0ef
(3)uk e f x k w f v k y f a &;wm0ef / wm0ef = uD ; (3)&yf csrS w f a y;jcif ; ES i f h
wyfrawmft*F g&yf(6)&yfjzpfonfh

15
'l;yvm,mc&kdifrS xkwfa0onf
(1)autJe, f . l acgi;f aqmifru _ v kd ufcjH cif;
(2)jynfov l x l Ek iS w
hf om;wnf;jzpfjyD; jynfov l x
l u
k kd tvkyt
f aus;G jyKonfh
wyfrawmf
(3)ud, k t
hf m;ud, k u f ;kd ud,
k 'f ;l udck seG o
f nfw h yfrawmf
(4)pnf;urf;&So d nfw h yfrawmf
(5)'Dru kd a&pD=udK;udik rf &_ adS om wyfrawmf
(6)rsKd ;cspjf ynfcspEf iS hf vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHk csp=f unfa&; wyfrawmfrsm;jzpfonf?
(K.N.L.A)onf txufyg wm0ef(3)&yfux kd rf;aqmif+yD; txufYazmfjycJo h nfh
t*F gvuQ%m&yf(6)&yfESifhjynfhpHk&ef zGJ@pnf;wnfaqmufI u&ifjynf&,l&ef u&ifh
trsdK;om;vGwfajrmufa&; wyfrawmfjzpfonf?

7? autJe'f t
D akd e@ (K.N.D.O) ae@
Zlvikd vf (16)&uf
'k w d , urB m ppf = uD ; jyD ; onf h a emuf u&if w rsd K ;om;vH k ; onf u&if
jynf&&Sad &;twGuf wcJeuft=kH uGwu kd yf 0JG if=uonf? pkpnf;nDnw G pf mG wdu
k yf 0JG ifEikd af &;
twGuf (KNU) udkzGJ@pnf;jyD;aemuf tkyfpdk;ol zqyv u u&iftrsdK;om;rsm.
w&m;aom awmif;qdk csurf sm;udk jzdKcGi;f jcif;tjyif u&ift h rsKd ;om;v_y&f mS ;r_ukd ESrd f
eif;&eftxdyif jyifqifjyKvkyf&m 1947ckESpfZlvdkifv (16)&ufae@wGif (K.N.D.O)
ac: u&iftrsdK;om; umuG,fa&; wyfzGJ@udk pwifzGJ@pnf;cJhavonf? xd(k K.N.D.O)
pwif z G J @ pnf ; vd k u f a om Zl v d k i f v (16)&uf a e@ud k (K.N.D.O) ae@tjzpf owf
rSwfavonf?

(K.N.D.O) udkzGJ@pnf;&jcif;rSm
(1)u&iftrsdK;om;v_yf&Sm;r_onf wae@ vufeufudkif wdkufyGJtxd jzpfvmrnfjzpfI
vdktyfaom jyifqifr_rsm; jyKv_yf&ef?
(2)u&ifwrsdK;om;vHk;. touftdk;tdrf pnf;pdrfrsm;udk umuG,fapmifha&Smuf&ef
(*syefacwfumvrS tawG@t=uHKocFef;pmrsm;)
(3)u&ifwrsdK;om;vHk;. v_H@aqmfpnf;&Hk;&mwGif vufeufudkifpnf;&Hk;a&;enf;jzif ydk
rdkvsifjrefxufjruf atmifjrifonfjzpfjcif;(wrsdK;om;vHk;u ZmwdaoG; Zmwdrmef
wuf=uGaeonf+?

16
zl;paumv,fawm{?f oifwef;rSwfpkxJrS xkwfEkwf,lonf
(4) (KNU) . acgif;aqmifr_ awmufajymifcdkifcHh&ef twGuf (K.N.U) vuf&kef;
rsm; jzpfonf?
(K.N.D.O)udk wc&dik w f iG f wyf&if;(1)&if; tenf;qH;k zG@J pnf;&ef qH;k jzwf+yD;
onfah emuf wv rjynfrh D tcsKd @ c&dik rf sm;wGif wyf&if(2)&if;/ (3)&if; txdyif zG@J pnf;Edik f
cJhonf? ,if;uJhodk@zGJ@pnf;jyD;onfhaemuf &efukef/ tvHk/ prf;acsmiuf;wGif ppfoif
wef;rsm;ay;onf? oifwef;wufolrsm;xJwGif vli,frsm;omru ouf=uD;&G,ftdk/
bmoma&;acgif;aqmifrsm; yg0ifwufa&mufjyD; tm;vHk;wuf=uG=uonf? wjynf
vH;k wGif ZH(k 15)ZHk cGjJ yD;zG@J pnf;onf? (K.N.D.O)umuG,af &;Xme wm0efcrH mS ref;bZH
jzpfonf/ vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &; jzpfay:vmonft h cg autJe'f t D rkd sm; wuf=uGpmG
wdkufyGJ0if=uonf? odk@aomf EdkifiHa&;tod tm;enf;jcif;ESifh tawG@t=uHK tm;
enf;jcif;rsm;&SdcJhonf? aemufwGif u&ifvufeufudkiftm;vHk;udk KAFtjzpf yl;
aygif;&m (K.N.D.O) tcef;arS;rSdefoGm;onf?
awmfveS af &;usaom wyfrawmf jyefvnfz@JG pnf;onft h cg K.N.D.O
udk wyfrawmf. tajccHtiftm;tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ aus;&GmumuG,fa&;wyf
tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ umuG,fa&;ESifh vHkjcHKa&;twGuf &Jwm0eftjzpfvnfaumif;
wm0ef r sm;xrf ; aqmif & avonf ? TuJ h o d k @ K.N.D.O . tcef ; u¾ES i f h
tcGifhta&;rsm;onf E_dif;,SOfcsuftm;jzifh wpHkw&mavsmh&JjzpfcJhonf? ,cktcg
K.N.D.O onf u&if h a wmf v S e f a &;. tajccH w yf tif t m;jzpf j cif ; a=umif h
quf v uf z G J @ pnf ; vk y f a qmif o G m ;=u&ef em;vnf o abmayguf = uonf h t wd k i f ;
K.N.D.O onf awmfveS af &; atmifyt JG wGuf tkwjf rpfjzpfonf jzpfI tav;xm;
wnfaxmifvm=uonf?

17
'l;yvm,mc&kdifrS xkwfa0onf
8?trsKd ;om;tmZmenfae@(MARTYRS DAY)
=o*kwv
f (12)&ufae@-
1950-ckESpf=o*kwfv(12)&ufae@onf OuUXapmbOD;}uD;/ Adkvf
csKyf p d k i f ; auES i f h taygif ; tygwd k @ onf awmf v S e f a &; wm0ef x rf ; aqmif & if ;
u&iftrsdK;om; opPmazmuf xD;pGrf;&Gmom; armiftJ. opPazmufr_a=umifh ebl;
+rdK@e,f xd@k aumhu;kd aus;&GmteD; v,fww J wJwiG f &efo. l 0dik &f jH ypfcwfrc_ &H &m tiftm;
rr#aomfvnf; oludk,fwdkifcsrSwfonfh rl(4)csuft& &efoludkt&SHK;ray; vufr
ajrmuf b J &S d o nf h v uf e uf r sm;jzif h & J & if h j ywf o m;pG m jyef v nf c k c H w d k u f c d k u f & if ;
*k%fajymifpGm usqHk;aomae@ jzpfonf? xdk=o*kwfv(12)&ufae@udk u&iftrsdK;om;
tmZmenfae@[k owfrSwfvsuf OuUXapmbOD;}uD;udk &nfnGef;onf oufouf
r[kwb f J u&ifv h ufeufuikd af wmfveS af &;wGif *k%af jymifpmG toufay;vSLoGm;olrsm;
tm;vHk;udk &nfnGef;csD;usL; *k%fjyKaomae@jzpfonf?
OuUXapmbOD;}uD;onf 1950ckEpS f Zlvikd v f (1&)&ufae@rS (19)
&ufae@txd zgyGef+rdK@wGifusif;yaom trsdK;om;nDvmcHudk OD;aqmifusif;ycJhonf?
xdknDvmcHtjyD;wGif ol.ausmf=um;aom bOD;}uD;rl(4)csufudk w&m;0ifa&;om;jyD;
‚if;tcsdef armfcsD;wGif &Sdonfh aumfol;av toHv$ifXmewGif a=unmavonf?
‚if ; .rl ( 4)csuf r S m
1?vuffeufcspum; tvsOf;rajym&?
2?u&ifhvufeuf u&ifhvufxJwGif&Sd&rnf?
3?u&ifh=urRm u&ifzefwD;rnf?
4?u&ifjynfudk todtrSwfjyKjcif; +yD;jynfhpHkap&rnf?
‚if;ausm=f um;aomrl (4)csuu f kd a=unm;+yD;onfah emuf ta&;}uD;udpt P` wGuf
aumhu&dwfbufqif;oGm;onf? rdk;onf;xefpGm &GmoGef;I acsmif;a&rsm;vnf;
}uD;onfhtcsdef jzpfonf? wm0efudkav;pm;jcif;/ rdrdtrsdK; om;rsm;udk ,Hk=unfjcif;
rsm;a=umifh wyfpdwfwpdwfESifh rdk;xJa&xJ c&D;qufcJhonf?
xdt
k cg ebl;+rdK@e,f w0du
k f txl;ojzifh xd@k aumhu;kd ESihf teD;em;wGif wm0ef
usaom u&ifwyfrS wyfcrJG LS ;wpfO;D onf awmfveS af &;vkyo f nfr[kwb f J awmfveS af &;
qef@usifa&;/ vlxkqef@usifa&; rsm;pGmvkyfonf? teD;tem; aus;&Gmrsm;vnf; iHk@
cH=uavonf? xD;pGrf;&Gmom; armiftJonf OuUXapmbOD;=uD; xdk@aumhudk;&Gmodk@
a&mufomG ;aomf aumif;pGm}udKqdo k a,mifa,mifEiS hf owif;rsm;pGmudk wduspmG ,ljyD;

18
zl;paumv,fawm{?f oifwef;rSwfpkxJrS xkwfEkwf,lonf
ebl;&Sd &efolwyfudkoGm;owif;ay;&m &efolvnf; ntcsdefwGif a&xJrdk;xJ twif;
csw
D ufI OuUXapmbOD;}uD;aeonfw h uJ kd 0dik ;f xm;vsuf eHeuf a0vDa0vif;tcsed w f iG f
twif;wdkufavawmhonf? OuUXapmbOD;=uD;onf tiftm;enf;aomfvnf; tnHh
rcHbJ jyefvSefckcHwdkufcdkuf&if; *k%fajymifpGm toufay;vSL&avawmhonf?
opPmazmuf armiftJ taeESihf OuUXapmbOD;}uD;r&Su d u&ifah wmfveS af &;
usqHkrnf[kwGufonf? odk@aomf olxifonfhtwdkif;r[kwfbJ awmfvSefonfh ol&J
aumif;pdw"f gwjf zpfonfh wAdv k uf s wAdv k w f ufpw d "f gwjf zifh w&m;rSeu
f efaom u&ifh
awmfveS af &;onf ,ae@wikd f &efox l H tnHrh cH/ t&S;kH ray;bJ =uH@=uH@cu H m awmfveS f
&yfwnfvsuf&Sdonf?
‘"g;udzk su0f g;rsu/f vluzkd sut f &uf/ trsKd ;om;awmfveS af &;udzk suf trsKd ;
om;opPmazmufESifh tacsmiform;’

Üatmifyo
JG nf wdu
k &f o
J t
l wGujf zpfonfÜ

19
'l;yvm,mc&kdifrS xkwfa0onf
20
zl;paumv,fawm{?f oifwef;rSwfpkxJrS xkwfEkwf,lonf

Related Interests