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Atlas Copco - Manual do ar comprimido - capítulo 5

Atlas Copco - Manual do ar comprimido - capítulo 5

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CHAPTER 5

CALCULATION EXAMPLE

8th edition

COMPRESSED

AIR MANUAL

8th edition

This Manual is published by:

Atlas Copco Airpower NV

Boomsesteenweg 957

B-2610 Wilrijk

Belgium

fully or in part, is forbidden in accordance with

copyright laws without prior written permission

from Atlas Copco Airpower NV. This applies to

any form of reproduction through printing, dupli-

cation, photocopying, recording, etc.

gratefully received pictures and contributions

from our customers and suppliers, of which we

would especially like to name: ABB, Siemens,

Vattenfall and AGA.

ISBN: 9789081535809

Atlas Copco Airpower NV, Belgium, 2015

WELCOME!

Welcome to the universe of compressed air! This manual offers a comprehensive guidance to

anyone who is looking forward to further explore and get insights in compressed air technology.

Whether you are a business person, manufacturing expert, scientist, university student or technical

consultant, we believe that the knowledge collected in the manual will prove very useful to you.

The compressed air manual is unique of its kind and has been widely used and hugely appreciated

by many thousands of interested readers over the years. We are now proud to present the eight

edition of the manual, several decades after the very first manual was introduced.

A lot of the information in the manual has been gathered around the world and over many years

by a number of leading compressed air technology engineers from Atlas Copco. By sharing their

knowledge with you, we want to ensure that efficiency gains can be realized faster and better

throughout the many industries that depend on compressed air.

As we all know, there will always be room for new technical improvements and better ways of doing

things. Our mission at Atlas Copco is to continuously deliver superior sustainable productivity

through safer, cleaner, more energy-efficient cost effective compressed air solutions. To accomplish

this, we depend on the voice of our customers. We are very grateful for any suggestions or comments

that you might have which can help to make this manual even more complete.

I wish you interesting readings and much success with your compressed air applications.

Nico Delvaux

President of Compressor Technique

Atlas Copco

compressedair@be.atlascopco.com

ATLAS COPCO

COMPRESSED AIR MANUAL

8th edition

5 CALCULATION

EXAMPLE

CHAPTER 5

CALCULATION EXAMPLE

5 CALCULATION EXAMPLE

5.1 EXAMPLE OF DIMENSIONING 5.5 SPECIAL CASE: HIGH ALTITUDE 121

5.6 SPECIAL CASE: INTERMITTENT OUTPUT 122

5.2.1 Compressed Air Requirement 116 5.7 SPECIAL CASE: WATERBORNE ENERGY

5.2.2 Ambient conditions for dimensioning 116 RECOVERY 123

5.2.3 Additional specifications 116 5.7.1 Assumption 123

5.7.2 Calculation of the water flow in

5.3.1 Dimensioning the compressor 117 5.7.3 Energy balance across the

5.3.3 Dimensioning the air receiver volume 118 5.7.4 Summary 124

5.3.5 Summary for continued calculation 119 5.8 SPECIAL CASE: PRESSURE DROP IN THE

5.3.6 Checking calculations 119 PIPING 125

5.4.1 Condensation quantity calculation 120

5.4.2 Ventilation requirement in the

compressor room 120

116

INSTALLATIONS

The following paragraphs contain calculations for dimensioning a typical compressed air installation. Their

purpose is to show how some of the formulas and reference data from previous chapters are used. The

example is based on a given compressed air requirement and the resulting dimensioned data are based on

components that have been selected for this particular compressed air installation.

Following the paragraph dealing with a typical case are a few additional paragraphs that illustrate how spe-

cial cases can be handled: high altitude, intermittent output, energy recovery and calculating pressure drop

in the piping.

The quantitative compressed air requirements and the local ambient conditions must be established before

starting any dimensioning. In addition to this quantitative requirement, a qualitative selection involving

whether the compressor should be oil-lubricated or oil-free and whether the equipment should be water-

cooled or air-cooled must be made.

Assume that the installation contains three compressed air consumers with the following data:

2 67 l/s (FAD) 7 bar(a) +6C

3 95 l/s (FAD) 4 bar(e) +6C

5.2.2 Ambient conditions for dimensioning

Normal ambient temperature: 20C

Maximum ambient temperature: 30C

Ambient pressure: 1 bar(a)

Humidity: 60%

Air-cooled equipment only.

Compressed air quality from oil-lubricated compressors.

117

Recalculate all input data from the requirement table in 5.2.1, to ensure that it is normalized with regard to

measurement units before dimensioning the different components.

Flow conversion:

In general, the unit l/s is used to define compressor capacity, which is why consumer 1, given in Nm3/min,

must be recalculated in l/s.

Inserting the current input data in the formula gives:

qN = Normal volume rate of flow (Nl/s)

TFAD = maximum inlet temperature (30C)

T N = Normal reference temperature (0C)

pFAD = standard inlet pressure (1.00 bar(a))

pN = Normal reference pressure (1.013 bar(a))

Pressure conversion:

The unit generally used to define pressure for compressed air components is effective pressure (also called

gauge pressure), stated in bar(e).

Consumer 2 is stated in absolute pressure, 7 bar(a). The ambient pressure is subtracted from 7 bar to yield the

effective pressure. As the ambient pressure in this case is 1 bar(a) the pressure for consumer 2 can be written

as (7-1) bar(e) = 6 bar(e).

With the above recalculations, the table with uniform requirement data becomes:

3 95 l/s (FAD) 4 bar(e) +5C

The total air consumption is the sum of the three consumers 225 + 67 + 95 = 387 l/s. Taking into account pos-

sible changes in the planned air consumption data, and later incremental expansion of compressed air needs,

a safety margin of approx. 10-20% should be added. This gives a dimensioned flow rate of 387 x 1.15 450

l/s (including the 15% safety margin).

118

The maximum required pressure for all consumers is 6 bar(e). A reducing valve should be fitted to the con-

sumer number 3 with the requirement of 4 bar(e).

Assuming that the combined pressure drop in the dryer, filter and piping does not exceed 1.5 bar, a compres-

sor with a maximum working pressure capability of no less than 6 + 1.5 = 7.5 bar(e) is suitable for this case.

A compressor with the following specifications is selected:

Maximum compressor outlet pressure = 7.5 bar(e)

FAD at 7 bar(e) = 450 l/s

This requirement is met by a compressor with installed motor shaft power = 162 kW.

The compressed air temperature out of the compressor aftercooler = ambient temperature +10C.

Furthermore, the selected compressor has loading/unloading regulation with a maximum cycle frequency of

30 seconds. Using loading/unloading regulation, the selected compressor has a pressure fluctuation between

7.0 and 7.5 bar(e).

qC = compressor capacity = 450 l/s

p1 = compressor inlet pressure = 1 bar(a)

T1 = maximum inlet temperature = 30C = 273 + 30 = 303 K

fmax = maximum cycle frequency = 1 cycle/30 seconds

(pU - pL) = pressure difference between Loaded and Unloaded compressor = 0.5 bar

T0 = compressed air temperature out of the selected compressor is 10C higher than the ambient

temperature; therefore the maximum temperature in the air receiver will be = 273 + 40 = 313 K

Compressor with loading/unloading regulation gives the following formula for the air receiver volume:

The next larger standard size is usually selected.

The required dew point in this example is +5C, therefore a refrigerant dryer is the most suitable choice of

dryer. When selecting the dryer size a number of factors must be taken into consideration and the refrigerant

dryer capacity should be corrected using appropriate correction factors. These correction factors are unique

to each refrigerant dryer model. In the case below, the correction factors applicable for Atlas Copco refriger-

ant dryers are used, and they are stated on the Atlas Copco product data sheet. The correction factors are:

Because the compressed air temperature out of the compressor is 10C higher than the ambient tempera-

ture, the refrigerant dryer inlet temperature will be maximum 30 + 10 = 40C. In addition, the desired

pressure dew point is +5C.

The appropriate correction factor 0.95 is obtained from the Atlas Copco data sheet.

119

2. Working pressure

The actual working pressure is approx. 7 bar, which represents a correction factor of 1.0.

3. Ambient temperature

For a maximum ambient temperature of 30C a correction value of 0.95 is obtained.

Consequently, the refrigerant dryer should be able to handle the compressors full capacity multiplied by

the correction factors above.

450 x 0.95 x 1.0 x 0.95 = 406 l/s.

An air-cooled refrigerant dryer with the followed data is selected:

Capacity at 7 bar(e) = 450 l/s

Total power consumption = 5.1 kW

Emitted heat flow to surroundings = 14.1 kW

Pressure drop across the dryer = 0.09 bar

When all components for the compressor installation have been selected, it must be ensured that the total

pressure drop is not too great. This is done by adding up all of the pressure drops for the components and

pipes. It may be appropriate to draw a schematic diagram of the compressed air installation as shown in

Figure 5:1.

5:1

The pressure drop for the components is obtained from the component suppliers, while the pressure drop in

the pipe system should not exceed 0.1 bar.

The total pressure drop can now be calculated:

Oil filter (pressure drop when filter is new) 0.08

Refrigerant dryer 0.09

Dust filter (pressure drop when filter is new) 0.08

Pipe system in compressor central plant 0.05

Pipes from compressor central plant to consumption points 0.1

Total pressure drop: 0.4

120

The maximum unloaded pressure of 7.5 bar(e) and load pressure of 7.0 bar(e) for the selected compressor

gives a lowest pressure at the consumers of 7.0 - 0.4 = 6.6 bar(e). Add to this the additional pressure drop

increase across the filter that occurs over time. This pressure drop increase is unique for each filter type and

can be obtained from the Atlas Copco product data sheet.

Because an oil-lubricated compressor has been chosen, the water condensation separated in the compressor

and refrigerant dryer will contain small amounts of oil. The oil must be separated before the water is released

into the sewer, which can be done using oil separator. Information on how much water is condensed is needed

in order to properly dimension the oil separator.

The total amount of water in the air flow taken in by the compressor is obtained from the relation:

f 1 = relative humidity x the amount of water (g/liter) that the air can carry at the maximum ambient tempera-

ture 30C x air flow.

f 2 = amount of air remaining in the compressed air after drying (saturated condition at +6C).

1x0.007246 x 445

f2 = 0.4g /s

8

The total condensation flow from the installation f 3 then becomes:

With the help of the calculated condensation flow, the right oil separator can now be chosen.

The principle that the heat released into the room air will be removed with the ventilation air is used to deter-

mine the ventilation requirement in the compressor room.

For this calculation the following relationship is used:

P = m x cP x T

P = the total heat flow (kW)

m = mass flow (kg/s)

cp = specific heat (J/kg x K)

T = temperature difference (K)

121

The formula for the ventilation mass flow can be written as:

where:

cp = 1.006 kJ/kg x K (at 1 bar and 20C)

P = (roughly 94% of the supplied shaft power to the compressor + the difference between the

supplied total power to the compressor package and the supplied shaft power to the compressor

+ the stated heat flow from the refrigerant dryer) = (0.94 x 162) + (175 - 162) + 14.1 180 kW

At an air density of 1.2 kg/m3 this mass flow represents 17.9/1.2 15m3/s.

Question:

Imagine that the same compressed air requirement as described in the previous example is specified, but at an

altitude of 2,500 meters above sea level and with a maximum ambient temperature of 35C. What compressor

capacity (expressed as free air delivery) is required in this case?

Answer: Air becomes thinner at higher altitudes. This is a fact that must be taken into consideration when

dimensioning compressed air equipment to fulfill a compressed air requirement specified for Normal condi-

tions, in Nm3/min. For cases in which the consumer flow requirement is stated in free air delivery (FAD), no

recalculation is necessary.

As consumer 1 in the example above is specified in Nm3/min at 1.013 bar(a) and 0C, the requisite FAD flow

for this consumer must be recalculated for the condition 35C at 2,500 m altitude. Using a look-up table, the

ambient pressure at 2,500 meters above sea level is 0.74 bar. The flow for consumer 1, recalculated to Nl/s (12

Nm3/min = 200 Nl/s), is then entered in the formula below:

The total compressed air capacity demanded is then 309 + 67 + 95 = 471 l/s (FAD).

122

Question:

Imagine that in this sample calculation, there is an extra requirement from consumer 1 of a further 200 l/s for

40 seconds of every hour. During this intermittent phase, the pressure in the system is allowed to drop to 5.5

bar(e). How large should the volume of the receiver be to meet this extra requirement?

Answer: During a short period, more compressed air can be delivered than what the compressors jointly

can manage by using the stored compressed air in an air receiver. However, in order to fill this air receiver

between the intermittent periods in which extra air is needed, the compressor must feature a specific over-

capacity. The following relation applies:

t = length of the emptying phase = 40 seconds

p1 - p2 = permitted pressure drop during the emptying phase = normal system pressure - minimum

accepted pressure at emptying phase = 6.42 - 5.5 = 0.92 bar

Inserted in the above formula for the required air receiver volume:

In addition, the compressor must have a specific over-capacity, so that it can fill the air receiver after the emp-

tying phase. If the selected compressor has an over-capacity of 5 l/s = 18,000 liters/hour, the above calculated

receiver volume would be filled within half an hour. As the air receiver will be emptied only once every hour,

this compressor over-capacity is sufficient.

123

5:1

Question:

How do we build a waterborne energy recovery circuit for the compressor in the example?

The application water to be heated is a warm water return line (boiler return) with a return temperature of

55C. Calculate the flow required for the energy recovery circuit and the power that can be recovered by the

application. Also calculate the flow and outgoing temperature for the boiler return.

Answer: Start by drawing the energy recovery circuit and name the different powers, flows and temperatures.

Now perform the calculation below.

PE = power transferred from the compressor to the energy recovery circuit (kW)

PA = power transferred from the energy recovery circuit to the application (kW)

mE = water flow in the energy recovery circuit (l/s)

m A = water flow in the boiler return (l/s)

tE1 = water temperature before the compressor (C)

tE2 = water temperature after the compressor (C)

tA1 = ingoing temperature on the boiler return (C)

tA2 = outgoing temperature on the boiler return (C)

5.7.1 Assumption

The following assumptions have been made:

The water temperature out of the compressor that is suitable for energy recovery can be obtained from the

compressor supplier. It is assumed to be tE2= 80C.

124

Assumption for the water circuit through the energy recovery heat exchanger:

tA2 = tE2 - 5C = 80C 5C = 75C

In addition, it is assumed that the pipe system and heat exchanger have no heat exchange with the surround-

ings.

P = m x cp x T

T = temperature increase across the compressor = tE2 - tE1 = 80C - 60C = 20C

cp = specific heat capacity for water = 4.185 kJ/kg x K

m = mass flow in the energy recovery circuit = mE

P = 70% of the supplied shaft power = PE = 0.70 x 162 = 113 kW

This is the maximum possible power to recover from the selected compressor. The formula can be written as:

For the recovery heat exchanger the following applies:

PE = mE x cp x (tE2-tE1)

PA = m A x cp x (tA2-tA1)

However, as it has been presumed that no heat exchange takes place with the surroundings, the power trans-

ferred to the energy recovery circuit from the compressor will be equal to the power transferred in the recov-

ery heat exchanger, i.e. PA = PE = 113 kW.

5.7.4 Summary

The calculation illustrates that the power which can be recovered is 113 kW. This requires a water flow in the

energy recovery circuit of 1.35 l/s. An appropriate flow for the boiler return is also 1.35 l/s with an increase

of the boiler feed temperature by 20C.

125

Question:

A 23-meter pipe with an inner diameter of 80 mm shall lead a compressed air flow of qC = 140 l/s. The pipe is

routed with 8 elbows that all have a bending radius equal to that of the pipe inner diameter. What will be the

pressure drop across the pipe be if the initial pressure is 8 bar (a)?

Answer: First, determine the equivalent pipe length for the 8 elbows. The equivalent pipe length of 1.3 meter

per elbow can be determined from Figure 3:36. The total pipe length is thus 8 x 1.3 + 23 = 33.4 meters. The

following formula is used to calculate the pressure drop:

Accordingly, the total pressure drop across the pipe will be 0.0054 bar, which is very low.

COMMITTED TO SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTIVITY

towards the environment and the people around us.

We make performance stand the test of time.

This is what we call Sustainable Productivity.

www.atlascopco.com

Belgium, 2015, 9780 0380 11

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