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Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02

Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02

Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of School Social W ork July 2010 Vol VII Issue 02
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010
ISSN: 0976-3759

Journal of
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A National School Social Work monthly dedicated to networking of parents and teachers.
Volume VII Issue 02 Contents July 2010
Editorial 02
Life Skills Programmes for Gnana Sekar M
Higher Secondary Students Dr Kalaiyarasan G 03
Overcoming Impediments to Prof VisvesvaranP K
Acquisition of Academic Skills Madhavi K 07
Enhancing Students’ Motivation in Sujatha S R
Educational Settings Dr Santhana Karthikeyan V 11
Tips to Develop Life Skills Uma Maheswari P 20
Academic Institutions and Dr Sunita Nambiyar
Life Skills Development Prof Parmar M N 23
Effective Teaching Methods for Lakshmana G
Life Skills Education Dr Dhanasekarapandian R
Ashalatha R 26
Life Skills Integrated Education:
An Effective Means for
Enhanced Performance Anoop Antony 30

Focus: Academic and Life Skills

Hony. Special Editor: Dr Narayana Raja P N,
Principal , Madurai Institute of Social Sciences, Madurai
Journal of School Social W ork,
8 (New 14), Sridevi Colony, Seventh Avenue,
Ashok Nagar, Chennai 600 083
Mobile: 98406 02325 E-mail:
Note: Views expressed by the contributors are not necessarily the official view of the Journal.
Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 01
Editorial Life Skills in Education Focus Life Skills Programmes for
World Health Organization defines climate to their wards to develop Higher Secondary Students
life skills as abilities for adaptive and these skills.
Gnana Sekar M*
positive behaviour that enable Academic skills are often measured,
individuals to deal effectively with the unfortunately, based on marks or Kalaiyarasan G**
*Gnana Sekar M, Ph D Scholar in Education, Alagappa University and PG
demands and challenges of grades the student scores in the final Teacher, St. Gabriel’s Higher Secondary School, Broadway, Chennai – 600 108.
everyday life. Life skills empower examinations without realizing such **Dr Kalaiyarasan G, Associate Professor in Education, Alagappa University,
persons to make informed decisions scores need not always reflect the Karaikkudi-630003
in their life. Indian traditional skills of the individual. The ancient Introduction According to him, a person with
approach in moulding the focus on 3 R’s – Reading, Writing The socio-economic changes of the more EQ will be able to face any
personality of individuals has many and Arithmetic – is now-a-days past few decades have brought forth situation at home and outside. Now-
strategies to help them to acquire life shifting to improving the problem enormous development in all the a-days, many organizations recruit
skills, especially through the joint solving ability of the individual. It is fields, including education. The employees based on their EQ.
family system which provides more important than mere scores/ students of today need to be Kothari Commission
adequate space to enrich grades/ marks. attended very carefully with regard The Education Commission report
interpersonal relations. Unfortunately, the present day to their moral and educational (1964-66) enumerates the main
Life skills development is evaluation of the so called academic development. Today the competition elements of educational
preparation of the the individual for skills does not concentrate on prevailing everywhere makes them reconstruction for our country in
livelihood and to face challenges in measuring the end use. As such the unbalanced, frustrated and despair. which the following points are
life. An individual requires literacy, prospective employers lament on They should know to handle time stressed.
numeracy, dexterity, vocational, non-applicability of what one learns and tide; tension and serenity, àSchools should recognize their
sports, cultural and recreational in the college in the field of morality and mind. responsibility in facilitating the
skills. Here, life skills predominantly employment. It is this area the Emerging trends transition of youth from the world of
comprise of skills related to self- academicians and educational Once it was believed, that higher school to the world of work and life.
awareness, empathy, creative administrators have to consider to intelligence quotient (IQ) is very àStress on normal education and
thinking, critical thinking, effective make education field-oriented. The important for a person to succeed in inculcation of some of social
communication, interpersonal onus can’t be placed on schools his life. Then it was realized that responsibility.
relationships, decision making, alone. Ultimately, imparting mere IQ alone is not sufficient to à Development of quality and
problem solving, coping with stress academic and life skills to children is overcome life problems as well as Pace-setting institutions at all
and coping with emotions. It is the the responsibility of parents, organisation problem. Danial stages of education.
responsibility of both parents and teachers, school, neighbourhood Golmann proposed the importance According to Prof D S Kothari the
schools to provide a conducive and of course, media too. of Emotional quotient (EQ). basic role of education is ‘to promote
02 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 03
a sense of common citizenship and Transitions tensions and acceptance of Many students go for higher
culture and to further national The following five dimensions are differences. education without any career
integration; to make a direct identified to emphasize the need for Accountability transition awareness. Career guidance and
contribution to national productivity; and the importance of life skills At higher secondary level they are human resource development
and to contribute to the world stock programmes for Higher Secondary senior students and so enjoy more programmes will help such students.
of rapidly expanding knowledge and level Students. freedom at home as well in schools. Hope transition
technology. Process transition Some students convert this shift in Reports of students committing
Dr Malcom S Adisheshiah Teaching and learning methods differ being controlled to self-control for suicide abound in media. While low
emphasizes that Gandhian thought form 10th Sandard to Higher their academic growth. But, self-esteem and a sense of
of education is very important. Secondary. So far students were unfortunately some misuse and hopelessness are the primary
Five dimensions ‘taught’ and now they are led to squander their newfound freedom causes many avoidable reasons like
According to Swami Vivekananda ‘learn’. Hence, many find adjust and end up with problems. failure in exam/ love, unjust
education is nothing but building men ment to the new system an uphill Newspaper surveys say that many treatment by teachers and parents
and women of character through the task. If they are motivated through students are spoiled by frequent also trigger suicidal attempts.
following five dimensions: life skills and guided to cope up with viewing of TV Programmes, Inability to understand the subject,
àPhysical dimension consisting of the new pattern through academic addiction to watching sports, internet broken family, financial crisis in
our body and senses (Structure). skills the transition will be simple and browsing and video games family, poor background, lack of
à Energy dimension which smooth. influenced by ‘wrong’ company. facilities to study and discrimination
performs digestion of food, Place transition Here life skills like goal setting and also account for student drop-out
circulation of blood, respiration and Many of the students select new time management will help every and subsequent sense of
other activities in the body school after 10th Sandard. Rules student. hopelessness. These problems will
(Function). and regulations differ and students Livlihood transition not rear their ugly heads if proper
à Mental dimension of the from different schools are admitted Many students are forced to take up student advisory cells and
activities of thinking, feeling and causing adjustmental problem. If jobs after their higher secondary psychological mentoring are
emotions (Emotion). their earlier school was cosier they education due to financial constraint provided in the schools.
à Intellectual dimension undergo stress and confusion with and family situations. But their urge Need for life skills
characterized by the determinative present school situation. The new to study does not die down. The Students seldom plan their career at
faculty in a person of discrimination group ethos also may affect their number of students undergoing school level. Coming from differing
and willpower (Intellect). equanimity. Yoga and meditation distance education is increasing backgrounds the students may vary
àBlissful dimension experienced techniques are well-known stress every year. Mostly all the schools in their emotional and intellectual
as bliss during deep sleep or busters. Group and individual have at least one vocational group, capacity. They can be educated from
meditation (Spiritual). counselling can also reduce group which trains them in a particular job. the beginning in various personality
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traits to bring out their personal best for the students. Focus Overcoming Impediments to
so as to instil self-confidence and Conclusion Acquisition of Academic Skills
hope in life through life skills. It’s The committed teacher imparting life
VisvesvaranP K*
the responsibility of the teachers to skills for higher secondary students
Madhavi K**
mould students. Education may will help students in the following *Visvesvaran P K, Honorary Editorial Consultant, JSSW.
elevate them in career but teachers ways: ** Madhavi K, Lecturer, Department of Social Work, Stella Maris College,
alone escalate their inner potentials. àDevelop self-esteem. Chennai.
Committed teachers àBring out the hidden talents. Introduction withdrawal or regression (crying and
Teachers are surrogate parents, àRemove tensions, mental blocks In this write-up some important temper tantrums). This experience
important in the development of and fears in the learner. problems commonly faced by blocks learning. Frustration could
students. A total commitment during à Help them handle all life students in acquiring academic skills easily lead to panic. Seeing that his
their working hours to cover the situations. will be looked into and possible classmates are forging ahead and he
syllabus and being the role model for à Develop better interpersonal solutions will be explored. is lagging far behind, he becomes
the student’s community in the after- relationships among the students. Some common impediments panicky.
hours will make students find a àEmpower the student to select By academic skills we mean the ‘On a psychological level perception
leader, friend, guide and an right career. three R’s and by impediments we of threats brings a narrowing of the
intellectual partner in a teacher. This will directly enhance the Gross mean the factors that prevent the perceptual field and increased
Hence the teacher should constantly Development Product (GDP) of the pupil from doing his best. (In this rigidity of cognitive processes so that
update and be an information bank nation. article he and she will be used it becomes difficult or impossible for
interchangeably.) the individual to see the situation
Brendan Maclatthaigh (1992): Value Education, Better Yourself Books, Mumbai. Frustration and panic from a different perspective or to
Denis Coelho, (1995): Changing Perspectives in Education, Indian Social Institute, Frustration is a result of motivation perceive the range of alternatives
New Delhi. (drive) being blocked to prevent one actually available. …Our adaptive
Hindu, The (1999): The Hindu Speaks On Education, Kasthuri Publications, from reaching a desired goal efficiency may also be impaired by
Chennai. the intense emotions that commonly
Kothari D S (1966): Character Building Education, National Institute of
(Newstrom and Davis, 2002).
Science and Communication, New Delhi. For example, the child is trying to find accompany severe stress.
Lakshmi S (1993): Innovations in Education , Sterling Publishers Pvt Ltd., New the answer to an arithmetical sum. ‘Acute stage fright may disrupt the
Delhi. He tries again and again but gets performance of a public speaker;
Meenakukreja, M.D (2008): Life Skills, Better Yourself Books, Mumbai. the answer wrong or forgets the examination jitters may lead to a poor
Naik J P and Syed Nurullah (1992): A Students’ History of Education in India performance despite adequate
1880-1973, Mc Millan India Ltd, New Delhi.
steps. This results in frustration
Verkey C P (1999): Handle with Care, Better Yourself Books, Mumbai. which may lead to anger (towards preparation. In fact, high level of fear,
Vivekananda (2002): Personality Development, Advaita Ashram, Kolkata. the cleverer students), apathy, anger, or anxiety may lead not only

06 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 07
to impaired performance but to the others soon or late. It is a à Speaking to the child in full and sincerely, you will be adequately
disorganization of behaviour’ question of time. sentences. prepared for the next day’s group
(Coleman, 1982). Being overawed àGiving details of the problem discussion.
Sexual preoccupations The girl thinks “Oh statistics! It is too being worked out Respect for your self
Another impediment is sexual tough. I just can’t learn it”. In other àPaying attention to spelling and This comes from hard work and after
preoccupation such as the habit of words, she gives it up even without the sounds of the word syllables. a series of success experiences. You
masturbation. The habit can bring trying. The remedy is simple. She àNaming all the little things that the have to try, fall down, rise and keep
about a cognitive dissonance: must be told that when you learn a child sees such as the dots and going. Success will come your way
“People think I am a nice boy. I new subject the progress is slow in stripes found on the bodies of and so will enhanced self-respect.
worship God. Still I have this habit.” the initial stages – arithmetic ratio. various living things. Good grades are not enough
His mind is filled with guilt and his That is from 1 to 2, 2 to 3, 3 to 4 and Internet info Good grades are necessary but not
mental energy is expended in so on. When you knew just two A good deal of useful information sufficient. As Prof. K.N.George,
overcoming the emotional conflict things, only one combination was about academic and life skills is former Director of Madras School of
and not enough is left for studies. possible – AB. When you have learnt available on the internet under a Social Work once said, “Your diploma
The problem gets worse when 4 things, see how many number of captions. A few selected (educational attainment) is only a
others, especially parents, make combinations become possible: AB, ones are presented below with side-dish. The main course is your
disparaging references to the habit. AC, AD, BC, BD, CD, ABC, ABD, comments. own personality, self-confidence,
This is totally unwarranted. The ACD, BCD, and ABCD – eleven! Internal locus of control values and what kind of person you
medical people tell us hat That is exponential growth. In other This means you should have the are.” When Destiny knocks at the
masturbation at the school-going words, as you learn more and more, courage of your convictions and door, your degree or diploma, even
age is absolutely normal and your knowledge grows at great make your own judgements as to with a distinction, cannot open the
harmless like any other physiological speed that will leave you breathless what is good and desirable. At all door. You have to do it yourself.
activity and the individual concerned and wonderstruck. This is not an times, you should apply your own Encourage the child in
is not to be blamed overtly or empty promise but an undeniable values and principles while making all his endeavours
covertly. When the psychological reality. choices. You should not look to Gordon (1960) says that initial failure
pressure is taken off the child his Pines (1969 ) says that failure on others to tell you what you should is the price you pay for learning
interest in studies will take a the part of the parents to provide do and should not. anything new. The first few times you
significant leap forward. stimulation to the child in the Cooperation and team work try to make a speech or bake cake,
Parental attitudes following ways could delay the child’s You should never fail to make your the results may leave much to be
Parents should not panic if the child acquisition of reading, contribution to projects that you have desired. But if you keep at it, soon
is slow in learning a particular comprehending, writing and jointly undertaken along with others. or late, by luck or the blessed law of
subject. Most children catch up with speaking skills: If you have done your homework fully the averages, there will be success.
08 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 09
He further advises that while one reassure the child that success will Focus Enhancing Students’ Motivation
makes an attempt, one should focus come in due course even if his in Educational Settings
on one’s past success. We should progress is slow for the time being. Sujatha S R*
visualize something that really Failure, frustration, panic and sexual Santhana Karthikeyan V**
happened and therefore can happen preoccupations are all parts of the * Sujatha S R, Ph D Research Scholar, Department of Psychology, Mother Teresa
again. This exercise will enable us process of growing-up. The Women’s University, Kodaikanal – 624 102.
to achieve more success. important thing is not to give up at * * Santhana Karthikeyan V, Assistant Professor of Psychology, Department of
Conclusion any stage, but keep trying. Psychology, Presidency College, Chennai – 600 005.
The social worker, on his part, should Persistence is the name of the game. Introduction and locus of control among school
References: Most of the children don’t perform students studying in Matriculation
Coleman, James (1982): Abnormal Psychology and Modern Life, Bombay: too well. For many children, lack of and State Board Schools.
Taraporevala confidence, over protection, à To find out and compare the
Gordon, Arthur (1960): Where Success Comes From. The Reader’s Digest,
economic background and illiterate different levels of achievement
Newstrom,John W and Keith Davis(2002): Organizational Behaviour, New parents are the major impediments motivation of the boys and girls
Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill that interfere with their development studying in Matriculation and State
Pines, Maya (1969) : You Can Raise Your Child’s IQ, Reader’s Digest, February and create difficulty in their academic Board schools. activities. Early identification and à To study and compare the
intervention is necessary to promote internal locus of control of the boys
Gratitude and girls who are studying in the
self-confidence to enhance their
We thank the Honorary Special Editor, Dr Narayana Raja P N, Principal, Matriculation and State Board
motivation. Thus the present study
Madurai Institute of Social Sciences, Madurai for his timely editorial and all schools.
will throw light on various aspects of
the suggestions he had offered and for co-opting Mrs Akshaya Ramagumar, Significance of the study
academic achievement of the
Analytical Psychotherapist, Switzerland and Mr Jo Homan, Founder, Boys This study attempts to find out
children which will in turn directly
Town Society, Dindigul for this month. We are thankful to all the contributors àThe relationship of motivation to
strengthen the theoretical
who sent articles in time. We received a total of 15 articles of which two had achievement.
knowledge about the ‘academic
to be dropped as the contributors relied very heavily on foreign sources àThe reasons that influence the
motivation’ and ‘locus of control’
which were of least relevance to Indian context. Of the 13, only seven student’s task-related and unrelated
among the school-going children in
articles could be printed due to space constraint. In order to encourage achievement.
youngsters some of the fine articles by veterans could not be published. àThe influence of motivations in
We thank the seniors who graciously withdrew their articles. We are also the life of the student.
The main objectives of the study are
thankful to 25 professional for sending their bio-data (four have not attached à The interdependence of
to investigate the different levels of
colour passport size photographs) in response to our call in the group mail. motivation and achievement.
academic achievement, motivation
~ Ed.
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à The relevance of educational level of significance. the girls studying in different types students to have more internal locus
guidance and counselling in Hypotheses of schools. of control than the girls of the State
promoting the level of motivation àThe achievement motivation of àThe internal locus of control of the Board school due to lack of role
and achievement. the boys will be significantly higher boys of Matriculation school will be model, and increased work load at
Methodology than the girls. higher than the female students of home. These may be the probable
The main study was conducted on a à There will be significant the Matriculation schools. reason for the Matriculation girls to
sample of 73 students drawn from difference in the level of àThe boys of State Board schools have higher locus of control than the
two Matriculation Schools and two achievement motivation among the will have significantly higher level of State Board school girls. The study
Higher Secondary Schools (State boys and girls belonging to different internal locus of control than girls found the same trend among the
Board Schools) in Chennai. The schools. of the State Board schools. boys and girls of Matriculation school
Crandall’s Intellectual Academic àThe achievement motivation of àThe internal locus of control of the than the boys and girls of State
Achievement Responsibility the boys of Matriculation school will boys of Matriculation schools will be Board schools due probably to the
Questionnaire and Academic be significantly higher than the girls higher than the boys of State Board same reason. Also this is because
Achievement Motivation Inventory of Matriculation schools. schools. they hail from an upper middle and
were used. The test options are àThe achievement motivation of àThe internal locus of control of the middle socio economic status
divided into three parts. Task related, the boys of State Board schools will girls of Matriculation schools will be families. The study has found that
academic achievement related and be significantly higher than the girls higher than the girls of State Board there is no significant difference in
unrelated. The questions have six of State Board schools. schools. the level of academic achievement
options. For example in item No.2 if àThe achievement motivation of Results in the case of State Board school
the student opts for either 3 or 6 it is the boys of Matriculation schools The Matriculation school students boys and girls because now-a-days
academic achievement related. If the will be significantly higher than the hailed from upper-middle and middle girls are performing and achieving
student opts 2 or 5, then it is task boys of State Board schools. socio-economic status families, their equally well and compete with the
related. If he/ she opts for 1 or 4 then àThe achievement motivation of parents’ role model, target-fixing, boys in various situations. So their
it is unrelated. the girls of Matriculation schools will goal fixing tendency and the academic achievement motivation is
Statistical procedures be significantly higher than the girls calculation of the value of education same as that of the boys.
The statistical procedures like of State Board schools. from their childhood help the See Table 01 below:
number, percentage, mean, Students and locus of control Table - 01
standard deviation, paired ‘t’ test, àThe internal locus of control of the Achievement Motivation Score of Boys Vs Girls
analysis of variance (ANOVA) and male students will be significantly
Group N Mean S D S E ‘t’ Level of significance
correlation coefficient were adopted higher than the female students.
for analysis of data to find out the àThe internal locus of control of the Boys 38 11 2.28
Girls 35 10 1.29 0.19 5.26 0.01
student’s achievement based on the boys will be significantly higher than
12 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 13
The above ‘t’ value from Table - motivation than the girls. In our Table - 03
01given on page 13 is significant at society the boys are expected to do Comparison of Achievement Motivation of
0.01 level which shows that there is well and select a better career. State Board School Boys Vs Girls
a significant difference in the Parents, teachers and the peer group Group Level of significance
N Mean S D S E ‘t’
achievement motivation between the also expect more form the boys than Boys 20 9.95 2.01
boys and the girls studying in from girls which prompt the boys to Girls Not significant
21 10.27 2.05 0.205 1.35
different schools. From this result it have higher level of achievement
is possible to conclude that the boys motivation than the girls irrespective Table - 04
have higher level of achievement the schools in which they study. Comparison of Achievement Motivation of Boys of
Table - 02 Matriculation Vs State Board Schools
Comparison of Achievement Motivation of Group N Mean S D S E ‘t’ Level of significance
Matriculation School Boys Vs Girls Matric 18 11.35 1.20
Level of significance State 20 9.95 2.01 0.23 6.09 0.01
Group N Mean S D S E ‘t’
Boys 18 11.35 1.20
Girls 15 10.22 1.01 0.17 6.64 0.01 Table - 05
Discussion Comparison of Achievement Motivation of Girls of
1.35 is not significant at any level. It
The ‘t’ value from the table-02 given indicates the there’s no significant Matriculation Vs State Board Schools
above shows there’s significant difference in the level of achievement Group N Mean S D S E ‘t’ Level of significance
difference in the achievement motivation among the boys and girls Matric 15 10.22 1.01
motivation of the boys and girls in the of State Board schools. State 20 10.22 2.01 0.23 0 Not significant
Matriculation schools. This result The students studying in State Board
Discussion of girls studying in state board or
proves the sub hypothesis that there schools generally hail from low socio
The above table - 04 reveals that the matriculation schools. In Table - 05
will be more achievement motivation economic status family. The parents
‘t’ value of 6.09 is highly significant the ‘t’ value of 0 indicates that the
found in boys of matriculation schools hardly fix any goals to them and they
at 0.01 level. It indicates that the level of achievement motivation of
than that of girls studying in same don’t provide any role model too.
level of achievement motivation of both the groups of girls is equal. It
type of schools. Generally less percentage of Matriculation School boys is higher suggests that whether the girls
Table - 03 given on page 15 shows students compared to the
than the State Board School boys belong to low or middle socio
the Mean, S.D., S.E. and ‘t’ value of Matriculation School students climb
for the same reasons enumerated economic status share similar level
achievement motivation of the boys the achievement ladder. These are
earlier. Table - 05 given above of achievement behaviour. As
and girls of State Board Schools. probable reason for equal level of
proves that there is no significant discussed earlier the boys are given
Table-03 reveals that the ‘t’ value of achievement motivation.
difference in the achievement motive more opportunity than the girls in the
14 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 15
Indian context. The parents’ The ‘t’ value is significant at 0.01 Table - 07
expectations from the boys are level. This shows that there is a Comparison of Internal Locus of Control of
significantly higher than the girls. The significant difference in the internal Matriculation School Boys Vs Girls
parents mainly concentrate in the locus of control between boys and Group Level of significance
N Mean S D S E ‘t’
marriage of their daughters than their girls irrespective of schools in which Boys 18 28.56 1.27
education so these are the probable they study. This proves that the boys Girls 0.01
15 26.89 1.89 0.29 5.76
reasons for their low level of have high level of internal locus of
achievement motivation than the control than the girls. In the Indian Table - 08
boys. The results also disprove the context boys are expected to do Comparison of Internal Locus of Control of
hypothesis that the achievement more work, and also to take more State Board School Boys Vs Girls
motivation of the girls of Matriculation effort to accomplish their goals. Right Group N Mean S D S E ‘t’ Level of significance
schools will be significantly higher from the beginning of their childhood Boys 20 25.40 1.03
than the girls of State Board schools. they learn to do hard work. That is Girls 21 26.40 1.20 0.16 6.25 0.01
Table - 06 given below compares the reason boys are used to show
Table -08 given above shows that They would have learnt to take more
the internal locus of control of boys more internal locus of control than
the ‘t’ value of 6.25 is highly efforts to accomplish their goal.
and girls irrespective of schools. the girls.
significant at 0.01 level indicates that So these are the probable reason for
Table - 06 the state board school girls have the high level of internal locus of
Internal Locus of Control of Boys Vs Girls high level of locus of control than the control found among the girls in the
Group N Mean S D S E ‘t’ Level of significance boys of state board schools. This state board schools.
Boys 38 26.90 2.01 finding disproves the hypothesis Table -09 given on page 18, shows
Girls 35 24.28 1.79 0.19 13.79 0.01 that the state board boys will have the Mean, S.D., S.E. and ‘t’ value of
more internal locus of control than Internal locus of control of boys in
Table -07 given on page 17 shows finding proves that achievement
girls. The recent academic matriculation and state board
the Mean, S.D., S.E. and ‘t’ value of motivation of the boys of
achievement of the girl students schools. It shows that the ‘t’ value
Internal locus of control of boys and Matriculation school will be
show that the girl students want to of 18.59 is highly significant at 0.01
girls in Matriculation schools. The significantly higher than the girls of
compete with the boys in all areas. level. It indicates that the internal
table shows that the ‘t’ value of 5.76 Matriculation schools. As discussed
The girls who study in state board locus of control is significantly higher
which’s highly significant at 0.01 level earlier boys have to make more effort
schools hail from low socio in matriculation school boys than the
indicates that the matriculation rather than believing in luck and
economic family. Only education is state board school boys. Generally
school boys have higher level of chance factors. This is the probable
security for their future instead of the boys studying in Matriculation
internal locus of control than the reason for their higher level of
believing in chance and luck factors. school are hailed from middle and
matriculation school girls. This internal locus of control than the girls.
16 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 17
Table - 09 References:
Comparison of Internal Locus of Control of Aguirre-Perez D M et al (2007): Relationship of Working Memory and EEG to
Academic Performance: A Study among High School Students. Int J Neurosci.
Boys of Matriculation Vs State Board Schools Jun; 117(6):869-82.
Group N Mean S D S E ‘t’ Level of significance Aronen E T, et al (2005): Working Memory, Psychiatric Symptoms, and Academic
Matric performance at School. Neurobiology Learn Mem. Jan; 83(1):33-42.
18 28.56 1.29
Bhatnagar R P(1966): Academic Achievements as A Function of One’s Self–
State 20 25.40 1.03 0.17 18.59 0.01
Concept and Ego–Function, Education and Psychology Review, 6(4), 178 – 182.
upper middle socio economic status Table -10 given below compares the Crandall (1972): Crandall’s Intellectual Performance Responsibility Questionnaire
to measures the Locus of Control. Indian Journal of Applied Psychology. Pp. 42
family. The parents and others fix internal locus of control of girls in - 46
goal for them right from their matriculation and state board Gabriele A J(2007): The Influence of Achievement Goals on the Constructive
childhood. They have learned to schools. The ‘t’ value of 1.96 is highly Activity of Low Achievers during Collaborative Problem Solving. Br J Educ
take more effort to accomplish the significant at 0.01 level. It proves that Psychol. Mar; 77(Pt 1):121-41.
task so this is the reason behind for the matriculation school girls have a Ginsburg G.S, Bronstein P. (1993): Family Factors Related to Children’s Intrinsic/
Extrinsic Motivational Orientation and Academic Performance. Child Dev. Oct;
their higher level of internal locus of higher internal locus of control than 64(5):1461-74.
control. the state board school girls. Mehta P (1976): Achievement Motivation Inventory Educational and
Table - 10 Psychological Measurement, 02, 21 - 25.
Comparison of Internal Locus of Control of Stewart-Strobelt J, Chen H. (2003): Motivations and Attitudes Affecting High
School Students’ Choice of Foreign Language. Adolescence. Spring; 38(149):161-
Girls of Matriculation Vs State Board Schools 70.
Group N Mean S D S E ‘t’ Level of significance Tuckman B W(1991): The Development and Concurrent Validity of the
Performance Scale, Educational and Psychological Measurement, 51, 473-480.
Matric 15 26.89 1.89
State 20 26.40 1.29 0.25 1.96 0.01 Focus for August 2010
Conclusion and made to realize that they are Dr Bigi Thomas, I/C Director, MSW Department, Sardar Patel University,
Even though the study was restricted responsible for their success and V V Nagar, Gujarat has kindly consented to be the Honorary Special Editor
to four schools, its findings are of failure, they can perform better in for the month of August 2010.
both theoretical and practical their life. So the students can even The focus is ESSENTIALS OF EMOTIONAL CONTROL.
significance. The finding of the be given educational guidance and Contributors are requested to send their articles on or before 20th July 2010
present study has practical utility in counselling programme to improve so as to facilitate peer review. We have started expanding our peer review
training and encouraging the children their academic achievement. The panel with effect from June 2010.
who are less motivated and who students of State Board schools can We request HODs, senior professionals (in service or retired), independent
have external locus of control. If the be made to set goals in their life and researchers and Doctoral candidates to kindly send their bio-data together
students are motivated accordingly try to reach them. with a passport size colour photograph for inclusion in the panel. ~Ed.

18 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 19
Focus Tips to Develop Life Skills drills. Teach children how to use the us excel, so we know what we are
Uma Maheswari P* telephone during an emergency. great at and other people value in
* Uma Maheswari P, MSc (Phy), M Phil (Phy), MEd, MPhil (Education), Ph D, Keep emergency numbers handy. us.
Principal i/c, TVS Teacher Training Academy, Madurai Self- knowledge skills àTo know how the business world
Introduction allowance. Often the most valuable skills we works.
Today’s families are busier than ever. Digital dexterity learn are ones that help us learn àTo be an intelligent, productive,
Many parents today feel stressed Teach children how to perform simple about ourselves. hard working and ethical employee
about carving out adequate quality repairs, such as changing a light bulb àTo know who we are, what we or employer.
time for their children. Turning chore or installing a faucet washer. Show want to become and how we can àTo not only be self sustainable,
time into family time can take some them the location of the fuse box and excel in life but also to earn a good living —
of the pressure off parents who feel the main shutdown valves for water àUnderstand our fate, destiny and enough to be able to provide
guilty about working outside the and gas. Teach kids how to prepare potentials. adequate food, shelter, clothing,
home. By performing tasks together, simple – yet nutritious – meals. àTo know what our life calling and education and medical care for us
children learn important lessons Scrambling, slicing, frying and baking purpose are and the things that and our loved ones.
about responsibility. Teaching the require certain know-how. create meaning and bring joy into Problem solving skills
‘game of life’ requires parents to Travel ready our life. One of the most common human
invest time and patience, but the Teach them how to read a map, a àFind our place in the world. tasks is problem solving, and these
dividends can be priceless. Even the catalogue or a phone directory. Let àMake excellent life choices that skills should enable:
busiest parent can take advantage of your child navigate the next road trip. are in our best interests. à To think deeply and critically
household chores and turn them into Show children how to sort, wash, dry, àShape a strong character where about problems. Specifically, to
learning opportunities for children of iron and fold clothes. Teach basic virtues can be cultivated and recognize the symptoms, trace
all ages. Parents should teach life housekeeping skills. Teach children nourished, and tested in the real life them to the root of the problem,
skills that match the age of their basic sewing skills. Knowing how to world. identify and evaluate possible
children and their family’s priorities. sew buttons and hems will come in àTo learn how to stay focused on solutions, select the appropriate
Money matters handy throughout their lives. what is important and wisely deal solution and implement it.
Teach children how to plan and follow Especially when they live in hostels. with diversions and distractions. àTo know how the world works as
a budget. Explain the importance of Let children practice with their own àTo understand each life stage and defined by mathematical formulas
record-keeping and saving receipts. travel bag so they can pack the challenges, opportunities, and and other representations of cause
Demonstrate how to write a cheque, themselves when it’s time for the next obstacles each brings to us. and effect in the physical world.
pay a bill and read a monthly bank or vacation. Work skills àTo be able to identify challenges
credit statement. Let children develop Disaster preparedness àTo know what skills we are good and obstacles, understand their
a budget with their monthly Perform fire, flood and earthquake at and what gifts and talents help impact and significance, and know
20 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 21
how to overcome them or go around based on our current situation and Focus Academic Institutions and
them. future possibilities.
àTo effectively solve problems and àAbility to be practical to use the Life Skills Development
learn from our mistakes abstract theory learned in books. Sunita Nambiyar*
à To make good decisions and àFacing tough time with humour. Parmar M N**
*Dr Sunita Nambiyar, Reader Faculty of Social Work, The Maharaja Sayajirao
keep our commitments (two àManaging life on our own.
University of Baroda, Vadodara.
sources of self-made problems) àTaking calculated risks and the **Prof Parmar M N, Professor Faculty of Social Work, The Maharaja Sayajirao
àTo know how to begin, arrive At ability to quit at the right time. University of Baroda, Vadodara.
the middle and end à Being prepared to face any Introduction the youth which will help the youth
àTo arrive at compromises, blend situation. Young generation is the to translate knowledge, attitudes and
opposites, find a Higher middle àSharing happiness and sadness. demographic dividend of a nation. values into actual abilities and action
ground àTaking life in our stride. Empowering the youth would enable behaviour. Many of the life skills can
Living skills àAbility to be happy and make a nation to be healthy, productive be developed through curricular and
Many people think basic living skills others happy. and contribute to not only economic extra-curricular activities.
are ability to do the laundry and clean Conclusion development but also human Critical thinking
the vessels. But life has so many It’s never too early to start teaching resource development. In India, Youngsters are open to new ideas
more challenges to offer. our child these problem-solving and where majority of the population is and exhibit higher degree of creative
à Ability to observe the world, management skills. It’s also important under the age of 35, transforming thinking since they do not have any
reason, and draw accurate and to give our child ample opportunities this group into a dividend requires preconceived notions or experience.
rational conclusions. to practise them. These life skills must just more than literacy. This is where Thus, they can be encouraged to
àTaking right kind of decisions be rooted in knowledge, attitudes, life skills can make a difference to think on ‘out of box’ solutions to
about food, physical exercise, and behaviour. Learning them at an the individual himself and enable him problems confronted in day to day
sleep. early age fosters independence and to contribute to overall nation life. For instance, during the world
àKnowledge of natural and logical helps build confidence. With these building. environment day, many industrial
consequences. benefits in mind, parents can turn the Definition of life skills organisations as part of their
àAbility to make right choices necessary evil of chore time to teach. World Health Organization defines Corporate Social Responsibility
References: life skills as ‘abilities for adaptive and asked the youth to pen down a few
/ positive behaviour, which enable us lines on how they could contribute to deal effectively with the demands to the cause of environment which and challenges of every day life.’ An yielded great ideas. Thus, it is also › Education › K-12 › K-12 For Educators –
academic institution has a pivotal very important to create platforms role in channelizing the energies of and give opportunities to the young
22 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 23
to think on issues of environmental committees, help foster these ties. Communication take up training programmes under
concern. It is with this ‘thinking’, on Time management Understanding that communication the guidance of the teachers. This
issues that will convert into actual There are hobbies to be pursued, is not only what one says but how it interaction among the peer members
behaviour. courses to be completed, deadlines is said and to reach out to the other is to develop and promote life skills
Coping with emotions to be met and thus there is always a individual is important. This is a skill in themselves and others. These
Closely related with managing self, paucity of time. The very fact that which requires constant practice activities foster mutual and reciprocal
is managing emotions since it affects every academic institution has a since assumption of being relationship among the youngsters.
one’s behaviour and how one relates time- table to be followed shows that understood without seeking Conclusions
with others. Moreover, developing one has to learn to plan an activity feedback is a folly that one very often Youth have the energy but this needs
one’s emotional intelligence is a in a particular time period. Students makes. Moreover, improving one’s to be channelized. The academic
necessary quality for teamwork and should be encouraged to plan out on ability to express verbally and non- institutions have the knowledge and
for successful leadership. An their own schedule of the day. This verbally in an assertive and yet not skills required to channelize the
individual who is in better control of freedom will give help them aggressive manner is essential. volunteer spirit among the students.
himself/ herself is also able to understand the value of time and Activities such as the Red Ribbon Students are also willing to
develop empathy and thus the need to manage time. Club, an activity initiated by State participate when activities are
understand and accept others’ point Decision making AIDS Control Society with the initiated by the academic institutions.
of view in a better way. The National Assessing an issue by considering objective to create awareness Studies have shown that when the
Service Scheme offers opportunities all possible alternatives and its among the youth regarding HIV/ young spend time in well planned
for the youth through various resultant consequences is AIDS in schools and colleges also and structured activities during their
activities like literacy campaign, prerogative to mastering this skill of develop skills such as stay in academic institutions, there
health check up camps, awareness decision making. When responsibility communication and interpersonal are positive changes in self-esteem,
campaigning, to feel, empathise and of the task is taken after considering relationships These Clubs are intrinsic motivation, internal locus of
give their mite for the community. the various options, this not only envisaged to instill among all the control, greater involvement in civic
Interpersonal relationship enables one to boost one’s abilities students in the educational activities and greater adult career
Building and maintaining relationship but also raises one’s self-esteem and institutions values of service and achievement.
is a skill that needs to be cultivated. confidence. Outdoor activities such develop healthy life styles. The peer Thus, it is a win-win situation for the
Ability to maintain relationships and as camps and trekking give leaders are trained and thereafter academic institution and the student.
reciprocate positively among friends opportunity to the young to learn References:
and family members is the key to from experiences and make small Bhagbanprakash (2003): Adolescence and Life Skills, Tata McGraw-Hill
Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi.
building ties in the networked world. decisions concerning them which in
Wolfe David (2000): The Youth Relationship Manual, Sage Publications,
Activities undertaken in the form of turn will enable them to take larger New Delhi.
group assignments, working in and better decisions in the future. Gujarat State Aids Control Society Publication on Red Ribbon Clubs.
24 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 25
Focus Effective Teaching Methods for thinking, critical thinking, effective skills in this method gives knowledge
Life Skills Education communication, interpersonal but is not effective to impart practical
relations, self-awareness, empathy, skills.
Lakshmana G *
coping with emotions and coping Lecture cum discussion method
Dhanasekarapandian R**
with stress. Initially, teacher or trainer presents
Ashalatha R***
*Lakshmana G, Ph.D Scholar and Psychiatric Social Worker, Department of
Teaching methods factual material. After the
Psychiatric Social Work, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro-Sciences, To achieve the objectives of life skills presentation, students or participants
Bangalore-29. education, teaching and learning can clarify their doubts, questions
**Dr Dhanasekarapandian R, Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatric methods must be relevant and and challenges. The students or
Social Work, NIMHANS, Bangalore-29. effective. Effective life skills trainees can actively participate
*** Ashalatha R, M.Tech, Lecturer, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering,
education replicates the natural during the session.
Introduction the knowledge, it cannot be passed processes by which children and Class discussion method
“By education I mean an all-round on from one person to another like trainees learn behaviour. In the This method provides opportunities
drawing of the best in child and man money. Knowledge will not be process of teaching, the teacher and for students to learn from one
– body, mind and spirit.” received unless the students are trainer have often to resort to certain another and also to practise in
~ Mahatma Gandhi. prepared to receive it. The teachers’ devices, besides observing certain solving problems. In this method, the
Teaching is not merely imparting teaching method will also play a vital principles and maxims of instruction. students can deepen their
knowledge to students, nor is it role in imparting the knowledge. These devices are ‘certain external understanding of the topic and
merely giving advice. Through Definition of life skills forms or modes which the instruction personalize their connection to it. It
teaching we provide information to The World Health Organization may from time to time assume.’ The also helps to develop skills in
students but it is not identical with defines life skills as ‘abilities for following methods have been found listening, assertiveness and
giving information. Some people adaptive and positive behaviour that to be effective teaching methods for empathy.
think that teaching is passing to the enable individuals to deal effectively life skills. Brainstorming method
class one’s own experience. This with the demands and challenges of Lecture method In this method teacher allows
does not give a complete picture of everyday life.’ A list of ten skills, In this method, the teacher or the students to generate ideas quickly
the process. The best approach to described as generic life skills for trainer presents the factual material and spontaneously. This method
understanding the nature of teaching psychosocial competence, was directly in a logical manner. This helps students use their imagination
would be through understanding the identified by WHO as core life skills experience inspires and stimulates and break the fixed patterns of
implications of ‘education’. The applicable across a wide range of thinking process for open discussion. response. Good discussion in the
educator, the student and the subject contexts in daily life and risk Here audience are passive and non- class about the specific topic can
constitute the three focal points in situations. These are decision participative. This method is also creatively generate ideas. It is
education. Though teachers have making, problem solving, creative useful for large groups. Teaching life essential to evaluate the pros and
26 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 27
cons of each idea or rank ideas and skills which allow the students can debate, for instance whether teachers can make use of audio-
according to certain criteria. to test out assumptions and abilities smoking should be banned in public visual method easily. This method
Role play method in a relatively safe environment. places in a community or not. This keeps group’s attention, appears
This method provides an excellent Situation analysis/ case studies method allows students to defend a professional and also generates
strategy for practising skills and Here specific situations and case position that may mean a lot to them. healthy discussions.
experiencing how one might handle studies are selected and the It also offers a chance to practise Conclusions
a potential situation in real life. It also students are asked to enact higher thinking skills. The life skills approach helps the
increases empathy for others and according to the situation. Situation Story-telling method children, adolescents and adults to
their point of view to increase insight analysis allows the students to Story-telling helps the students to learn how to deal with various
into one’s own feelings. explore problems, dilemmas and think about local problems and difficulties of daily life and risk
Small group method safely test solutions. It provides develop critical thinking skills. Using situations. Life skills are necessary
In this method, a group is divided into opportunities to work together, share this method, students can adopt the skills to lead happy life. Teaching
smaller groups and certain topic will ideas and to learn about people who life skills by engaging in creative these skills are very challenging and
be given to them. This is useful when sometimes see things differently. story writing or a group can work teachers or the trainers should have
groups are large and time is limited. Case studies are powerful catalysts interactively through story-telling. more knowledge and skills. The
It also maximizes students’ input. for thought and discussion. Students Story-telling lends itself for drawing selection of methods also plays an
The students get to know one consider the forces that converge to analogies or making comparisons important role in teaching and
another better and increase the make an individual or group act in and helping the people to discover training the life skills. Participatory
likelihood of understanding how one way or another and then healthy solutions. approach would be more effective for
other person thinks. This will help the evaluate the consequences. By A-V method teaching the life skills as it helps
students to hear and learn from their engaging in this thinking process, This method is very effective and participants to hone their skills on the
peers with empathy. students can improve their own entertaining way of teaching content spot. The above said methods are
Games and simulation method decision making skills. Case studies and raising issues. Due to the field-tested and so are effective for
Certain games are selected can be tied to specific activities to development of the technology, teaching the life skills.
according to the situation and group help the students practise healthy References:
WHO (1997): Life Skills Education for Children and Adolescents in Schools,
members are asked to enact the responses before they find
World Health Organization, Geneva.
game. Games and simulation themselves confronted with a healthy Bhatia and Bhatia (2007 reprinted): The Principles and Methods of Teaching,
process promote fun, active learning risk. Doaba House, New Delhi.
and rich discussion in the classrooms Debate method WHO (2001): Regional Framework for Introducing Life skills Education to
as participants work hard to earn Debate provides opportunity to Promote the Health of Adolescents-Inter-country Meeting to Promote the
Incorporation of Life skills for Health of Adolescents into School Education,
their points. They require the address a particular issue in depth
Bangkok, Thailand, 5 -9 June 2000, World Health Organization, Regional Office
combined use of knowledge, attitude and learn them well. The students for South-East Asia, New Delhi.
28 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 29
Focus Life Skills Integrated Education: Life skill dynamics envisages The integration level
An Effective Means for Enhanced Performance academic aspirants with excellence At the integration level the life skill
Anoop Antony* through carrying him forward through education trains the aspirant for the
*Annop Antony, MSc(Psy), MSW, MPhil, (PhD), Lecturer, Dept. of Social Work, four different levels of adaptation. development of those competencies
Don Bosco Arts and Science College, Angadikkadavu, Iritty, Kerala-670706. The intuitive level within self that are essential to
Introduction excelling in life tasks’. He adds that At the intuitive level the life skill analyse the capacity to enhance the
Youth today face multiplicity of providing opportunities to get education instils the innate potencies effective manifestation of self
challenges that require excellence exposed to such a system of ‘life skill of the aspirant to learn abstract (Kumar, 2002), through integrating
in academic performance for dynamics’ will enrich their total ideas and help him/ her to reach a the life skill dynamics in to the care
creating a sustained win-win personality through the process of cognitive conclusion on ‘what to do of one’s own personality. The
situation associated with life tasks. internalization’. rationally’. It increases psycho social outcome would be the integration
In this context Timpson (1997) The life skill dynamics as Fielder competence of aspirant who will be and induction of a quality in to the
observes, ‘life skills’ enable (1993) puts it, helps the individuals trained through life skill dynamics to core personality of the aspirant that
individuals to deal effectively with the to find out and utilize the sources use cognitive faculties, social, makes him/ her capable of excelling
demands and challenges of inherent in self as well as the cultural and environmental factors for in all the endeavours necessary for
everyday life, integrated to environment around them that has the analysis of mental images which a healthy successful life.
educational system. Bandura the ability to to stimulate the help the socialization process and The internalising level
(1996) says ‘life skills if integrated in individuals’ innate abilities to indulge success in life. At this level the academic aspirant
education foster the abilities vested in various types of socially approved The interpretation level will be trained through life skill to
in individual to manifest through behaviour and activities that lead to At the interpretation level, the life skill learn the skills and internalise it in to
bringing it in to the conscious excellence and success in life. Major education facilitates the academic the self and make it as a routine and
awareness of the individual and portion of the young one’s aspirant towards the formation of habit. This internalisation process
facilitate the platform for its environment is the academic knowledge, values, skills, behaviour empowers the aspirant to face
nurturance and nourishments and environment. reinforcements and translate the challenging situations (Nandi, 1990).
the outcome would be performance- The life skill dynamics potential knowledge attitudes and Thus once internalized the life skill
excellence’. As Gobber (1992) puts Life skills are acquired abilities which values in to actual abilities (Timpson, dynamics in to personality which help
it, life skills integrated with academics an individual process that help him/ 1997). It orients the aspirant the academic aspirant with
has potency for generation of ‘a her to do something in its way regarding initiation paved at the characteristics of individual qualities
socially responsible system of (Kumar, 2002). It comprises of intuitive level of “What to do” to “How that facilitate, guide and support the
education’ through helping the young abilities that will help them to foster to do”. This will train the academic development of new capabilities and
ones to recognize the innate the dynamics necessary for them to aspirant to be practical towards life effective behaviour modifications
potentials vested in them for live a fruitful life (Stern,1988). and success in life follows. afterward and ultimately, success in
30 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 Journal of SCHOOL SOCIAL W O R K July 2010 31
Journal of School Social Work English Monthly. ISSN: 0976-3759
Registered with Registrar of Newspapers for India underNo.TNENG/2004/14389.
Postal Registration TN/CC(S) Dn/ 47 / 09-11.
Licensed to post under WPP No. TN/CC(S) Dn/ 34/09-11.
life. a most productive way. Academics
Conclusion makes the aspirant socially
Life skills are the abilities for competent through reflective
adaptive and positive behaviour utilization of potentials in a socially
that enable individual to deal accepted way (Stern, 1993).
effectively with demands and Academics integrated with life
challenges of everyday life. They skills will enhance the trinity of
help one to understand oneself and knowledge, attitude and value that
gain the skills necessary to are necessary to stay successful
enhance the social functioning in in life.
World Health Organisation. (1996): Life Skill Education: Planning For Research
, Geneva, WHO.
Bandura A(1996): Social Learning, 12th Edn, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs,
Grobber J S (1992): Social Competence Promotion, Gillford Press, Kent , London.
Fielder J F (1993): Effectiveness of Skills Training, Sage Publication, Newburg
Park, CA.
Sterm L (1988): Children’s Creative Response to Conflict Programme . New
Society Publications, Santa Cruz, U.S.A.
Timpson W (1997): Rethinking Student Evaluations and Improvement of Teaching
, Wiley and Sons Inc, New York.
Kumar M(2002): Life Skill Education Excel Books, New Delhi.
Nandi J K (1990): Knowledge Management,Thomson Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Published and owned by P. Jayachandran Naidu. Published from

8, Sridevi Colony, 7th Avenue, Ashok Nagar, Chennai 600083 and
printed by T. Rajaguru at TRK Press, 39, Saidapet Road, Vadapalani,
Chennai 600026. Editor: P. Jayachandran Naidu.
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