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ROUTINE TESTS

ROUTINE TESTS

Sl Nature of test Reference: standard/document


no
a Inner hydraulic pressure test (on shells) Plant standard of manufacturers

b Tensile load test (50 % of rated load) IEC 383-1 & plant standard of manufacturers

c PF Electrical flashover test IEC 383-1 & plant standard of manufacturers

d Visual examination IEC 383-1, plant standard of manufacturers


& IS 13305
ACCEPTANCE TESTS ON DISC INSULATORS

ACCEPTANCE TESTS ON DISC INSULATORS

Sl no Nature of test Reference: standard/document

1 Visual examination Cl 27 of IEC 383-1 & IS 13305

2 Verification of dimensions Approved drawing

3 Test on locking devices Cl 22 IEC 383-1

4 IR Measurements Powergrid technical specification

5 Impact test ANSI C 29.2 & Powergrid technical


specification
6 Temperature cycle test Cl 23.1 of IEC 383-1

7 Mechanical performance test IEC 575

8 EMS test Cl 18 IEC 383-1

9 Porosity test Cl 25 IEC 383-1

10 Puncture test Cl 15 IEC 383-1

11 Residual strength IEC 797

12 Galvanising test Cl 26 of IEC 383-1

13 Metallurgical test on Cap & Pin Powergrid technical specification

14 Chemical analysis of zinc sleeve Powergrid technical specification


(For Anti fog insulators)
15 Load test on zinc sleeve Powergrid technical specification
(For Anti fog insulators)
16 Closed Porosity/Bulk density Powergrid SMPQ/Mfgr plant standard
17 Check for Alumina content in Porcelain Powergrid SMPQ/Mfgr plant standard

Special Acceptance test


18 Steep front wave test Powergrid technical specification

19 Thermal Mechanical performance test Powergrid technical specification

SAMPLING PLAN

For tests 1 to 17

Lot size E1 * E2 E3 Impact Closed Porosity/


Residual strength test test Bulk density/
Alumina content
300 2000 20 3 25 3 1

2000-5000 20 4 25 3 1

5000-10000 20 6 25 3 1

* - As per Powergrid specification (for Transmission lines)

For Special Acceptance test

Lot size Steep front wave test Thermal Mechanical test

Every 25,000 nos 10 20


ACCEPTANCE TEST PROCEDURE

ACCEPTANCE TEST PROCEDURE

1) Visual examination

a) Reference standard Cl 27 of IEC 383-1 & IS 13305

b) Purpose of testing To check the visual appearance of the insulator and verify
for physical defects
c) Method of Test E1 + E2 Samples selected at random are visually examined
for physical defects. The area of the unglazed
portion shall be within the specified limits. The
marking provided on the insulator shell & cap
during manufacturing process shall be verified
with the approved drawing. Marking on the cap in
form of circular dot using different coloured paint
shall also be checked with the drawing.
d) Acceptance criteria Area of unglazed portion shall not exceed the following
limits given in the standard
Single spot 0.5 +(DF/20000) sq cm
Total 1 + (DF/2000) sq cm
e) Instruments used Visual examination

2) Verification of dimensions

Following physical dimensions shall be checked on E1 + E2 samples in accordance with the drawing
approved by Powergrid.

a) Disc diameter
b) Unit spacing
c) Creepage distance
d) Verification of eccentricity
e) Gauge check of socket cap & Ball pin
Disc diameter

a) Reference standard Approved drawing

a) Purpose/critically of Influences the creepage distance of the single unit and also
testing gap between insulator strings in case of double, triple &
quad strings
b) Test procedure Check the outer diameter of disc & verify compliance with
the drawing
c) Acceptance criteria 120 kN 255 +/- 11mm, 160 kN & 210 kN 280 +/- 12 mm,
120 kN A/F 280 +/- 12 mm, 160 kN A/F 305 +/- 13
mm
d) Instruments used Out side caliper & scale

Unit spacing

a) Reference standard Approved drawing

b) Purpose/critically of Influences the overall length of the string and hence the
testing phase to ground clearances.

c) Test procedure Check the ball pin to ball pin distance of the single unit &
verify compliance with the drawing
d) Acceptance criteria 120 kN 145 +/- 4 mm, 160 kN & 210 kN 170 +/- 5 mm.
e) Instruments used Marking block & vernier height gauge
Creepage distance

a) Reference: standard Approved drawing

b) Purpose/critically of Influences the electrical performance especially under


testing pollution

c) Test procedure Using adhesive tape the shortest distance between the socket
cap & pin is measured accounting only the porcelain surface.
d) Acceptance criteria Normal disc
120 kN 315 mm + 60/- 0
160 kN 330 mm + 40/- 0
Anti fog
120 kN 430 mm + 60/- 0
160 kN 475 mm + 40/- 0
e) Instruments used Steel scale & adhesive tape

Radial & axial run out


a) Reference standard Approved drawing

b) Purpose/critically of It is a measure of alignment of socket cap, porcelain and ball


testing pin. Influences the mechanical strength of the unit

c) Test procedure The insulator is placed under light tension between suitably
mounted coupling pieces. The two coupling pieces shall be on
the same axis and shall be free to rotate. Two dial gauges are
arranged as shown so that they make contact with the
maximum diameter and at the tip of the outer most rib. The
insulator is rotated through 360 deg and the max variation in
the readings of the dial gauges is recorded.
d) Acceptance criteria Radial run out - < 3 % of disc dia
Axial run out - < 4 % of disc dia
e) Instruments used Dial gauge

Gauge check for ball & socket coupling

a) Reference standard IEC 120

b) Purpose/critically of It is carried out to verify the compliance of the ball &


testing socket coupling with relevant gauges.

c) Test procedure The socket cap & ball pin of the insulator shall be checked
with the relevant standard calibrated GO & NOT GO
gauges. The samples shall comply with the standard
gauges.
d) Acceptance criteria Compliance with gauges
e) Instruments used Standard Calibrated Gauges

3) Test on locking devices


a) Reference standard Cl 22 IEC 383-1

b) Purpose/critically of To verify the effectiveness of the locking device used for


testing securing the ball in the socket cap.

c) Test procedure Test shall be carried out on E2 samples. A tensile load is


applied to pull the R clip from locking to coupling position
and value is recorded. Average of 3 reading (F) obtained
shall be greater than 50 N but lesser than 500 N. Load is
once again applied to the R clip for complete pull out from
the coupling position. This load (F max) shall be greater
than 500 N.
d) Acceptance criteria 50 N < F < 500 N
F max > 500 N
e) Instruments used Load cell & indicator

4) IR measurement

a) Reference standard Powergrid technical specification

b) Purpose/critically of To verify the volume resistance of the porcelain head.


testing

c) Test procedure E2 samples are subjected to IR measurements. A Megger is


connected to the cap & Pin of the insulator and volume
resistance of the porcelain is measured.
d) Acceptance criteria The value obtained shall be greater than 50 M ohms at 5 kV.
e) Instruments used Megger. Rating 5 kV (min)
5) Impact test

a) Reference standard Powergrid tech specn & ANSI C 29.2

b) Purpose/critically of To verify the withstand capability of insulator shed when


testing subjected to mechanical impact.

c) Test procedure 3 samples shall be subjected to specified Impact load applied


to the outer most rim of the insulator. No breakage of the
insulator shed is permitted. Subsequently the samples shall
also pass PF frequent flashover test. No puncture shall occur
during flashover test
.
d) Acceptance criteria 7 N-m for up to 120 kN. 10N-m for above 160 kN disc
insulators
e) Instruments used Impact testing machine & PF test transformer
6) Temperature cycle test

a) Reference standard Cl 23.1 of IEC 383-1

b) Purpose/critically of It is carried out to verify the thermal shock withstand


testing capability of the disc insulator. This test can influence the
performance of the insulator under both Mechanical as well
as Dielectric stress.
c) Test procedure E1 + E2 + E3 samples are subjected to alternative
immersions in Hot & Cold water baths. The samples shall
be immersed in hot water bath for 15 minutes and shall be
transferred within 30 sec to cold water maintained at a
temperature 70 deg C below hot bath. The samples shall
remain in cold bath for 15 minutes. This is one cycle. Three
such cycles are performed After this the samples are
subjected to PF flashover test for 1 minute.
d) Acceptance criteria Breakage of the porcelain during thermal cycles & puncture
during subsequent 1 minute PF flashover test not permitted.
e) Instruments used Hot and cold water baths & temperature indicator

7) Mechanical Performance test


a) Reference standard Cl 4 of IEC 575

b) Purpose/critically of To verify the mechanical withstand capability of samples


testing subjected to tensile load applied and released suddenly

c) Test procedure E1 samples shall be subjected to a tensile load equal to 60 %


of specified EM strength applied & released 4 times in
succession. No samples shall fail during tensile loading
d) Acceptance criteria No failure of insulator during tensile loading

e) Instruments used Tensile testing machine

8) Electro Mechanical Strength test


a) Reference standard Cl 18 IEC 383-1

b) Purpose/critically of To verify the E-M withstand capability of samples


testing subjected HV & tensile load simultaneously

c) Test procedure Test shall be carried out on E1 samples. Voltage equal to


specified wet PF withstand voltage of single unit shall be
applied across the insulator and a tensile load equal to
specified EM strength shall be gradually applied between
the metal fittings. After reaching the specified value, the
load shall be further increased till breakage occurs.
d) Acceptance criteria The individual value obtained shall be greater than the
specified EM strength. Average (X) & Standard deviation
(S) of the test values shall be calculated and compared
with the specified EM strength. No puncture of the disc
before reaching the specified load is permitted. The results
are statistically evaluated and shall meet the following
criteria. X (R + 3 )
e) Instruments used Tensile testing machine & PF testing transformer

9) Porosity test
a) Reference standard Cl 25 of IEC 383-1/93

b) Purpose/critically of To check open porosity in the ceramic material by dye


testing penetration test at high pressure

c) Test procedure Fragments of porcelain broken from the E1 samples shall be


immersed in diluted fuchsin acid and subjected to a pressure
(P) of 154 kg/sq cm for 12 hours duration (T). The product of
P & T shall be equal to 1800. The fragments shall be
removed from the solution, dried and further broken and
verified for dye penetration.

d) Acceptance criteria No dye penetration permitted.


e) Instruments used High pressure porosity tester

10) Puncture test


a) Reference standard Cl 25 of IEC 383-1/93

b) Purpose/critically of To check Dielectric withstand voltage of insulator under oil.


testing

c) Test procedure E2 samples shall be subjected to Puncture test. The sample shall
be immersed in oil with connections made for applying HV to
the ball pin and earthing the cap. PF voltage is gradually raised
till the insulator punctures.

d) Acceptance criteria The value obtained shall not be lesser than the value specified in
the drawing.
120 kN 120 kV
160 kN 125 kV
.
e) Instruments used PF HV transformer, tank of suitable dimensions with transformer
oil.

11)Residual strength test

a) Reference standard IEC 797

b) Purpose/critically of Verification of the minimum mechanical strength of


testing insulator stubs with out shed when used in string.
c) Test procedure This test shall be carried out on E3 samples. Samples shall
be subjected to temperature cycle test as per IEC 383-1. The
sheds shall be broken using hammer blows and no part of
the broken shed shall be greater than the maximum diameter
of the socket cap. The stubs shall then be subjected to
tensile load applied between the metal fittings and value
recorded. Average (X) & Standard deviation (S) of the test
values shall be calculated and compared with the factor k
(0.65)

d) Acceptance criteria (X 1.645 )/R 0.65


e) Instruments used Tensile testing machine

12) Galvanising test

a) Reference standard Cl 26 of IEC 383-1, IS 2629, IS 2633 &


Powergrid technical specification

b) Purpose/critically of To verify quality of galvanizing.


testing
c) Test procedure The metal fittings of the E2 samples are subjected to the
following tests.
Determination of Mass of zinc coating:
Using Coat meter the thickness of zinc coating is measured. The
measurement is taken on 3 different spots and average thickness
in microns is calculated. The equivalent mass of coating is also
determined. (85 microns = 610 gm/sq m)
Uniformity of zinc coating
Test for uniformity of zinc coating is carried out as per IS 2633.
The sample shall be immersed in copper sulphate solution
maintained at specific gravity & temperature of 1.186 & 18 +/-
2 deg C respectively for a duration of 1 minute. 6 such
immersions are performed. After each immersion the sample is
thoroughly washed under running water. After the last dip the
sample is visually examined.
Adhesion test
Test is carried out as per IS 2629. The surface of the galvanised
surface is scratched using a blunt knife & an adhesive tape is
pasted on the scratched surface. The tape is removed &
observed whether zinc is sticking to the tape.
d) Acceptance criteria Mass of coating > 600 gm/sq m ( = 85 microns)
Uniformity of zinc coating: After 6 dips the sample is verified
for red deposits. False deposits are easily removed by scraping
the surface using a knife. Hard deposits are difficult to remove
and it indicates failure.
Adhesion test: The zinc shall not stick to the adhesive tape.
e) Instruments used Copper sulphate solution, Hygrometer, thermo meter & Coat
meter

13) Metallurgical test (At Black stage)

On Socket cap (MCI & SGI)

a) Reference standard Powergrid technical specification

b) Purpose/critically of To verify the metallurgical properties of the samples and


testing compare with standard chart & confirm chemical composition
c) Test procedure Micro structure & Grain size
2 pieces shall be cut from the socket cap. It is ground &
polished using various grades of Emery paper (100-320). The
surface shall be further polished using cloth & etched using
Nital. The etched surface is observed under Microscope with
100x magnification

Chemical analysis
Samples shall be analysed using Spectrometer

d) Acceptance criteria Micro structure MCI caps


There shall be uniform distribution of temper carbon in ferrite
matrix.
Micro structure SGI caps
There shall be uniform distribution of graphite nodules in
ferrite matrix.

Chemical analysis MCI caps


Phosphorus < 0.5 %

e) Instruments used Microscope, Spectrometer

On Ball pin

a) Reference standard Powergrid technical specification

b) Purpose/critically of To verify the metallurgical properties of the samples and


testing compare with standard chart & confirm chemical composition

c) Test procedure Grain size


2 pieces shall be cut from the Ball pin. It is ground & polished
using various grades of Emery paper (100-320). The surface
shall be further polished using cloth & etched using Nital. The
etched surface is observed under Microscope with 100 x
magnification

Chemical analysis
Samples shall be analysed using Spectrometer
d) Acceptance criteria Grain size
The grain size is compared with standard chart and shall be
greater than 6.

Chemical analysis
C : 0.36 to 0.44
Si : 0.1 to 0.4
Mn : 0.6 to 1.0
P : < 0.05
S : < 0.05
e) Instruments used Microscope, Spectrometer

14) Chemical analysis of zinc sleeve (for anti fog insulators)

a) Reference standard Powergrid technical specification

b) Purpose/critically of To evaluate the purity of zinc used for casting sleeve.


testing

c) Test procedure Check the purity of zinc by chemical analysis


d) Acceptance criteria Purity shall be greater than 99.8 %
e) Instruments used Wet Analysis

15) Load test on zinc sleeve (for anti fog insulators)

a) Reference standard Powergrid technical specification

b) Purpose/critically of To check the quality of adhesion of the sleeve with the steel
testing ball pin

c) Test procedure Check for unfused area of sleeve


This test is carried out on ball pins with zinc sleeve. The
sample is subjected to a tensile load equal to 67 % of the rated
strength and held for a duration of 1 minute. The load is
released and sleeve is observed for radial & circumferential
cracks. The load is reapplied & raised till breakage of the ball
pin. Normally the shank of the pin breaks and the sleeve is
easily removed. The inner surface of the sleeve is observed.
The area of the surface which has properly fused is indicated
by dull non reflective surface. This indicates the quality of
adhesion of the sleeve with the steel shank.
d) Acceptance criteria At 60 % of the load there shall be no radial or circumferential
cracks on the sleeve.

The surface area of the sleeve in contact with the ball pin shall
be greater than 85 %.
e) Instruments used Tensile testing machine.

16) Closed porosity & Bulk density

a) Reference standard Powergrid technical specification

b) Purpose/critically of Bulk density: It is the envelope density of material. Index for


testing cohesiveness of a material considering the composition &
extent of sintering.
Closed Porosity: Pores in a ceramic body which have no outlet
to the exterior body. The extent of porosity depends on the
efficiency of firing ceramics.

c) Test procedure Archimedes principle is used for determining Bulk density. The
powdered sample out of Bulk density is checked for true
specific gravity & arrived at % closed Porosity

d) Acceptance criteria Minimum 2.0 gm/cc for quartz based porcelain


Minimum 2.4 gm/cc for Alumina based porcelain

e) Instruments used Single pan digital/Electrical balance, Borosil Glass beaker


(1000 ml). A suitable mesh for boiling, Glass pycnometer

17) Check for Alumina content in Porcelain

a)Reference standard IS 1335/1979

b) Purpose/critically of To measure the presence of combined Alumina content in a


testing electroporcelain fragment

c) Test procedure As per IS 1335/1979

d) Acceptance criteria Minimum 15 % Alumina in Quartz based porcelain


Minimum 38 %Alumina in Alumina based porcelain

e) Instruments used As per IS 1335/1979


f) Steep front wave test

g) Reference standard Powergrid technical specification

h) Purpose/critically of To verify the puncture withstand capability of insulator in air


testing when subjected to impulse voltage of high rate of raise.

i) Test procedure This test shall be conducted after every supply of 25,000 nos on
10 samples. Each insulator shall be subjected to 5 positive & 5
negative impulses with effective rate of raise of 2500 kV/micro
sec. Subsequently the samples shall be subjected to PF
flashover test under Dry condition.

j) Acceptance criteria Average of 3 PF flashovers shall not be lesser than 95 % of the


specified Dry PF flashover voltage. No puncture shall occur
either during Impulse or PF voltage application
k) Instruments used LI generator, PF test transformer

Typical wave shape


Calculation of steepness

Steepness = Voltage/Raise time

Voltage = Y x Voltage scale x divider ratio x attenuation

Where Y is the peak value measured on oscillogram


Voltage scale, divider ratio & attenuation depends on the measuring system

Raise Time = T x 2.5 x time scale


Where T is time from 50 to 90 % measured on the oscilligram.
2.5 is the factor to get 100 % time. Time scale depends on the measuring system.

l) Thermal Mechanical performance test

a) Reference standard Powergrid tech specn &


Cl 20 of IEC 383-1/93
b) Purpose/critically of To check the mechanical performance of the samples under
testing simultaneous tensile loading and extreme varying
temperatures.
c) Test procedure This test shall be conducted after every supply of 25,000 nos
on 20 samples. The test is carried out in a specially
constructed thermal chamber. A tensile load equal to 70 % of
the specified EM load shall be applied and the temperature
inside the chamber shall be varied from 30 deg to + 40 deg
C in a duration of 24 hours. Minimum tensile load of 70 %
shall be maintained through out the 24 hours duration and
shall be released and reapplied after every 24 hours. After
completing 4 cycles of 24 hours each, the tensile load shall be
released & temperature brought down to the ambient and the
units shall be subjected to EMS test. No failure during
thermal cycles or during EMS test is permitted. After EMS
test, Average (X) & Standard deviation (S) is calculated &
statistically evaluated.

d) Acceptance criteria No failure during thermal cycles or during EMS test is


permitted. The test results shall meet the following criteria.
X (R + 3 ) where R is the rated EM strength
e) Instruments used Thermal mechanical test M/c, Tensile testing M/c & PF
transformer
TYPICAL LOAD & TEMPERATURE CURVE