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Journal of
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A National School Social Work monthly dedicated to networking of parents and teachers.
Volume VII Issue 01 Contents June 2010
Page
Editorial 02
Creativity: Pitfalls and Prof Visvesvaran P K
Possibilities Madhavi K 03
Social Workers’ Creativity in Dr Emmanuel Janagan
Professional Practice Dr Haris Bin Abd Wahab 06
Creativity and Somashekhar M P
Creative Thinking Dr Siddegowda Y S
Gangadhara Y V 09
Make Your Child A Creative Being Sadhna Jain 13
Creativity: The Spice of Life Dr Sailaxmi Gandhi 18
Nurturing Creativity in Children Sundaravalli T
Usha Rani M 20
Four P’s to Foster Jyothi Kiran V
Creativity Dr Anuradha K 24
Working Mother and Creativity Padmavathy R 28
Creativity in Counselling Lizzie Pratheep 31

Focus: Essentials of Creativity


Hony. Special Editor: Dr Parthasarathy R,
Professor , Dept of Psychiatric Social Work,
National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences,
NIMHANS, Bangalore 560029
Journal of School Social W ork,
8 (New 14), Sridevi Colony, Seventh Avenue,
Ashok Nagar, Chennai 600 083
Mobile: 98406 02325 E-mail: jssw.india@gmail.com
Note: Views expressed by the contributors are not necessarily the official view of the Journal.
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K June 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K June 2010
Editorial Essentials of Creativity Focus Creativity: Pitfalls and Possibilities
We are living in the world which measured using typical intelligence Visvesvaran P K*
witnesses several expected as well tests. Madhavi K **
as unexpected changes in various For increasing creativity and critical * Prof Visvesvaran P K, Honorary Editorial Consultant, JSSW.
aspects of life. Naturally our thinking thinking: ** Madhavi K, Lecturer, Department of Social Work, Stella Maris College, Chennai
needs to be novel, innovative and àRedefine the problem– a problem 600 086.
creative. We need to develop unusual can be rephrased at a more abstract Introduction Let us look at the sources of
yet appropriate responses to or more concrete level. Creativity, in a general sense, is
creativity, some impediments and the
problems or questions. àAdopt a critical perspective and doing something new, novel and
ways to remove them.
Psychologists Robert Sternberg and think divergently. useful to others. It expresses itselfSources of creativity
Todd Lubart suggest that one àMake use of rules of thumb that not only in art but in human service
It may have many sources but the
important ingredient of creativity is the can help bring about a solution to a and in everyday activities. It is not
most important one seems to be the
willingness to take risk that may result problem. only what we do but how we do it. It
creator’s deep concern for humanity.
in potential high payoffs. Creative àExperiment with various solutions. could be something elaborate like
Otherwise how do you explain the
individuals formulate and promote à Parents and teachers can Tolstoy’s ‘War and Peace’ or a
immense popularity of Mark Twain’s
ideas that are for the moment out of strengthen creativity in growing humorous, tongue-in-cheek two-liner
‘Huckleberry Finn’ and Aldous
synch with prevailing wisdom. minds. like Mark Twain’s: ‘Giving up smoking
Huxley’s ‘Brave New World’? Neither
Ultimately though, highly creative Creativity cannot be developed in the is easy. I have done it several times’.
writer won the Nobel Prize. Twain’s
people expect that their ideas will rise atmosphere of fear, anxiety, Morgan et al (1993) observe that
plea — by implication — for a
in value. punishment, threat and other such creative people are not necessarily
humane treatment of blacks, and
They often have a wider range of harmful strategies. Creativity is in the topmost IQ bracket. They are
Huxley’s note of caution about the
interests and are more independent nurtured in the climate of freedom, often impulsive, unconventional,
consequences of unlimited social
and more interested in philosophical happiness, humour and relaxation. even rebellious. Drury (1959) says
planning, engineering and
or abstract problems than less What kind of climate is provided in the that creativity is not the special gift
manipulation have touched a chord
creative individuals. families/ schools determines the level of a favoured few. Almost everyone
in the human heart. That indeed is
One factor that is not closely related of creativity in children and can be creative, provided they are
the mark of creativity. Tomes more
to creativity is intelligence. adolescents. willing to work hard, and apply
voluminous in size have fallen by the
Researchers consistently find that School social work activities will serve curiosity, delight and inventiveness in
wayside while these two works stand
creativity is only slightly related to as a strong catalyst for nurturing whatever they do. It means loving
apart like two bright stars in the
intelligence or school grades, creative thinking skills in school-going what we do, sticking to one’sfirmament. The common man finds
particularly when intelligence is children. purpose, experimenting, failing and
the products of creativity attractive,
trying again. even irresistible because they often
02 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K June 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K June 2010 03
provide answers to important nature of the performance which is development of creativity: identical Parents should watch out for
questions and problems. That is the mimicry, imitational acts and singing twins reared apart show greater attempts made by their wards at
unique role of creativity. which could be compared with the differences in creativity than in being creative and appreciate these
The present scenario originals with which the judges are intellectual ability. Family efforts. The incubation period varies
If the popular TV programmes are only too familiar. The closer the environments with certain from child to child. Some children
any indication, what is vigorously performance is to the original, greater characteristics have been found to be may need a longer period than others
being encouraged today is not is the applause and appreciation more conducive to creativity than to become successful in whatever
creativity but mimicry and accurate expressed by the arbiters. others. One of these characteristics they do whether it be sports or
— nay, perfect imitation. Almost all How to promote creativity is a relaxed parental attitude rather writing.
the contests and shows held for It can be done in a number of ways. than one that is overly anxious or Summary and conclusions
youth today expect the participants In a contest, for example, the authoritarian. Creativity must be socially useful. It
to take inspiration from movies, from participants can be asked to write a On the whole, the families of creative draws inspiration from caring for
the acting and speaking styles of lyric, set it to original music and children discipline them without rigid others. Reciprocally, the public
movie stars and from the song-and- present it to the audience within a restrictions, teaching them respect appreciates it when the product offers
dance sequences featured in movies. given time frame. This a far cry from for values above rules. Similarly, they solution to some pressing problem.
Under these circumstances, the asking someone to sing or dance emphasize achievement rather than Due to the influence of movies and
creative instinct necessarily has to exactly like what some actor or singer grades. The parents in such homes the TV, youngsters are being misled
take a back seat. has already done in a picture. Many generally lead active, fulfilling lives to believe that creativity consists in
Why this domination of movie- researchers believe that in order to themselves and have many interests. imitating as accurately as possible
related themes? foster creativity in schools, education Finally, they reinforce creativity in what someone else has done in
It is because the judges whose should be based on the discovery of their children by a general attitude of terms of singing or performing. This
services are hired by the sponsors knowledge and the development of respect and confidence toward them is nothing but glorified plagiarism.
are invariably drawn from the film critical attitudes, rather than on the and by actively encouraging creative Parents and teachers could promote
world: actors, singers, lyricists, passive absorption of knowledge. pursuits and praising the results. creativity in youngsters by constant
choreographers, music composers However, most school teaching is Creativity in both children and adults encouragement and patient
and other artists. based on the child’s ability to is affected by positive reinforcement. cultivation.
For one thing, they feel flattered that memorize. For this reason some References:
the public gives the greatest educators prefer to encourage Drury, Michael (1959): Of Course, You’re Creative! Reader’s Digest, August,
importance to this form of creativity outside the school system. 1959.
entertainment and to the entertainers Parents’ role Jary and Jary (1995): ‘Creativity’: Collins Dictionary of Sociology (p.128),
Glasgow: Harper Collins Publishers.
and to no other. And the task of Environment appears to play a Morgan et al (2001): Introduction to Psychology, New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.
judging the event is facilitated by the greater role than heredity in the http://www.answers.com/topic/creativity
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Focus Social Workers’ Creativity in on our thinking and is inherently request is not an offer to follow your
limiting (Deleuze, 1994:135). What advice, they are looking for
Professional Practice social workers actually have to do is alternatives from which they will
Emmanuel Janagan* create, by generating new concepts. make their own choice based on the
Haris Bin Abd Wahab** The concern is to open us up to new facts at their disposal. Human beings
*Dr Emmanuel Janagan J, M.A (Social Work), MPhil (Social Work), PGDPM, PhD, powers of thinking, and its power of crave for independence, to be as
(Social Work), Senior Lecturer, Department of Social Administration and Justice, becoming. This creative thinking is a much in control of their lives as they
Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
-50603
freedom, although a freedom not are capable. Clients want happiness
**Dr Haris Bin Abd Wahab, Head, Department of Social Administration and entirely our own, for thinking is and success, but most of all they
Justice, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, transformed by what is outside us want to feel good about them.
Malaysia- 50603. and by chance events. We should Skills needed for social Workers
Introduction Creativity in Social Work look to a form of thinking that strives Social workers practise case work,
The purpose of this article is ‘to make “Social work profession is not just for “production, mutation and group work methods in a traditional
‘the familiar seem strange’. In communicative, any more than it is creation…we do philosophise to way and often talk about people
particular we want to familiarize the contemplative and reflective: it is expand thought to its infinite being the experts on their situation,
moral crusade that seems to be creative or even revolutionary, by potential” (Colebrook, 2002: 15). we need to put this idea into practice,
waged on account of the construct nature, in that it is ceaselessly Resistance to pressure to work with the individual and groups
‘creativity and innovation’, a crusade creating new concepts. The only When people find their own path they on their terms, in their context, with
that has remained largely condition is that these should have a follow it. When instructions are their hopes, dreams and beliefs so
unchallenged. From such a ‘strange’ necessity, as well as strangeness, imposed, they tend to go ignored. that in the end they can say ‘I did it
perspective typical statements like and they have both to the extent When we try to press our beliefs on using my own strengths and
“many organizations shy away from possible respond to real problems. another person, it is really a reflection resources’ instead of feeling that
novel solutions” (Kelley, 2001: 13), Concepts are what stop thought from of ourselves, it clearly indicates that something was done to them. If you
that creativity and innovation are very being a mere opinion, a view, an we have not allowed that other do people’s thinking for them you
much lacking (or are at the very least exchange of views, or a gossip” person to truly open up to us and tell deny them the opportunity to be
a scarce and precious commodity) (Deleuze, 1995: 136). us who they really are, and we have creative, to develop and think for
in modern society, emerge. This Creativity is an intellectual activity, not experienced their ‘specialness’. themselves, you become an ‘expert’
absence is all the more puzzling with particular reference to People hide their true selves. who has all the answers to
since the notion of creativity, and philosophy and the creation of Individual is denied the use of undermine people in subtle ways,
indeed that of “creative organization” concepts. Social Workers should not personal creativity and so advice is ultimately making them dependant.
(Hardt, 1993: 20) plays such a central just reflect on things; that mere more often disabling. Sometimes Sometimes people seem to want you
role. representation alone imposes rules people ask for advice but their to be the expert, they seem to want

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a miracle worker (not a social worker) conflict, we may have different ideas Focus Creativity and Creative Thinking
to come in to the family and about childcare for instance, but it is Somashekhar M P**
rehabilitate everybody. When this clear that the social worker’s role is Siddegowda Y S**
happens it is easy to get involved in not to oppress but to reach, teach
Gangadhara Y V***
a very interesting cycle. There is a and learn in a spirit of partnership.
*Somashekhar, M P, BSc, MSW, Head, Postgraduate Department of Social Work,
great desire in all of us to come up Conclusion JSS College of Arts, Commerce and Science (Autonomous),Ooty Road, Mysore-
with helpful suggestions. You come Effective social work treads lightly on 570 025. E-mail: mswsomashekar@gmail.com,
up with an idea and clients will try it. human lives and spirits. **Prof. Siddegowda, Y S, MSW, Ph.D, Professor of Social Work, Manasa
See what wonderful ideas you can Communication that is effective is Gangothri, University of Mysore, Mysore-570 006, e-mail: yssgowda@yahoo.co.in
***Gangadhara, Y V, BSc, MSW, DRD, Lecturer, Postgraduate Department of
come up with. You end up feeling that graceful and effortless; there is no
Social Work, JSS College of Arts, Commerce and Science (Autonomous), Ooty
they really want your help, that they resistance, no pressure. If our words Road, Mysore-570 025. e-mail: gangadharamsw@gmail.com
want to use you to support to make come from the intellect and the Introduction
changes. Progress flows from depths of our humanity instead of artificial intelligence, philosophy,
According to Dorye Roettger (1932), aesthetics, history, economics,
working with your clients, using your from our more damaging and an American author and speaker- design research, business, and
combined creativity and compassion superficial emotions such as fear, ’there are no problems - only management. The above said
instead of battering against a hard anger and ego, then work flows opportunities to be creative.’ In a studies have covered everyday
and unyielding adversary. We are naturally from our compassion, from general sense, creativity is a mental creativity and even exceptional
there to help our clients function to our love and from our being, it process involving the discovery of creativity. Unlike many phenomena
the best of their ability. They need to becomes an effortless and graceful new ideas or concepts, or new in science, there is no single,
be able to sustain any change after flow, work but somehow not work, associations of the existing ideas or authoritative perspective or definition
you have gone and so it has to be progress without undue effort. If you concepts, fuelled by the process of of creativity. There is no standardized
their own change that they have feel that the universe is working either conscious or unconscious measurement technique to measure
decided to make, not your change against you - it is you who are insight. From a scientific point of creativity.
that you have pressured them to working against the universe. view, the products of creative thought Theories about creativity
make. Accept what is and work to create are usually considered to have both Creativity has been attributed
Of course, there will always be a what could be. originality and appropriateness. variously to divine intervention,
Reference: Creativity is a simple phenomenon cognitive processes, the social
Deleuze G (1995): Negotiations. Trans M. Joughin, New York: Columbia
and yet it is quite complex. It has environment, personality traits and
University Press, 136, 1994:135,147
Hardt, M Gilles Deleuze (1993): An Apprenticeship in Philosophy. London: been studied from the different chance. It has been associated with
University of Minnesota Press. perspectives of behavioural genius, mental illness and humour.
Kelley T (2001): The Art of Innovation: Lessons in Creativity from IDEO, psychology, social psychology, Some say it is a trait we are born
America’s Leading Design Firm. New York: Currency. psychometrics, cognitive science,
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with; others say it can be taught with creativity, according to Otto Rank products to develop and improve. In practice to become skillful, but it’s
the application of simple techniques. (1918), is that it is an “assumptions- an accelerating and competitive surprising how quickly it becomes an
Creativity has also been viewed as a breaking process.” Creative ideas world this is obviously attitude, not a technique.
beneficence of the Muses. are often generated when one disadvantageous. Functions of creative thinking
Although popularly associated with discards preconceived assumptions Using special techniques, deliberate àCreative thinking skills are not
art and literature, it is also an and attempts a new approach or creative thinking can be used to taught. They do not require
essential part of innovation and method that might seem to others develop new ideas. These intelligence or even experience,
invention and is important in unthinkable. techniques force the emergence of although these qualities are needed
professions such as business, Creative thinking a wide range of ideas to spark off new to put creative ideas into practice.
economics, architecture, industrial Creative thinking is the process thoughts and processes. àCreativity is the result of right-
design, graphic design, advertising, which we use when we come up with Brainstorming is one of these special brain activity - intuition, insight,
mathematics, music, science, a new idea. It is the merging of ideas techniques, but traditionally it starts inspiration, which is not readily
engineering, teaching and social which have not been merged before. with unoriginal ideas. encouraged in the education
work. Brainstorming is one form of creative Development of products occur system.
Despite, or perhaps because of, the thinking: it works by merging much more rapidly using these àIndeed, such thought processes
ambiguity and multi-dimensional someone else’s ideas with your own deliberate techniques than by are often suppressed in favor of left-
nature of creativity, entire industries to create a new one. You are using accident. Many people known for brain activities - logic, analysis and
have been spawned from the pursuit the ideas of others as a stimulus for being creative use these techniques, judgments.
of creative ideas and the your own. but are not aware they are doing so Blocks to creativity
development of creativity techniques. Creative thinking process can be because they have not been formally People nurture the following wrong
Creativity has been associated with accidental or deliberate. Without trained in them. If you use these notions about creativity:
right or forehead brain activity or even using special techniques creative deliberate techniques during àOnly clever, successful or artistic
specifically with lateral thinking. thinking does still occur, but usually advanced brainstorming sessions people can be creative.
Some students of creativity have in the accidental way; like a chance then you too will be more creative. àOne has to suffer hardship and
emphasized an element of chance in happening making you think about With practice, creative thinking (the pain to be truly creative.
the creative process. Linus Pauling something in a different way and you continuous investigation, questioning àOnly young people have creative
(1994) asked at a public lecture how then discovering a beneficial change. and analysis that develops through ideas.
one creates scientific theories, Other changes happen slowly education, training and self- à Time, money and effort are
replied that one must endeavour to through pure use of intelligence and awareness) occurs all the time. needed; creative thinking is a luxury
come up with many ideas — then logical progression. Using this Creativity maximizes both accidental most of us can’t afford.
discard the useless ones. accidental or logical progression and deliberate creative thinking. àIt’s only for men/ women/ the
Another adequate definition of process, it often takes a long time for Creativity takes time and deliberate gifted.
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Everyone has an imagination which àLook for links between them. Focus Make Your Child A Creative Being
is the fuel for creative thinking. It is àTake the most promising idea and Sadhna Jain*
negative thinking which stops the develop it further. *Sadhna Jain is working as Associate Professor, Dept (Family and Child Welfare),
creative process. à Now select one of these new University of Delhi, Delhi. e-mail: sadhna.009@gmail.com
Triggering creative thoughts ideas and expand on it. Introduction parents’ whims and fancies.
àBe hungry for information; read, àRepeat this exercise until your Creativity is the ability to create. A What studies reveal
read and read more. creative juices dry up stimulating creative person sees new In one study, kindergartners
àTake up crafts and hobbies. creative thought processes needs relationships among different objects. responded with a higher proportion
à Write, scribble, draw, design some effort:. Creativity is after all, It is a multidimensional trait. Every of original responses to tasks related
whatever comes into your head. 95% perspiration, 5% inspiration. person is creative to some extent, but to creativity than did students of
àBrainstorm ideas with others. Conclusion the extent of creativity varies from higher classes (Moran et at, 1983).
àPut yourself under reasonable Creativity is important for the social person to person. It is an idea, a The researchers have shown that the
pressure by setting goals and work profession without which social thought, a state of mind. There are answer-centered approach of most
targets. worker cannot hone his talent and many definitions of creativity and are school tasks may make pupils
àTalk to children: often they make also offer different innovative related to traits or characteristics of cautious about expressing unusual
unusual associations between services to the mankind. Only when the creative people. Parents pay too ideas. Studies on the home
ideas. he can think differently he can serve much importance to academics environments of creative children
Tips to improve creative thinking the needy in a unique way and can which are examination based and reveal that their parents value non-
àTake yourself off to somewhere integrate the methods, theories and heavily rely on rote learning. conformity, emphasize intellectual
peaceful with some blank sheets of approaches of social work to the felt- Creativity is different from academic curiosity and are highly accepting of
paper and colour pens. needs of people, differently to intelligence. Creativity cannot be their youngster’s individual
àNote down or draw different ideas improve the lives of an individual, measured by intelligence tests. A characteristics. Many researchers
as they come to you. group, community and society at child can be high in intelligence and have questioned whether promotion
àDo this over a few days until you large. low in creativity or high in creativity of divergent-thinking a worthwhile
run out of ideas. and low in intelligence or high in both. goal. It has turned out to be an
References: Parents take lot of pains to structure imperfect predictor of real life creative
www.wikipedia.org the child’s physical environment to accomplishment (Kogan, 1983,
www.ottorank.com make them so called successful Wallach, 1985). Many researchers
www.bexcellence.org members of the society. They see have turned their attention away from
If you consider yourself a helping professional, especially in the school their children as a source to fulfill their general measures of creativity
environment, visit http://www. jssw.yolasites.com to offer your suggestions unfulfilled desires. In this process the towards the assessment of talent in
for the national register. child becomes an object of his/ her childhood.
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Characteristics of creative neglected aspect of school’s children’s resourcefulness. Toys children and see where the mind
individuals teaching-learning experience. need not be expensive. Even simple takes them. Children can also frame
Creative individual shows strong Parents can start developing the trait traditional toys can enhance the and ask questions from adults.
conviction in his beliefs and values, of creativity in their children early in development of creativity in children. Adults can ask questions in reply to
is curious, independent in thinking life. This does not require any Provide children with raw material children’s questions. ‘Why’ questions
and in judgement, willing to take risks specialized training. One needs to and children can devise their own promote thinking and reasoning
and is visionary. He can anticipate the have an open mind. toys and games.Use play situations abilities. Adults should give
problems which may emerge in Following are some of the ways of to develop analytical abilities. opportunities to children to answer
future. He does not accept routine developing creativity in pre- school Outings the questions. Each time the child
solutions to problems. Those children children: Let them take their own time to watch finds the answer by himself/ herself,
who are confident, spontaneous, Appreciate children’s art work the fairs and festivals. Answer their his/ her thinking is fostered. S/he
mentally healthy and get Art activities create opportunities for questions with patience. Ask them gains confidence and independence.
opportunities to express themselves all-round development. Give children questions about their observations. Fantasy generates curiosity and lots
are more creative than others. lots of paper, colour pencils, glue Encourage them to have their of ideas. These ideas may or may
Creative child defines the problem, sticks and other art and craft material. opinions on various subjects. not be sensible, but will satisfy their
organizes the data and remains pre- Let them be on their own. One can Stimulate them to see the world urge to create.
occupied with the problem until he ask questions about their planning through their own eyes but from a Give opportunities
finds the solution of the problem. He and creations. Appreciate their work. secure base. It will expand not only Play has freedom, joy, spontaneity
reflects, evaluates and critically Give positive and constructive the child’s creativity but of parents and involves lots of opportunities for
appraises the solution. Creative feedback of their work. It will not only too. exploration. All these factors enhance
individual is exploratory and generate many more ideas in the Change routine creativity spontaneously. Give
venturesome in nature. Creativity child’s mind but also make her/him Routines are dull and monotonous. children opportunities for cooperative
requires divergent thinking – looking confident of his abilities. Routine suppresses creativity. Allow and make-belief play. Children learn
at things from different angles. Give them plenty of toys children to do whatever they want to to negotiate spontaneously in play
Everybody wants all-round Toys can be of different types. do. Adults can have eye on them or situations, a trait which is very
development of their children. They Constructive toys like blocks of ask them to discuss their proposed important later in life. Let them
want their children to be smart, different sizes, colours, shapes and activities beforehand. Let them be experiment and develop their
intelligent, creative and free from texture enhances imagination. free from adult’s dos and don’ts. Let creative faculties. Many outdoor
diseases, disorders and problems. Books, puzzles and equipments give them be their own master at least games stimulate the development of
School provides training to develop them the opportunity to explore. One once in a week. children’s cognitive and creative
many of these traits. The can make use of waste materials to Ask questions abilities. Children learn to analyze,
development of creativity is the most make best indigenous toys. Stimulate Ask ‘what if’ and ‘why’ questions to deduce, anticipate, classify, identify
14 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K June 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K June 2010 15
similarities, enhances powers of play an important role in developing outline of some story/current problem appropriately spaced. Gradually the
observation, learn to devise and creativity in children. The school can and ask students to fill in the gaps teacher/ parents can increase the
modify rules, create new games, create an environment which is using their mental abilities. complexity of the tasks. The teacher/
imagine themselves in new roles conducive for unfolding the creative Tasks involving imagination like story- parents must know when to direct the
through their play activities. Many of potential of children. Teachers can writing, poem composition, art and children’s activities and when to
these strategies are learnt by children encourage the spirit of scientific craft work, project work can be given remain in the background. They
on their own without much monitoring inquiry in children. to school-going children to enhance should be sensitive to children’s
and direction. This in turn generates Following are the measures to creativity in them. moods and should make appropriate
confidence and satisfaction in them enhance creativity in school-going Teacher should judiciously use use of ‘teachable moment’. It is
and gives them the feeling of children: analogies to enable students to grasp important to be patient when children
adequacy; a feeling that they can The students should be given the concepts. The use of analogy discover things for themselves. The
take and cope with challenges. freedom to experiment with ideas. helps in comparing different children should eat and sleep well to
Avoid conformity They learn best through activity. They problems through different make optimal use of their body,
Do not promote gender stereotyping. should be given opportunities to approaches. It fosters their skills of senses and mental faculties.
It affects their divergent thinking. It generate and critically examine new observation and analysis. They Creative individuals are asset s to the
leads to conformity and hence ideas. A technique called should also be given the opportunity universe in general and to the nation
suppresses creativity. ‘brainstorming’ can be used in to think over the consequences of in particular. New inventions and
Let children start and develop stories providing teaching- learning their actions. progress depend on their creative
on their own experience to students. In this Conclusion abilities. We must work towards
Let children start and develop stories technique a problem is put before the The learning/exploratory experiences developing creativity in children for
on their own. Parents can also join students. Students are given full of children should be according to growth, progress and prosperity of
them in developing the stories. A freedom to ask questions and their age and abilities and should be mankind.
story can be a continuing story with express their ideas. Later, the References:
drama and comedy. One must teacher helps in developing some Berk L E (1996): Child Development, New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India.
cautiously choose appropriate words, consensus of opinions. Chauhan S. S (1993): Advanced Educational Psychology, Delhi: Vikas Publishing
House.
modulate voice, use body Teachers can provide pupils with the
Ellermeyer D (1993): Enhancing Creativity Through Play: A Discussion of Parental
movements and facial expressions outline of the problem/ incident/ and Environmental Factors. Published in Early Child Development and Care.
while developing and narrating a situation and ask them to elaborate http://behavioural-psychology.suite101.com/article.cfm/ how_to_buy_the_best_
story. the problem/incident/situation by vintage_toys.
As children start going to school, they using his imagination, reasoning and If you consider yourself a helping professional, especially in the school
spend maximum time in school or problem solving abilities. For environment, visit http://www. jssw.yolasites.com to offer your suggestions
school related activities. School can example language teachers can give for the national register.
16 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K June 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K June 2010 17
Focus Creativity: The Spice of Life thinking is not encouraged much. A Mental Health Day’ can be
Sailaxmi Gandhi* creative genius need not be an organized where public get an
Dr.Sailaxmi Gandhi, Assistant Professor in the Department of Nursing at
academic genius. Ultimately, in life opportunity to see how creativity
NIMHANS, Bangalore, Karnataka. e-mail: sailaxmi63@yahoo.com creativity always wins. Eg. Bill Gates! exists even in the mentally ill.
Introduction motivation, kindness and love one By stressing on academics, curiosity àAdministration: A lot of creativity
Creativity began when early man can tap the highest level of creativity withers and fades away. Today, a is required to tackle cumbersome
discovered fire by striking two flint that exists in mentally ill patients. multitude of problems such as issues in the realm of administration
stones. Creativity also suffered a Their paintings send out a million poverty, pollution, population too. A nurse administrator has to
blow when Adam and Eve ate the messages and are a stiff competition explosion, global warming and be courageous and creative to
forbidden apple and thereby opened for modern art! terrorism pose a lurking threat. Only administer harmoniously.
the Pandora’s Box! Mankind Nurturing creativity creativity, not academic brilliance à Teaching: A creative nurse
definitely needs to be creative and Discovering, unleashing and alone, can overcome these threats!! teacher can make a dull lecture a
that too in a positive manner. nurturing creativity means neither A youngster when encouraged to be truly exciting session. New
Creativity is being innovative, being parents nor teacher should suppress creative derives pleasure and strategies of teaching which
inventive, doing/ making something children or be too intrusive in the satisfaction which contributes to his encourage creativity among
which has not been done/ made name of academia. Allow the child mental health! Imagine a world full students can be devised too.
before. Creativity can flow in the form to live his/ her life. All schools should of, not one but many Tendulkars and à Research: A nurse-researcher
of thoughts, words or actions. set aside at least one hour per week Vishy Anands! Parents, siblings, has to be creative – exploring new
Creativity exists in all human beings! to allow the child to do what he/ she teachers, mental health areas for research, devising new
A very famous quote which should likes best. Recently, TOI had professionals – all play a vital role in techniques with existing resources
be thought-provoking for all the published a news item on an motivating children to be creative. and limitations to conduct research.
youngsters who have not done well engineering student who had A mental health nurse’s Conclusion
in the recent 10th or 12th board invented a system whereby mobiles perspective Just as salt and pepper add flavour
exams is ample proof of this – “I failed could be charged during the day A mental health nurse’s focus on to the dish, creativity adds spice and
in some subjects in the exam. But using solar energy and during the creativity is in four dimensions: zest to one’s life! Hence, every
my friend passed in all with night using wind energy. This is Clinical services, administration, responsible citizen, be it a parent,
distinction. Now, he is an engineer creativity in the positive direction – teaching and research. teacher or a mental health
in Microsoft and I am the owner of students doing their mite to offset àClinical service: A mental health professional should encourage
Microsoft!” – Bill Gates. global warming! nurse encourages mentally ill creativity in children.
Can mentally ill be creative? Encouraging youngsters patients to be creative – be it an Author’s note: This is an
Amazingly, the answer is yes! With In today’s fast-paced world, the focus adult or a child. Programmes such impressionistic write-up, hence
a little bit of encouragement, is on marks and academics. Lateral as ‘Patients’ Talent Day’, ‘World no references.
18 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K June 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K June 2010 19
Focus Nurturing Creativity in Children conducive to full growth and that a particular creative work is the
development of the creative abilities outcome of his efforts. Therefore
Sundaravalli T*
of children. Proper stimulation of the opportunities should be provided to
Usha Rani M** traits of creativity like originality, the children to derive satisfaction
*Sundaravalli T, MSc, (Zoology) MSc, (Psy) MEd., Lecturer, St. Justin’s College of
flexibility, ideational fluency, from identifying
Education.
persistence, divergent thinking, self- Originality and flexibility
**Usha Rani M, MA, MSc, MPhil, MEd, (PhD), Lecturer, T V S Teacher Training
confidence, ability to see Originality on the part of children in
Academy.
Introduction and teachers make a significant relationship, sensitiveness and make any form should be encouraged.
Psychoanalytic theory defines contribution. They are required to associations are essential and may Passive submission to facts,
creativity as a means and a product help children in nourishing and be achieved through the following unquestioning mimicry, and
of one’s emotional purgative, a utilizing their creative abilities to the practices: memorization by rote discourage
medium for sublimation and utmost. The educational process, Freedom to respond creative expression and should,
catharsis. Spearman described therefore, should be aimed at Most often teachers and parents therefore, be checked as far as
creativity as the power of the human developing creative abilities among expect routine, fixed responses from possible. If children seek to change
mind to create new contents by children. This can be achieved by children and thus kill the creative their methods of learning a task or
transforming relations and thereby acquainting the teachers and parents spark by breeding conformity and solving a problem, they should be
generating new correlates. Arieti with the real meaning of the creative passivity. Adequate freedom should encouraged to do so. Adequate
described the creative process as a process and ways and means of be given to the children in responding training can also be given by making
magic synthesis of two modalities developing and nurturing creativity. to a situation. They should be them answer problems like how
1. The primary process, the Nurturance of creativity encouraged to think out as many would you dig the earth without a
outcome of the primitive part of the Creativity, as a natural endowment, ideas as they can for the solution of spade or, how would you draw an
mind involving unconscious and needs stimulation and nourishment. a problem. The children must also be angle if you don’t have proper
irrational thinking and Most creative talent, unless given let to have their own way when they instruments for drawing it or, how
2. The secondary process, the proper training, education and need a particular kind of novel would you cross a river if there is no
outcome of the later developed opportunities for expression, is expression strongly enough. bridge over it?
mind involving rational thinking at wasted. It is not the monopoly of a Opportunity for ego involvement Removal of hesitation and fear
the conscious level. few geniuses who are needed to Feeling like ‘this is my creation’, ‘I There is a great hesitation mixed with
Good education, proper care and create, manifest and produce. have solved it’, give much satisfaction a sense of inferiority and fear in taking
provision of opportunities for creative Creativity is universal. to children. Actually, a child can be the initiative for creative expression.
expression inspire, stimulate and It becomes essential, therefore, for expected to put in determined efforts Comments like “I know what I mean,
sharpen the creative mind, and it is teachers as well as parents to realize into creative activities only when his but I cannot write or speak before
in this sphere, that parent, society the need of creating an environment goal is involved. i.e. when he feels others” will be the result of diffidence
20 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K June 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K June 2010 21
and fear which has to be discovered encouraged to stand up against factors in bringing up and educating adopted for encouraging complete
and removed as far as possible. The criticism of their creative expression. the children. and balanced experiences in
teachers and parents should They should be made to feel that Curriculum developing their creative behaviour.
encourage and persuade such whatever they create is unique and Learning experiences in the form of Special techniques
children to express themselves by express what they desire to express. curricula should be so designed as Researchers in the field of creativity
saying or writing something, Using the creative resources to foster creativity among children have suggested the following special
anything, no matter how crude it may Children should be made to visit primarily on the basis of concepts techniques to foster creativity:
be. centres of art, science and industrial rather than facts. It should also cater àBrainstorming.
Conducive atmosphere work. This may stimulate and inspire to the individual needs of each àUse of teaching models.
A healthy atmosphere, favourable for them for creative work. Creative student rather than to the generalized àUse of gaming techniques.
creative thinking and expression is artists, scientists and creative needs of all students. The curriculum àUse of activities for teaching.
essential for stimulation and persons from different fields may also should reflect what is expected from àTeaching by example .
nourishment of creativity among be periodically invited to the school the creative children in terms of àGiving chances for children in the
children. The rate of learning must to interact with the children in an effort fluency, originality, divergent thinking, teaching process.
be balanced with challenging to enhance the scope of knowledge inventiveness and elaboration. Conclusion
productivity, stable certainty with and kindle the spark of creativity in Evaluation system Focussed effort on the part of
daring adventure. The child should them. The emphasis on memorization by teachers, parents, society and
never be snubbed for his curiosity Blocks to creative thinking rote, fixed and rigid single responses, government is needed for nurturing
and creativity. Co-curricular activities àCoercion. and conformity which kill the creativity and stimulating the creative urge and
in school can be used for providing àFaulty methods of teaching. of the children should be abandoned potential in children. It is possible
opportunities for creative expression. àUnsympathetic treatment. and a proper evaluation system only by providing conducive
Religious festivals, social get- àFixed and rigid habits of work. environment and facilities.
togethers, exhibitions and even àAnxiety and frustration.
References:
regular class-work can stimulate àExcessively high standards of Arieti.S., Creativity The Magic Synthesis, New York Basic Books, 1976.
creative thinking among children. achievements for levels of work. Manju Gupta, Intelligence Creativity and Education, KSK Publishers and
Developing healthy habits àOver-emphasis on school marks. Distributors, New Delhi 2007.
Industriousness, persistence, self- àAuthoritarian attitude of teachers Stephen Bowkett, 100 + ideas For Teaching Creativity, Viva – Continuum Edition,
reliance and self-confidence are and parents New York, 2008.
some of the qualities that are helpful are known to be detrimental to the Mangal.S.K., Advanced Educational Psychology, Prentice Hall of India Private
in creative output. Children should, growth of creativity among children. Limited, New Delhi, 2005.
therefore, be helped to develop these As far as possible, parents and
qualities. Moreover, they should be teachers should try to avoid such
22 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K June 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K June 2010 23
Focus Four P’s to Foster Creativity environment. Much of the research (5) Children can make better use of
Jyothi Kiran V* on creativity, conducted by a creative styles through deliberate
Anuradha K** multitude of researchers, falls into interventions.
*Jyothi Kiran V,Psychiatric Social Worker, Psychiatry Unit,SVRR General one of these four categories. Authors Process
Hospital, Tirupati. Andhra Pradesh. e-mail: venusriya@gmail.com in this article have made an attempt Discovery learning, also referred to
Dr Anuradha K, Associate Professor, Department of Social Work, Sri Padmavathi
Mahila Visvavidyalayam, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. e-mail: komanduriradha
to adapt the 4 ‘P’s typology to work as ‘constructivist learning’, is one of
@gmail.com with children. many methods used in the creative
Introduction children and also in treating their Person processes. It includes first-hand
Schools are ideal for creative psycho social problems, if any. A practitioner working with children involvement of children in the
activities because children spend a Four P’s approach should have interest, attitude and activities for instance such as
lot of time in the schools. Schools The four P’s method categorizes the temperament to work with them. managing time though ’daily activity
are often the strongest social and processes of creativity development Factors such as sensitivity to schedule’ or dealing with social
educational institutions available for into four categories of children’s needs, ideational novelty relationships by displaying pictures
intervention. They have a profound 1) the creative person, and fluency, flexibility of set, of children who do well in the class
influence on children, their families 2) the creative process, synthesizing ability, analyzing ability, room. When children are involved in
and the community. Young people’s 3) the created product and reorganizing or redefining ability, activities that are concerned with their
ability and motivation to stay in 4) the press – a term from the field span of ideational structure, and daily lives, they learn to value their
school, to learn and utilize what they of education that refers to a evaluating ability should be primary experiences, views and concerns
learn, is affected by their learning relationship between human beings considerations when organizing and thereby promote their confidence
environment. Schools can act as a and their developmental environment group activities with children in a and independence. When children
safety net, protecting children from (which for convenience and easy school setting. Working with children are engaged to take part in groups
hazards which affect their learning, understanding can also be termed as should be based on the premise that they develop respect for their views.
development and psychological well promoter). (1) Creative potential exists among They discover the importance of the
being. In addition to the family, Person refers to the personality, all children. views of others
schools are crucial in building or intellect, traits, habits and attitudes. (2) Creativity can be expressed by Literature also points out the potential
undermining self-esteem and a Process refers to motivation, children in different ways . of creative work with children in
sense of competence (Kapur 1997). perception, learning, thinking, and (3) Creativity is usually approached improving their personal
So, activities that make children see communicating. Product results from or manifested according to development. An approach of this
connections in relationships, reflect the developed idea as it develops into children’s interests, preferences, or kind which creates space for
on ideas, actions and outcomes are a tangible form. Promoter (press) styles. children’s own experiences,
helpful in promoting learning, refers to the relationship between (4) Children can function creatively perceptions, and concerns as a
retention and well being of the humans and their favourable at different levels. central component of child focused
24 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K June 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K June 2010 25
development work has also been Product be challenging. So it is also essential Conclusion
used for work with street and working There is not enough literature in this that the value of individual differences Creativity is a result of simultaneous
children. For instance, children are regard. This approach to creativity is pointed out. Adequate time has interactions among several
encouraged to reflect critically on focuses on outcomes and on those to be provided to children to complete components of creative process.
their current realities (the reasons things that result from the creative the tasks on hand. Their Active involvement and practice must
why they ran away from home to live process. The key assumptions under concentration levels and interest vary take over theory to make creativity
and work on the streets); to this approach are that products, and hence the time provided for in children a reality. With children,
understand the structural and political such as painting, poems, designs, activities should be timely and an open, safe environment for
factors that are involved; to organize drawings are highly objective, and adequate. Children’s need to work reinforcement of ideas and
themselves (through clubs); and to therefore measurablewhich may alone or in groups should be responses, coupled with non-punitive
identify the decision making bodies come in a variety of sizes and shapes respected. So, creative environment atmosphere of mutual respect and
which need to be made aware of their and from many different contexts. involves a consideration of the acceptance encourages spontaneity,
realities (O’Kane 2003). Press context, place situation, or climate in and will possibly avoid roadblocks to
The three primary attributes of this Environmental factors have a which the activity takes place. the process.
kind of process may include tremendous influence on a child’s References:
àThe creation, integration, and creativity and form a press that may Kapur M(1997): Mental Health in Indian Schools, New Delhi: Sage Publications.
generalization of knowledge through be destructive or constructive. O’Kane Claire (2003): Street and Working Children’s Participation in Programming
exploration and problem solving, Hence, any discussion on creativity for their Rights. Children, Youth and Environments 13(1), Spring
àA process of learning driven by is incomplete without considering Kim Darwin Alexander (2007): Effects of Instruction in Creative Problem Solving
interest based activities. environmental impacts which either on Cognition, Creativity, and Satisfaction among Ninth Grade Students in An
àActivities which strive to integrate promote or inhibit creative behaviour. Introduction to World Agricultural Science and Technology Course, Ph.D
new knowledge with the learner’s So, activities that foster creativity in Dissertation. Texas Tech University, U.S.A.
existing knowledge (Bicknell- children should be conducted in an Gratitude
Holmes and Hoffman, 2000) environment of freedom, support and We are grateful to the honorary special editor Dr Parthasarathy R, Professor,
Children often talk in collective safety. Also unusual ideas and Department of Psychiatric Social Work, NIMHANS for his valuble editorial
activities. Children like to draw and responses of children must be and for recommending Dr Jane Henry and Dr Bino Thomas as honorary
paint. Drawing is a creative activity encouraged. When organizing such committee members for this month.
which gives children freedom of activities for children in school there We are thankful to all the contributors. We thank all the subscribers especially
expression depending on their must be minimal administrative Dr Udhaya Mahadevan (Patron 037), Ms Madhavi K (Patron 038) and
imagination and they interpret the interference. Conducting creative donors. JSSW has been allotted ISSN: 0976-3759 for which we thank
world around them in their own activities with children though is National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources,
words. (Stephenson et al, 2004). interesting and exciting, it can also New Delhi and International Centre for ISSN, Paris.
26 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K June 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K June 2010 27
Focus Working Mother and Creativity of time and effort to find good, quality home nagging the child all the time.
and affordable child care for children. Working mothers definitely have less
Padmavathy R*
It’s the most important part of working time to spend with their children than
*Padmavathi R M.A., M.Phil, M.Ed., M.Phil, Research Scholar, Mother Teresa
mother’s job. the mothers who are at home. But it
Women’s University, Kodaikanal .
Mother’s choice is not that a housewife is better
Introduction achievement tests in reading, maths
Women are beginning to realize that mother than a working mother. Even
Over the past several decades, and science. Working mothers were
there is a world outside their kitchen if the working mother is pressed for
women have entered the workforce less depressed and their morale was
windows. But as in the case of every time, as long as she spends quality
in large numbers. As more women higher than that of stay-at-home
social change, there is a lag between time with her child it is enough.
and mothers enter the work force, counter parts.
actions and attitudes. While people Sometimes mothers hang around the
child care has become an Need for child care
may be willing to accept the idea of house the whole day but they don’t
increasingly important public policy Child care expenses can easily
career women, they are not willing even look at their children. They
issue. Many working families and consume one third or more of the
to excuse them from their duties as provide them with food and other
mothers rely on family members, household budget. The quality of
career mothers. In the first place the facilities, but their involvement with
including parents and other relatives. care provided to a child in his or her
term ‘working mother’ is a misnomer the child is minimal. They think their
The rest arrange for care through early years can be critical to the
as mothers are working round the presence is enough. But that is not
private providers. Parents often face child’s development. Early childhood
clock even if they don’t go to an office. true. Mothers must talk to their
steep costs and questionable quality experiences, particularly in the first
Being a working mother is not the children, they must interact with them
of care. three years of life, are crucial. Brain
easiest job in the world. And if they and must accept their children.
Comparative study development is heavily impacted by
do elect to pursue a career, it is Given the fact that time is of the
Mothers who are full-time early environmental factors, which
important that their families be essence, mothers need to prioritize
homemakers are more likely to use can promote or hinder learning skills
supportive. Or the working mother household chores and only do those
either an authoritarian or a from adolescence through
has to be creative to provide quality that are absolutely essential on a
permissive parenting style than those adulthood. A healthy and safe early
time to the child. daily basis. Mothers should try to
who are employed full-time. Working childhood setting can also prevent
Spending quality time tune out distractions like the
mothers are more likely to use an cognitive and behavioural disorders
It is not the quantity of time mothers television, radio and telephone calls
authoritative approach that relies on later in life, some of which are
spend with their children but the when they are spending some
reason, rather than assertions of irreversible.
quality that matters. A working special time with their babies.
parental power, and encourage both Child care quality
mother who spends one hour of Games a mother can teach
girls and boys to be independent. All working mothers want the best for
quality time every day with her child 1. Depending on the age of child she
But, offspring of working mothers had their children and competent, loving
will probably establish a better bond can ask child to name objects, spell
higher scores on standardized care givers top the list. It takes a lot
with her child than one who stays at new words, meanings, usage and
28 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K June 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K June 2010 29
the like. 5.She can explain the meaning of Focus Creativity in Counselling
2.Depending once again on the age frowns and moods of people by Lizzie Pratheep*
of the child, she can ask the child to pointing out the body language *Lizzie Pratheep, MSW, Ph.D Scholar, (Dr. MGR University), Researcher, Institute
group, sort, re-organize a collection while going through albums. of Social Sciences, Malleswaram, Bangalore – 560003. e-mail:
lizziepratheep@gmail.com
of beads of different colours and 6.She can play many traditional
vegetables. games such as Pallanguzhi, Introduction needs and is able to provide the
3.She can play many games with paramapadam - Indian version of Creativity is a crucial component in flexibility.
the child at home or while travelling snake and ladder-that enhance the advancement of all major cultural Creative use of counselling skills
and even when watching TV numerical abilities, problem solving entities, including effective Working over a limited number of
together. The non-imposing games and the like. counselling. It is through creativity sessions, issues are addressed that
can aim at improving observation Conclusion that major theories of counselling and affect people’s performance. In that
(how many red buildings we saw), Mother’s role doesn’t end with skills in counselling have been setting the counsellor uses his or her
memory (which station we crossed bearing children. Nobody can ignore developed. Creativity is a longitudinal specialized abilities to facilitate clients
just now) and creativity (Do you see the role of the mother and her in its impact. If counselling is to being able to understand and deal
a dragon face in the cloud?) creativity. It is the mother who makes progress in the future, it is essential more effectively with their specific
4.She can give creatively the child a useful man. Should we that counselors be rewarded for issues. The use of counselling skills
relationship management by going not honour and recognize the creative innovations and they help can have a significant and positive
through the photo albums and mother’s creativity and its importance themselves become more creative by impact on the intended outcome.
explain how people are related what in society? Whatever the style of studying the expressive arts, reading Techniques of counselling
funny thing happened when the parenting may be, mother’s influence widely, traveling and observing Effective counseling techniques are
photograph was taken. on the child is immeasurable. human nature from multiple discreet skills which, when practised
perspective. effectively by a counselor, make
References: The importance of creativity in possible a trusting environment where
http:/www.policyalmanac.org counselling a client (or friend) can share what has
http://www.indiaparenting.com The importance of creativity in the been held “secretly” or privately.
Corrections context of counselling is therapist’s àFirst of the effective counseling
JSSW, May 2010 characteristics and techniques that techniques is the creation of an
1. Page 02 Editorial: might be labeled as creative or encouraging and empathic belief in
the ‘disaster and distruction’ line occurs twice which is an error. associated with the notion of the counsellor. It is important to offer
2. Page 05 Conclusions: No. 2 should read: creativity. Good counselling is flexible words of encouragement, and
‘Along with the government, the NGO’s are making a worthwhile rather than fixed to a rigid structure: choices. A warm, friendly tone of
contribution ...’ The counsellor sees what a client voice is very important.
30 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K June 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K June 2010 31
Journal of School Social Work English Monthly. ISSN: 0976-3759
Registered with Registrar of Newspapers for India underNo.TNENG/2004/14389.
Postal Registration TN/CC(S) Dn/ 47 / 09-11.
Licensed to post under WPP No. TN/CC(S) Dn/ 34/09-11.
àActive listening happens when questions, which encourage an
you “listen for meaning”. The listener ongoing story line, are preferable.
says very little but conveys empathy, Closed questions can be answered
acceptance and genuiness. Having with one word and stop the
an individual pay close attention can communication.
be very calming for clients. à Paraphrasing is to listen and
à Developing encouraging body restate what the speaker said
language can take some practice. conveying empathy, acceptance and
Communication is 55% body genuineness.
language, 38% tone and 7% words. Conclusion
Interestingly children respond to A good counsellor is always creative:
non-verbal cues in 1/18th second he/ she creates safe environment of
according to Mihalyi Csikszemihalyi, trust, uses active listening and
author of “FLOW”. responding skills, allows the clients
à Asking questions - open and to feel heard and understood and
closed - is an important tool in the deals with them in a non-threatening
counseling kit. Open-ended way to encourage disclosure.
References:
www.informaworld.com/index/903714466.pdf
www.sagepub.com/cgi/content/refs/7/4/326
www.impactfactory.com/.../counselling.../registeredgate_1617-5101-72323.html -
United Kingdom
counsellingresource.com › Psychology, Philosophy and Real Life
www.ehow.com/lowsugarmeals.mp-hosting.com/life-skills-counselor.php
www.askmikethecounselor2.com/counselor-skills.html
Published and owned by P. Jayachandran Naidu. Published from
8, Sridevi Colony, 7th Avenue, Ashok Nagar, Chennai 600083 and
printed by T. Rajaguru at TRK Press, 39, Saidapet Road, Vadapalani,
Chennai 600026. Editor: P. Jayachandran Naidu.
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Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K June 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K June 2010