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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES 1

Quadrature Amplitude Backscatter Modulator for


Passive Wireless Sensors in IoT Applications
Ricardo Correia, Graduate Student Member, IEEE, Alrio Boaventura, Student Member, IEEE,
and Nuno Borges Carvalho, Fellow, IEEE

Abstract Fully passive wireless networks are a key-enabling


technologies for the internet of things. Backscatter radios are a
hypothesis to design these passive wireless networks. Backscat-
ter modulation allows a remote device to wirelessly transfer
information without requiring a traditional transceiver. Instead,
a backscatter device leverages a carrier transmitted by an access
point or base station. Nevertheless, the traditional approach is
to use amplitude shift keying or phase shift keying backscatter
solutions which limits the data rate of the sensors, since it
transfers only one bit per symbol period. We propose a novel
modulator, which employs a Wilkinson power divider with a
phase shift in one of the design branch and two transistors
acting as switches in order to generate M-quadrature amplitude
modulation backscatter modulation. The design strategy for high
level order backscatter modulations will be explained and a Fig. 1. Application of WPT in wireless sensors.
design approach will be presented in this manuscript.
Index Terms Backscatter radio communication, Internet of combined can actually be a solution to build up totally passive
Things (IoT), quadrature amplitude modulation, wireless power wireless sensor network [8].
transmission, wireless sensor network.
In Fig. 1, a potential solution for totally passive sensor
networks is presented, where the nodes use a combination
I. I NTRODUCTION of WPT and amplitude shift keying (ASK) backscatter trans-
ceivers, as was presented in [8]. This solution can achieve a
I NTERNET of Things (IoT) is transforming the everyday
physical objects that surround us into an ecosystem of
information that will enrich our lives. While the IoT repre-
continuous operation with large number of sensors powered
by fixed wireless power transmitters used for both wireless
sents the convergence of advances in miniaturization, wireless charging and transfer data.
connectivity, increased data storage capacity and batteries, The conventional backscatter communication, used in radio
the IoT would not be possible without sensors. The growth of frequency identification (RFID) and existing passive sensor
the devices will be made possible only if the sensors battery solutions, is an attractive solution in these systems because
needs are eliminated or reduced significantly. For low-power the tags do not need to actively transmit any radio signal.
sensors and devices, careful power management and power Instead, they reflect a radio signal transmitted by the reader,
conservation are critical to device lifetime and effectiveness. and modulate the reflection by controlling their own reflec-
One of the possible solutions is to change completely the tion coefficient [9][11]. The reflected portion of the carrier
paradigm of the radio transceivers in the wireless nodes of the signal incident on the tag antenna is impressed with an enve-
IoT system. The new paradigm should be able to communicate lope (altering amplitude, phase, or both) carrying the binary
and possibly to power up sensors using only electromagnetic backscatter data. The growth of backscatter-radio technology
waveforms transmitted over the air. This gave rise to important is due to the applications with little-to-no power consumption.
concepts as backscatter radio solutions [1][4] but also to Using backscatter communication allows for extremely low
wireless power transfer (WPT) approaches [5][7] that when power dissipation for remote devices, which enables new areas
of sensor development. The backscatter tags, by receiving the
Manuscript received July 16, 2016; revised November 7, 2016 and local oscillator over the air, do not need their own RF oscil-
January 6, 2017; accepted January 22, 2017. This work was supported in part lator or phase-locked loop. By removing these circuits one
by the National Funds through Fundao para a Cincia e a Tecnologia under
Project PEst-OE/EEI/LA0008/2013 and Project UID/EEA/50008/2013 and reduces the power consumption and the cost of a tag chip [12].
in part by the Instituto de Telecomunicaes, CReATION, under Project Nevertheless, the backscattered signal received by the readers
EXCL/EEITEL/0067/2012. This paper is an expanded version from the is weak, thus limiting communication range. In conventional
2016 Wireless Power Transfer Conference, Aveiro, Portugal, May 56, 2016.
The authors are with the Departamento de Electrnica, Telecomuni- backscatter communication, the tags must harvest enough
caes e Informtica, Instituto de Telecomunicaes, Universidade de Aveiro, power from the reader to turn on and modulate data, and the
3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal (e-mail: rjoao@ua.pt). readers must receive strong backscattered signal to operate.
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available
online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Some recent work [8] show the possibility of using one
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TMTT.2017.2661262 frequency to continuously power the wireless sensor and other
0018-9480 2017 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.
See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
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2 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES

A similar approach as the one used in this paper was


presented in [18]. The authors presented an I/Q backscatter
modulator that use bias currents to change the impedance of
two p-i-n diodes. The circuit comprises a Wilkinson power
divider, two filters (low pass and high pass) to guarantee
symmetrical paths on the board, one in each branch, and one
p-i-n diode for each branch. The bias consumption of the
circuit is 80 mW (excluding DACS and FPGA logic), which
imposes high power consumption and data rate limitations.
The use of this circuit for a low power sensor is not feasible.
Another approach by using the p-i-n diodes was presented
in [19]. Pozar [19] presented a reflection type phase shifter
using a quadrature hybrid and two p-i-n diodes. By biasing
Fig. 2. Block diagram of the solution presented in [8]. the diodes to the ON and OFF state it was possible to change
the total path length for both reflected waves, producing a
to transfer data by backscatter means with ASK modulation. phase shift at the output. However, the consumption of the
Fig. 2 presents a potential solution presented in [8] for this p-i-n diodes is not suitable for low power sensors.
implementation. One different solution to obtain a BPSK modulation was
In most RFID systems and passive sensors, the reader to presented in [20]. The authors presented a phase-shift modu-
tag communication is an ASK or phase shift keying (PSK) lator with two switches that are connected to each other by
that modulates either the amplitude, or both the amplitude a 90 delay line or 0 delay line. The phase-shift modulator
and phase, of the readers transmitted RF carrier. The use of was implemented as a two-port device that selectively delays
this technology entails a number of advantages over barcode the signal by 90 between port 1 and port 2, or passes the
technologies such as tracking people, items, and equipment signal from port 1 to port 2 with no delay, achieving a
in real time, nonline of sight requirement, long reading BPSK modulation.
range, and standing harsh environment. However, a recent In [21], two multiantenna technologies were used. The
work [13] has shown that modulated backscatter can be authors presented an energy harvester [staggered-pattern
extended to include higher order modulation schemes, such as charge collector] that has two independent antenna arrays and
four-state quadrature amplitude modulation (4-QAM). While harvests power to supply a microcontroller. They also present a
ASK and PSK transmit 1 b of data per symbol period, retrodirective array phase modulator (RAPM) that backscatters
4-QAM based can transmit 2 b per symbol period, thus the signal from the reader to the reader. The RAPM comprises
increasing the data rate and leading to reduced on-chip power two switches that are controlled by a microcontroller. The four
consumption and extended read range. The work presented switching states are connected through coplanar waveguides of
in [13] and [14] refers to a 4-QAM backscatter in semipassive different wavelengths, each separated by 90. The RAPM can
systems, by using a coin cell battery as a power source be used for QPSK modulation by calibrating the phase offsets
for the modulator and a microcontroller that needs 3 V of in the switches. The solution presented in our manuscript is
supply. This way, the authors proved the QPSK modulator more compact and more capable to be expanded to higher
and battery powered system, by using an approach with modulation orders when compared with the one presented
four lumped impedances connected to an RF switch that is in [21].
controlled by a microcontroller. The same authors developed In this paper, we first provide an overview of state-of-
a 16-QAM modulator for UHF backscatter communication the-art in WPT and backscatter modulation in order to face
with a consumption of 1.49 mW at a rate of 96 Mb/s only the above technical challenges. Section II shows the dif-
in the modulator (not the overall system with data gener- ferent configurations used to implement high order modu-
ation logic feeding the modulator) [15].This modulator was lations and the approach used for the 16-QAM RF circuit
implemented with 5 switches with lumped terminations as a design. Section III describes the approach used to generate
16-to-1 Mux to modulate the load between 16 different states. the constellation diagram impedance based on the model
The proposal in this work focuses on a backscatter modula- of the E-PHEMT. Section IV shows the solution for the
tor with high order backscatter modulation format, by propos- QAM backscatter implementation. Simulated and measured
ing an RF circuit design that is able to be replicated to results from the implementation are presented in Section V.
include more modulation levels. In [16], a 4-QAM backscatter Finally, we conclude this paper in Section VI.
RF circuit design was presented, which in this work will be
improved to a 16-QAM RF circuit design with a different II. QAM BACKSCATTER M ODULATION
design strategy approach, that uses the transistor model to D ESIGN S TRATEGY
create different backscatter impedances. A fully passive system Backscatter radios are based on the reflected waveform
was implemented in [17], and is presented in Fig. 2, combining that should switch between a fully matched and short circuit
WPT with ASK modulation. To obtain a fully passive system solution built on a switch that is directly connected to the
with the modulator proposed in this paper, a similar approach receiving/transmitting antenna of the sensor. For a higher
of the work presented in [8] and [17] should be followed. level modulation format, the number of different backscattered
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CORREIA et al.: QUADRATURE AMPLITUDE BACKSCATTER MODULATOR FOR PASSIVE WIRELESS SENSORS IN IoT APPLICATIONS 3

Fig. 4. Photograph of the 4-QAM backscatter circuit.

Fig. 5. Model of the QAM solution.

large and even larger if we extend to higher order modulation,


such as 16-QAM.
In order to minimize the dimensions of the circuit and to
increase the modulation order to a 16-QAM solution, a new
implementation was evaluated. Fig. 5 presents the design for
Fig. 3. Three types of design for two different backscatter modulation
schemes. (a) ASK backscatter modulation scheme. (b) 4-QAM backscatter the 16-QAM solution. This model employs a Wilkinson power
modulation scheme without the possibility to increase the modulation order. divider and each branch is terminated with a line and an ideal
(c) Our proposed scheme for 4-QAM backscatter modulation with the possi- impedance. The lines present a 45 phase shift respect to each
bility to increase the modulation order.
other, so as to allow that the reflected wave from each branch
waves should change among several states, thus the switch has 90 phase difference from the other. Equation 1 shows
combinations should clearly create a specific impedance for the reflected wave as a sum of both reflected waves from each
that symbol combination. To determine the most suitable branch. Using (2) and (3) is possible to determine the reflection
impedances we had to test several implementations with coefficient of the model for different impedances.
different number of transistors (E-PHEMTs). Fig. 3 presents
three different schemes, for ASK [Fig. 3(a)] and 4-QAM b1 b2 a1 1 e j 2 a2 2
b= + = + (1)
[Fig. 3(b) and (c)] backscatter modulation. 2 2 2 2
Fig. 3(a) presents the traditional ASK backscatter, R1 Z 0 R2 Z 0
1 = 2 = (2)
a ON or OFF switch will impose two different reflected waves R1 + Z 0 R2 + Z 0
by changing the impedances. The switch is made using a
b 1 1 2 1 2 1
2 j 2
simple transistor (ATF54143, from Avago) and biasing it to  = = e + 2 = + j . (3)
obtain an open or a short circuit. Fig. 3(b) presents a higher a 2 2 2 2
order level backscatter modulation with two transistors. This Considering two different values for each resistance
implementation create a 4-QAM solution with four stages in (0 or ) we obtain four different combinations with four
the switches: ( ON, ON), (ON, OFF), (OFF, ON), and (OFF, OFF). different reflection coefficients as follows.
This particular solution is very difficult to implement since
1 1
the two states (ON, ON) and (OFF, OFF) are not completely R1 = 0 and R2 = 0  = j
complementary, which imposes that the impedances seen 2 2
1 1
by each of them, from the antenna point of view, are not R1 = 0 and R2 =  = j
complementary and create a complex matching network to be 2 2
1 1
designed to achieve the 4-QAM modulation format. To expand R1 = and R2 = 0  = + j
this solution into higher order modulations, such as 16-QAM, 2 2
1 1
the complexity would increase and it would be very difficult R1 = and R2 =  = + j .
to implement. 2 2
Fig. 3(c) presents a solution for 4-QAM, where a four- Fig. 6 presents the previous reflection coefficients in the Smith
switch approach was used [16]. Each branch of each switch chart. A similar reasoning can be used to create any type
is exactly equal and by changing the line and/or the stub of multilevel higher order modulation. In order to do that,
in the terminal of each switch, it is possible to achieve arbitrary real impedances could be used, instead of the 0 and
the impedance or the scattering parameters required. Fig. 4 impedance. Thus different impedances are implemented
presents the photograph of this solution. Despite the very good using an active load based on a transistor, one example is
results presented in [16], the dimensions of the circuit are very presented in Fig. 7, where different impedances were used in
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4 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES

Fig. 9. Model for the characterization. (a) Design of the circuit.


(b) Photograph of the proposed characterization circuit.

Fig. 6. Simulation of the model for 4-QAM solution.

Fig. 10. Simulated, measured, and selected measured S11 for different
voltage levels at the gate of transistor for 2.45 GHz at 0 dBm.

in this case the transistor was matched so that it presents


an impedance for different control voltages. The approach
followed in this case was to use a single transistor as is
presented in Fig. 9(a). The gate voltage in this case can be
Fig. 7. Simulation of the model for 16-QAM solution. changed from 0 to 0.6 V. The matching network was optimized
for the extreme cases 0 and 0.6 V, where the resistive value
of the resistor is 4.7 + j 0.5  and 379.6 j 630.8 , respec-
tively. By changing the gate voltage other impedances can
be generated as is presented in Fig. 10. For this paper and in
order to create a QAM approach, the selected impedances were
4.7 + j 1.4 , 14.9 + j 1.8 , 61.0 j 1.2 , 566.6 + j 1.4 ,
as is presented in Fig. 10.
In order to validate the system, we implemented and
designed a simple circuit with only one transistor and an
Fig. 8. Block diagram for different impedance terminations.
impedance matching. The objective in the simulations was
the scheme presented in Fig. 6, the impedances were 0, 20, to achieve an open circuit when the gate voltage is 0.6 V
60, and 200 . and a short circuit with 0 V at the gate of transistor.
In a generalized scheme, the last approach can be extended, Nevertheless, we added two different voltages at the gate
where the load presents different impedance values, consider of transistor, 0.2 and 0.4 V, to characterize the system to
for instance a, b, c, and d real impedances. The impedances four different voltage levels. We measured the circuit for
are then matched with the overall circuit using a two branch 26 voltages levels (from 0 to 0.6 V) and we selected the
approach and a microstrip line scheme, were each branch levels more approximated with the simulations (Fig. 10). Since
imposes a specific delay. By combining these two degrees of the sensitivity of the circuit is higher between 0.3 and 0.5 V,
freedom, several impedance levels can be created. Equation (4) the measurement step selected, within this range, was 0.01 V
was deduced, where R represents the four different impedances instead of 0.1 V. Fig. 9(a) and (b) shows the design of
in one branch and R represents the four impedances in the circuit and the photograph of the implemented circuit,
the other branch. It was based on Fig. 8 and presents the respectively. Fig. 10 presents the real impedances in the Smith
16 possibilities of impedances chart. The purpose of the matching network is to achieve
real impedances in all levels at the drain of transistor, from
X = R  + Q  . (4) 0 to 0.6 V. Fig. 11 shows the simulation of total reflection
coefficients possibilities of the solution. The voltages at the
III. C ONSTELLATION D IAGRAM I MPEDANCE G ENERATION gate of transistor were chosen from 0 to 0.6 V with a step
In order to create different impedances for the constellation of 0.01 V. Using this approach with a two branch network
diagram creation, a transistor was used as an active load, allows the creation of a multitude of impedance arrangements,
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CORREIA et al.: QUADRATURE AMPLITUDE BACKSCATTER MODULATOR FOR PASSIVE WIRELESS SENSORS IN IoT APPLICATIONS 5

Fig. 11. Simulated S11 for different voltage levels (from 0 to 0.6 V with a
step of 0.01 V) at the gate of each transistor for 2.45 GHz at 0 dBm.

as can be seen in Fig. 11, for several gate voltages. Despite


this is a simulation value, it already shows that for a real
implementation a calibration procedure is fundamental for the
development of a true higher order modulation.
Fig. 12. 16-QAM backscatter modulation scheme. (a) Design of 16-QAM
backscatter modulator. (b) Photograph of the 16-QAM backscatter circuit.
IV. QAM BACKSCATTER I MPLEMENTATION
Fig. 12(a) and (b) shows the design of the proposed
16-QAM scheme and the prototype implemented that includes
the Wilkinson power divider, two matching networks, and
two transistors, respectively. This prototype was optimized for
0 dBm at 2.45 GHz and it was simulated in advanced design
system. In Fig. 12(b) is possible to view the difference of
line length in each branch, and it is related with the 45
phase shift. As it was previously mentioned we used two
transistors, in order to achieve the 16-QAM modulation. Fig. 8
Fig. 13. Photograph of the measurement setup.
presents the block diagram approach to explain the different
impedances obtained. With this approach the design illustrated
in Fig. 12(a) was implemented in order to obtain the 16-QAM
modulation. Each transistor is switched for different voltage
levels to achieve different reflection coefficients.

V. R ESULTS
The measured results were obtained by using a power
supply and the performance network analyzer (E8361C, from
Agilent Technologies) that was calibrated at 0 dBm for the
frequencies from 2 to 3 GHz. Fig. 13 shows the photograph
of the measurement setup used to acquire the reflection coef-
ficients from the circuit shown in Fig. 12(b). The switches
were changed according to the simulated results, by biasing
the gate of each transistor. The results of the simulations
and measurements are presented in Fig. 14 and in Table I
are presented the different reflection coefficients for different
Fig. 14. Simulated and measured S11 for different voltage levels at the gate
voltages at the transistor. Table I shows also the simulated of each transistor for 2.45 GHz at 0 dBm.
and experimental voltage levels used to obtain the matching
between the reflection coefficients. As can be seen in Table I, A. Demodulation and Achievable Data Rates
the voltages measured and simulated are different, due to the The maximum data rate of the communication on the
models used for the transistor. The obtained results clearly modulator link was studied by using the measurement setup
showed that the 16-QAM modulation is viable and as it was presented in Fig. 15 to view the received constellation and eye
mentioned previously, the points can be better adjusted in the diagrams of the I and Q signals at multiple transmission rates.
Smith chart by biasing the gate of each transistor with more We used a vector signal generator (ROHDE&SCHWARZ
precision. SMJ 100A) to generate the transmitter signal at 2.45 GHz.
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6 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES

Fig. 17. Measured EVM of the 16-QAM with a varying data rate.
TABLE I
S IMULATED AND M EASURED S11 FOR D IFFERENT L EVELS
AT THE G ATE OF T RANSISTORS (M1 AND M2)

Fig. 15. Measurement setup for demodulation and achievable data rates.
(a) Block diagram. (b) Photograph.

presented in Fig. 16 is not perfect, but can be calibrated with


more precision by adjusting the voltages at the gate of each
transistor. The received eye diagrams for varying data rates
are shown in Fig. 18, and for the data rates of 256 kb/s,
2.4 Mb/s, and 4 Mb/s the eye is clearly open and the received
signals are clean. For the data rate of 120 Mb/s the received
signals appear with some noise and the eye is beginning to
close. By analyzing Fig. 18(d), it is visible the limit of the
communication rate. Nevertheless, Fig. 16(c) illustrates that it
is possible to demodulate at such higher data rate.
Fig. 17 illustrates the measured EVM for different data
rates. As the data rate increases, the measured EVM also
increases. Nevertheless and despite the EVM seems high,
Fig. 16. Received 16-QAM constellation for a center frequency of 2.45 GHz the process has not passed through any signal processing
for different bit rates. (a) 4 Mb/s with 8.19% of EVM and 21.74 dB of SNR. equalization at the receiver. These results clearly state the
(b) 40 Mb/s with 10.96% of EVM and 19.20 dB of SNR. (c) 120 Mb/s with viability of the proposed solution for a high bit rate backscatter
16.76% of EVM and 15.52 dB of SNR.
approach.
An arbitrary waveform generator (TEKTRONIX AWG5012C) B. Sensitivity of Backscatter Modulator
was used to generate the voltage levels at the gate of each To evaluate the sensitivity of the gate voltage applied to each
transistor mimicking the modulated data rate. A coupler was transistor, a Monte Carlo simulation was performed. A 1% of
used to measure the reflected signal from the circuit, by the variation on each gate voltage was applied and Fig. 19 presents
spectrum analyzer (ROHDE&SCHWARZ FSW8). the results obtained from the modulator. The red marker in
To analyze the achievable data rates, the voltages presented the figure shows the limit of the possible calibration for this
in Table I were applied to the gate of each transistor, creating modulator. By varying the voltages with 0.01 V it is possible
16 reflected impedances or symbols. The received constel- to scale this system to a 64-QAM with adequate calibration.
lations acquired from the signal and spectrum analyzer are
shown in Fig. 16 for bit rates of 4, 40, and 120 Mb/s, C. Power Consumption of Backscatter Modulator
respectively. The constellation points lie in the appropriate In Fig. 20, the measured EVM of the 16-QAM modulator
quadrants, and each point is clearly visible. The constellation as function of input power for different data rates can be seen.
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CORREIA et al.: QUADRATURE AMPLITUDE BACKSCATTER MODULATOR FOR PASSIVE WIRELESS SENSORS IN IoT APPLICATIONS 7

Fig. 19. Sensitivity of the modulator with 1% of variation on each gate


transistor. The red marker indicates the limit that is possible to achieve by
calibration of the voltages.

Fig. 20. Measured EVM of the 16-QAM modulator as function of input


power for different data rates.

VI. C ONCLUSION
In this paper, a new approach for higher order modulation
backscatter passive radio solutions was presented. The solution
now presented is actually to our knowledge the one that
achieves higher bit rate with a limited amount of RF power
and with a low count of active devices.
This paper described a modulation technique that enables a
high-bandwidth wireless communication while requiring very
low power demands. This solution can be combined with WPT
for ultralow-power wireless applications requiring high band-
width communications such as remote camera sensors or wire-
less audio. This paper challenges held assumptions concerning
Fig. 18. Eye diagrams of received demodulated data for varying data rates. the backscatter link that backscatter communication is limited
(a) 256 kb/s. (b) 2.4 Mb/s. (c) 4 Mb/s. (d) 120 Mb/s. to low bandwidth and binary modulation solutions.
Since this device was optimized for a 0 dBm (1 mW) RF input
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8 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES

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Microw. Conf. (EuMC), Sep. 2010, pp. 273276. was born in Luanda, Angola, in 1972. He received
[19] D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2012. the Diploma and Doctoral degrees in electronics and
[20] J. Kimionis and M. M. Tentzeris, Pulse shaping for backscatter radio, telecommunications engineering from the University
in IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig., May 2016, pp. 14. of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal, in 1995 and 2000,
[21] M. S. Trotter, C. R. Valenta, G. A. Koo, B. R. Marshall, and respectively.
G. D. Durgin, Multi-antenna techniques for enabling passive RFID tags He is currently a Full Professor and a Senior
and sensors at microwave frequencies, in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. RFID, Research Scientist with the Institute of Telecom-
Apr. 2012, pp. 17. munications, University of Aveiro. He has been
a Reviewer and has authored over 200 papers in
magazines and conferences. He co-authored Inter-
modulation in Microwave and Wireless Circuits (Artech House, 2003),
Microwave and Wireless Measurement Techniques (Cambridge Univ. Press,
Ricardo Correia (GS15) received the M.Sc. degree 2013) and White Space Communication Technologies (Cambridge Univ.
in electronics and telecommunications engineering Press, 2014). He is the co-inventor of four patents. He has recently been
from the University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal, involved in the design of dedicated radios and systems for newly emerging
in 2009, where he is currently pursuing the Ph.D. wireless technologies. His current research interests include software-defined
degree in electrical engineering. radio front-ends, wireless power transmission, nonlinear distortion analysis
He was an Automation and Electrical Engineer for in microwave/wireless circuits and systems, and measurement of nonlinear
a year and three years as a Researcher involved with phenomena.
embedded systems and signal processing. Currently, Dr. Carvalho is an Associate Editor for the IEEE T RANSACTIONS ON
he is a Researcher with the Institute of Telecommu- M ICROWAVE T HEORY AND T ECHNIQUES , IEEE Microwave Magazine, and
nications, University of Aveiro. His current research Cambridge Wireless Power Transfer Journal. He is the Co-Chair of the IEEE
interests include wireless power transfer, energy MTT-20 Technical Committee and the Past-Chair of the IEEE Portuguese
harvesting, wireless passive sensors for space applications, and low power Section and MTT-11. He is the Vice-Chair of MTT-20 and belongs to the
communications. Technical Commitees, MTT-11, MTT-24, and MTT-26. He is also the Chair
Mr. Correia is a member of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques of the URSI-Portugal Metrology Group. He was a recipient of the 1995
Society and a COST Action IC1301 WiPE member. He is also a Reviewer University of Aveiro and the Portuguese Engineering Association Prize for the
for IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Wireless Power Transfer, and Best 1995 Student at the University of Aveiro, the 1998 Student Paper Com-
the IEEE T RANSACTIONS ON M ICROWAVE T HEORY AND T ECHNIQUES . petition (Third Place) of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society
He was a recipient of the 2016 URSI/National Authority of Communica- International Microwave Symposium, and the 2000 IEEE Measurement Prize.
tions (ANACOM) Prize awarded by the URSI Portuguese Section and the He is a Distinguished Microwave Lecturer for the IEEE Microwave Theory
Portuguese ANACOM. and Techniques Society.