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Running head: ASSIGNMENT WEEK 4 Domain E.

- Literature Review 1

Assignment Week 4: Domain E. - Literature Review

Katherine Grekin

National University

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for

TED 690 - Capstone Course

Mark Ryan, Ph.D.

Running head: ASSIGNMENT WEEK 4 Domain E. - Literature Review 2

In this paper I review the literature I found in alignment with the Domain E. TPEs. The

articles I review are Learning through Performance Orientation to Groupwork, and

Establishing Classroom Norms and Expectations. I go on to highlight how my articles

selected for the Domain E. of my PDQP adequately reflect recommendations provided in the

literature. I go on to establish how the insights gained from the articles I reviewed inform and

justify my rationale regarding the decision to implementing the groupwork instructional

ASSIGNMENT WEEK 4- Domain E. - Literature Review 3

The artifacts I selected for Domain E. were selected because they demonstrate my

understanding and ability to meet the expectations of Domain E. Creating and Maintaining

Effective Environments for Student Learning. The two Teacher Performance Expectations

(TPEs) under this domain are:

TPE 10: Instructional Time

TPE 11: Social Environment

I believe it is important to begin each year by explicitly teaching and establishing behavior

norms for groupwork as groupwork is an instructional strategy that enables students to

access content in the course and go deeper in their understanding. In order for students to

learn core content and meet NGSS performance expectations they must know how to work

successfully in group settings. The artifact I selected is a student handout given at the start of

my first unit of instruction, Unit 0, which is taught prior to content area curriculum. Creating

and maintaining effective environments for student learning group means building

skills necessary for successfully working in groups In groupwork all students must perform

certain roles and each role comes with a set of responsibilities and tasks. In this preparatory

unit of instruction students participate in a series of activities in which they are able to

practice performing the each group role varying scenarios. They practice the skills and then

they reflect on the success of their group interactions. The more students practice, the more

a behavior becomes internalized. The lessons in this unit will help students start the

internalization process for the roles they play and the Behavior Norms they should follow

when working in groups. (SCALE, 2017)

I will use the Groupwork instructional strategy this year in my class. Originally I had

thought would just improve group work by leading a class discussion in the beginning of the
ASSIGNMENT WEEK 4- Domain E. - Literature Review 4

year around creating and establishing the behavioral and procedural expectations (IRIS,

Module 1). As I believe it is helpful for students to have clear expectations ahead of time in

order to set them up for success. Having students contribute to these expectations can also

increase their sense of ownership and increase their sense of responsibility (Curwin &

Mendler). Placing an emphasis upon self-discipline and responsibility over obedience is

recommended as best practice by Curwin & Mendler. However after reviewing literature in

the area I now believe you must go a step further to bring about global awareness of how to

successfully interact in group.

I believe this is important to have the students master groupwork skills because

groupwork is an instructional strategy that helps to promote more equitable classrooms,

provide opportunities for student interactions, and increase participation in science

discussions with the goal of improving student learning. (SCALE, 2017) Problems typically

arise in groupwork making if difficult to work productively in group settings. Things such as

status become boundaries for positive and equitable participation. The obvious goal is to

equalize rates of participation so that all students have a chance to contribute to the learning

of the whole class. One method of doing this may to promote and support students

development of a sense of ownership in groupwork and performance towards achieving

tasks. They need to also feel a sense of responsibility to ensure the success of the group as a

whole and the individuals, respecting intellectual abilities of their group members to

successfully complete the tasks throughout this curriculum. To promote the idea that all

students have something to contribute, we suggest that you use the following two statements

when introducing each project.

No one is good at all the abilities.

Everyone is good at some of the abilities.
ASSIGNMENT WEEK 4- Domain E. - Literature Review 5

So by clearly defining the behavioral expectations and having the students agree to these

practices by assigning a behavioral contract is another method I found helpful. Clearly

defining the expectations prior to starting class work includes teaching the specific

procedures for working in cooperative groups. By clearly defining the boundaries for

appropriate behavior it is thought that students are given a sense of security versus a sense of

vulnerability. The norms for group work should be posted in the classroom. Assigning

specific roles for engaging in group work is also incredibly important as students need to that

how one participate is just as important to the success of the group as is the amount that one

member participates compared to another. When roles are prescribed and there is regular

rotation of roles in each learning group, students are given more opportunities to access

learning and issues become more workable as each member can reflect on whether the roles

were followed or whether members perhaps neglected the responsibilities assigned to their

role etc.

One more suggestion I found to be helpful for dealing with behavioral problems before

and after they occur is to demonstrate and practice behaviors associated with each standard.

Model and teach behaviors you expect from students. (Curwin & Mendler) In modeling

these behaviors through skits and challenge activities I think it will be useful to have students

demonstrate or act out skits that provide examples and non-examples of groupwork

interactions in association with the norms. The following will be posted in my classroom.

Groupwork Norms.
1. Pay attention to what other group members need
2. No one is done until everyone is done
3. Play your role in the group
4. Help others do things for themselves
5. Listen and pay attention to what is being said
6. Explain by telling how
7. Be concise
8. Rephrase and build on others ideas
9. Everyone contributes
10. Everybody helps
ASSIGNMENT WEEK 4- Domain E. - Literature Review 6


Establishing Classroom Norms and Expectations - Case Study Set Introduction. (n.d.). the
IRIS Center. Retrieved July 9, 2014, from

UL/SCALE at Stanford University. (n.d.). Learning through Performance Orientation to

Groupwork. Retrieved August 06, 2017, from