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UNIT 1: Introduction to the Teaching of Mathematics

a) Meaning and Nature of Mathematics

b) Relation of Mathematics with other school subjects (Languages, Science, Social Studies-
History, Geography, Civics & Economics; Commerce, Drawing, Music)
c) Values in teaching of Mathematics.

NATURE OF MATHEMATICS
a. Meaning:
From the Greek word, which means inclined to learn
Oxford Dictionary, the branch of science concerned with number, quantity and space.
Locke, a way to settle in the mind a habit of reasoning
Ancient Hindus referred to mathematics as, Ganitathe science of calculation.
Courant and Robbins, Mathematics is an expression of the human mind that reflects the
active will, contemplative reason and the desire for aesthetic perfection. Its basic elements are
logic and intuition, analysis and construction, generality and individuality.
The following conclusions can be made related to the meaning of mathematics:
It is a science of number and space
Has its own language in terms of signs, symbols, terms, operations etc.
Uses/Requires intuition, logic, reasoning, analysis, construction, generality and individuality.
Helps in drawing conclusions and interpreting various ideas and themes.
It is suited for dealing with abstract concept of any kind.
Helps to solve problems of daily life.
Has an aesthetic value and helps to admire the beauty of nature.

b. Branches of mathematics:
Pure Mathematics Applied Mathematics
rithmetic Relates to a wide
Algebra range of studies
Geometry with a wide use.

c. Nature of Mathematics: Mathematics relies both on logic and creativity: it is pursued for a
variety of :
Practical Purposes i.e. how mathematics applies to their work?
Intrinsic Interests i.e. Essence of mathematics lies in its beauty and intellectual challenge.
The nature of mathematics can be also discussed in terms of:
i. Science of logical reasoning: In mathematics the results are developed through a process of
reasoning.
Reasoning in mathematics possesses a number of characteristics such as,
Simplicity
Accuracy
Certainty of Results
Originality
Verification
Conclusions follow naturally from the facts when logical reasoning is applied to the facts.
ii. Mathematical Language and Symbolism: It has its own unique language and symbols.
Mathematical language and symbols cut down on lengthy statements. Helps in the expression of
ideas and concepts in exact form. It is free from verbosity, helps to point out clear and exact
expression of facts. E.g Writing
(a-b) 2 = a2 2ab + b2 in words. Symbols which are peculiar and unique to
mathematics:,,,,,,
iii. Values Inculcated through mathematics:
Utilitarian or Practical Value: Refer from math method text as discussed.
Intellectual Value: Imagination, memory, observation, concentration, creativity, logical
thinking and reasoning are developed through mathematics.
Disciplinary Value: Punctuality, Neatness, cleanliness, habit of paying attention, regular study
habits through HW and drill are developed in students via mathematics.

Pure Mathematics
Arithmetic
Algebra
Geometry

Applied Mathematics
Relates to a wide range of studies with a wide use in empirical sciences
Aesthetic Value: It has regularity, symmetry, order, a specific arrangement, which lends beauty
to art forms. (Architecture, art, drawing, dance, drama etc)

d. Importance of Mathematics in Curriculum: This can be studied through the aims and
objectives of teaching mathematics.
Aims of Teaching Mathematics: They enable the students to acquire mathematical knowledge,
skills, develop interests and attitudes. The various aims are as follows:
1. Utilitarian aim 2.Disciplinary aim 3. Cultural aim 4. Social Aim 5. Aesthetic Aim
6.Vocational aim 7. Inter-disciplinary aim.

OR
they can be studied as follows:
1. To provide a clarity about fundamental concepts and processes of mathematics.
2. To create in pupils an enduring interest for the subject.
3. To develop in pupils a taste for and confidence in mathematics.
4. To develop in pupils accuracy and efficiency.
5. To acquaint pupils with relation of mathematics with their present as also their future life.
6. To develop habits such as regularity, practice, patience, self-reliance and hard work.
7. To acquaint pupils with mathematical language and symbols.
8. To prepare pupils for learning of mathematics of higher classes.
9. To initiate and develop required discipline in the learners mind.
Objectives of Teaching Mathematics: The objectives of teaching mathematics at the entire
school stage are classified as:

1. Knowledge and Understanding: The student acquires Remembering and understanding of

Language of mathematics
Concepts of number, measurement and direction.
Development and history of mathematics.
Interrelationship between different branches and topics of mathematics.
Nature of the subject.

2. Skill: Helps the students to develop the given skills

To use mathematical language.
Acquire speed, neatness, accuracy and Precision.
Technique of Problem-solving.
To estimate check and verify results.
Perform calculations orally and mentally.
Drawing of geometrical figures.
Use of mathematical tables, tools and apparatus.

3. Application: Helps the students to apply knowledge , understanding and skills as follows:
Able to solve problems on their own.
Use of concepts and processes in daily life.
Ability to analyze, draw inferences and generalize.
To use mathematical knowledge in other subjects.
Apply mathematics in his or her vocation.

4. Attitude: The students of mathematics develop or must develop the

Following attitudes:
Learn to analyze problems.
Habit of systematic thinking and objective reasoning.
Discover solutions and proofs due to independent efforts.
Verifies the results.
Develops mathematical perspectives and outlook towards society.
Appreciates logical, critical and independent thinking.

5. Appreciation and Interest: These are also long term objectives and are as follows:
Role of mathematics in daily life.
Aesthetic nature of mathematics
Recreational value of mathematics.
Interest in learning the subject
Appreciates the power of computation.
1b) Relation of Mathematics with other school subjects (Languages, Science, Social
Studies- History, Geography, Civics & Economics; Commerce, Drawing, Music)

Mind perceives knowledge as a whole. If each subject is taught as a water tight compartment,
fragments of knowledge may accumulate at one place in the form of layers. Failure in
establishing links between the layers may be an obstacle to retention of earlier knowledge.

Hence no subject can be taught in isolation. The main aim of education is the unification of
knowledge existing in the different branches of learning. The flow of knowledge should be
permeable and should be merged with all the fields of learning. In order to achieve this the
teachers while teaching, need to relate the various subjects taught in school. Thus bridging the
gap between the various school subjects .Therefore it becomes necessary to relate one subject
with another. Knowledge is useful when it can be applied to day to day life; relation of a subject
with daily life makes knowledge useful. So in order to achieve the ultimate aim of education i.e.
to achieve the development of an all round personality, is possible only through unification of
knowledge and not by teaching only a few subjects in isolation. Hence relation is the only

We can explain the concept of relation as follows,

The term relation in its simplest form means connect or to be connected.
It is the conscious effort made by teachers teaching various subjects," to show similarities or
dependence of one subject on another.

Types of Relation
1. Internal / Vertical Relation
This type of relation is between different branches (e.g. algebra, geometry, arithmetic) of a given
subject (e.g. Mathematics). Branches of a subject many times are taught by different teachers,
such that each branch is treated as a different entity. But it shouldnt be done so as it loses it
charm of unification of knowledge as our mind perceives, so teachers need to relate it as much as
possible.(for e.g. Teacher teaching algebra in Std VII , in the chapter Identities the expansion of
(a+b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 should relate with geometry by drawing a geometrical figure and explain.
Internal relation is necessary for continuity of knowledge and understanding of the subject. This
focuses the relevance of branches (e.g. algebra, geometry, arithmetic) of one (Mathematics)
subject and their role in providing a wholistic fund of knowledge. It makes teaching interesting
and the subject is not taught as a water tight compartment and in isolation. So it becomes easy
for students to retain and apply knowledge whenever required.

2. External / Horizontal Relation

This type of relation is between different school subjects (e.g. Science, History, Geography ,
Economics etc. ) and a given school subject (mathematics). Different school subjects are taught
by different teachers, such that each subject is treated as a different entity. But it shouldnt be
done so as it loses it charm of unification of knowledge as our mind perceives, so teachers need
to relate it as much as possible.(for e.g. Teacher while solving sums based on speed and distance
in maths class should relate it with branch of science- i.e. physics, if she is teaching about life
history of great mathematicians like Euclid , Ramanujan she can relate with history, if she is
teaching a chapter based on graphs of rainfall she can relate it with geography. Etc. Thus external
relation is necessary for continuity of knowledge and understanding of the various subjects. It
makes teaching interesting and the subject is not taught as a water tight compartment and in
isolation. So it becomes easy for students to retain and apply knowledge of various subjects
whenever required. All subjects of the school curriculum contribute towards the realization of the
aims of education. Since they have the same purpose, study of one subject helps in the study of
other subjects.
This type of relation is between different subjects (e.g. Science, History, Geography , Economics
etc.) of a given subject (e.g. Mathematics).

3. Relation with Daily Life

A subject is best understood went it is applicable to daily life. So the teacher has to take care to
relate the subject she is teaching with daily life. For e.g. A mathematics teacher while teaching
simple and compound interest must pose examples from daily life transactions. Relation of a
subject with daily life is of the utmost importance in order to create interest in the subject.
Relation with daily life makes the subject relevant instead of being only theory with no practical
applications. It makes the theory more concrete and convinces the student the need for learning
the subject for practical use in his life.

This type of relation is between subjects taught in school and with daily life activities. (for e.g.
measurement of carpet area of a classroom, house , percentage of marks obtained in an
examination, profit on purchasing a product after discount, loss on selling a product etc. in daily
life can be obtained when the child uses his knowledge of a given subject (e.g. Mathematics).

Thus we can say from the above examples, that knowledge of Mathematics subject can be
applied in daily life to do various transactions and thus it is beneficial to learn mathematics and
not a waste as it helps us to do financial transactions as well as it equips the learner with
thorough knowledge so that he may not be duped or cheated by others as he himself can
calculate, measure and find percentage, profit, loss etc.

c) Values in teaching of Mathematics.

Utilitarian Value
Disciplinary Value
Intellectual Value
Cultural Value
Moral Value
Aesthetic Value
Social Value
International Value
UNIT 2: Designing Mathematics Curriculum
a) Aims and Objectives of teaching Mathematics at Secondary and Higher Secondary
Levels (NCF 2009)

Students begin to perceive the structure of mathematics as a discipline.

They become familiar with the characteristics of mathematical communication:
carefully defined terms and concepts, the use of symbols to represent them,
precisely stated propositions, and proofs justifying propositions. These aspects
are developed particularly in the area of geometry.

Secondary Levels (NCF 2009)

Students develop their facility with algebra, which is important not only in the application
of mathematics, but also within mathematics in providing justifications and proofs.
At this stage, students integrate the many concepts and skills that they have learnt into a
problem-solving ability.

Secondary Levels (NCF 2009)

Mathematical modelling, data analysis and interpretation taught at this stage can
consolidate a high level of mathematical literacy.
Individual and group exploration of connections and patterns, visualisation and
generalisation, and making and proving conjectures are important at this stage, and can
be encouraged through the use of appropriate tools that include concrete models as in
Mathematics laboratories and computers.

To provide students with an appreciation of the wide variety of the application of

Mathematics, and equip them with the basic tools that enable such application.
The rapid explosion of Mathematics as a discipline, and of its range of application,
favours an increase in the breadth of coverage.

Such increase must be dictated by mathematical considerations of the importance of

topics to be included.
Topics that are more naturally the province of other disciplines may be left out of the
Mathematics curriculum.

The treatment of topics must have an objective, that is, the communication of
mathematical insights and concepts, which naturally arouse the interest and curiosity of
students.

b) Maxims of Teaching
i. From Known to Unknown
ii. From Simple to Complex
iii. From Particular to General
iv. From Concrete to Abstract
v. From Whole to Part

Maxims of Teaching

Are the universal facts found out by the teacher on the basis of experience. They are of universal
significance and are trustworthy. The knowledge of different maxims helps the teacher to
proceed systematically. It also help to find out his/her way of teaching, especially at the early
stages of teaching.

Every teacher wants to make maximum involvement and participation of the learners in the
learning process. He sets the classroom in such a way so that it becomes attractive for them. He
uses different methods, rules, principles etc in order to make his lesson effective and purposeful.
He uses general rule or formula and applies it to particular example in order to make teaching
learning process easy and upto the understandable level of students.

These settled principles, tenets, working rules or general truths through which teaching becomes
interesting, easy and effective are called the maxims of teaching. They have universal
significance. Every person who is expected to enter into the teaching profession have to
familiarize himself with the maxims of teaching. Their knowledge helps him to proceed
systematically.

The different maxims of teaching are briefly explained below. The teacher should always
proceed keeping them in view.
The different maxims of teaching are briefly explained below.
1. From known to unknown:-

When a child enters into school, he possess some knowledge and it is the duty of teacher to
enlarge his previous knowledge. Whatever he possesses should be linked with the new
knowledge. If we link new knowledge with the old knowledge our teaching becomes clearer and
more definite.

This maxim facilitates the learning process and economises the efforts of the teacher and the
taught.

This way of teaching helps the learners to understand things fully. This way the teaching
becomes definite, clearer and more fruitful.

This maxim is based on the assumption that the student knows something. We are to increase his
knowledge and widen his outlook. We have to interpret all new knowledge in terms of the old.
It is said that old knowledge serves as a hook on which the new one can be hung. Known is
trustworthy and unknown cannot be trusted. So while teaching we should proceed from known
and go towards unknown. For example, while teaching any lesson, the teacher can link the
previous experiences of the child with the new lesson that is to be taught.

2. From simple to complex:-

The main objective of teacher is to teach and the learners objective is to learn something. In this
process of teaching and learning, simple or easy things should be first presented to the students
and gradually he should proceed towards complex or difficult things. The presentation of simple
material makes the learners interested, confident and feel encouraged. As they will show interest
towards the simple material, they becomes receptive to the complex matter. On the other hand, if
complex matter is presented first, the learner becomes upset, feel bored and finds himself in a
challenging situation.

For example in mathematics we first present the idea of +, - , x and then division.

When the child gets admitted to 9th and 10th class we introduce algebra, surds, trigonometry,
geometry etc. As he proceeds further he becomes familiar with the complex material like
matrices, integration, differentiation etc. In this way a learner shows interest by proceeding from
simple mathematics to complex one. But if we reverse the situation, he will find himself in a
challenging situation and will leave his studies due to complexity of matter. Simplicity or
complexity of the subject matter should be determined according to the view point of the
learners. It makes learning convenient and interesting for the students.

Class-room teaching is formal where the teacher tries to teach and the students try to learn
things. In this process of teaching-learning, the teacher should see that simple things are
presented first to the students. That way they will start taking interest. Once they become
interested, thou gradually complex type of things can also be learnt by them. By learning simple
things, they feel encouraged and they also gain confidence. On this basis, they become further
receptive to the complex matter. On the other hand, if complex types of things are presented to
the learner first, he becomes upset, feels bored and finds himself in a challenging situation lot
which he is not yet ready being immature and unripe.

Gradually more difficult items of learning may be presented to the students. It will smoothen
teaching being done by the teacher and make learning convenient and interesting for the
students.

3. From concrete to abstract:-

Concrete things are solid things and they can be visualized but abstract things are only
imaginative things. The child understands more easily when taught through their senses and
never forgets that material. On the other hand if abstract things or ideas are presented, they forget
it soon. As Froebel said, Our lessons ought to start in the concrete and end in the abstract. For
example when we teach the solar system, we first visualize the sun through our senses and gives
the concept of eight planets, galaxies, meteorites etc. Through this process, the learners
understand the materials more easily. Some power of imagination also develops in them .But if
we reverse the situation, it will become difficult for learners to understand anything. Another
example, when we teach counting to the students we should first take the help of concrete objects
like beads, stones etc. and then proceed to digits and numbers.

Concrete things are solid things and they can be touched with five senses. But abstract things can
only be imagined. So it is rather difficult to teach the children about abstract things. The students
are likely to forget them soon. On the other hand, if we teach the students with the help of
concrete objects, they will never forget the subject matter.

For example when we teach counting to the students we should first examine concrete nouns
like, laptop, book, Pen etc. and then proceed to digits and numbers. The stars, the moon, the sun
etc. being taught first whereas the abstract thing:, like planet, satellites etc. should be taught
afterwards.

5. From particular to general:-

A teacher should always proceed from particular to general statements. General facts, principles
and ideas are difficult to understand and hence the teacher should always first present particular
things and then lead to general things.

While teaching, the teacher should first of all take particular statements and then on the basis of
particular cases, generalization should be made.
6. From Whole to Parts:
This maxim is the offshoot of gestalt theory of learning whose main emphasis was to perceive
things or objects as whole and not in the form of parts. Whole is more understandable,
motivating and effective than the parts. In teaching, the teacher should first give a synoptic view
of lesson and then analyze it into different parts.

It is actually the reverse of the maxim analyses to synthesis.

In teaching, the teacher should try to acquaint the child with the whole lesson first and then the
different portions of it may be analyzed and studied intensively. This principle holds good while
teaching a thing to the small children. At the early stages, the child loves to speak full sentences
because in daily life situations, full sentences are used. The child should be given a full sentence.
Then he may have full familiarity with the different words contained in that sentence. Later he
may have the knowledge of words. Then he will have the knowledge of different letters forming
the words.

It will help the teacher to teach better and the learners to learn things conveniently.

c) Concentric and Topical Approach of Curriculum Construction

Concentric Approach
This is a system of organising a course rather than a method of teaching. It is, therefore,
better to call it concentric system or approach. It implies widening of knowledge just as
concentric circles go on extending and widening. It is a system of arrangement of subject
matter. In this method the study of the topic is spread over a number of years. It is based on
the principle that subject cannot be given an exhaustive treatment at the first stage. To begin
with, a simple pre-sentation of the subject is given and further knowledge is imparted in
following years. Thus beginning from a nucleus the circles of knowledge go on widening
year after year and hence the name concentric method.

Procedure
A topic is divided into a number of portions which are then allotted to different classes. The
criterion for allotment of a particular portion of the course to a particular class is the
difficulty of portion and power of comprehension of students in the age group. Thus it is
mainly concerned with year to year teaching but its influence can also be exercised in day-to-
day teaching Knowledge being given today

Merits of Concentric Method

(i) This method of organisation of subject matter is decidedly superior to that in which one
topic is taken up in particular class and an effort is made to deal with all aspects of the topic
in that particular class.
(ii) It provides a framework from course which is of real value to students.
(iii) The system is most successful when the teaching is in hand of one teacher because then
he can preserve continuity in the teaching and keeps his expanding circle concentric.
(iv) It provides opportunity for revision of work already covered in a previous class and
carrying out new work.
(v) It enables the teacher to cover a portion according to receptivity of learner.
(vi) Since the same topic is learnt over many years so its impressions are more lasting.
(vii) It does not allow teaching to become dull because every year a new interest can be given
to the topic. Every year there are new problems to solve and new difficulties to overcome.
Drawbacks
For the success of this approach we require really capable teacher. If a teacher becomes over
ambitious and exhausts all the possible interesting illustrations in there introductory year then the
subject loses its power of freshness and appeal and nothing is left to create interest in the
topic in subsequent years. In case the topic is too short or too long then also the method
is not found to be useful. A too long portion makes the topic dull and a too short portion
fails to leave any permanent and lasting impression on the mind of the pupil.

EXAMPLE: TOPIC: INDICES

Std. Content
VI Expression, Meaning, Base, Power, Reading, Finding Value, Indices of
ve numbers
VII Introduction, Revision of Rules,expanded form of numbers
VIII Revision of all rules,laws of indices,fractional indices
IX Used to introduce Surds
X Trignometry, Solving sums

Concentric approach is really a very good approach to be adopted. Teachers have to be careful so
that portion is neither too long nor too short. In every consecutive year positive points can be
interest and vigor every year and will bring all possible and interesting illustrations in class.

C) TOPICAL APPROACH OF ORGANISING CURRICULUM

Topical arrangement means that a topic should be finishes entirely at one stage. It takes the topic
as a unit. Topical arrangement requires that easy and difficult portions of a topic should be dealt
with one stage only which is psychological. In this system the topic which is dealt with earlier
receives no attention later and so there is every likelihood of its being forgotten. The main defect
in the topical method is that it introduces in the curriculum a largeness of irrelevant material for
which the pupil finds no time and no immediate need or the use of which cannot be appreciated
by the pupil at the stage.

They are introduced with a view to make the teaching of the topic complete and through. Hence
topical method demands that a topic once taken should be finished in its entirely. This is not
more useful for lower classes.

MEANING:
A topic is taken with a unified whole in itself & it is unbreakable unit.
TOPICS which cannot be analysed into smaller unit are best thought though topical approach.

Principle of Topical Approach:

Take any topic, do not leave it half-done.
Finish the entire topic before starting the next topic.
Steps:

1.Systematic arrangement of subject matter.

2.Syllabus is also suitable organized.
3.Topic is chosen & is taught at stretch.
4.No break or gap is given in topic

Example:
1)In 5th standard: Perimeter
2)In 7th standard:
(a)Time & Work
(b)Discount, commission & Rebate.

3)In 9th standard:

(a)Sets,
(b)Surds,
(c)Logarithms.
(d)Computing.

MERITS:
Students keeps Complete Concentration on particular topic.
Teachers give best effort to impart information, knowledge & illustration of topic.
Students attention is not diverted.
Students ability, creativity, capacity is directed only to particular topic.
Students get concrete & thorough knowledge.

DEMERITS:
It is an unpsychological approach: Difficulty level of student is not considered.
All student will not be able to receive & understand complicated parts of topic.
Teachers get bored of teaching same topic.
Interest of student will wane.
Since topic is not carried to next consecutive year, knowledge gained is forgotten by student.

Topical approach is really a very good approach. Teachers will have to select a topic, which can
be delivered to its fullest in the same consecutive years .It is one of effective way of imparting
information. If topic is kept a center, co-relation is also taken care.

UNIT 3: Pedagogical Analysis

a) Content Analysis
b) Instructional Objectives
c) Instructional Strategies

Concept Pedagogical analysis- Meaning and Process

What is Content analysis and how it is done in Mathematics
What are the Instructional Objectives for Mathematics
What are the different Instructional Strategies that can be used in Mathematics

The word Pedagogy was derived from the Greek words, paid meaning child and agogus

It refers to passive methods of teaching-learning.

It maintained that the students are empty vessels and the teacher can pour knowledge into them.
This approach to learning was called Pedagogy. Thus in pedagogy, the concern is transmitting
the content and the teacher alone takes all decisions about learning.

Today, however, the term 'pedagogy' has taken a new meaning. Thus the New Meaning of
Pedagogy is facilitating the learner in mastering the content.

Hence Pedagogy means the art and the science of teaching orLearner focussed education for
people of all ages.

PedagogicalAnalysis

How can this content be transmitted in a logical sequence?

What would be the most effective method for transmitting this content (media)?

Actions handling

/processes

Educational Resources Teaching & Learning Approach connected

with contents/
concepts/
issues
Pedagogical Analysis-Process

Pre-active

Interactive

Evaluative

Pre-active Stage

Structure of the subject

Analysis of curriculum

Analysis of syllabus

Content analysis

Content analysis

Values and CORE ELEMENTS in the unit.

Interactive Stage

Learning Experiences to be provided for:

Understanding content

Sensitizing to core elements

Inculcating Values

Evaluative Stage

The questions should be based on:

Content

Core Elements

Values

Generalizations

NPE (1986) with modifications in 1992 incorporates the basic spirit of Article 51A of the
constitution and emphasizes that:

The National System of Education will be based on a national curricular framework which
contains a COMMON CORE along with other components that are flexible.

The history of Indias freedom movement,

Constitutional obligation,

Egalitarianism, democracy and secularism,

Equality of sexes,

Protection of environment,
Removal of social barriers,

Which TEACHING METHODS are best suited to achieve these intentions?

Which CLASS MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES will match the students' learning needs?

Content Analysis

Psychomotor Development centered Subjects: Physical Education, Music, Drawing, Work

Experience/SUPW, Practical

Content Analysis

Terms

Concepts

Definitions

Facts

Formulae

Laws

Conclusions
Principles

Generalizations

Processes

Procedures

Content Analysis

Facts

Time

Place

Personalities

New Terms

Concepts

Generalizations

Event

Cause-Effect

Messages

Pre-active Stage

Entry competence

(Mastery level)

Activities and Procedures

Evaluation Technique

Through pedagogical analysis,

A student teacher becomes conversant with the objectives of teaching a unit, becomes aware of the
relation of these objectives with the core components, can identify essential entry behaviour of pupils,
Through pedagogical analysis,

classroom management techniques

evaluation strategies to achieve the pre determined objectives, sensitizing for the core elements
and inculcating values.

for classroom instruction will improve the QUALITY OF EDUCATION.

The content analysis, is the structured description of the subject matter that is involved in the
activities.

This description includes the conceptual structure of the subject matter, its representation systems, its
phenomenological analysis and its modelling possibilities.

The cognitive analysis, is the identification and description of the difficulties that students might face
and the errors that they might make while accomplishing the tasks that constitute the activities.

The instruction analysis, is the description of the activities that are to be proposed to the students,
taking into account the types of tasks that emerge from the content analysis, the needs of students (as
a consequence of the cognitive analysis), and the materials and resources available.

The performance analysis, is the description of the students cognitive status as a result of the
activities.

This information feedbacks a new cycle of the didactical analysis.

At the end of one cycle (which can be a lesson or a portion of a lesson), the information produced in
the performance analysis is used in the formulation of new goals, contents and cognitive status.

Special Characteristics of Mathematics curriculum

Concentric arrangement,

Competency based,

Sequential

Content Analysis

Terms: Variable, Consonant

Concepts: Equation

Equations

With one With more than one variable

variable Simultaneous

Equations

Standard

VI

VII

Content

Equality: Properties

Verification

Standard VIII
Content

Equations with numerator & Denominator

Converting to simple linear by Cross multiplication, Without introducing the word linear

Simultaneous equations: two variables, two equations.

Eliminating one variable thereby reducing to equation with one variable. Substituting the value.

Verification

No Word problems

Standard IX

Content

Graded presentation of problems with respect to difficulty level

Standard X

Content

Simultaneous equations:

Solution Set

Word problems

General form

Identification

Formula

Word problems

Unit - Equations involving one variable Std. VII

Learning outcomes

After completing this unit the students will be able to:

1. Define an equation .

2. Determine the value of the variable which satisfies the given equation.

3. Use the addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division properties of equalities to solve
equations.

5. Solve practical problems in arithmetic and geometry.

The students will be sensitized to and appreciate the underlying core elements.

Removal of social barriers (different sections of society)

Observance of the small family norms, (two children a boy and a girl)

(Arithmetic and Geometry) problems using

equations (Algebra)

Methods to be followed

Inquiry

Problem Solving

Dramatization

Simulation

Framing word problems from given equations (always vice versa is done)

Evaluation questions

What if we modify this topic?

UNIT 4: TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS
a) Teaching Concepts (Concept Development Design)
b) Teaching Generalizations (Inductive Deductive)
c) Teaching Problem Solving (Problem Solving)
d) Teaching Constructions (Lecture cum Demonstration)
e) Teaching Proofs (Analytical Synthetic)

MEANING, PROCEDURE, MERITS, LIMITATIONS & APPLICATION

Teaching Concepts
(Concept Development Design)

Concept Development Design is intended to assess and develop students understanding of

fundamental concepts through activities that engage them in classifying and defining, representing
concepts in multiple ways, testing and challenging common misconceptions, and exploring
structure.

Procedure:

3) Collaborative work on a substantial activity : involves four mental processes

Bringing the concept to the foreground of attention, naming and describing its properties
(identifying);

Identifying similarities and differences between this concept and others (discriminating);

Perceiving a unifying principle (synthesizing, defining)

Procedure:

4) Students share their thinking with the whole class5) Students revisit the assessment task

MERITS

In depth understanding

Better retention
Team work

Collaboration

Higher order thinking skills

LIMITATIONS

Time constraint

Resources crunch

Seating arrangement

No textbooks on these lines

APPLICATION: POLYGON

1) (Before the lesson) Students complete an assessment task individually

Teacher asks students to examine objects carefully, and classify them according to their different
attributes.

2) Whole Class Introduction

Teacher then presents a problem for class discussion depending upon the observations done by
the students.

Similarities and differences

Show students three objects."Which is the odd one out?""Describe properties that two share
that the third does not." "Now choose a different object from the three and justify it as the odd
one out."

Properties and definitions

Show students an object."Look at this object and write down all its properties." "Does any single
property constitute a definition of the object? If not, what other object has that property?" "Which
pairs of properties constitute a definition and which pairs do not?"

Creating and testing a definition

Ask students to write down the definition of a polygon, or some other mathematical word.

"Exchange definitions and try to improve them."

Show students a collection of objects. "Use your definition to sort the objects." "Now improve

Give students a two-way table to sort a collection of objects.

"Create your own objects and add these to the table.""Try to justify why particular entries are
impossible to fill."

partner identify the headings from the way you have sorted the objects?

4) Students share their thinking with the whole class5) Students revisit the assessment

e) Teaching Proofs (Analytical Synthetic)

Inductive-Deductive Method
This method of teaching mathematics can be discussed in terms of the two methods that are
simultaneously used i.e. Inductive Method and Deductive Method. Let us first consider;
Inductive method: It is based on the process of induction; it leads from concrete to abstract,
particular to general and from examples to the rule. Here we take a few examples and arrive at
the rule i.e. it is a method of constructing a formula from a number of concrete examples.
Induction means; to provide the universal truth by showing that if it is true for a particular case,
it is true for all such cases. In this method we arrive at a formula or generalization through
reasoning and solving problems.
E.g. To arrive at the generalization that; The sum of all the angles of triangle is 180 o. The
teacher draws different types of triangles and asks the students to measure all the angles of the
triangles and state the sum of the three angles in each case. Every time the students realize that
the three angles measure up to 180o. The triangles may be as shown below; They observe the
results and can make the generalization that The sum of all the angles of triangle is 180o.
Merits:
It is a psychological method and the interest of the student is sustained throughout.
Helps in development of understanding of the students concerning the formula.
It is a natural method of making discoveries.
It is a logical method and thus suits the purpose of mathematics.
Encourages active pupil participation.
Discourages cramming and reduces homework.
Based on actual observation, thinking and experimentation.
Found most suitable in the initial stage of the lesson.
Helps in increasing pupil-teacher contacts.

De-merits:
Limited in range and not suitable for all topics.
All formulae cannot be generalized in this method.
Time consuming and laborious.
Inductive reasoning is not always conclusive.
A complete topic cannot be covered by this method.

Deductive Method: It is the exact opposite of the inductive method. Over here we proceed from
general to particular, abstract to concrete. In this method the rule or generalization or formula is
given at the very beginning. Thus the students are expected to apply these rules or formulae to
solve the sums. The formula or rule is accepted as the universal truth and the student uses them
to solve the problems.

E.g. the teacher states that; The sum of all the angles of triangle is 180o.

The teacher draws different types of triangles along with the measures. The teacher asks the
student to state the sum of the angles in each case.
The triangles may be as shown below; The student then with the help of this property solved
different types of sums such as;
In triangle PQR, measure of angle P is 50o, the measure of angle Q is 75o.Find the measure of
angle R?
In triangle XYZ measure of angle Z is, 57o the measure of angle X is 97o. Find the measure of
angle Y?
Merits:
Short and time saving method.
Method suits all types of students.
Suitable for all topics.
Provides sufficient examples for practice.
Speed and efficiency of doing sums increases.
Demerits:
It is not a psychological method.
It encourages cramming.
Taxes the pupils mind.
Students are passive learners and thus lose interest.
It puts more emphasis on memory.
Not suitable for the development of thinking, reasoning and discovery.
Thus we have seen that both the inductive as well as deductive methods by themselves have
merits and demerits. These demerits can be negated when both methods are used together in the
form of INDUCTODEDUCTIVE METHOD. Induction and deduction are complementary to
one another. So in the beginning inductive method must be used to elicit the rule or
generalization and then this must be followed by sufficient practice using the deductive method.
This will promote better understanding of mathematics and speed, accuracy and command over
the subject increases.
B. Analytic Synthetic Method
Analytical Method:
The meaning of the word analysis is to separate things that are together. In this method we
start from what is to be found or proved. Thorndike says that, Analysis is the highest intellectual
performance of the mind. Analysis also means, Breaking up of a given problem, so that it
connects with what is already known. In analysis we proceed from, Unknown to Known.
Analysis is, Unfolding of a problem to find its hidden aspect.
This method is used under the given conditions:
When we have to prove any theorem.
Can be used for construction problems.
To find out solutions of new arithmetical problems.
Merits/Adv of this method are as follows:
Logical, leaves no doubt.
Facilitates understanding, as we discover facts.
Each step has reason and justification.
Student gains confidence and understanding.
Method suits the learner and the subject.

Demerits of this method are:

Lengthy method and also time consuming.
Difficult to acquire efficiency and speed.
Not applicable to all topics.
Not suitable for students with weak conceptual knowledge.
Synthetic Method:
The word synthesis simply means, To place things together or to join separate parts. In this
method we proceed from known to unknown. It is the process of relating known bits of data to
a point where the unknown becomes true. It is the method of formulation, recording and
presenting concisely the solution without any trial and errors.

Merits/Adv of this method are as follows:

Short and precise method.
Saves time and labor.
Suits the needs of majority of the students.
Can be applied to a majority of topics in mathematics.
Omits trial and error as in analysis method.

Demerits of this method are:

Teachercentered method, students are passive listeners.
Students rely on rote memory.
No opportunity to develop the skills of thinking and reasoning, as understanding is
hampered.
Students lack confidence to do other type of sums.
From the above discussion we can see that both the methods of analysis and synthesis by
themselves have their advantages and disadvantages. In order to ensure the complete
understanding of mathematics in the learners that both the methods be used together to teach
mathematics. By using a combination of these two methods the teacher can ensure that effecting
teaching learning takes place.
C. Lecture Cum Demonstration Method
Points: Lecture Method; Demonstration; Lecture Cum Demonstration; Principle Based;
Requirement For
Good Demonstration; How To Conduct Good Demonstration.
Lecture Method
It is oldest teaching method given by philosophy of idealism. As used in education, the lecture
method
refers to the teaching procedure involved in clarification or explanation of the students of
some major idea. This method lays emphasis on the penetration of contents. Teacher is more
active and students are passive but he also uses question answers to keep them attentive in the
class. It is used to motivate, clarify, expand and review the information. By changing voice, by
impersonating characters, by shifting his posing, by using simple devices, a teacher can deliver
lessons effectively, while delivering his lecture; a teacher can indicate by her facial expressions,
gestures and tones the exact slide of meaning that he wishes to convey.
Thus we can say that when teacher takes the help of a lengthy-short explanation in order to
clarify his ideas or some fact that explanation is termed as lecture or lecture method and after
briefing about lecture method. Lets see what a demonstration is.
Demonstration method:
The dictionary meaning of the word "demonstration" is the outward showing of a feeling etc.;
a description and explanation by experiment; so also logically to prove the truth; or a
practical display of a piece of equipment to snow its display of a piece of equipment to show
its capabilities . In short it is a proof provided by logic, argument etc.

To define "it is a physical display of the form, outline or a substance of object or events for the
purpose of increasing knowledge of such objects or events.
Demonstration involves "showing what or showing how".
Demonstration is relatively uncomplicated process in that it does not require extensive verbal
elaboration.
What is lecture cum demonstration method?
To begin with, this method includes the merits of lecture method and demonstration method. The
teacher performs the experiment in the class and goes on explaining what she does. It takes into
account the active participation of the student and is thus not a lopsided process like the lecture
method. The students see the actual apparatus and operations and help the teacher in
demonstrating experiments and thereby they feel interested in learning. So also this method
follows maxims from concrete to abstract wherein the students observe the demonstration
critically and try to draw inferences. Thus with help of lecture cum demonstration method their
power of observation and reasoning are also exercised. So the important principle on which
this method works is "Truth is that works."
Requirements of good Demonstration:
The success of any demonstration following points should be kept in mind.
1. It should be planned and rehearsed by the teacher before hand.
2. The apparatus used for demonstration should be big enough to be seen by the whole class. If
the class may be disciplined she may allow them to sit on the benches to enable them a better
view.
3. Adequate lighting arrangements be made on demonstration table and a proper background
table need to be provided.
4. All the pieces of apparatus are placed in order before starting the demonstration. The
apparatus likely to be used should be placed in the left hand side of the table and it should be
arranged in the same order in which it is likely to be used
5. Before actually starting the demonstration a clear statement about the purpose of
demonstration be made to the students.
6. The teacher makes sure that the demonstration lecture method leads to active participation of
the students in the process of teaching.
7. The demonstration should be quick and slick and should not appear to linger on unnecessarily.
8. The demonstration should be interesting so that it captures the attention of the students.
9. It would be better if the teacher demonstrates with materials or things the children handle in
everyday life.
10. For active participation of students the teacher may call individual student in turn to help him
in demonstration.
11. The teacher should write the summary of the principles arrived at because of demonstration
on the blackboard. The black board can be also used for drawing the necessary diagrams.
These are some of the requirements of good demonstrations.
Steps needed to conduct a Lecture -cum demonstration lesson.
1. Planning and preparation: A great care is taken by the teacher while planning and preparing
his demonstration. He should keep the following points I mind while preparing his lesson.
a. Subject matter.
c. Apparatus required for the experiment
To achieve the above stated objective the teacher should thoroughly go through the pages of the
text book, relevant to the lesson. After this he should prepare his lesson plan in which he should
essentially include the principles to be explained, a lot of experiments to be demonstrated and
type of questions to be asked form the students. These questions are arranged in a systematic
order to be followed in the class. Before actually demonstrating the experiment to a class, the
experiment be rehearsed under the condition prevailing in the classroom. In spite of this, some
thing may go wrong at the actual lesson, so reserve apparatus is often useful the apparatus has to
be arranged in a systematic manner on the demonstration table. Thus for the success of
demonstration method a teacher has to prepare himself as thoroughly as possible.
2. Introduction of the lesson: As in every subject so also in the case of science the lesson
should start with proper motivation of the students. It is always considered more useful to
introduce the lesson in a problematic way which would make the student's realize the importance
of the topic. The usual way through which the teacher can introduce the lesson is by telling some
personal experience or incident of a simple and interesting experiment. A good experiment
carefully demonstrated is likely to leave an everlasting impression on the mind of the young
pupils and would set the students talking about it in the school.
3. Presentation: The method presenting the subject matter is very important. A good teacher
should present this lesson in an interesting manner and not in a boring manner. To make the
lesson interesting the teacher may not be very rigid too remain within the prescribed course
rather he or she should make the lesson as much as broad based as possible. For widening the
lesson the teacher may think of various useful application taught by him. He is also at the liberty
to take examples and illustrations for allied branches of science like history, geography etc.
Constant questions and answer should form a part of every demonstration lesson. Questions and
cross question are essential for properly illuminating the principles discussed. Question should
be arranged in such a way that their answers may form a complete teaching unit.
4. Performance of experiment: A good observer has been described as a person who has learnt
the use the senses of touch, sight, and smell in an intelligent way. Through this method we want
children to observe what happens in an experiment and to state it carefully. We also want them to
make generalization without violating scientific spirit i.e. we should allow children from one
experiment or observation. The following steps are generally accepted as valuable in conducting
science experiment generally.
a. Write the problem to be solved in simple words.
b. To make a list of activities that has to be used to solve the problem.
c. Gather material for conducting the experiment
d. Work out a format of steps in the order of preocedu8re so that everyone knows what is to be
done.
e. Teacher should try the experiment before conduction. f. Record the findings.
g. Assist students to make generalization.

5. Black Board Summary: A summary of important results and principles should be written in
the Blackboard. Use of blackboard should be also frequently used to draw sketches and
diagrams. The entire procedure should be displayed to the students after the demonstration.

6. Supervision: Students are asked to take the complete notes of the black board summary
including the sketches and diagrams drawn. Such a record will be quite helpful to the student
while learning his lessons. Such a summary will prove beneficial only if it has been copied
correctly from the black boards and to make sure that it is done so the teacher must check it
frequently during this stage.
Common Errors in Demonstration Lesson
A summary of the common errors committed while delivering a demonstration lesson is given
below:
a) Apparatus may not be ready for use
b) There may not be an apparent relation between the demonstration experiment and the topic
under discussion.
c) Black board summary not up to the mark
d) Teacher may be in a hurry to arrive at a generalization without allowing students to arrive at a
generalization from facts.
e) Teacher may take to talking too much which will mar the enthusiasm of the students.
f) Teacher may not have allowed sufficient time for recording of data.
g) Teacher may fail to ask the right type of questions
Merits of Lecture cum Demonstration Method
a) It is an economical method as compared to a purely student centered method
b) It is a psychological method and students take active interest in the teaching learning process
c) It leads the students from concrete to abstract situations
d) It is suitable method if the apparatus to be handled is costly and sensitive. Such apparatus is
likely to be
handled and damaged by the students.
e) This method is safe if the experiment is dangerous.
f) In comparison to Heuristic, Project method it is time saving but purely Lecture method is too
lengthy
g) It can be successfully used for all types of students
h) It improves the observational and reasoning skills of the students
Limitations of Lecture cum Demonstration Method
a) It provides no scope for "Learning by Doing" for the Students as students are only observing
the Teacher performing.
b) Since Teacher performs the experiment at his/ her own pace many students may not be able to
comprehend the concept being clarified.
c) Since this method is not child centered it makes no provision for individual differences, all
types of students including slow learners and genius have to proceed with the same speed.
d) It fails to develop laboratory skills in the students.
e) It fails to impart training in scientific attitude. In this method students many a times fail to
observe many finer details of the apparatus used because they observe it from a distance.
D. Problem-Solving:
Life is full of problems and we term one as successful, who is able to use the knowledge
acquired and reasoning power to find solutions to these problems. Problemsolving may be a
purely mental difficulty or it may be physical and involve manipulation of data.
Problem-solving method aims at presenting the knowledge to be learnt in the form of a problem.
It begins with a problematic situation and consists of continuous, meaningful, well-integrated
activity. The problems are test to the students in a natural way and it is ensured that the students
are genuinely interested to solve them.
Mathematical Problem Defined as,
A problem is a task for which:
The person confronting it wants or needs to find a solution.
The person has no readily available procedure for finding the solution.
The person must make an attempt to find a solution.
Goals Of Mathematical Problem-Solving: The specific goals of problem solving in
Mathematics are to:
1. Improve pupils' willingness to try problems and improve their perseverance when solving
problems.
2. Improve pupils' self-concepts with respect to the abilities to solve problems.
3. Make pupils aware of the problem-solving strategies.
4. Make pupils aware of the value of approaching problems in a systematic manner.
5. Make pupils aware that many problems can be solved in more than one way.
6. Improve pupils' abilities to select appropriate solution strategies.
7. Improve pupils' abilities to implement solution strategies accurately.
8. Improve pupils' abilities to get more correct answers to problems.
Steps of Problem solving method:
Recognizing the problem or sensing the problem.
Interpreting, defining and delimiting the problem.
Gathering data in a systematic manner.
Organizing and evaluating the data.
Formulating tentative solutions.
Arriving at the true or correct solution.
Verifying the results.
Merits: The merits or advantages of problem solving method are as follows:
Method is scientific in nature.
Develops good study habits and reasoning power.
Helps to improve and apply knowledge and experiences.
Stimulates thinking of the child.
Students learn virtues such as patience, cooperation, and self-confidence.
Learning becomes more interesting and purposeful.
Develops qualities of initiative and self-dependence in the students, as they have to face
similar problematic situations in real life too.
Develops desirable study habits in the students.
Limitations: the limitations are mainly due to ineffective use of the problem solving method.
When a classroom is completely teacher dominated then in such a classroom the problem solving
method will fail.
Difficult to organize e contents of syllabus according to this method.
Time consuming method.
All topics and areas cannot be covered by this method.
There is a lack of suitable books and references for the students.
Method does not suit students of lower classes.
Mental activity dominates this method. Hence there is neglect of physical and practical
experiences.
Note: FOUR PHASES IN SOLVING A PROBLEM
In solving any problems, it helps to have a working procedure. You might want to consider this
four-step procedure: Understand, Plan, Try it, and Look Back.
Understand -- Before you can solve a problem you must first understand it. Read and re-read the
problem carefully to find all the clues and determine what the question is asking you to find.
What is the unknown?
What are the data?
What is the condition?
Plan -- Once you understand the question and the clues, it's time to use your previous experience
with similar problems to look for strategies and tools to answer the question.
Do you know a related problem?
Look at the unknown! And try to think of a familiar problem having the same or a similar
unknown?
Try It -- After deciding on a plan, you should try it and see what answer you come up with.
Can you see clearly that the step is correct?
But can you also prove that the step is correct?
Look Back -- Once you've tried it and found an answer, go back to the problem and see if you've
really answered the question. Sometimes it's easy to overlook something. If you missed
something check your plan and try the problem again.
Can you check the result?