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Induccion de Bobinas

The principle of electromagnetic induction was discovered by Michael Faraday (1791-1867) in 1831. Induction coils
were used widely in electrical experiments and for medical therapy during the last half of the 19th century, eventually
leading to the development of radio in the 1890's. For more information on the application of induction coils in radio,
see my chapter on spark coils in the "The Wireless Age" section of this web site.

An induction coil essentially operates like a big buzzer: The interrupter's contacts (C), are wired in series
between the battery (B), and the coil. The contacts are closed in their resting state. When power (B) is
applied, the coil is activated which produces a magnetic field at the metal core of the coil. The magnetic
contact arm (V) is pulled toward the core, opening the interrupter contacts and breaking the circuit. The
falling magnetic field relaxes its hold, the contacts close, and the entire cycle repeats.

The rising and falling magnetic field of the primary coil induces a high voltage across the secondary.

How They Were Used
Induction coils were used in many different kinds of experiments. In
order to facilitate easy access to a variety of devices, an experiment
table was commonly used. A typical table is shown at the right. The
output of the coil was connected to the vertical brass uprights and
the connections could be adjusted safely using the insulated handles.

The "hand electrodes" shown in the photo were used in experiments
where the output of the coil was connected to a person (not directly - High Voltage Experiment Table
through a rheostat!) Many people of the time believed the mild and Hand Electrodes
electrical shock to be therapeutic. An entire industry of "quack" 1868

For more information and a photo of Thomas Edison using the cell. fig. E213. A specialized type of induction coil called a Rhumkorff coil was used in early radio transmitters .medical devices was born from the invention of the induction coil. click here. London 1st Qtr. Powering an Induction Coil The photo at left is of a Grenet cell. See 8" Experiment Table Public and Private Science: The King George III Collection pg 520. Grenet Cell Some other examples of induction coils in my collection are shown below. the glass pillars are 8-3/4" in height. 1885 . Newman. Henly's Universal Discharger J. 19th Century Mahogany base measures 15" x 6".so called "Spark" transmitters in the "teens". Lisle Street. You can see some examples of these spark coils by clicking here. These early acid jar batteries was used widely in electrical experiments during the last quarter of the 19th century and were commonly used as the primary power source for induction coils.

the pinion William Sturgeon Mercury Interrupter London 1838 pgs 331-334. The axle and the ends of the horizontal Described in "Annals of Electricity. fig. III. Plate Il figs. 15 English wheel causes the bar to execute a rapid and 16. Griggs Machine Rhumkorff coil (signed) Label 1850 Griggs Conical Electromagnetic Machine 1873 Primitive Hand-wound Interrupter English 1840 The brass and ivory handle turns a William Sturgeon Mercury Interrupter cogged wheel and the axle of a double English ratchet. which engages the cogs is 1838 connected to a horizontal copper bar. On Magnetism and Chemistry" Vol. 1994 pg. rotating the crank handle. 84-85. Mollan and Upton. Described in The Scientific Apparatus of Nicholas Callan . . 102. . 1830 see-saw movement which then causes the end pieces to make and break contact rapidly with the measuring in the two side cups. bar are bent to dip in mercury cups.

182.B. Compound Magnet and Electrotome Daniel Davis 1840 Double Helix and Vibrating Electrotome Daniel Davis 1848 Invented by Charles Page in 1838 (see Page's biography: Physics. Described in slightly different form in Manual of 24) but patented in 1868. Patents and Politics by R. Post pg. 182) Catalog pg. pgs 1838. Barrett Medico Electro-Medical Machine" 1842 Likely Daniel Davis 1848 This is a larger version described in Davis's Manual of Magnetism pg. 301 fig. figs. " American Journal of Science. (1839). 38. Double Helix and Vibrating Electrotome Daniel Davis "Dr. (2nd Ed). 182 (2nd Edition). Included are two rosewood and brass medical shock handles and Pictured and described in Manual of Magnetism (pg. 252-68. . fig 182. battery (some paint worn off) as shown in Davis's 301 fig. Invented by "Magneto-Electric and ElectroMagnetic Apparatus and Charles Page and patented in 1868 but developed in Experiments. First described by Page in Magnetism pg 301 fig.C. 1-7. C.

" with extensive instruction on use. New York". fig. S. Elaborate label also an inside top lid of box reads inside cover reads "Dr. 294 Broadway. 301. 294 Broadway. S. Label of York". 469. 47 of Volume II. Electrotome 1848 Likely Daniel Davis 1848 Signed by Benjamin Pike. Trade card reads "Benjamin Pike.B. Jr. PIKE'S ROTARY MAGNETIC MACHINE Benjamin Pike. 1848 "DR.. ) and Philosophical Instruments. on pg. No. Importer and Manufacturer of Mathematical 2nd Edition. Jr. Importer and Manufacturer of Mathematic Box made of walnut measuring 6" x 3-1/2 " with and Philosophical Instruments. Jr. This machine is described in Pike's Catalog.. fig. Optician. . No. 182 of Davis' Manual of Magnetism Optician. New electromagnetic machine and accessories. Smith's Pocket Magnetic "Pike's Rotary Magnetic Machine introduced Nov. Jr. 1843 machine of very strong Intensity" with instructions. Jr. Pike's Vibrating Magnetic Instrument for Medical Use Hinds and Williams Double Helix and Vibrating Benjamin Pike. on bottom of mahogany base with trade card reading "Benjamin Pike.B. (See pg. SMITH'S 18 POUND MAGNETIC CURRENT An electromagnetic machine and battery and with trade AND 6 POUND DIRECT CURRENT MACHINE" card attached to inside cover of walnut box measuring 1845 16" x 6" x 7".

468. Jr.47 and pictured in fig. box has been restored. The device is featured on the front wall (in a large advertisement) of Pike's first shop in 1848 as seen in the woodcut frontispiece in his catalogs of 1848 and 1856. II pg. Electromagnetic medical device with separate glass and wood battery also signed. 471 FOSTER'S IMPROVED ELECTROTOME. . Described in Pike's Catalog Vol. "DR. Fine condition. 471.B. Jr. II on pages 44. 49 fig.This machine is described in Pike's Catalog Vol. II pg. Cincinnati. NEW PORTABLE MAGNETO-ELECTRICAL MACHINE FOR MEDICAL PURPOSES NEW PORTABLE MAGNETO-ELECTRICAL Benjamin Pike. 49 fig. O" CURRENT ELECTRIC MACHINE" 1850 1850. Has green label with instructions on inside lid of mahogany box measuring 7-1/4" x 7". Makers. S. MACHINE FOR MEDICAL PURPOSES 1848 Benjamin Pike. 1848 Described in Pike's Catalog Vol. SMITH'S DIRECT AND TO-AND-FRO "James Foster.

C. Clearly in the style of Daniel Davis with "Barrett". "Jerome Jewell. Conn. 182 in the Manual Contained in_ wooden box measures 6-1/2" x 6" x 3-1/2" of Magnetism. 1848 A fine and early reciprocating engine with four poles Pictured and described in the Manual of Magnetism mounted atop the helix instead of a vibrating pg. . Extremely rare in it's completeness. 182 and likely made by Davis but signed by electrotome. Signed. Bristol. Manufacturer of Galvanic Instruments." 1840's 1840's Identical to Davis set on pg. 301. Double Helix and Vibrating Electrotome Complete with ELECTROMAGENTIC MEDICAL MACHINE Battery and Handles in Wooden Box "Manufactured for G. JEROME JEWELL: ELECTRO-MEDICAL DOUBLE "DR. Boardman by William Mead N. with primitive copper-zinc battery.B. N.M..B. BARRETT MEDICO ELECTRO-MEDICAL HELIX AND RECIPROCATING ARMATURE ENGINE MACHINE" 1848 New York. fig. Newark. Chamberlain 409 Broad Street.J. fig. including four brass ball feet supporting the base. typical components. 301.

has a rotating engine similar to "Pike's Rotary Magnetic Machine" "DR. S. this device on pg.B. 182. S. fig. Smith's Torpedo Magnetic Machine" and shows a horse and buggy in front of Dr. S. . Jr. "DR. Smith's establishment.B. 1850 1840's The electromagnetic device measures 7-3/4" x 3" and Missing a finial. Patented June 4. Illustrated in the Manual of Magnetism instead of an electrotome as the interrupter. . 301. SMITH'S DIRECT AND TO-AND-FRO CURRENT AUTOMATON ELECTROMAGNETIC Double Helix and Vibrating Electrotome MACHINE" Daniel Davis. A primitive battery is included in the box as well. New York.B. SMITH'S TORPEDO MAGNETIC A36 MACHINE" 1840's Label on inside cover reads "Dr.

Williams. Boston ELECTROMAGNETISM. BOSTON. 1840's signed "H.H. an electromagnetic glass eye-cup and a natural sponge. electromagnetic instrument measures 4-1/2" x 6-1/2" Boston" on brass support straps holding coil which is rosewood base. MAGNETO ELECTRICITY. 1860 THERMOELECTRICITY. "HINDS AND WILLIAMS. accessories include rosewood electromagnetic eye-cup A vibrating electrotome and double helix complete in and two rosewood electro-shock handles. ELECTRODYNAMICS." 1840's Pictured and described in the Manual for Magnetizing Identical to coil at left except with brass attachments to ." VIBRATING MAGNETIC MACHINE. Sherwood. M.H. Accessories include: electro-shock handle.D. NO. MASS" Very similar to above "Hinds and Williams" except 1850 missing inner label to box. Sherwood. A45 VIBRATING MAGNETIC MACHINE signed "H. M. The walnut box measuring 10" x 7"x 7" with purple backed electromagnetic device is on a walnut base and label with gold lettering as above on inner lid. Battery is missing. 313 WASHINGTON STREETS. C. 1/4" (d) and 6" (h). Williams. the green painted circular battery is 4- painted red. Double Helix and Vibrating Electrotome GALVANISM. MANUFACTURER'S OF APPARATUS TO ILLUSTRATE MAGNETISM. The measures 6-5/8" x 4-1/2" and is stamped "C.D.

1864 on pages 19-23. likely earlier than the one pictured in the above catalog. Boston. VERY EARLY “PIKE AND SON’ S.H. BOX OF EARLY ROSEWOOD-HANDLED ELECTROMAGNETIC MEDICAL ACCESSORIES American.B. SMITH “PREMIUM’’ ELECTROMAGNETIC ELECTROMAGNETIC MEDICAL MACHINE. eye cups. (9th Ed). electromagnetic shock handles. New York.D. 1847 on page 31. Sherwood.with the Rotary and Vibrating Magnetic Machine in the binding posts leading to wire to connect to Duodynamic Treatment of Diseases. M. by H. Electricity is Life" American Pictured and described in Illustrated Catalog of 1880's ElectroMedical Instruments Manufactured and sold by Thomas Hall. Belt is made of medical accessories including two adjustable rosewood a brass weave. Contained In black cloth covered box measuring 8-5/8" x 61-3/8" neatly in a mahogany box measuring 13-1/2" x 6-1/2" x (h) and accompanied with instruction book and catalog 2-1/2" are six fine rosewood and brass electromagnetic by the Pulvermacher Galvano Company. A very rare and unusual set. MEDICAL MACHINE “Pike and Son” 1850’s 1842 .1850's ELECTRICAL BELT signed "Pulvermacher Galvano Co. 1840's .

box with extensive instructions and labels from Benjamin Pike on inside Jumbo style version of this instrument invented by cover. COMPOUND MAGNET AND ELECTROMAGNETIC MEDICAL DEVICE ELECTROTOME Benjamin Pike. fig 472. Daniel Davis 1848 1840's In box with shock handles. 1870 c. Jr. Rhumkorff Coil English Induction Coil Griffin & George English Induction Coil c. pg 52 of Pike’s Catalog Charles Page. 1900 4th Qtr 19th Century Rhumkorff Coil 4th Qtr 19th Century Laboratory Induction Coil Rhumkorff Coil 1900 French Induction Coil c. 1870 .

Unmarked Induction Coil Early Induction Coil Small Lab Induction Coil 1840's Knott Vertical Laboratory Induction Coil .

The coil essentially operates like a huge buzzer: The interrupter's contacts are wired in series between the battery and the coil and are closed in its resting state. When the voltage is high enough it jumps the gap creating a spark. Spark Coils The spark coil formed the heart of the earliest radio transmitters. This pulls the interrupter contacts open. the coil is activated which produces a magnetic field at the metal core of the coil. Marconi used a Rhumkorff coil similar to the one below in his early experiments. and spark gap all into one unit. you can click here to have a look. When power is applied. A Rhumkorff coil combines the spark coil. During the time the spark is present there is a high frequency alternating current field radiated from one pole of the spark gap. The output of a spark gap transmitter is turned on and off by the operator using a special kind of telegraph key. interrupter. designed with large contacts to carry the heavy current. Simple Spark Gap Transmitter Early Sullivan Wireless Rhumkorff Coil Marconi 10" Spark Coil (With 01A for scale) c. I have several of these spark keys in my collection. breaking the circuit. The rising and falling magnetic field of the primary coil induces a high voltage across the secondary. 1910 . the contacts close. The falling magnetic field relaxes its hold. and the entire cycle repeats.

1914 Splitdorf Spark Coil Patent Date: 1898 Queen & Co. 1880 Interrupter for Wireless Induction Coil Small Weitzmann Rhumkorff Coil c. Co. Co. 1" Spark Coil E.I. 1900 Weitzmann Rhumkorff Coil c. 1914 1. Induction Coil . 1900 E.I. 1895 Wireless Spark Coil c. c. Co.I.5" Spark Coil 1914 "Bull Dog" 1/2" Spark Coil E.

Early Dow Spark Coil Bing Spark Transmitter with Rigi Spark Gap W. . 1895 1891 Grenet Cell 1888 Grenet Batteries were single-element battery source with flasks of varying volumetric capacity. 1905 APPS Induction Coil c. For more information on the development of the battery. These battery elements. were a common source of electrical current prior to the development of the dry-cell battery. Watson & Sons Rhumkorff Coil (German) (British) c. Note the Grenet Cell in 1888 the left of the photo. see Allessandro Volta. Thomas Edison in 1888 after seventy-two hours of Grenet Cell Battery work on his phonograph. from 1/3 liter to 3 liters. when filled with an acid solution and placed in series.

Random House 1993 .Source: Thomas Alva Edison by Margaret Cousins.