QURANICOSMOS

An Interdisciplinary Journal of Quranic Thought
Volume 1, Issue 1, August 2017

An IHR Publication
Compassion through Rationality
QURANICS Volume 1, Issue 1

©2017 by IHR

This edition may be published, posted or distributed by anyone, so long as it is not altered in any way, shape
or form.

Published by IHR (Institute of Higher Reasoning).
Online Version

Correspondence, Enquiries and Submission of original and unpublished papers for consideration, may be
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QURANICS Volume 1, Issue 1

EDITORIAL

This is the first issue of Quranicosmos, the flagship journal of the IHR, where we present a diverse array
of deeply researched articles, ranging from the true identity of Buddha, to animal experimentation, all works
being vital for establishing justice, peace and inter-human cooperation and unity. Other areas covered are
animal rights and ecological equilibrium. All authors appear to have a sophisticated, yet, at the same time,
childlike wonder and awe for the universe and its constituents.

We hope that the readers will find these bold and original articles engaging and relevant, helping to open
up further conducive dialogues and avenues of exploration, towards fostering unity through intelligence,
and compassion through rationality.

All the views expressed in these articles do not necessarily represent the publisher’s views. We also
encourage the readers to send us Letters to the Editor, that may be published in response to the works
presented herein.

It is the intention to publish this journal online at least twice a year, with free access to all!

Nadeem Haque
Chief Editor
August 2017

Associate Editors: Zeshan Shahbaz and Tauheed Ali Bhatti
QURANICOSMOS Volume 1, Issue 1

Table of Contents

Buddha: A Prophet in Islam 3
Nadeem Haque

From X to Islam: Human Rights, the Unity of Humanity 21
and the Final Malcolm X
Nadeem Haque

Conclusive Proof for God’s Existence 28
in Three Minutes Flat!
Nadeem Haque

The Specifics of God: Tackling 31
the ‘taboo question’ God’s
placeness
Nadeem Haque

A New Paradigm for Human Evolution 37
Mohammed Muslim

Why Islam? 46
Dr. Jaafar Sheikh Idris
Nadeem Haque (Editor)

Animals in Islam and the Halal Meat 50
Controversy in Europe
Nadeem Haque

A Critical Analysis of Al-Hafiz B.A. 54
Masri’s Perspective on Islam and Animal Experimentation
Nadeem Haque

Rethinking Bio-Ethics 66
Dr. Michael W. Fox

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Contributors 76
Dissertation

Buddha: A Prophet in Islam

Nadeem Haque
nhaque@mail.com

Abstract: In this article, several proofs are provided to show that in the Quran, Gautama Buddha has been
mentioned as one of the prophets. In addition, the author has discovered a remarkable pattern in the dates
of birth of four Prophets (including Buddha) determined from both historical records and the Quran. The
numerical coding system from the Quran involves four Prophets (Moses, Jesus, Muhammad and Buddha),
and from this coding system - that has to involve these four individuals - the Doomsday date can be
calculated precisely, to the hour itself. The implications of this remarkable confirmation of earlier
suppositions and new discoveries are quite staggering. These breakthroughs are discussed at length, in
terms of what they mean for the whole of humankind, and in the process re-affirm Buddha as a major
Prophet in Islam.

Part 1: Buddha in the Quran

Introduction

The subject of whether Buddha was a prophet has been dealt with by several scholars in the past. I have
also written part of a chapter of my co-authored book (with M. Muslim)1 on this showing that he was a pure
monotheist, that is, that he believed in the existence of a singular creator. This part of the chapter was sent
to the largest Buddhist online discussion group. However, instead of engaging in a rational peaceful debate
as one would have expected, the exposition was not allowed to be put online. I was vilified in an email and
accused of being a troll. Interestingly, no counter-argument or a refutation of the argument (which included
numerous Buddhist scriptural sources) was provided: very un-Buddhist-like behaviour indeed! But that is
the nature of ad hominem attacks. The part of the chapter from my book on Buddha has been included as
“Part 3” in this article.

The purpose of this article is to show that Buddha was indeed a prophet who has been mentioned on the
Quran. A discussion of the amazing ‘mathematical connection’ will then be discussed in some detail to
reinforce the identification of Buddha. This leads to a very important precise calculation (to say the least!)
concerning the timing of Doomsday in the Quran. My argument is that Surah al-Tin in the Quran (Chapter
95, aka Surah 95) is concerning Gautama Buddha. He had a number of names/titles, but we will refer to
him as simply ‘Buddha’ in this article.

The significance of God swearing an oath

Let us first lay out the chapter Al-Tin (The Fig) itself:

1
Haque, Nadeem and Muslim, Muhammad. (2007). From Microbits to Everything: Universe of the Imaginator,
Volume 2: The Philosophical Implications, pp. 97-100.

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By the fig, by the olive, by Mount (or Place of) Sinai, by this safe city, We [God] created
man in the finest state then reduced him to the lowest of the low, but those who believe
through confirmation and do good deeds will have an un-failing reward. After this, what
makes you deny the Judgement? Is God not the fairest of judges?

The pertinent question which arises is the following: God swearing by any of His signs is obviously very
significant. But why is God taking oaths by edibles, for example? Is it that these foods themselves that are
of such momentous importance? Indeed, does it make sense that God would swear by fruits themselves as
the be all and end all of the meaning? To make the point clearer, would it make sense if God would swear
by the cucumber or the banana?! What is so great about the cucumber that God should swear an oath by it,
if He had done so? What lesson does it give to the Muslims and indeed non-Muslims? I believe that the
message is of enormous significance, as the reader too will see, but not as one would have expected.

Buddha, Jesus, Moses and Muhammad

In this short article, I am going to be discussing the actual meaning of this Surah. My contention is that this
Chapter is speaking of four prophets: Buddha, Jesus, Moses and Muhammad. Here is why:

1. The Fig represents Buddha as he sat under the Bo tree which bears figs; it is here when he got his
‘enlightenment’: All accounts agree that it was when Buddha meditated (or remembered God) under
this tree that did he attain enlightenment and that it is right after this that he began to make this message
public:
Gautama gave up his extreme life and began to eat normally again. His five followers now
left him, disgusted that he had, in their opinion, been defeated. All alone now, he decided
to tackle the quest once again, and he sat himself under a Bodhi tree at a place called Bodh
Gaya and determined not to move until he had found the answers he sought. His meditation
was deep, and, on the night of the full moon in May, complete Enlightenment came to him.
His mind became calm and clear and he understood the cycle of birth, death and the wheel
of life. He understood his true nature and that of all living beings. This was the end of his
spiritual journey, and at that moment he became “the Buddha”.

The Buddha continued to sit under the Bodhi tree for some time, enjoying the supreme
experience and contemplating the future. At first, he doubted whether others could grasp
what he now knew, but then he decided that there were those who could be shown the way,
and he would dedicate the rest of his life to teaching what he had discovered. He chose the
path of greatest compassion for all his fellow men and women. 2

2. The Olive represents Jesus when he started to give his first public sermons from the Mount of Olives.

So, in general, Jesus did a lot of communicating on the Mount of Olives. From there he
taught the people, from there he spoke to God. He also agonized a lot...weeping over the
city that was clueless of his mission and later wrestling in prayer to accept the death that
was to come. It was on the Mount of Olives that Jesus gave his most famous teaching on

2
The History, Philosophy and Practice of Buddhism, https://www.buddha101.com/h_life.htm

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prayer, giving us the prayer that we say even now, two thousand years later...the Lord's
Prayer.3

3. The Mount Sinai represents Moses – he got his commandments from Mount Sinai and immediately
after he descended therefrom, he began his sermons. According to the Bible:

Moses arrived at Mount Sinai three months after leaving Egypt. This day is known as the
Feast of Weeks, or the Feast of Harvest, or by its Hebrew name, Shavuot. This feast is in
late May or early June which is late spring in Israel. In the New Testament this day is
called Pentecost, which means the fiftieth day after Passover.4

According to the Quran:

And when We took your covenant and We raised over you ‘Tur’ (Saying): "Hold firmly to
what We have given you and bring (ever) to remembrance what is in it: Perhaps you may
fear God / guard against evil. (2:63)

O Children of Israel! Verily, We delivered you from your enemy, and We made a Covenant
with you on the right side of ‘Tur’ and We sent down to you Manna and quails. (20:80)

And you were not present on the western side when We gave Moses the Law, nor did you
witness that event. (28:44)

4. Lastly, the secure City is Mecca where the Prophet received revelation from the cave of Hira and he
immediately began public engagement.

The encounter with the angel Gabriel (Jibril) is thus recorded: ‘Recite in the Name of Your
Lord/Sustainer Who created. He created the human being from a thing which clings. Recite
and your Lord/Sustainer is Most Honorable, Who taught (to write) with the pen, taught the
human being what he knew not.”

Muhammad was subsequently asked to arise and warn people about the truth. We therefore can see here
that the pattern is the same for all these prophets:

1. The person (who is or becomes officially a prophet) realizes the Creator and what this Creator demands
of human beings. (Prophet)

2. A key location is given where the realization of Prophethood or a key message occurred. (Place)

3
“The Mount of Olives Text”, Matthew 6:5-15. http://www.annerobertson.com/BSME/Olives.htm
4
“Moses at Mount Sinai”, Exodus 19:1-25 http://bibleview.org/en/Bible/Moses/MosesSinai/

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3. These Prophets then immediately start engaging with the public to spread the message in a more
significant way. (Public Engagement)

The theme is: Prophet, Place, Public Engagement. Do keep this in mind as we continue our investigation…

The significance of swearing by these edibles (fig and the olive) is that God is taking an oath on the
momentous significance of these four messengers. Whether, today, people ‘believe’ or not in them, the
plain fact is that billions are linked to these major luminaries. Therefore, the significance of this small
chapter lies in God telling us that they all espoused the very same message. This was the common message
to all peoples and that the whole of humankind should be following them for justice, peace, sanity and a
good place in the hereafter. Failing this, we are doomed as individuals and so-called civilizations. As far as
the grouping of the Prophets goes, I can only speculate why they are listed in that order, but do know that
the listing in the Quran is not haphazard: Buddha and Jesus did not come with new laws — remember that
Jesus said in the Bible, in Matthew 5:17: “Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law of the Prophets;
I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them.” Likewise, Buddha did not come with laws either, but
only with an ethical system that debunked the caste system, superstition and, most importantly, a multitude
of gods so endemic in India, even at that time. Also both Buddha and Jesus emphasized love and compassion
more in terms of the percentage of their deliberations because they were countering extreme and irrational
ritualism (that led to cruelty) etc. - so that is why these two are grouped together. However, Moses and
Muhammad did indeed come with laws and I think they are grouped together for that reason and also
because Muhammad's laws abrogates Moses’ laws for the Jews and Christians, once they accept Islam, and
thousands did so and are doing so currently, every year, despite all the nonsense portrayed in the media
about Islam. Therefore, these two Prophets are grouped together in the sequence. Muhammad is put last in
the list, as he is the final prophet with the final principles in the Quran, from which to derive laws for all
times.

Many Islamic scholars, erroneously, think that the Fig refers to Mount Judi where Prophet Noah’s Ark
landed. However, there is no evidence of the linkage of Fig trees thousands of years ago on Mount Judi and
it breaks the theme discussed above. In fact, Noah’s ark on Mount Judi has nothing to do with the theme
that becomes apparent or obvious on deeper analysis. The great scholar Muhammad Hamidullah drew
attention to Buddha in the Quran, for the public at large, concerning the Fig mentioned in Chapter 95 as
being none other than Gautama Buddha.5

Part 2: The Remarkable Doomsday Timing Connection

That Buddha is being referred to is further strengthened by a remarkable mathematical connection that
could only happen in a book like the Quran. The mathematical connection is the following: It was pointed
out by Islamic researcher and author, Edip Yuksel, in a personal communication to me, Edip Yuksel having
been instrumental in establishing and finally almost completing the basic proof for the mathematical 19
number code in the Quran of which the Quran speaks of itself (“On it nineteen”), that the curious fact is
that each of these Prophets had some kind of connection based on 570 years with Muhammad, Jesus and
Moses. I further investigated this, based on his astute inference: It is known that Prophet Muhammad was
born in 570 AD and that Jesus was born between Buddha and Mohammad – some say 1 BC. But the fact is
that our modern calendar, based on solar years, has been set from the birth of Jesus. Buddha is, by some

5
Hamidullah, Muhammad. (1974). Muhammad Rasulullah, pp. 27, 107.

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accounts, said to be born in 570 BC and a new revision of Moses is putting him close to 570 before this, in
other words, 1140 AD. This appeared more than a coincidence; but there is more – a lot more! However,
first concerning Moses, consider the following:

Some historians have been attracted by the name of the store-city Raamses built by the
Israelites before the Exodus. They have drawn connections to the best known Pharaoh of
that name, Ramses II, or Ramses the Great, and set the Exodus around his time, roughly
1134 BCE (g.a.d. 1300 BCE [2]). In order to do this, they had to reduce the time between
the Exodus and the destruction of the Temple by 180 years, which they did by reinterpreting
the 480 years between the Exodus and the building of the Temple (I Kings 6:1) as twelve
generations of forty years. By "correcting" the Bible and setting a generation equal to
twenty five years, these imaginary twelve generations become 300 years. [Emphasis is
mine].

Aside from the fact that such "adjustments" of the biblical text imply that the Bible cannot
be trusted, in which case there is no reason to accept that there ever was an Exodus, Ramses
II was a conqueror second only to Thutmose III. And as in the case of Thutmose III, the
Egyptian records make it clear that nothing even remotely resembling the Exodus happened
anywhere near his time of history.6

The Biblical dating methods being sketchy at best, I would hasten to suggest, and advise both Muslim and
non-Muslim ‘religious’ scholars, archeologists, historians and laypersons, that the Quran is actually fixing
the dates of each of these at 570 apart and that our archeological evidence will eventually converge to this,
like so many other discoveries that ended up being corresponding to the Quran in the modern age.
However, what is the significance of all this? Well, it is interesting to note the following: Surah al-Tin is
chapter 95 and 95 x 6 is 570. Why multiply by 6? Good question! If we take Moses’ date of birth at 1140
BC, and multiply 6 by 570, which equals 3420, when you add this to 1140 BC, you get 2280 AD. Now this
is a very significant date. According to research done on this date, discussed at length below, 2280 AD is
the date of the end of the world as decoded from the Quran itself, through another primary method. The
proof of this is as follows. In the Quran God says:

The Hour is surely coming; I [God] keep it almost hidden, for each consciousness must be
paid for its work. (20:15)

The Arabic word used for almost is akadu. What is almost hidden? It is the secret which, if one knows the
code to, can provide us with knowledge — that is why it is almost hidden. Note, that as a conjugate meaning:
what is almost hidden is also almost exposed! The clue to determining 2280 was determined by the
following interesting Hadith: Some Jews approached the Prophet Muhammad and said:

6
“The Exodus and Ancient Egyptian Records”, http://www.starways.net/lisa/essays/exodus.html

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The Jews of Medina went to the Prophet and said, “Your Quran is initialed with A.L.M.,
and these Initials determine the life span of your religion. Since ‘A’ is 1, ‘L’ is 30, and ‘M’
is 40, this means that your religion will survive only 71 years.” Muhammad said, “We also
have A.L.M.S.” They said, “The ‘A’ is 1, the ‘L’ is 30, the ‘M’ is 40, and the ‘S’ is 90.
This adds up to 161. Do you have anything else?” The Prophet said, “Yes, A.L.M.R.” They
said, “This is longer and heavier; the “A” is 1, “L” is 30, ‘M’ is 40, and ‘R’ is 200, making
the total 271.” They finally gave up, saying, “We do not know how many of these Initials
he was given!”

Note that the Prophet did not say to them – “This is crap!” Or politer words to that effect (because he was
a very polite person!). He answered them repeatedly until some cut-off point. Then their calculation stopped
short and Prophet Muhammad did not pursue the calculations. Now amazingly, in 15:85 and 86 it states in
the Quran that:

…the Hour will certainly come, so bear with them graciously. Your Sustainer is the All
Knowing Creator.

And then in the next verse, 15:87, it says:

We have given you the seven twos, and the great Quran [reading or that which is to be
read].

The juxtaposition of the verse of the Hour with the “seven twos” is not happenstance: a message is being
given by God to make a connection. Indeed, the immediate juxtaposition of 15:85 speaking about the Hour
(Doomsday) with verse 15:87 lends credence to 15:87 being a mathematical code for calculating the timing
of Doomsday. The word mathani actually means twos or doubles, but it has been misunderstood by many
traditional interpreters as meaning ‘oft-repeated’ and they then ascribe this sentence as referring to Surah
Fatiha (the first ‘opening’ chapter in the Quran). However, this cannot be referring to Surah Fatiha (the first
opening chapter in the Quran), because then it would mean that Surah Fatiha is not part of the Quran (or
the reading); but it is. In fact, it is the crown of the Quran. The verse above is stating that there is a code
and then a grand reading (or book ‘to be read’, which is the actual meaning of the word Quran)! So a
demarcation is being made between the code and the reading of the rest of the sentential structure of the
Quran.

The “seven twos” refers to the (7x2=)14 unique combinatoric letters that are at the head of 29 Surahs. It is
stated in the Quran that there are ‘seven twos’ and not 14 is because had the number 14 been used then the
total count of all whole numbers in the entire Quran would have fallen short of being exactly divisible by
19. The summation of all the whole numbers in the Quran is: 304 (=19x16). That’s because the Quran uses
number 19 as a quality control mechanism to alert us of any changes to it, and also as a sign of the
impossibility of human ascription to it, and in this case whole numbers adding to a total divisible by 19. 7

The Quran, in fact, states that it is based on the 19 number system and that it is that the issue of number 19
is a vexing problem for the non-believers: “Over it [is] 19” in Surah 74 Verse 30. Here it is not talking
about the number of angels guarding hell; for if it were then why would it state that people will question

7
Yuksel, Edip. (2011). Nineteen: God’s Signature in Nature and Scripture, pp. 232-233.

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how many angels there are in hell in a verse which follows this? In fact, following the pattern of other
mentions of angels, it would have read: “Over it are 19 angels”, but it was not revealed that way. Also,
there are trillions upon trillions of angels in the universe, according to the Islamic understanding; is it
plausible that there are only 19 guarding hell (the extent of which is comparable to the size of this universe
as mentioned in the Quran itself?), with untold number of people in it. Perhaps. But this is something that
must be seriously questioned.

Mathematically, using the abjad system (assigning a fixed numerical value to each letter of the Arabic
alphabet) that existed at the time of the Prophet (when the Indian numerical system had not been introduced
to the Muslim world by the Islamic mathematician Al-Khwarizmi) the total of alif, lam, mim comes to …
1709. Amazingly, if we use the Hegira 622 date (the beginning of the Islamic calendar) and apply 1709
converted to solar years which is 1658 (approximately) and add it to the solar calendar we get 2280. We
will do an even more exact calculation of the Doomsday date, to the exact hour itself! But first, here is the
breakdown of the 14 letters, that occur at the head of 29 chapters of the Quran, in various combinations, in
terms of their gematrical value or abjad8:

Initial Gematrical Value

1. Q 100
2. N 50

8This writer is certainly not part of the Submitter’s group which has assumed a rather cultish position with respect to
Rashad Khalifa. Khalifa went overboard and proclaimed to be a messenger of the ‘covenant’, rather than as simply a
researcher who determined something most significant. He remains a good example of how someone promising can
become diverted by desires. Tragically, the number 19 baby was then thrown out with the bathwater by many Muslims.
And then, more people tended to dismiss things by hearsay, rather than by investigating the matter.

Other than the presence of the mathematical system 19, and also its connection to 2280, I disagree with many other
conclusions reached by Rashad concerning the implications of 19 and other views on various matters he discusses in
his Appendices to his translation of the Quran.

Edip Yuksel, who worked with him in the early years of this research, completed the basic research on number 19
(concerning the structure of the Quran based on the letters, their frequency, totals and the abjad system counts) and
the gaps were filled on certain issues. Rebuttals from detractors were debunked by being published in Edip’s book
and other media, and the evidence mounted. In fact, Edip refuted Bilal Philips refutation of Rashad Khalifa’s claims.

One can see why Bilal Philips was rightly concerned about the claims of Rashad with respect to a post-Prophet
Muhammad type of messengership; being a student of cult movements, both foreign imposed and ‘homegrown’,
Philips saw this as a cult movement (indeed after Rashad’s death, the Submitter’s movement has indeed entrenched
its culthood). However, Philips’ book sadly had a detrimental affect on the research program on the claimed
mathematical structure (his book was: The Quran’s numerical miracle: Hoax and Heresy, 1987, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,
Al-Furqan Publications); there were, indeed, some issues and questions surrounding the number 19 structure but not
enough to dispel it (the count of Alifs; the missing “nun”; the controversy about the last two verses of the Quran’s
chapter 9, Surah Taubah). Some even more advanced discoveries in advanced mathematics were made, later on, that
make it clear, if it was not already so, that such a system based on 19 could not have been created by a human being
– the probability approaches zero that any human could construct such a book, especially 1,400 years ago, without
sophisticated databases and software. One has to hold an irrational position to then reject the fact that there is a
number 19 mathematical structure (simply because of the close to zero probabilities for its occurrence by chance,
rather than by design). A good introduction to the number 19 miracle in the Quran can be found in Edip’s book cited
in this article and his website (refer to the Reference section of this article).

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3. S (Saad) 90
4. H.M. 48
5. Y.S. 70
6. T.H 14
7. T.S. 69
8. A.L.M. 71
9. A.L.R. 231
10. T.S.M. 109
11. ‘A.S.Q. 230
12. A.L.M.S. 161
13. A.L.M.R 271
14. K.H.Y.‘A.S. 195

TOTAL 1709

In the appendix to his translation of the Quran Rashad Khalifa, the discoverer of the number 19 system,
mentions:

This means that the world will end in the year 1710 AH. This number is a multiple of 19;
1710 = 19x90. The unveiling of this information took place in the year 1400 AH, 309 years
before the prophesied end of the world (1709-1400=309). The number 309 is a Quranic
number (18:25), and is connected with the end of the world (18:21). The peculiar way of
writing 309 in 18:25, "Three hundred years, increased by nine," indicates that the 309 are
lunar years. The difference between 300 solar years and 300 lunar years is 9 years. The
year of this discovery, 1400 AH, coincided with 1980 AD, and 1980 plus 300 solar years
is 2280, also a multiple of 19, 19x120. Thus the world ends in 1710 AH, 19x90, which
coincides with 2280 AD, 19x120. For the disbelievers who do not accept these powerful
Quranic proofs, the end of the world will come suddenly [see] (6:31, 44, 47; 7:95, 187;
12:107; 21:40, 22:55; 26:202; 29:53; 39:55; 43:66; and 47:18).

1980 is the year of discovery of the linkage of this passage in the Quran by Rashad to the world’s end. Note
that in the Surah of the Cave, we have the intriguing passage concerning the companions of the cave and
their dog who were kept in a state of long deep sleep (or some form of suspended animation) for 300 solar
years, or 309 lunar years (fleeing persecution for Unitarian beliefs), it states that:

In this way We brought them to people’s attention so that they may know that God’s
promise [resurrection] is true and that there is no doubt about the last hour, [though]
people argue among themselves. (18:21)

They stayed in the cave for 300 years, increased by nine. (18:24)

Verse 18:24 is therefore connected to realizing Doomsday, both for people back at the time of the sleepers,
and for future times. This is shown in the calculation associated with 300 years, in the next section.

Calculating the Exact time of ‘the Hour’ or Doomsday

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Here is a summary of the various calculations:

1. Abjad calculation 1709 lunar years
2. 1980 (year of discovery of the mathematical connection of the story of the sleepers of the cave)+300
(solar years) = 2280
3. Alternatively, using the Islamic calendar we get 1400 AH (year of discovery +309 (lunar years)) = 1709
4. Using Surah Al-Tin: In this Surah, which is No. 95 we get: 95 x 6= 570. Why ‘6’? Well multiply
6x570=3420 and then add to Moses’ birthdate based on the 570 separations of the dates of birth of the
four prophets. This yields: -1140 BC+ 6x570 AD = 2280 once again!
5. Let us now, for the first time, calculate the exact hour of Doomsday. Converting 1709 to solar years
and adding to 622 (Hegira) gives us 2280 in the Year 2280 AD. The way to determine the exact time
for this, is to calculate the exact ratio between the solar and the lunar calendar:

354.367/365.2422=0.970224689260989

When 1709 lunar years have elapsed, this converts to 1658.11399394703 years, based on the
conversion multiplication factor calculated above, if we start the count at midnight, December 31, 621
(or the start of 622). Consequently, 622+1658.11399394703+.51232877= Year 2280.11399394703
AD. Indeed, we can work out the exact time to the hour of doomsday, by adding the days up to July
15, 622, from December 31, 621, 12 am. The reason we have to add this is because the first day of the
Islamic calendar is the 1st of the Islamic month of Muharram, 1 A.H. (Anno Hijrae), Friday July 16,
622 A.D and not January 1, 622. As a result, we have to add this extra time (about 6.5 months) to our
calculation above.

December 31 midnight to July 15 (in 622), the number of days is: 196 and 196 divided by 365.25 gives
0.5369863 that we have to add on to Year 2280.11399394703; this gives us 2280.65098024.

The calculation of the exact Hour of Doomsday is as follows: 0.65098024 x 12= 7.8117629 months.
This is the 7th month exhausted (July and 0.8117629 into August). 0.8117629 x 31= 25.164 days into
August. Lastly, the remaining 0.164 is 3.936 hours past midnight or 3:56 am.

Qiyamah (Doomsday) is therefore: August 26, 2280 AD at approximately 3:56 am Mecca/Medina
time (before Fajr prayer time) – that is the time of the Hour – Doomsday, all of a sudden!

This is the date then, of the hour, if the assumptions of the starting point (Hegira) are correct, which I
see no reason not to be, as they are the most logical assumptions! For those not taking the Hour
seriously, consider the following Quranic verses:

And when it was said, ‘Indeed, the promise of Allah is truth and the Hour [is coming] - no
doubt about it,’ you said, 'We know not what is the Hour. We assume only assumption, and
we are not convinced.' 45:32

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Those who do not believe in it are impatient for it, but those who believe are fearful of it
and know that it is the truth. Unquestionably, those who dispute concerning the Hour are
in extreme error. 42:18

It is Allah who has sent down the Book in truth and [also] the balance. And what will
make you perceive? Perhaps the Hour is near. 42:17

6. Interestingly if we take the calendar of 570 AD (Prophet Muhammad’s birth date) and simply add
1710 (lunar years) we also get 2280 AD, mixing solar and lunar.

7. Strangely, if we take the three separations of birth (570 each, from Moses to Buddha; from
Buddha to Jesus; and lastly from Jesus to Muhammad) we get 1710 solar years. Again the
number 1710 shows up!

Discoverability of the Doomsday Hour

99.99999…% of Muslims think, erroneously, that we cannot know when Doomsday will occur. Nothing
can be farther from the truth. An interesting passage in the Quran discusses the disclosure of the timing of
Doomsday:

They ask you about the hour of the Doom and when will it take place. Say: “Knowledge
about it rests with my Lord. None but He can disclose its time”. Weighty it is in the
Galactical Systems and the Earth. It will not fall upon you otherwise than of a sudden. They
ask you as if you yourself were in search of it. Tell them: “The knowledge about it rests
with Allah though most people do not understand.”

The former Vice Chancellor of NED University, Munir Muhammad Hasan stated in his booklet “Quran
says: Timing of the End of the World will be known” that:

Verse 7:187 has many messages in it. In fact, this verse gives a comprehensive explanation
of the timing of the end of the world. It not only mentions that the knowledge of Doomsday
rests with Allah (Not that “only with Allah”), and that it will come all of a sudden, but also
it tells in clear terms that Allah Himself will reveal the timing at the proper time.

Hasan’s article should be read in conjunction with this article as he goes at length into the incorrect Arabic
translations/understandings that have kept this topic beyond the purview of many Muslims (i.e. that these
things cannot be determined and only knows).

Why the disclosure of Doomsday’s precise time now?

God is not going to send another revelation to disclose the exact timing of the Doomsday Hour; it is,
therefore, up to the Muslims to figure this out. The Muslims’ research will disclose it and that is part of the
plan of God, because He is the one who gives us knowledge and abilities. This article, in part, is an attempt
to determine the exact timing of the hour, an attempt that to my reckoning has been met, with God’s help

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and graciousness. Verse 7:187 also shows us that Prophet Muhammad, who was being addressed in this
verse, did not know about its timing.

Why is the exact timing (to the very minute) being disclosed through calculation now? I think this disclosure
of a hitherto secret is fulfilling the verse that states that God will show us the signs in the horizons and
within themselves. For too long so called ‘religion’ and ‘religiosity’ has turned people off ‘religions’, but
most people do not realize that their way of life and beliefs constitute their ‘religion’. The question is, is
what they believe in backed by evidence, which requires, ratiocination? The mathematical structure of the
Quran is evident and apparent but, many Muslims being great enemies of themselves, have not approached
this subject properly. It is not only the so called non-Muslim community that does not want to accept the
Quranic message, but among the Muslims there are many who feel that if the masses among the ‘Muslims’
embark on a program of rationality, then their false power structures that are exploitive will crumble to
dust.

This disclosure, at this time, therefore, of the precise date of Doomsday reinforces the rational and
mathematical structure of the Quran from which such an important date has been calculated so that you
may be certain of it, as the Quran states. A precise date also shows us that this is no fairy-tale and it will
help in the urgency of the establishment of Quranic concepts among humankind through education and
practical example, and not violence or compulsion. For those close to that date, some 200 years hence, who
take this seriously, it would serve as a forewarning to ‘get themselves in shape’ in relation to God, before
this mother of all deadlines! Perhaps in 100 years a few people will have lifespans of over 160 years, and
may be actually alive when Doomsday happens!

Lastly, I find it hard to understand why many people find it so hard to understand that the Quran is based
on at least one mathematical system (19), when the whole universe is undeniably based on the language of
mathematics. Whether we like it or not, God loves mathematics. It is not enough only to be literally literate,
but also mathematically literate, to some degree at least. Being mathematically illiterate is not something
to be proud of!

Jesus as a Sign

The birth date of Jesus is central to this and hence he is a sign. Prophet Jesus is a sign so that you can know
the day of judgment. This is stated in the Quran:

He [Jesus: his person, his being] surely is [note: not will be] the knowledge of the Hour
[note: knowledge and not the event itself]. (43:61)

This verse was one that puzzled me for a long time. Note that the verse has the following unique features:

1. It is the present tense (not “will be a sign”).
2. He (Jesus) is a sign of the precise hour itself; not the “coming of the hour”.

A lot of translations get this wrong because they cannot understand the sentence and then distort the
language by interpolating incorrectly! This verse is not saying that Jesus will return to earth. In fact, even
if one were to accept certain Hadith as accurate, they do not say that Jesus will be alive at Doomsday!

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That he (Jesus or Isa) IS the knowledge of the hour means that there is something about him that will tell
you about the hour itself, some attribute or personal information. One of the attributes or personal
information about a person is his/her date of birth. It is like when you are at immigration (Passport Control)
at the airport: your passport gives the basic information. Jesus IS a sign because of the coded message. He
is a sign because we can figure this out now and he has served as a catalyst to determine the 2280 date,
without which this method would not have been realized. His date of birth sets the marker - the 570
calculation from which we can determine that the Quran stipulates the end of the earth in 2280, otherwise
the 570 calculation does not work. That is, the difference between the birth dates of Jesus and Muhammad
set in motion the calculation and in that sense he is a sign. It appears that the 570 exit takes you to highway
2280! Also note that in each of these verses that have been cited as linking to Doomsday calculation, they
all mention the Hour or the Day of Judgment (that immediately follows Doomsday). Even Surah al-Tin
speaks of Judgment Day. On the day of judgment God says:

Then do they await except that the Hour should come upon them unexpectedly? But
already there have come [some of] its indications. Then what good to them, when it has
come, will be their remembrance? 47:18

Obviously, from the above verse, we realize that when Doomsday happens, a lot of people will be oblivious
as to its timing, but they will be told that signs were given to them before this — in other words, it had been
calculated and given to them before its advent; at least this calculation is one sign. This analysis shows that
you need Buddha as part of the chain to calculate the date. In other words, this is another indication that
Buddha is mentioned in Surah al-Tin!

Part 3: Buddha mentioned by name in the Quran and Buddhist Prophecy

In addition to all these proofs, a person by the name of Dhul-Kifli, is mentioned in the Quran:

And [mention] Ishmael and Idrees and Dhul-Kifli; all were of the patient.
21:85

And remember Ishmael, Elisha and Dhul-Kifli, and all are among the outstanding.
38:48

Dhul-Kifli may stand for Gautama Buddha because Buddha was born in Lumbini and moved to
Kapilavastu. Dhul-Kifli means “one from Kifl”, whereas Kapilavastu means “one from Kapila” (vastu
meaning “one from”). In Arabic there is no ‘f’ sound and therefore the Arabs used ‘p’ sound. Since the
Quran is accurate in pronunciations the Arabs doing trading at the time of Buddha (through the ancient silk
route) may have called Kapilavastu, Dhul-Kifl, which changed to Dhul-Kifli when applying it to a person.
In other words, Kapilavastu equals Dhul-Kifl (both meaning exactly the same thing: “the one from Kilf or
Kapila”), where the person (Buddha) is named after the place, which is not too uncommon in Arabic. It is
easy to see how minor changes can occur: the Arabs could have said Kafilawastu and that could have
morphed into Dhul-Kafila, if they knew the meaning of vastu, which equals Dhul. Then Dhul-Kafila could
have morphed into Dhul-Kafil, and then Dhul-Kifl. Linguistic evolution. On the other hand, it may simply
be God’s code name for Buddha and nothing to do with this name evolution. To illustrate the commonality
of names derived from geographic locations, a few examples will suffice: the Muslim mathematician who

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gave us Algebra, Al-Khwarizmi, was from Khwarizm. A Muslim ‘convert/revert to Islam’ from Canada,
was given the name al-Kanadi, and the famous scholar, Sheikh Albani was Albanian.

In the Quran, it further states that previous messengers spoke of the coming of the final messenger9. Buddha
himself was one of those who would have predicted the advent of Prophet Muhammad. This further
corroborates the prophethood of both. This is what the Buddha said10:

Ananda said to the Blessed One, “Who shall teach us when you are gone?”

The Blessed One replied: “I am not the first Buddha who came upon the earth, nor shall I
be the last. In due time another Buddha will arise in the world, a holy one, a supremely
enlightened one, endowed with wisdom in conduct, auspicious, knowing the universe, an
incomparable leader of men, a master of angels and mortals. He will reveal to you the same
eternal truths which I have taught you. He will preach his religion, glorious in its origin,
glorious at the climax, and glorious at the goal. He will proclaim a religious life, wholly
perfect and pure, as such I now proclaim. His disciples will number many thousands, while
mine number many hundreds.”

Ananda said: “How shall we know him?”

The Blessed One replied: “He will be known as Maitreya…”

Maitreya in Buddhist Scriptures means a Mercy and the Blessed One. The only one who fits this description
properly – as someone even more significant in impact than Buddha is Prophet Muhammad — no one else
can fit this bill. It cannot be Jesus as he didn’t have followers in the thousands in his lifetime. Furthermore,
in the Quran it states: We have not sent you, O Muhammad, but as a Mercy to the Worlds.” 21.107. Can
this be other than Prophet Muhammad, as no one else has been honoured with such a title? So by the process
of elimination we come to Prophet Muhammad as the Maitreya.

Also Maitreya means “three m’s” in Pali (the language that Buddha spoke) and the name Muhammad is
equivalent to having three ‘m’ (mim in Arabic) sounds, (the middle m’s being of longer duration). In
Pali/Sanskrit the word for three is/can be treya. ‘M-treya’ literally means 3 m’s.

Part 4: Proving Buddha as a Pure Monotheist using Buddhist Texts

In the most famous of its scriptures, the Dhammapada11, the Buddha clearly espouses a belief in a supreme
Creator. Buddha, contrary to being an atheist or a person who never answered or avoided answering the

9
In the Quran it mentions that Prophet Muhammad has been mentioned in the Torah and the Injeel (the original
revelation to Isa (Jesus)). This is in the Quran: 7:157.
10
Chakkavatti Sinhad Suttana D. III, 76: according to the Sacred Books of the East, volume 35, page 225, and
according to the Gospel of Buddha by Paul Carus, page 217 and 218 (from Ceylon sources).

11
Cleary, Thomas (Translator). (1995), Dhammapada: The Sayings of Buddha

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question of God’s existence, as some of the present day Buddhist sects and most Western and Eastern
scholars portray, also believed in One God:
Who is capable of praising one like a coin of finest gold, one whom the knowing praise
after finding him impeccable, controlled, intelligent, insightful, ethical, and composed day
in and day out? Even the gods12 praise such a one, even the Creator [brahmuna] (17:9,10).13
In the Sutta-Pitaka which is part of the Tripitaka texts, translated by T.W. R. Davids of the Buddhist Pali
Text Society, the Buddha has categorically stated, in the Tevigga Sutta, that he had a relationship with the
Creator and they should listen to him and follow his ways, since they too want to know how to relate to the
Creator:
…to the Tathagat [the fully enlightened person] when asked touching the path which leads
to the world of Brahma [the Creator], there can be neither doubt nor difficulty. For Brahma
I [do] know Vashetta [the young Brahmin the Buddha was addressing], and the world of
Brahma and the path that leads to it. Yes, I know it ever as one who has entered the Brahma
world, and has been born within it!14
To paraphrase, Buddha is saying that: “Vashetta, I know, as an enlightened person, that the path to God has
certainty and is easy. I know God and the path that leads to God, since I am part of God’s creation.”
Buddha also believed in hell, a paradisiacal state in the next life, and the accountability of deeds in the
hereafter:
One who speaks untruth goes to hell, as does one who claims not to have done what he has
in fact done. Both become equal after death, people of base deeds in the hereafter. (22:1)
When a person long absent from home returns safely from afar, relatives, friends, and well-
wishers rejoice at his return. In the same way, when one who has done good is gone from
this world to the beyond, his good deeds receive him, like relatives receiving a returning
loved one. (16:11, 12)
In the book Outline of Mahayana (Chapter IX) D.T. Suzuki explains that God is referred to by the term
Dharmakaya-Buddha or the religious object of Buddhism. In fact, in a Tibetan text, the Dharmakaya is
described with eight attributes, which are:
Sameness, Depth, Everlastingness, Oneness, Harmony, Purity, Radiance, and Enjoyment
[some of which are explained as]: Sameness, because the Dharmakayas of all Buddhas are
not different. Depth, because it is ineffable. Everlastingness, because it has no beginning
or end. Oneness, because the Dharmadhatu (Absolute Reality) and Transcendent
Awareness (are not different). Harmony, because it is beyond positive and negative poles.
Purity, because it is free from the three taints of hatred, greed, and delusion. Possessing
enjoyment, because with its wealth of qualities it is the basis of all enjoyment.15

12 Deva in the original Pali; this likely refers to the created angels or the good spirit entities.
13 Ibid., Dhammapada.

14 Müller, Max F., (1881), The Sacred Books of the Eastm, Vol. 11, p. 186.

15 Guenther, Herbert (Translator). (1970). The Jewel Ornament of Liberation, pp. 264-265.

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Suzuki elaborates that “The Dharmakaya assumes three essential aspects: intelligence (prajna), love
(karuna) and will (pranidhanabala).” In fact, Professor Robert F. Thurman, Columbia University, who is
also a Buddhist monk, passionately emphasizes that: “Buddha not only believed in God, he knew God.
There were numerous atheists in Buddha’s time – the Charvaka materialists— and the Buddha specifically
critiqued their lack of belief in any spiritual reality.”(6).
In a chapter entitled: “The Differing Viewpoints of Buddhism and the Other World Religions regarding
Ultimate Reality” William Stoddart, in his book, Outline of Buddhism, explains that the true Buddhist belief
is really theistic, but that the existence of Ultimate Reality (i.e. God) who is both immanent and
transcendent, has been misunderstood because of the emphasis of the immanence component. In essence,
Thurman emphasizes that Islam clearly depicts the physical inconceivability of God, in that there is nothing
like God and that Buddhism, if understood correctly, has one and the same goal. It is easy to see how the
emphasis of the Buddha on the non-corporeality of God has led to many erroneously believing that there is
no God in Buddhism.

Part 5: The meaning of it all

Here is a summary of all the interconnected strands we have been weaving:

1. The Quran is a universal book for all humanity, and all of these prophets came with the same message.
Muhammad is simply the last of them. Buddha is one of them, as well, and has been honoured by a
chapter that names his path to the truth when he was chosen as messenger: Chapter 95: The Fig.
2. All messages have become distorted where people have cherry-picked what they have liked by desire.
But the original Quran remains unaltered and unalterable. Muhammad is simply the last and seal of the
prophets and the Quranic message is universal and timeless to derive an optimal human civilization.
Prophets used to come to cities, towns and villages throughout history before Prophet Muhammad, but
Prophet Muhammad is the Final Messenger of the Global Village, though the villagers have become or
remain sectarian and have not accepted him, thus causing chaos, bloodshed, untold and unimaginable
injustices and disruption. Overall, we are currently at almost the lowest point, from a moral perspective.
3. People started to worship the messengers making them into gods and/or misrepresenting what they said
about God.
4. A hierarchical structure has developed into ‘religion’, rather than one based on equality where all
humans are on the same level: no separation between ‘religion’ and their way of life is supposed to
exist.
5. The core message is given in Surah al-Tin and it was conveyed by all four messengers. It comprises:
a. Acknowledging the Creator of the universe, including the Creator’s spontaneous-bursting
beneficence and generosity and ‘His’ ongoing mercy to those who repent, and to whom He chooses
to be merciful to.
b. Extolling those who rationally confirm “a” and other related truths through the evidence
c. Extolling those who do good deeds (based on intentions and motivations of “a” and “b”).
d. Reminding us that those who inculcate “a” to “c” will have the reward of paradise (besides inner
peace in this life).
6. Surah al-Tin demands us to follow the true original message of Buddha, Jesus, Moses and Muhammad
are Muslims, the Quran being the final updated version, abrogating, superseding and incorporating the
essentials of the original messages of the others. Only those who follow the above (a to d) are Muslims
— in the sense of submitting to God, whether they know about the Quran, Islam or not. Likewise, those

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who call themselves Muslims, but are not adhering to the above points, are not really Muslims, even
though they may call themselves as such. Islam is not a label but involves action with right intentions.
7. Surah al-Tin makes us know that the Day of Judgement is a certainty, and this mathematical code (based
on 19) brings further confirmation to those who already believe, or are open minded, thinking rationally
and are seeking evidence.
8. The Surah further strengthens the validity of the number 19 code.
9. It reminds us that God will judge justly, and if there were no Doomsday and hence Judgement Day,
God would not be just.
10. It makes us realize that all of the above should indicate the extraordinary nature of the Quran, as not
something that arises from the mind of man, but from the mind of God.
11. The Surah makes us aware that only those who are not prisoners of their own desires will realize and
follow the truth and hence remain the finest – having rationality; others will be reduced to wallowing
in their abyss of ignorance – being wholly irrational. That is the significance of ‘finest’ in the Surah
Al-Tin– it is linked to rationality: the foundation of Islam that the nominal Muslim world has deviated
from. That is because being the lowest of the low has to do with not using reason and the evidence, as
described in another verse in the Quran:

Indeed, We [God] have created many jinn and humans destined for hell. They have [the
following characteristics]: the emotive core of their being is devoid of any understanding;
they have eyes with which they do not see and ears with which they do not hear. They are
like cattle: actually, they are even more astray. It is they who are the neglectful ones. 7:179

12. This article shows that the four prophets are remarkably separated by 570 years in their date of birth
(by chance?):

Date of Birth Person Claimed Difference in years
of birth from previous prophet

1140 BC Moses Base year

570 BC Buddha 570

Between 1 BC Jesus 570
and 1 AD

570 AD Muhammad 570

Surah al-Tin can be used for calculation of Doomsday:

Surah 95: Multiply 95x6=570; but why multiply by 6, other than to get 570? Here is why:

Moses born on Add 570x6=3420 years to minus 1140 (that is 3420 – 1140). You get:
1140 BC 2280 AD (Doomsday)
(i.e. -1140) +3420 August 26, 3:56 am
Meccan time

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13. This article also shows the exact time of Doomsday and the concomitant Day of Judgment. It shows
another way to calculate this date, using Chapter 95 (Surah al Tin), reinforcing the other calculation
methods. The exact Doomsday time is: August 26th at 3:56 am (Meccan time), on Thursday.

14. Not only does the Quran emphasize reason, but to determine the conclusions in this article, like a
detective, it was incumbent to use utmost reason and not separate mathematics from so called religion
etc. All knowledge is one and integrated and points to the Singular God.

15. The Surah also underscores the importance of conveying the pure message at a proper venue to the
public – to engage with the general public (dawah, which means ‘friendly invitation to the truth’),
because we are not here talking about an esoteric, but a practical belief system, based of reality, that
must be extended to people without force or compulsion, through logic and compassion.

16. It states the importance of trees and their produce (the fig and the olive) for the benefit of humankind,
as food sources, beautification, protection and shade, and hence an ecological undertone, not to mention
the health giving properties of the fig and the olive.

17. Finally, the Surah is a message of, and for, the global unity of humankind, through the four messengers.

These are my conclusions, but God (Allah) is the Best Knower!

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References

Cleary, Thomas. (Translator). (1995). Dhammapada: The Sayings of Buddha, Bantum Books, New York.
Müller, Max F., (1881), The Sacred Books of the East. Vol. 11, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Guenther, Herbert (Translator). (1970). The Jewel Ornament of Liberation, Rider & Co., London.

Hamidullah, Muhammad. (1974). Muhammad Rasulullah, Hydrabad, Habib & Co.

Haque, Nadeem and Muslim, Muhammad. (2007). From Microbits to Everything: Universe of the
Imaginator, Volume 2: The Philosophical Implications, Optagon Publications Ltd., Toronto.

Hasan, Munir Muhammad. (2014). Quran says: Timing of the End of the World will be known. Trust for
the Scientific Research in Quran.

Henry, Gray (Editor). (1997). Islam in Tibet and The Illustrated Narrative: Tibetan Caravans, Foundation
for Traditional Studies, Fons Vitae, Louisville.

Stoddart, William. (1997). Outline of Buddhism, Foundation for Traditional Studies, Fons Vitae,
Louisville.

Suyuti, Jalaluddin. (1318 A.H.) Al Itqan fi Ulum al-Quran.

Yuksel, Edip. (2011). Nineteen: God’s Signature in Nature and Scripture, Brainbowpress, USA.

Examples of No. 19 in the Quran from Edip Yuksel: http://19.org/blog/19-examples/

“Moses at Mount Sinai: Exodus 19:1-25”, http://bibleview.org/en/Bible/Moses/MosesSinai/

“The Exodus and Ancient Egyptian Records”, http://www.starways.net/lisa/essays/exodus.html

“The Dharmakaya”, http://www.kheper.net/topics/Buddhism/dharmakaya.htm

“The History, Philosophy and Practice of Buddhism”, https://www.buddha101.com/h_life.htm

“The Mount of Olives Text”, Matthew 6:5-15, http://www.annerobertson.com/BSME/Olives.htm

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Article

From X to Islam
Human Rights, the Unity of Humanity
and the Final Malcom X

Nadeem Haque
nhaque@mail.com

One of the most prominent speakers on Islam, in Britain, in the early 1960s16, was delivering a lecture at
the London School of Economics. When the lecture was over, a ‘young man’ approached the podium, and
introduced himself as “the son of Elijah Mohammed!” “You’re not his son!” responded the speaker. The
‘young man’, in turn, retorted: “Well, I’m the spiritual son of Elijah Mohammed!”

The speaker stared at the young man in a somewhat disconcerted manner, not knowing what to do with this
seemingly cultish response. The ‘young man’ in this incident was Malcom X, the sixties Afro-American
rights activist, who was tragically assassinated in 1965. This brief incident, related above, illustrates the
final episode of Malcom X’s life: he was beginning to know about the real Islam, for he was in a transitional
phase, breaking away from the segregationistic organization he had been the leading spokesman of. In fact,
his very attendance at the noted lecture was an indication of his quest for truth. He, no doubt, finally realized
that what he had been brainwashed into believing in the U.S.A., was, in fact, the very antithesis to Islam,

16
This speaker was Al-Hafiz B.A. Masri (1914-1992); Imam of Woking (Shah Jehan) Mosque, England, in the early
1960s, later to be the pioneer of animals, ecology and Islam (author of Animals in Islam). The writer of this article
(Nadeem Haque) was informed of Masri’s encounter with Malcolm X, through personal communication by Masri
himself, in 1992. This article was originally written in 1993, on the occasion of a lecture at the Medical Sciences
Auditorium, University of Toronto, by the late Imam Heshaam Jaaber, (author of: The Final Chapter…I Buried
Malcolm) who was one of the closest colleagues of Malcolm X, and led his funeral prayers (the salat al-janazah).
Jaaber sought a very wide distribution of the article, as he felt it indeed captured the essence of Malcolm’s message
and that of Islam. Long overdue, this is the first time it has been published with minor revisions by the author. It is
not clear whether Masri met Malcolm X in 1964 or 1965; most likely it was 1964.

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and that such groups as he had belonged to had been purposely fostered with the assistance of the ‘powers
that be’ to marginalize the African-Americans into redundancy.

In his quest for the truth, he met many other Muslims from 1964 to 1965 who followed the precepts of the
Quran. Above all, however, his quest brought him to the realization of the brotherhood of humankind and
the oneness of the Creator, from which what wholesome social idea of brotherhood issued, like a river
flowing from its source. When he thereafter returned to America, he had this to say:

About twenty of us Muslims who had finished the Hajj (the pilgrimage) were sitting in a
huge tent on Mount Arafat. As a Muslim from America, I was the center of attention. They
asked me what about Hajj had impressed me the most … I said, “The brotherhood! The
people of all races, colors, from all over the world coming together as one! It has proved
to me the power of the One God!
You may be shocked by these words coming from me. But on this pilgrimage, what I have
seen, and experienced, has forced me to re-arrange much of my thought-patterns
previously held, and to toss aside some of my previous conclusions. This was not too
difficult for me. Despite my firm convictions, I have always been a man who tries to face
facts. And to accept the reality of life as a new experience and new knowledge unfolds it.
I have always kept an open mind, which is necessary to the flexibility that must go hand in
hand with every form of intelligent search for truth.”

With such global ideas, all of the irrational influences had been swept by the force of reason. Malcom’s
thoughts converged to the universal concepts outlining what Islam actually was. For there were no longer
any priests, gurus, self-proclaimed Messiahs or cult leaders to be followed. There was only only the singular
Creator of the entire Universe to whom all intentions, words and actions ought to be directed. He realized
that humanity originated from a common source. This source itself ultimately originated from the dust of
the earth, in the evolution of the vast cosmos, in which the earth is like an exceedingly miniscule speck
within a speck. This is being the case, how could any one human being – male or female, black, white or
any other shade, young or old, rich or poor – be superior or inferior to any other? The Quran, which is
claimed to be a revelation from the Originator of the cosmos, expatiates on the issue profusely. Indeed,
Malcom X was only following the Islamic ideas which are clearly stated within the Quran itself:

O Mankind! Be duly conscious of your Sustainer who has created you from a single self
and from it, its mate, and from them both has caused to issue a multitude of men and
women. Therefore, be duly conscious of God by whom you demand your rights over one
other. Certainly, God is a Watcher over you. 4:1

O Mankind! Indeed, We have created you out of a male and female, and have made you
into nations and tribes, so that you might come to know one another. Assuredly, the noblest
of you in the sight of God is the one who is the most conscious of Him. Surely, God is all-
knowing, all-aware. 49:13
Verily, this community of yours is a single community, since I [God] am the Sustainer of
you all; therefore, worship Me alone! 21:92

With the crumbling mental and physical infrastructures of of our societies worldwide, and the continuing
plague of sophisticated racism in America – the so-called “land of the free” – a land that has not since, dealt

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with human being justly, a lot of people of various hues have begun to look at what Malcom X was saying.
Unfortunately, in the present climate, there is a great deal of biographical special pleading or selective
distortion, as each group racist or anti-Islamic is not focussing on the final Malcom X— the one who had
embraced Islam, by finally breaking away from a mischannelled movement. In consonance with the
Quranic verses presented above, Malcom X realized that the problem went beyond “black and white”.
Indeed, he realized that:

It is not a problem of a civil rights but a problem of human rights!3

In so doing he had opened his mind towards a global framework:

I’m for truth, no matter who tells it. I’m for justice, no matter who it is for or against. I’m
a human being first and foremost, and as such I’m for whoever and whatever benefits
humanity as a whole. 4

Assuredly, the ‘racist problem’ is a human problem; it cannot be solved if we think in terms of black or
white. It is a much deeper problem, solvable only when we human beings, using our reason, and the
evidence, realize that there is indeed only one singular Intelligent Originator to this vast Universe. This
Creator is neither a human-like, nor an incarnate, God:

Say: He is Allah [God] the One; Allah is independent of all, yet all are totally dependent
on Him! He has no offspring and neither is He the offspring of anyone; and there is
absolutely nothing like anything like Him. 112:1-4

This One God is the One who has created and loves all creatures who follow His natural laws (Islam), no
matter where they are from, in our present day dysfunctional, nationalistic and tribalistic world. This is a
Creator who is above all, Beneficent and Merciful – who bases mercy upon justice. For the Final Malcom
X, all of this was deemed to be easily verifiable by any sincerely rational reflection into the true status of
the Human Being on Earth. It is only with the natural realization of this outlook that can we – as true human
beings – become truly conscious and knowledgeable.

Certainly, in the creation of the universe and the earth, and in the sequence of night sad
day, are evidences for those who utilize their mind … 3:190

Among His wonders is this: He crates you out of dust — and then, lo! You become human
beings ranging far and wide! 30:20

Among His wonders is the creation of the cosmos and the earth, and the diversity of your
languages and colours: for in this, behold, evidences indeed abound for all those who
possess knowledge. (Quran 30:22)

Have you not observed that God causes rainwater to fall from the sky, and We produce
thereby fruit of various colours; and in the mountains are diversely coloured streaks of red,
white, and raven black. Human beings and the wild and domestic animals are also
comprised of colourful variation. Thus, only those among His creatures, who, [having

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appreciated these diverse signs], humble themselves before God, are the people of
knowledge. 35:27,28

After having reflected on these comparisons Malcom X’s outlook changed profoundly.

I believe in recognizing every human being as a human being, neither white, black, brown
nor red. When you are dealing with humanity as one family, there’s no question of
integration or intermarriage. It’s just one human being marrying and living around and with
another human being 5

There may be directional signs in someone’s life, from which we can gain true knowledge as it has been
defined in the Quran. Consequently, it is indeed the height of injustice and ignobility to purposely project,
as a working symbol, the early Malcom X life as a representation of his final ideology or his total
personality. This is because at the end he had rejected that earlier misguided ideology and evolved to a
higher consciousness of the actual place of Man in the cosmic scheme of this expansive Universe. Without
the proper realization of the Final Malcom X, then, we will not realize who calls the shots, both literally
and figuratively speaking. Certainly, we will not realize how we are being manipulated and exploited in
our societies – both in the east and the west, be it in the middle of Los Angeles, or in the outlands of
Timbuktu!

Our human societies, have become experts at distorting personalities, of creating myths and fabrications;
these fabrications are often fostered by the media or various groups with vested interests, whose goal is
something far removed from the truth. Not only have personalities been misinterpreted but also belief
systems, and in particular Islam. It has been estimated that over the last 100 years at least 50,000 books
have been written, in the West, against Islam. Their major defect is that they have been built on the ‘Straw
Man Fallacy’. They appear to be attacking not Islam but Mislam—a misrepresented version of what they
call Islam. The great human tragedy is the rampant suppression of such information, leads to ignorance
instead of knowledge, and darkness instead of light. For example, when Galileo proved that earth was not
at the centre of the Universe, he was forced to recant by the Priestly orders who thought that his astronomical
disclosures would upset their ecclesiastical monopoly, consisting of a corrupt hierarchical structure.
Analogously, Malcom X, and people like him throughout the centuries, have tried to show the so-called
Black Man, the White Man or the any other Coloured-Man is not at the centre of the Universe, but that, on
the contrary, concern for all human beings and nature ought to be at the centre of the universal agenda, in
the entire spectrum of life in this temporal cosmic abode. However, due to humanity’s own detriment, many
individuals who have tried to educate people with this universal vision have been suppressed, or indeed
killed. Whereas Galileo had been talking about planetary revolutions, Malcom X had been talking about a
revolution in thought on a planetary scale. For expressing this sentiment, he met a more drastic fate than
Galileo. In the light of these facts then, is it not high time that we, both individually and collectively, reflect
on the final message behind the man – the message that he had finally come to discern? Like any other real
Muslim, the Final Malcom X saw things in black and white, not in the sense of racism or naïve simplicity,
but rather, in the ability to distinguish between the truth and falsehoods with penetrating clarity.

In our societies worldwide, both individuals and belief systems have been grossly misrepresented. Take the
example of Christopher Columbus: it has taken European society 500 years to start to openly recognize and
admit what Columbus was actually up to in the ‘New World’. Will it take another 500 years for for our
societies to realize that what Islam is actually about – in this case, with respect to its ultimate rational and

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workable structure? In fact, come to think of it, will we even be able to coexist for another 500 years? Will
we survive as true human beings in a collapsing socio-environmental structure, if we choose to neglect the
interconnected approach of Islam — the natural system of the Creator to which all else in the Universe
submits, through natural laws? We will never achieve the state of felicity, balance and peace as is inculcated
and engendered by the magnanimous and egalitarian approach of Islam as it really is – the sources which
are the Quran and the signs in the Universe, unless we stop filtering out the truth from our minds. These
two – the Universe and the Quran – are in perfect concordance with each one other. The congruence, in
fact, can easily be verified by subjecting the Quran to the tests to reveal any possible contradictions with
known facts of this universe, or by coherency within the book itself.

The reason why the Final Malcom X has continued to be so relevant for us to this very day is because he
was demanding justice based on truth – the only type of justice which is wholly logical and which conforms
to the natural laws — the very way nature functions. Justice demands inherent equal rights for all human
beings based on the equilibrium of nature. It is only with thus vision of reality that can the whole of
humanity be led toward peace — towards the basis of a system infused with all-encompassing human rights.
This was the conclusion of the Final Malcom X — Malik El-Shabbaz, and any truly rational person:

America needs to understand Islam, because this is the one religion that erases from its
society the race problem…6

He further commented on his experiences with respect to those adhering Islam:

I have never seen sincere and true brotherhood practiced by all colors together, irrespective
of their color. 7
I said to Harlem street audiences that only when mankind would submit to the one God
who created all – only then would mankind even approach the “peace” of which so much
talk could be heard – but toward which so little action was seen. 8

We must do justice to our well designed faculties of hearing, seeing and thinking and become fully
cognizant and aware. The Final Malcom X had indeed developed this level of cognizance nearing the end
if his life, with the proper use of his mind. Like him, and others before and after him, we must strive to
attain the realization of a completely non-contradictory belief system — the only one that could, logically,
be the truth. Let X represent the unknown, alienation, inconsistency and a state of confusion both within
and without. If the human species is to survive, individually and collectively, it must find a global solution
to X. We cannot solve for X if we do not employ reason and seek the evidence, even if it be against our
own selves or close ones, and we cannot employ reason if are not honest with ourselves. Certainly, the
salvation of the world begins within each human being, and then extends outwards, embracing the whole
of mankind and the rest of nature.

The central point to remember in this discourse is that the distinguishing property of truth is that it can only
be covered but never destroyed. Those who think questioningly are not fooled by the coverings. For at the
very least they would see the coverings and try to dis-cover. They can only discover because they have not
covered their minds. It is high time that the coverings were removed and things seen – seen for what they
actually are, and what they actually ought to be. Let the discovery then begin, and if it has already begun,
then let it continue, towards an ever-comprehensive understanding of our place within the diversified realm

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of this vast universe — towards that global and innately natural system which Malcolm X had finally re-
discovered.

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References
1. The Autobiography of Malcolm X, as told to Alex Haley, P. 338, First Ballantine Books Edition:
June 1973, Twenty-third Printing, New York.
2. Ibid., p. 340.
3. Malcolm X, July 17, 1964.
4. The Autobiography of Malcolm X, p. 366.
5. Malcolm X, January 19, 1965. The last television interview with host, Pierre Burton, held in
Canada.
6. Autobiography of Malcolm X, p. 340.
7. Ibid., p. 340.
8. Ibid., p. 375.

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Proof
Conclusive Proof for God’s Existence
in Three Minutes Flat!17
Nadeem Haque
nhaque@mail.com

CLAIM: The Theists claim is that a God exists, who is a non-anthropomorphic conscious being and is
unlike anything in creation, countering the Atheist’s contention that only matter (or energy) exists within
space for eternity. The following is a proof of the Theistic claim:

1. Let Matter = X
2. Let X exist for Eternity
3. Let X also be L (limited), since all matter is limited in dimensionality and rests on nothing, so it
continuously moves.
4. The limited L has motion M because it is limited
5. All motion leads to unique NOWS
6. If point #5 cannot happen due to perennial matter it never will because according to the postulate of
the atheists there is only matter that can do this.
7. But if point #5 can happen, then why at time T, rather than any preceding time T-1 (in other words,
why the delay?)
8. So matter cannot have caused the unique NOWS, as it cannot cause a delay that logically exists.
9. A delay can only happen by an intention.
10. Matter does not possess an intention,
11. The only other option is Space (S), because there is only Space and Matter to consider.
12. So Space is not part of the causal change (chain) but is the causeless cause of the causal change
(chain)
13. But then space must possess an INTENTION.
14. Therefore, Space is Conscious, Formless, Timeless etc., and SINGULAR.
15. Also matter X must have started at a unique point (STOP point)
16. If it didn’t we would not be here in the unique NOW.
17. Reason: if the stop point was an infinite distance away, the cause and effect relationship creating the
NOW would never ever reach us.
18. Analogy: If you lived an infinite distance away you would not be here, where you are; so you come
from a finite distance designated by a STOP point, at the other end.
19. Likewise, if matter had a STOP point in the past, which it must, then matter did not once exist (in
other words, it had a definite origin).
20. But Space was always there and is not subject to this restriction. Therefore, Space is the only other
alternative.
21. If one says that this Space was created and emanates from a different type of space (a different
dimension etc.) that always existed out of which this Space was created, then that other-dimensional
space would be the starting point and it would have a beginning, begging the question as to how it got
there, unless it was the creator (objectless space), for which it would possess properties in #14. But if

17 Based on M. Muslim’s Sesamatic Proof. One version of the Proof can be found in:

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that other-dimensional space was part of another space, which, in turn, came from another space, ad
infinitum, then the universe would not have a starting point and would not now exist, applying the
STOP point argument, but neither that type of space, nor matter, could have created the universe, and
so the universe would not exist.
22. As proved in point 14, again, therefore, Space must be the unique basis plane18 that constitutes a
Singular, Indivisible Conscious Entity as the Imaginator of all.

QED: (the Theist’s claim is, therefore, demonstrated to be true, by proving the impossibility of the atheist’s
assertion).

Note: This proof is valid even if it is erroneously claimed that ‘space’ was created with the Big Bang from
yet another angle: there is the violation of the conservation of energy if space is expanding simultaneously
with the Big Bang, a fact that is currently being ignored or swept under the carpet by contemporary
professional physicists and cosmologists19.

18
Muslim, Mohammed. (2011). “New Proofs for the Existence of God: Part 1: The Sesamatic Proof”, Scientific God
Journal, Volume 2, No. 1.
19
Haque, Nadeem. (January 2014). “The Ultimate Reality Sustaining the Cosmos: A New Emerging Synthesis”, The
International Journal of Philosophical Physics, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp, 26-28.

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References

Haque, Nadeem. (January 2014). “The Ultimate Reality Sustaining the Cosmos: A New Emerging
Synthesis”, The International Journal of Philosophical Physics, Volume 1, Issue 1, IHR.
https://www.academia.edu/5532519/The_Ultimate_Reality_Sustaining_the_Cosmos_A_New_Emerging_
Synthesis

Muslim, Mohammed. (2011). “New Proofs for the Existence of God: Part 1: The Sesamatic Proof”,
Scientific God Journal, New York.
http://scigod.com/index.php/sgj/article/view/86/98

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Question

The Specifics of God: Tackling the ‘taboo question’
of God’s placeness
Nadeem Haque
nhaque@mail.com

Introduction

Muslims (and indeed Unitarian Christians and a few other groups) are in agreement that one indivisible
God exists, and ‘He’ is unlike anything. He is also not dependent on this universe, having created it from
nothing. God is not made of any particles, or any energy, and is hence not physical in any manner
whatsoever. They agree that the signs of design in this universe are countless and wondrous and that they
all point to a singular God; certainly, teleology is alive and well and is coming back with a vengeance.
However, the question arises as to what constitutes this universe, and what is the relation of God with the
universe, but strangely this has never really been discussed logically, except by a few people (like Isaac
Newton); but we now have a means to do this, with a greater understanding of cosmology.

Parameters of Divinity

We do know that this universe has ‘space’: If God is in space, as a limited body, then ‘He’ is obviously
dependent on that space. Indeed, if God is finite in whatever type of space one imagines or claims exists,
then there is some type of space that God would be dependent on, and that makes no sense at all. If God is
outside or side by side with space, then this does not make sense either: is there a hollow, or edge in the
being of God? If there cannot be an outside to God (irrespective of the type of space that is) then it makes
more sense and is logical to a certain point. But this leads to everything being inside God.

What then, does being inside God mean? We are not talking here of container space. Container space has
a limit and things are in it (container space is, for example, an empty box). The space we are taking about
is limitless and cannot be seen or grasped physically, smelled, heard or felt: it is not a container, being
infinite in extent; it has no edges or walls and is objectless. So God is not ‘container space’. If things
are inside God and are of the same essence, then that is Pantheism and nonsense, as there cannot be starting
point to the universe/matter20. But there has to be a starting point. So Pantheism can be thrown out of the
window. Also the creator of everything cannot be like anything created, the universe cannot create itself; it
had a definite origin. Therefore, again, on this account, Pantheism is blatantly false. The only possibility
we are left with, once we exclude container space and Pantheism, is that this infinite objectless
foundational plane is God21. That is the only existence that does not limit God; when the co-extensive
'infinite space' and God are one, then that Space is the essence of God (the ultimate Consciousness), and
not nothingness. God is no thing but not nothing. Indeed, to re-iterate: we cannot see, hear, smell, touch or

20
This argument will hold for any type of space. Existence has to be in some type of space.
21
Haque, Nadeem and Muslim, M. (2007). From Microbits to Everything: Universe of the Imaginator Volume 2: The
Philosophical Implications, pp. 15-58.

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feel God; yet ‘He’ exists; therefore, God is that limitless Space, there being no outside, or side by side. This
means that that which is necessarily ‘inside’ God cannot be the essence of God, but the imagination of God.
Creation comes from consciousness, thought and Imagination. There can be no creation where there is no
consciousness and imagination. If there is this Imagination from which all arises, which there must be, from
the considerations discussed above, then that Imagination has to logically be one, because we see only one
reality that constitutes integrated cause and effect, not two, three or four etc.; therefore, aside from the
debunking of container space and Pantheism, accepting a multiplicity of gods is the most ludicrous and
preposterous solution to the origin and creation question; it indeed boggles the mind why such a large
percentage of humanity in the 21st Century, imbibe such sheer illogicality.

Placeness versus Placelessness

If God exists, then if one is being rational, or claiming to be so, one has to admit that God must have the
property of placeness, rather than placelessness. That which has no place to be, does not and cannot exist.
The very act or existentiality of existing means placeness (a place where one or a thing exists). It is vital
for everyone to understand the following basic point: That the placeness of God is itself unique relative to
the placeness of other created things, and the fact that God has placeness means that this question of
precisely pinning down where God is, can and should be explored about God. Therefore, the question of
placeness is vital, logical, rational and worthy of investigation and discussion, and not nonsensically or
artificially ‘taboo’. Indeed, it helps us answer a myriad of other vital questions that have been posed
throughout history, and currently, have become a stumbling block for thinkers seeking to understand
ultimate reality (in particular about human and animal consciousness). Without exaggeration, it is a
question, which, if answered properly, has the power to change the world. In contrast, if this question is not
being answered or is being evaded, then it is not because of rationality, but because of some deep-seated
emotional bias or confusion.

Grand Errors

Concerning placeness, the grandiose mistake the Pantheists are making is that they equate creation with
being part of God. However, if there is only God and we are simply His imagination (thoughts) then we are
not part of His essence, but a creation as the Quran states. Everywhere you turn you see the face of God as
the Quran says. In the Quran, Face=Focus=Mind22; so everywhere you turn you see the focus or mind of
God (in action) — hence we are nothing but the thoughts of God taking shape.

Also in the Quran it states that God is the innermost and the outermost - the first and the last. The first pair
speaks of spaces and the second of time. If God is the innermost then nothing can be more in than Him
(Allah is closer to you than your jugular vein23). If God is the outermost then nothing can be outside Him.
If God is the first then He had no beginning and if God is the Last then He has no end or
death.……………….…………………………………………………

A Parable: The Scholar, the Saint and the Survivalist

My friend and colleague (M. Muslim) wrote to me a few years ago, in an email, that one needs to know the

22
Ibid., pp. 114-115.
23
Quran 50:16.

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specifics about God and that such an understanding of God is not based solely on an academic
understanding, or on how pious a person is.
Let me give you an analogy: Let us say that you have a person drowning in a surging river. There are three
concerned people on the bank. A university professor who is an expert on fluid dynamics, a pious person
who prays five times a day, has gone for Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) six times and fasts the voluntary fasts
on top of the compulsory fasting month, who stands for justice and helps the poor and animals; and you
have a third person who is a practical fellow, to wit, a master of survival tactics. You have three situations:

1. While the person is drowning in the fast flowing river, the Professor is clueless as to
how to save the poor soul, but extemporizes on the transition of laminar into turbulent
flow, the hydrodynamics of rapids, Reynolds Number, and hypothesizes how the
person might be saved.

2. The second person (a truly pious Muslim – let us call him ‘the Saint’) wants to save
the drowning man but does not know how to pull him in.

3. The third person, the silent and unassuming Survivalist, knows exactly what
material and technique to use and acts on his knowledge. He ends up saving the
drowning man. Indeed, no amount of piety or theoretics saved the man. The practical
survivalist, who knew the specifics and mechanics of water flow, swimming
techniques and materials/apparatus, ends up being the Saviour.

Willful or Programmed Reticence

Drawing on the parable of the drowning man, in understanding the specifics of God, neither glorified
academics, nor acute piety will help you, but your reason will. Now the Muslim world, contrary to the
Quranic approach and knowledge, actually does not, it seems, want to know the specifics, or have been
odiously programmed over the centuries not to dig into this matter, relying on ecclesiastical-type of

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authorities who provide no backing for their opprobrium, but only regurgitate what their ancestors had told
them.

These ‘authorities’ are akin to the Scholar and the Saint, even though these two had good intentions in our
parable. Indeed, one often hears obtuse rejoinders or castigating chastisement, from powers on high, if this
subject of the ‘structure’ of God is ever even broached by those who are brave, or maybe foolish enough,
to become the meritorious martyrs of marginalization. My desperate plea to the generally reticent Muslim
world, on this vital and foundational topic, is that it is long overdue to start investigating, understanding,
talking, and writing about this matter. Perhaps it has been overdue by at least a thousand years.

Let me end this diatribe by presenting three of my poems on this subject, not specifically written for this
essay/response, but written many years ago (from an unpublished collection), their inclusion warranted, for
they do indeed seem to be relevant to the topic at hand:

The Boundless Core

What is the boundless core?

That is the question posed from the floor

‘It’ is the ground of all being

The One, the All-Seeing

Boundless because it is grounded in no ground

Core because it is the centre for all that moves around

‘It’ cannot be referred to properly as It, Him or Her

Words fail It, to define or capture

Yet it is a Person

Not a paradox

Please use your reason

And at me, throw no rocks

The friend of God

To be a friend of God, is to be a stranger to the universe

Questions of what? why? and how? are always to be cherished

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The cosmos that we see is but a dream-reverse

Where everything that is, has always been wished

The cosmic realm we’re in, is but imagination

It’s God’s focus, from moment to moment existence

A concept to understand for the coming generation

A higher truth unfolds from the perennial silence

The Reality of God

O God! If this universe of Your imagination, seems so real

Then how unimaginably intense is Your Reality, if truly we feel

How could anyone therefore deny the true intensity of your existence?

How and why should anyone show you such resistance?

Humans and Jinn tragically forget the following factor:

That You chose, for a test, to be a subtle behind-the-scenes Actor

I see now why Moses fell onto the ground

But saw the reality when he finally came around

“Show me Your Self” said he

To which You replied: “The Mountain or Me!”24

The imagination lets Your intensity be shielded

But when You reveal Your self, what’s in that space is yielded

Just as particles, give way by crumbling,

So too must we prostrate, to experience the humbling.

24
Quran 7:143

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References

Haque, Nadeem and Muslim, M. (2007). From Microbits to Everything: Universe of the Imaginator,
Volume 2: The Philosophical Implications, Optagon Publications Ltd., Toronto.
https://www.scribd.com/doc/163371933/From-Microbits-to-Everything-Universe-of-the-Imaginator-
Volume-2-The-Philosophical-Implications

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Article

A New Paradigm for Human Evolution
M. Muslim
biblequran@gmail.com

Part 1: Traumacracy versus Democracy for the Poor

The equality of man is fiction. Governance systems based on such a fiction are bound to fail. True
democracies don’t exist amongst the poor for the simplest reason that they don’t have enough power to
manage and to control the powers that oppress them. The strength of democracy does not lie in the equality
of all citizens, but rather in the intentional and systematic creation or support for an ever-increasing number
of unequal, specialized and codependent powers within groups of the citizenry. In the state of nature,
equality is fiction. Those who can fight off lions and mosquitoes are not equal to the wounded and the ill.
Men may look and behave alike but likeness is not equality. People subject to different strengths, subject
to different weaknesses and to different misfortunes cannot be equal. The failure of equality in nature
however does not and cannot spell the failure of democracy amongst men. The will of man makes all the
difference.

True democracies25 are primarily nothing but the processes and outcomes of the declarations of man for
power, for freedom and for happiness. We democratize what we will. Democracy is a wishful project that
rises and falls upon the ability to rally enough power-centres in support of a greater collective life. When
the project is left in the hands of a few men or when the existing power-centres are not sufficient to
effectively manage the project towards the greater goal, or when the power-centres work against the project;
it fails. True democracies work against the concentration of power in the hands of a few men or in the hands
of unrepresentative number of groups. True democracies are not plutocracies ruled through oligarchic
structures. True democracy is founded on unequal yet inter-dependent specializations and competencies.
True democracies work tirelessly to create and to sustain an ever-increasing number of inter-dependent
centres of power both as a means of increasing the overall power of the nation and also, as a means of
preventing concentrations of power that lead to tyranny. If you can think of a true democracy as a machine,
the various power-centres within it are semi-autonomous specializations that must act as co-dependent
programmers and controllers of the system.

Tyranny and serious corruption are minimized only when each power-centre within the polity is strong
enough on its own and yet strategically positioned so as to prevent one or a few of them from being able to
negatively re-direct, disrupt or shut down the system. The three key requirements for the proper workings
of a truly democratic order are:

25Editorial Note: The author has in mind a specific type of democracy. It based on and governed by rationality,
where there is mutual consultation and decisions are not based without evidence, or relativistic whims.

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 The abundance of rational laws and institutions and the irresistible authority of the laws
over every power-centre

 Total and incessant monitoring of every power-centre in real time

 Effective and timely warning and corrective mechanisms to ensure compliance, fair
contribution of respective works and prevention of irreparable harms.

As you can see from the foregoing, the ability to get a true democracy going is not just a matter of
constitutions, loud policy-announcements and pageanted elections. True democracies require the finest
architecture, the greatest engineering, top quality materials and dedicated builders of collective governance.
True democracies require a lot of sharing of resources and theorizing, specializing, systematizing,
synchronizing, spying and sanctioning of deviants and would-be-deviants. Democracy is a work of the
sciences and of the arts. Ignorant, wretched or untalented folks cannot be democratic. This is very important
because without the system as I have explained earlier, the natural inequality of man would tend to result
in the concentration of power in the hands of the fittest and of alliances of the fittest against the rest.
Unfortunately, poor countries all over the world as they are presently constituted are incapable of practicing
true democracies. The reason is simple. Poor people live mostly in and out of trauma. Their hourly lives
are dominated and crushed by untold number of diseases, by repeated violence and insecurities, by chronic
hunger, by unimaginable tragedies and untold sufferings. The concentration of so many suffering people in
one polity weakens the intellectual, artistic and leadership possibilities of such a people and greatly limits
the number of fully functioning co-dependent power-centres essential to democracies. Yet, under the banner
of “equality of nations” which we all know to be false, we act as if the poor nations of the world have all
that they need to be democratic “if only they would be law-abiding and respect the outcomes of free and
fair elections”. Nothing could be further from the truth. The fact is that people’s daily conditions shape and
colour their perceptions, capacities, motivations and goals. The major rule to which most suffering people
are subject to is not the rule of logic or the rule of law or the brotherhood of man, but the rule of pain, of
insecurities, of hopelessness and of the call for relief. Traumatized citizens are the most vulnerable people
on earth. They are easily abused and frequently hurt by others.

It does not matter what systems you set up and how much money you spend on so-called democratization
of institutions and nations, true democracy cannot emerge out of the darkest itches of human suffering and
infirmatories. Traumatized people simply do not have the time, the spaces, the energies, the resources and
even the little faith necessary to create and to sustain the various competencies and power-centres crucial
to true democracies. The result? Traumacracy is what they wrote for the poor. The poorest people around
the world are subject to a government of the traumatized, by the traumatized, for the traumatized. This type
of government is itself sick: very sick. You can imagine its effect on the people. It doesn’t matter what you
call it. Traumacracies lead to more and more trauma for the people. Therefore, if we are honestly looking
to create truly democratic systems for all, we must first end Traumacracies. It is then and only then that we
can have a good chance of helping people to create true democracies on earth. Where are the great political
scientists and the good people of the earth? Do we have any left? Come let us end the traumas of the world
and help people to build truly democratic systems.

Part 2 Nonsensus, Consensus and the New Masters of Democracies

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We have all come to appreciate that the development of societies is positively affected by freedoms and by
the participation of the citizenry in true democratic governance. More learned hearts working freely together
in a nation are better than dictatorships of a few, on any given day. The ability to participate freely and
effectively in democratic governance however is not just a matter of having the right number of rules,
institutions and free elections. What is more important to democratic participation of the people in their
governance is their capacity to know, to discuss and to choose between reasonable options. Where there are
no reasonable options open to people, or where the people have no reasonable means of knowing and
choosing between options, they get shut-out in the decision-making process on matters that affect them.
When this happens, democracy becomes a front for dictatocracy. Unfortunately, at the same time as a great
deal of progress is being made around the world for improving the rules and structures for democratic
governance, a great number of people are systematically losing the ability and the opportunity to know and
to choose between reasonable options within a given polity. The result is that for the most part, people don’t
just vote blindly, they contribute continuously towards the hijack and ultimate shipwreck of democracy.
How does this happen? The ability to know something is a function of the intelligibility of the subject matter
which is in turn, dependent on the orderliness of the subject-matter, the technical competence of the person
and the time-frame within which the object is presented. As far as the subject matter is concerned, issues
that are too complex, either in terms of sheer volume, or by their enigmatic algorithms; or issues that require
a certain amount of expertise which people lack; or issues that are unprecedented or simply a-rational,
become unintelligible (hereinafter, nonsense) to the people. Non-sense, cannot be subject to meaningful
debate, affirmation or denial. Thus, regardless of the consequences of a stated non-sense, being a subject
that is outside of intelligibility, places it outside of individual capacity for informed affirmation or denial.
When such non-senses are presented as democratic options, the best that the people can do is to make noise,
or to change the discussion to the familiar but irrelevant. The other side of this unintelligibility arises as a
continuum out of the relativity of incompetence.

The greater the scientific skills and analysis required for the comprehension of a subject matter, the greater
the incompetence of illiterates, semi-illiterates and average persons (hereinafter, ordinary people) to know,
to discuss, to judge and to choose one way or the other. Thus, right decision-making in democratic
governance is affected by both what is being discussed and by the competence of the people discussing the
matter. Increasing the nonsense-ability of the subjects being presented in democracies, decreases the
capacity of ordinary people to affirm or to deny the conclusions demanded by the non-sense. Remarkably,
as advances in almost every field of humanity continue at galloping speeds, they “complexify” events,
relationships and probabilities. Scientific advancements in many important fields reduce the areas of
intelligibility that require little or no expertise. In many respects therefore, common sense is ignorance.
Inevitably then, scientific sophistication or expertise is required in order to sufficiently grasp and to be able
to make sense of many important issues and options proposed or established within a given polity. Since
the necessary technical skills or expertise do not occur automatically or naturally, it is clear that one of the
greatest threats to democracy is not the lack of freedoms or of the opportunity to elect leaders but the
increasing unintelligibility of options and the declining capacity of the ordinary person to know what is true
or false, or to know what is right from wrong. Now if what I am saying is true, “how”, you may ask, “are
the ordinary people making their choices in terms of party affiliations and the election of leaders, etc.?”
The answer is “nonsensus”. Nonsensus is the manner of achieving consensus through failure of opposition,
arising out of the non-sense of the subject-matter. Let me explain. We all know that consensus is an
agreement between many people on a given event. The effect of consensus is the absence of opposition on
the subject matter. Conventionally, consensus is praised and sought after because it supposedly reflects the
(hopefully intelligent) will of the people. Now, consensus can be achieved positively through affirmation

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by many or negatively, through non-opposition by many in respect of a stated issue. Positive consensus
requires a great deal of resources to create and to maintain. It is not easy to get Babylon to sing a song.
Nonsensus however does not require much in terms of efforts and resources. The more nonsensical the
options presented to people within a polity, the less the capacity of the people to oppose or to deny them.
The problem is that nonsense can occur ‘naturally’, accidentally or by design. I have already explained how
complexity or technicalities add to unintelligibility. What is remarkable however is that it is possible to
complexify issues to the level of unintelligibility and thereby unnecessarily increase the incompetence of
decision-makers vis a vis specific options. This poses a real danger to democracy. Many of the so-called
important issues generating a lot of discussions are often nothing more than nonsensified propositions
dressed as debates, or as choices for the people. Whether these things are happening by negligence,
willfulness or by accident, the fact remains that the nonsensification of discourses and options prevent the
ordinary person from being able to make informed affirmations or denials on important issues. We must
remember that the types of affirmations that are necessary for positive consensus are limited to sensible
things only. The problem is that what is sensible is not only a matter of how an event is logically structured,
but also of the technical capacities of those discussing the matter. That which may be sensible to a genius
may be nonsensical to an idiot. Individual capacities aside, the fact is that the well of the individual’s
consciousness is filled as it were, by the social waters from which he drinks daily through language,
practices and interactions with others. What a man knows, he has learned from others.

The limit of national scholarship is thus the limit of the citizen’s scholarship. Thus, apart from differences
in individual capacities, the relativity and elasticities of social scholarships around the world affect how far
a people can admit, discuss, make sense of and ultimately, agree or disagree on a given phenomenon in the
world. Whenever the ordinary individual is faced with an unintelligible problem, he or she performs the
intellectual equivalent of fleeing; through reference and deference to trusted authority. People flee from
that which appears to them to be enigmatic or unsolvable unto the perceived certainty or power of trusted
authority. That is, they give up on non-sense. However, what they give up is not the desire for a solution
but their effort at the solution. Instead, they turn to, they adopt and repeat the answers supplied by trusted
authorities or so-called experts. Trusted authority is perceived to know, or it purports to know truths hidden
from the individual. As the ordinary individual has no greater means of challenging the correctness of the
authoritative answers provided in respect of non-sense, they accord authoritative pronouncements and
intellectual and emotional finality. People do this and mouth the “truths” of the authorities everywhere not
because they are able to verify the statements of the authorities as true or false but rather, because they are
on their own, incapable of challenging or falsifying the truth-statements of the authorities. It is this inability
to deny or challenge the so-called truths of authorities on nonsense that lead to nonsensus on stated issues.

What these things imply is that individuals in societies that are dominated by relative deficiencies in
scientific skills and facing increasingly scientific options; or societies that are suddenly or continuously
exposed to complexities requiring a great deal of technical expertise, or nations suddenly exposed to
phenomena that are unprecedented, are more likely to be dominated by, and subservient to, the dictates of
a few or fewer men also known as the trusted authorities. Universally, what I am saying is that the more
complicated the world becomes, the less democratic it would be. As long as what the authorities assert as
truths cannot be meaningfully denied, these would become “truths” to which most, if not all, must obey. It
is in obeying these truths without opposition that nonsensus leads to consensus. Through nonsensus the
truths of trusted authorities over time become the basis of consensus within the polity. From nonsensus to
consensus - a truly odious transition. This happens not because these so-called truths have been verified as

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true or beneficial, but simply because the people in these communities do not have alternative answers to
the issues raised.

The future of truths, of knowledge and the health of democracies would depend upon increasing the
scientific competencies of the greater number of ordinary people and groups within the nation. Citizen-
experts are the answer to nonsensus. The answer would also depend on the ability of the greater number of
the citizenry to control or to manage their exposure to the flow of nonsense within the polity. Lastly, we
should bear in mind that not all trusted authorities are created equal. Therefore, this business of nonsensus
for consensus would also open up a new boulevard in the race for power. That new race would be about
how to become the trusted authority of a people before the pre-planned or accidental avalanche of nonsense
starts torrenting down from their skies of key issues. In the end, those who know how to create permanent
subservience and allegiances from the people through whatever means; and those who have the power to
flood the world with nonsense whenever it suits them, would be the new masters of democracies. What a
co-nonsensus! What then should be the method?

Part 3: The Scientific Formula for Human Evolution: The Learned Collaborative

The true democracy spoken of in Part 1 does not exist in a vacuum. If the human is to improve his/her
condition in this universe there must be an optimal strategy to navigate in nature so that proper decisions
are made. These decisions must be made based in what I call “The Learned Collaborative”. This
collaborative, it will be shown, is a uniquely human feature and endeavour, distinct from what animals are
inculcated with.

It is a plain fact that biology and ecology hold the key to the evolution of animals and other species on
earth. The reason simply is that animals and other species are “inelastic” in their functions and they are
pretty much “imprisoned” by their physique and individual capacities. The main handicap of animals and
other species is that they cannot do much to harmonise and to network their individual capacities into a
greater “machine” in order to alter their environments and for that matter of themselves. Very limited logical
and communication capacities are the causes of this key evolutionary limitation in animals. For this reason,
biological health of the species and relative strength vis a vis predators or diseases has been key to their
survival and evolution.

Unfortunately, many researchers think of human evolution in only “animal terms” and look to skulls and
skeletons of human predecessors as clues for human evolution. This approach, however, is wrong, when it
comes to ‘modern humans’. Human beings are uniquely different from animals and other species on earth
and for that matter, evolve differently. When it comes to the evolution of man, it is neither ecology nor
biology but cooperating intelligences united by a common cause under a common culture. The progress or
regress of any nation is critically dependent on the ability a number of individual intelligences to become
specific, reliable and efficient functions in a social “machine”. It is only those societies that continuously
manage to have a greater number of individual intelligences “lose” their separate notes and merge into a
network of harmonious intelligences that can boast of the necessary learned collaborative that is key to
evolution.

Let me rephrase. The evolution of man is not dependent on a smarter or a larger-brained individual. When
it comes to the evolution of man, a trillion men each of enormous intelligence acting on his own is
inconsequential and even dangerous, as long as each walks alone. The secret to the evolution of man is a

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"we-ness" founded on intelligent unity of skills, values and goals (learned collaborative). Unlike the
prisoners of nature, a nation evolves to the extent that the greater number of individual intelligences within
it are able to communicate intelligently, and agree and work consistently with one another towards a stated
intelligent purpose. The defining elements here are:

a). Intelligent persons. (I)
b). Able to communicate effectively amongst themselves.(C)
c). Committed to and united by a common intelligent purpose. (P)
d). Moved and driven by rules, functions, processes, sequences and relationships that make
them behave as one intelligent organism. (R)

From the above it is clear that the defining quality of the evolving nation is more than biology. It is will;
spirit; efforts and of the commitment to network intelligently, consistently and continuously with others
towards stated social functions. It is important to note that the learned collaborative cannot work well unless
individual intelligences become “impersonal” in their functions and act as harmonized melodies of the
social symphony. The system works only when each individual intelligence within the stream becomes a
cell or an organ in the body of the nation. Whilst the outcome of this learned collaboration clearly depends
on the quality of its parts, we must not forget that once formed as an organism, the parts “cease to exist”
with only the sum of the contributing thinkers and actors making up the evolutionary Scientific Formula
for Human Evolution function. In other words, we must think of the evolutionary process of man as the
merging and freeing of previously separate individual ponds of intelligences into flowing rivers of
collective intelligences. The continuing flows make up the life of what we call the evolution of man.

If one were to put this down as a ‘formula’ for Human Evolution using the the Learned Collaborative from
the above points, it would be:

E=IxCxPxR

Interestingly, the learned collaboration can be effective, dynamic, competitive and sustainable only when
by its: purpose, structure, rules, sequences and relationships, it behaves as an organism that mirrors nature
in its: logical cohesion, wholesomeness, unique functionalities, specializations, adaptability and creative
interdependence. Needless to say, the closer the mirror to nature, the less harmful that nation would be to
itself and to nature. The reverse is true. What then is the first step towards the formation of this learned
collaborative? The answer is imagination. The imagination of a nation creates the identity, the vision, the
mission, the rhythms, the tasks, the rules, the sanctions and the rewards of the nation. Space does not allow
me to discuss the matter of how this imagination emerges, in this letter.

Regardless of the source of a nation’s imagination however, it must lead to one greatest optimal destination
(god) of the nation. The god of a nation sets the nation apart from others and determines where the nation
would go or become. The god creates a singular stream of connected functions for which each individual
intelligence must be assigned a role that he or she must perform exactly: no more no less. The most effective
learned collaborative then are those in which individual intelligences act like “programmed” machines for
the god and do exactly as required without deviation or sabotage. In other words, each person in the learned
collaborative is a perfect devotee of the god of the nation. Each individual intelligence within the system
must be a contributing note of the social melody and cannot sabotage, misdirect or ruin the learned whole.
Here: competence, commitment, discipline, obedience, trust-worthiness, self-sacrifice, hard work and

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honesty define the behaviour of the individual. This makes the individual in a learned collaborative “un-
free” to do as he pleases. But what he loses in freedom by being a cell or an organ of the learned body, he
gains by authentic identity, by achievement, by being a part of greatness, by fulfilment and by honor.

The sum of what I have been saying is that the evolution of man is intellectual: wilful and even spiritual.
There are three main reasons for the evolutionary successes of intelligent collaboratives. Firstly, time and
the capacity of the individual in a lifetime are too limited to enable the person to sufficient fully grasp,
digest and to optimally use the countless events and complexities of life to his advantage. Regardless of
brain-size, one man is extremely limited in what he can know and manipulate in a lifetime. The ability to
know the true and functional relationships between objects and events and the consequences of their
interactions or the lack thereof across times and spaces requires a multiplicity of cooperating agencies
across space and time. Cooperative intelligences are therefore, nature’s systems for acquiring true
knowledge in the world. Second when individual intelligences harmonize into a learned organism, the
resulting body becomes greater than the individual cells that make up the whole. The result is that if you
can imagine the learned collaborative as a river, it invariably flows into and softens further grounds and
therefore, allows for the capture of new territories and discoveries ad infinitum as long as the collaborative
is alive and healthy. Thirdly, intelligent collaboratives are more competitive, more organized, more efficient
and therefore more powerful against the rest.

The greater the harmony of intelligences, the greater their imitation of nature and hence, the more scientific,
the more realistic, and the more accurate their analysis, diagnosis and prescriptions. I wonder what this
means for human beings should we ever encounter nations from outer space with greater learned
collaborations! But I digress. Here on earth, with increasing populations and therefore greater pressures and
demands for scarce resources, societies that are more conflicted; less intelligent; societies that are bound to
foolish gods or ruled by non-collaborating intelligences, will be outsmarted and will lose out on access to
the needed goodies for living.

Ultimately, such unlearned non-collaboratives would be enslaved or they may perish. One major
implication of the above is that nations that are permanently at war or nations made up of contradictory
cultures, or societies that are deficient in logic, science or learning; or societies that are incapable of
effective communication between its members; or societies that are incapable of agreement on or
commitment to the rule of law and are therefore, made up of disconnected intelligences, cannot evolve and
would ultimately, perish. There is a lot more to say on the matter but space does not permit any further
discussion in this letter.

I must make it clear that in addition to all the influences that contribute towards the intelligent collaborative
as mentioned previously, that which makes the greatest difference in different nations is the greatness of
their god. The god of the nation is the rallying cry for the learned collaborative. The greater the god, the
greater the vision, the greater the efforts, the greater rules, the greater the demands, the tasks, the milestones
and the achievements of the nation. The dumber the god, the dumber the nation. The quality of the god
determines the quality of the collaborative. Paradoxically, this means that the most evolved people of the
future would be in a nation with the greatest god to which the greatest number of the nation’s intelligences
submit willingly or unwillingly as cooperating members and excellent devotees of learning, truth (sciences),
patience and perseverance. All others shall fall behind. This is the science of the collaborative and
remarkably, the Quran hints at this in Surah al-Asr, Chapter 103, when it says, translated as applicable to
the subject: “As time passes by, every nation loses what it has and falls behind, except those people who

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collaborate with one another in a culture of truths (learning, discoveries, sciences) and their implementation,
and encourage one another to seek the truth and endure life’s challenges, to persevere forever.”

Part 4: Peace Between Muslims and Non-Muslims

If the world moves towards the recommendations, methodology and policies described in Parts 1 and 2,
that would be ideal for justice and peace. However, currently, the state of the world is, in general, far far
away from achieving this ideal. Indeed, in the name of the Most High God, as the world moves more and
more away from the remembrance of the great God, the question of how true Muslims should treat non-
Muslims becomes very important. You are aware that in Islam, Allah (the One God), Allah, Allah is all we
have! Islam does not admit of other gods. All the other gods or idols are either fiction, devils or the
inventions of devils. Having described them as such, Islam uncompromisingly places all idols and gods at
the bottom of the list of the undesirables. Those gods that are not fiction are either already in hell or going
to hell. As a consequence, Islam asks Muslims to ignore, to belittle and to disobey any and all gods. Islam
does not just stop at, figuratively speaking, trashing idols and sending them to hell. It goes much further to
provide a clear and straightforward alternative to the idols: namely, the Truth, the Beneficent, the Ever-
Living, the Light of the Heavens and of the unfound countless Earths, the One and Only Creator: God the
Most High. To the intelligent person, Islam asks him or her to weigh and to choose between the majesty of
the Most High God and the injuries of the despicable prisoners of hell. For the less endowed, Islam presents
dreadful consequences for following the gods and of wonderful consequences for choosing the Most High
God. In non-Muslim systems, however, the gods are “somebodies.” They are not fiction or devils but
helpful functionaries and possible sources of great joy and happiness to man. According to this way of
looking at things, those who know how to work with the gods, feel that they can open doors to self-
fulfilment, to power and to happiness.

In the Islamic system, the great God is in control, with man in surrender. In the other system, the human
being is in control, with the gods as service-providers. You can see how attractive this system is to the
average man or woman. This presentation of the gods is permanently attractive to most human beings and
they cannot be cured of it by killing them or forcing them to profess the contrary. It is very important to
remember this. Far from being at the prisoners of the Hades, these gods, are reputed to hold the key to
paradise. In this worldview, the Islamic proposition that there is one great God who alone provides all our
needs and the source of our ultimate happiness is abstract, alien and contradicted (in the eyes of those who
do not see God, or realize the universe as His creation) by the very presence of so many gods and idols
providing so many of people’s needs and joys daily. Where the system admits of a great God, He is placed
so far away in time and space and so far removed from any useful function that He becomes practically a
fiction, or irrelevant, to many of the non-Muslims. The message of the non-Muslim world is “here are the
many great gods of life. They are real, powerful and highly useful. If you want to be happy, choose the one
or the many that suit your needs and preferences now”. These gods are nicely packaged and offered on
faith, or accepted as vital necessities. Remarkably, because inferences are always coloured by capacity and
by perception and also because experience can be either truthful or scandalized, either view is rationalized
by people as correct and worth living for, and a truly rational discourse on the existence and nature of an
unseen Creator becomes abstract and not preferable, because non-Muslims seek the fulfillment of specific

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desires that are delimited if one accepts such a Creator, even though a Muslim may try to convince a non-
Muslim of the wisdom behind a practice. What to do?

One view is either better or equal to the other. But even when one is better, the solution to the debate cannot
be war, hatred, or a fake peace between Muslims and a Non-Muslims. Rather, the attitude is to recognize
that to each his or her own way, in peace, in inclusive tolerance, and in the greatest non-violent co-existence
of opponents possible. This is what Islam wrote (the Quran demands) and this is what Allah (God) asks of
the true Muslims. This is the only way forward for Islam and of the people of the earth. As in the Quran it
states: “Lakum dinukum waliyadin!” (meaning: “To you your belief system, and to me mine!” 109:6) for
those who are willfully oblivious to the message or even verbally hostile to it26! Indeed, all emotions,
prejudices, greed, pride and frustrations must be put aside by true Muslims. Every Muslim and every non-
Muslim must have sufficient and a fair space to worship that which pleases him. Let no one treat the other
unjustly because they have destructive power over the other. Let people have mercy on one another. We
are all weak and we will all die sooner or later. Let no one force the other to convert to the other’s worldview
and let the clear consequences of our lifestyles and only the hereafter prove the truths, or otherwise, of
either position.

26
This does not mean that one cannot and should not invite people to Islam in the best manner possible, explaining it
accurately to anyone or any group who sincerely ask(s) or is/are interested to discuss concepts and practices. This can
be either reactive or proactive engagement, but the dialogue must be without compulsion or pressure of any kind.

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Expanded and Revised
Transcript of Lecture
Why Islam?

Jaafar Sheikh Idris

Edited and expanded by
Nadeem Haque27

The Demanding Question: “Why?”

Why Islam? The question “why?” demands a rational answer. However, many people think that it is not
possible to give rational answers to ideological commitments. They believe that a commitment to any
theistic ideology is an irrational act. One cannot deny the fact that many people do commit themselves
illogically to various ideologies and continue to hold onto them only because they find themselves to be
raised up in particular communities. They accept such ideologies in just the same way as they would accept
a traditional form of dress handed down to them through the generations. Other people accept certain
ideologies because they bring about certain ‘benefits’, as for example, a person might be deeply committed
to a nationalistic ideology simply because it may be the best way to win the support of the masses and
thereby gain personal political power.

Ideological commitments

Let us analyze two commonly found views regarding ideological commitments: The first states that a
commitment to any ideology which involves some type of deity must necessarily be irrational. The premise
of those who say this is that the fundamental claims of all such ideologies are beyond the comprehension
of the human mind. Those who have accepted such a premise have concluded that all types of such ‘belief’
must be based on irrational and imaginary thoughts rather than on reality.
The opposite view is held by people who seek to justify their ‘belief’ in certain irrational ideas by claiming
that reason is limited. In fact, the followers of this ideology state that people should commit themselves to
such ideas by simply having ‘faith’. The conclusion of these people is that ultimate reality must be irrational
in essence and therefore incomprehensible to the human mind. They go on to say that their ideology must

27
This now classic lecture of Dr. Idris was edited/modified by Nadeem Haque and Anees Munshi in the early 1990s,
by the permission of Dr. Idris, soon after its delivery. In December 2011, Nadeem Haque made further revisions,
including expanding the article substantially, but it was never published in any journal until now, in its ‘final final’
form.

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be accepted or ‘believed’ without reason, in order to attain some type of ‘salvation’.
This kind of argument is very difficult to accept because as human beings, we may ask: What do we have
other than the usage of our minds for acquiring knowledge? If we are told to ‘believe’ in something that is
irrational (i.e. beyond all reason), such as a type of being which is both mortal and immortal, we cannot
possibly digest such an idea. Therefore, it is natural for us to demand that our way of thinking and living
be based solely upon those concepts which can be verified as being true.

The ‘verification view’ regarding ideological commitments, contends that we cannot and should not believe
in that which we cannot comprehend. It is true that one cannot have an adequate mental picture of some
scientific facts. For example, one cannot have an adequate mental or visual picture of the way in which
bats ‘see’ by using ultrasonic waves. However, we know these concepts to be existent and true because of
solid evidence based on our understanding of sound waves, logical analysis and experimentation and not
because of some irrational ideas, even though we cannot have personal experiential knowledge of bat
vision. In other words, in order to comprehend one does not have to actually have experience of, as this
example illustrates, visual perception. Therefore, we can indeed say that we do comprehend that bat vision
is based on ultrasound. We can, in other words, know of the existence and comprehend the nature of a cause
through the evidence of the effects.…
…………………………….
Is belief in a Creator Evidential?

Now what about the concept of a singular, all-knowing entity which has created the universe? It is
impossible to have any mental or visual picture of such an entity, for evidence tells us that this entity must
be unlike anything in the universe because this entity must be independent of all matter, energy and motion
and therefore also of time. The evidence for the existence of this single intelligence lies in the design of
nature itself, which we can freely examine; hence, such an ideology must, logically speaking, be rational. If
one realizes this – through confirmation – then one can proceed to answer the question: Why Islam?

One of the main problems with an atheistic ideology is that it cannot explain intelligence in the processes
of the universe. Another problem is that it tends to deprive life of meaning. Furthermore, we know that
human beings are naturally inclined to be honest; however, in atheism there is a denial of an ultimate
originator and of anything beyond death, which creates a contradiction and leads to an inconsistency in
behaviour – on the one hand a person would be inclined to be honest, and on the other to be dishonest ‘to
make the most of this world’28.

Testing beliefs

Broadly speaking, with regard to theistic ideologies we have the revealed, the distorted and the man-
made. One can easily say that a way of life communicated to humankind by the creator of this universe is
preferred to man-made ideologies. If one wants to follow the advice of that which has made the universe
and all that it contains, regarding what is beneficial or harmful, then it is better to refer to pristine
communication from this originator, than to that communication which has been fabricated or distorted by

28
If everyone insisted on ‘making the most of this world’, society as we know it would not exist. As a case in point,
let us suppose that all those who wanted to ‘make the most of this world’ resorted to thievery. If this happened, no
one would be producing the goods (growing food for instance) that the rest of us could steal. Hence it seems that
‘making the most of this world’ as system of action is doomed to failure. Could it then be a viable system of belief?

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man. However, any absolutely true system that is claimed to be revelatory as well must possess a minimum
of seven properties which we discuss below.

1. Consistency
Those ideologies claiming to be based on revelations can be subjected to a number of tests, the first and
most important of which is that of consistency. We must look for two types of consistency: internal
and external. Internal consistency means that a statement made in a book must not contradict another
statement in the same book. External consistency means that a statement made in a book must not
contradict facts as we know, be they psychological, physical, chemical, historical, geographical,
biological and so on. Applying these tests, consider the most important truth that all the supposedly
revealed ideologies proclaim, that is, the existence and perfect attributes of God. God for all ideologies,
that claim to be revealed, is supposed to be all knowing, all merciful, everlasting etc. However, some
books imply that God’s knowledge is limited and imperfect by saying that, for example, God was
deceived by a human. In contrast, the Quran provides the perfect concept of an all-knowing, singular
originator of this universe. A book such as the Bible, that states that the heavens and the earth were
made in six days and God was fatigued and had to rest on day seven, is not as reliable, in its totality, as
a book such as the Quran, which speaks of the Big Bang, the expanding universe and galactical
evolution and is far in advance of current science, constantly pre-empting our discoveries in nature and
history.
……………………………………
2. Authenticity
This leads us to the next test – that of authenticity. The question that should be asked is whether the
scriptures that we have today are indeed a communication from the Creator to humankind. A study of
the history of Islam would show that the present Quran is exactly the same as that which was
communicated over one thousand four hundred years ago. During its revelation it was committed to
memory by a large number of people and also written down and organized exactly as the Prophet had
instructed, to the letter, which we now possess unchanged.

3. Comprehensiveness
Yet another test is that of comprehensiveness. A truly comprehensive ideology, revealed to humankind
by the designer of the universe, would describe the most beneficial system in all spheres of life
including the political, economical, social, medical and environmental spheres.

4. Universality
Then there is the test of universality. Clearly, an ideology which is historically or graphically bound is
not as good as that which applicable to all human beings, irrespective of the time and place of their
origin. ………………………………………………………………………………………...

5. Timelessness
Since truth is timeless, those belief systems that espouse that one must believe in a Saviour who
appeared on earth at a particular time, or else one will be cast into hell, by not being ‘saved’, have the
problem of being time-bound belief systems that are unjust or redundant. They are unjust because they
differentiate on a person’s salvation prospects by ‘accident of birth’. If one were born prior to the
Saviour’s appearance, then how would one know the Saviour, in order for one to be saved? Indeed, we
would have a perfectly valid excuse on the Day of Judgment for our ignorance. On the other hand, if it

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is not necessary to believe in such a Saviour, then such a Saviour becomes redundant, at least in this
respect. Therefore, timelessness must be a property for any true belief system.

6. Uniqueness
This leads to uniqueness. The truth must be unique and so must that belief system based upon it. From
the example of timelessness, many belief systems espouse irrationality and ask one to ‘believe’ by
adopting blind faith. As a result, they cannot give a reason for their beliefs, which they say are not based
on reason, and if they do try to, they contradict themselves at the very outset, by giving reasons why
one cannot use reason. All such belief systems therefore suffer from the timelessness problem, that
leads to the uniqueness problem, which they all share or have in common. In other words, they are all
non-unique in their irrationality The result of this is that they cannot attack other belief systems at their
foundation because they will be undermining themselves, and therefore exposing the unsubstantiability
of their own belief systems.…………………….…………….…………………………………………
………………..…………..
7. Label-lessness
A true belief system must also possess the property of label-lessness. In other words, it does not depend
on labels, but seeks to go to the proper methodology as described above, by going to the essence of
whether our belief encompasses the above criteria and indeed whether one is following these criteria in
one’s behaviour. This also goes for the label “Islam” or “Muslim”; merely using such a label does not
mean that one is following the pristine rationality that these words imply, or following the peaceful and
just behaviour that such a belief demands.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
Rationality

We can see that the true belief system must possess rationality at its core as all these tests demand. However,
one can only use rationality if one is sincerely seeking the truth and not bound by vested interests. One
cannot be irrational and realize the true belief system if what one is adhering to is not: consistent, authentic,
comprehensive, universal, timeless, unique, label-less and rational.

That is “Why Islam?”!

If one uses these tests and above all, rationality, one would find the Quran unique and worthy of
investigation. It is interesting to note that the Quran itself stresses the above-mentioned approach. For
example, in verse 82 of chapter 4, it is said:

Will they not ponder about the Quran? If it had been from other than God, then they would
have surely found in it many inconsistencies.”

Since the Quran is the source of Islam, we can see that it asks us to ask not only “Why Islam?” but shows
us a method of disproving the Quran itself, the Quran being the basis of Islam. When one is on a genuine
quest to determine the truth, nothing is above or exempt from the scrutiny of reason and evidence. The
Quranic proclamation of ratiocination remains a timeless challenge for all those who seriously seek answers
to the question: Why Islam?

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Essay

Animals in Islam, and the Halal Meat
Controversy in Europe
Nadeem Haque
nhaque@mail.com

Not a day goes by that “Islam” is not in the news in the West in one way or another. Most of the news is
negative, where violent actions are associated with “Islam” and ‘Muslims’. It therefore may seem strange
and unexpected to many people in the West that Islam has deep principles connected to ecology, the
environment and animal welfare/adequacy. Having been involved in this field of research since the mid-
1980s, I was thrilled that the French translation of the original version Animals in Islam, written by the late
Al Hafiz B.A. Masri (my grandfather) has been published in French, by the organization Association Droits
Des Animaux, with copious editorial notes by the Editor to update the book (the Editor is Malek Chebel
the noted Islamic writer, and Translator is Sébastien Sarméjeanne).

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With the further advancement of technology, it is possible to stun animals for slaughter: to improve upon
the ‘traditional’ best practices for the principle was pain minimization; it was never supposed to be a fixed
time bound method not subject to improvement over time with the rise of technology. There are several
methods for achieving this ‘stunning’.

What Masri argued for in his book, comprehensively, in his “dialectics of pre-slaughter stunning” was that
captive bolt stunning, where a bolt pierces the brain of the animal followed by cutting the soft structures of
the neck, is compatible with Islam. He deemed, from evidence at hand, that this method was close to the
optimum for slaughtering animals for food, in that it would cause the least pain and allow maximal blood
to outflow out, a requirement for the Islamic dhabh method (which includes the utterance of the recognition
of One God). Masri discussed at length, that this would be in the spirit and letter of the law, with both the
Quran and authentic Hadith. Following the method of stunning using a captive bolt gun by highly trained
personnel and in hygienic abattoir conditions, it would also be in line with the Quranic scientific and rational
methodology, which asks all of us to use reason and evidence, to improve our earthly situation, using
technology and knowledge. After all, it was the Quranic impetus that gave rise to inductive science and that
eventually led to the Renaissance in Europe; such a utilization of technology would therefore be in
consonance with Islamic precepts, rather than against them.

From and Islamic perspective, it is very important to follow the principles, for the details may change over
time due to science and geography, for instance. The four main principles (what I call “Ecognitions”)
identified with respect to animals/nature and the Quran are: that the Creator has ownership of the universe
and we are trustees; that there is a dynamic balance in the universe that we must maintain (mizan (balance
in Arabic) via the “Equigenic Principle”); that all animals live in communities (with all the implications
this has); and finally, all animals have personhood. In being cognizant and employing these integrated
principles, it must be cautioned, as a caveat, that our approach should be open-ended to any counter-
evidence, if we are seeking to fulfill the two logical stipulations of pain minimization and harm reduction
for the consumer of meat. But for now, given the evidence at hand, and common-sense, we ought to follow
the ‘precautionary principle’ based compassion, and this method identified by Masri is the position the
Muslim World must urgently learn to adopt. A failure to understand this, combined with a lack of
understanding of the dabh method among non-Muslims, and the politicization of this issue among political
parties in many European countries, but especially France, have all contributed towards creating misguided
and unnecessary acrimony.

Joyce D’Silva, who played a major role in the publication of Masri’s books through the Athene Trust, a
publishing wing of Compassion in World Farming, who is now CIWF’s roving Ambassador, explained to
me in an email that in 2015 that:

The aim of captive bolt stunning is to render the animal instantaneously insensible to pain,
so that the creature will know nothing of being cut and bleeding out. In this way it will
endure no suffering from that point onwards. The aim is not to kill, but to make the animal
unconscious. As long as the bolt is aimed at the correct position on the head, then this will
be achieved, so it is vital that slaughtermen are properly trained and supervised. Traditional
captive bolt stunning is penetrative, as a retractable bolt enters the skull at high speed. As
this in effect causes an “injury” it is unlikely to be acceptable to the Islamic community.
However, there are non-penetrative stunners, often called percussion stunners, which work
much like a boxer’s fist, delivering a very speedy punch to the skull, which renders the
animal unconscious.

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One of the major problems with non-stun slaughter is restraint of a large animal, such as a
beef animal, that is likely stressed and fearful in a strange environment. Although it should
be possible to get the animal to enter an upright stunning box and use a head restraint to
enable accurate and speedy cutting, in many developing countries such facilities are not
present. Often cattle have the tendons in their hind legs cut, which causes them to fall (in
agony) to the ground where 2 or 3 people hold them down while another delivers the cut.
Although this is common practice, and the meat may be sold as halal, in fact the degree of
injury and suffering afflicted makes it almost certainly non-halal. It is also a highly
dangerous occupation for the workers. (It is vital not to use a trip-floor stunning box where
the animal is turned upside down, which is obviously highly stressful and may cause
injury.)

As mentioned above, the proactive approach to technology is in fact in perfect concordance with the Quran
itself, which was the major factor of the ‘scientific revolution’ before the Scientific Revolution in Europe,
though major figures like the Middle and Far Eastern Unitarians (Muslims) such as Ibn al-Haytham, Ibn
Tufayl, Ibn Bajja, Ibn Rushd, Ibn Sina etc., who either directly or indirectly influenced, and were a bridge
of knowledge to the pre-enlightenment and Enlightenment period and the great European Unitarian
rationalists such as: Servetus, Goethe, Newton, Locke, Voltaire, Priestly, Paine, etc.

Clearly a wider perspective is needed in terms of time (history) and space (teleogenic pointers in the
universe) for dealing with our practical concerns on earth, such as issues pertaining to Animal Welfare and
Advocacy. Recently, a photograph was published of the earth and moon from Saturn. To me, this
photograph, is even more iconic than the one that was taken of the earth used by environmental groups. It
shows two specks in the vast cosmos, floating and bound by the mystery of gravity.

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Earth and orbiting moon from Cassini spacecraft near Saturn

Yet on this speck, we call earth, humans are shedding the blood of non-human animals cruelly for greed,
and decimating the ecology and biosphere. Human greed also dehumanizes us to commit atrocities among
each other, when we should act in a civilized and united fashion, in what can be called rational civility
through higher reasoning. Using higher reasoning, which incorporates compassion and empathy as
necessary core ingredients, our capabilities with respect to technology are to be used to benefit humankind
and all other species, that is, with the motto of understanding the use of nature through the nature of use,
by understanding the nature of nature. This image of the Earth and Moon as minuscule floating dots,
shining reflectively, also brought to us by technology, should make us, in turn, reflectively feel humble that
we are so small in the vastness of intelligently designed cosmic order, and grateful and concerned for this
‘dot’ of the earth, as a viable oasis amidst an uninhabitable solar system. It is in humanity’s joint humility-
gratitude, which is the basis of all understanding and compassion, wherein lies our salvation as a planetary
community, that has affinity with the animals, to treat them the best we can, with respect and dignity, and
in this context of animal slaughtering for food, the best technology. Extending our embrace, such a
cultivated attitude should help us efface the two prime causes of disruption, which are ‘racism’ (an odd
term as no races actually exist: we are one species!) and speciesism, where we now have the capability to
destroy nature which we are a part of, not apart from, many times over.

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Conference Paper

A Critical Analysis of Al-Hafiz B.A. Masri’s Perspective on Islam
and Animal Experimentation29
Nadeem Haque
nhaque@mail.com

Al-Hafiz B.A. Masri

Animal experimentation is taken for granted today, as a practice which is vital for the usufruct of human
beings, irrespective of what ‘belief system’ one belongs to. Among these major world belief systems is
Islam. Can animal experimentation be addressed in the Islamic ethical framework, especially since it was
not practiced as an institution in the past?

29
This was a paper presented by Nadeem Haque at the Ferrater Mora Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics, the “Summer
School 2015: The Ethics of Using Animal in Research”.

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In 1984, the unique Islamic Scholar and activist Al Hafiz Basheer Ahmad Masri, presented a paper for the
first time, on the Islamic approach to animal experimentation. But before we discuss his views, it would be
instructive to review, very briefly, some aspects of Masri’s background and what led him to write about
Animal Welfare in Islam and in particular, animal experimentation.

Al-Hafiz B.A. Masri led a fascinating life, some of which has been recounted in a brief biography30. Masri
was born in then British ruled India in 1914, and had migrated to England in the early 1960s, where he
resided till his demise at the age of 78, in 1992. His father, scholar (Abdur Rahman) converted to Islam
from Hinduism and went to study at Al-Azhar University Egypt. When Basheer was born, Abdur Rahman
kept his promise and started to train the young Basheer on Islamic matters. At the age of seven Abdur
Rahman made him (Basheer) memorize the entire Quran and by the age 13, he had memorized the entire
Quran; hence, he was called “Al-Hafiz” (one who has committed the entire Quran to memory). In time,
Basheer Ahmad Masri graduated with a B.A. (specializing in Arabic) from Government College Lahore –
the most prestigious university in India at the time.

Masri subsequently migrated to Africa and worked with SPCA in East Africa. He eventually became the
principal of two secondary schools in then Tanganyika (in the cities of Arusha and Dar es Salaam). In 1935,
he migrated to Uganda and subsequently helped established the Uganda People`s Congress with Milton
Obote, who later on became the President of Uganda. In early 1960s, Masri studied Journalism in England
(London) – obtaining a qualification in this field and became co-editor of the prestigious The Islamic Review
journal, in the 1960s whilst at the same time being the full-time (Sunni) Imam of Shah Jahan (Woking
Mosque), then the central mosque for the whole of Europe, in terms of influence. In 1968, he left his position
at the mosque and toured over 40 countries with his wife in a car; this trip took three years. He attended Al-
Azhar University for one year, studying Arabic, to advance his knowledge of the language. In his lifetime,
Masri gave over 200 lectures on Islam to wider public (aside from Friday sermons as Imam).
Masri’s interest in the area of concern for animals evolved over the decades from concern primarily for the
rights of human beings, to embrace the wider spectrum of sentience on this planet. He finally wrote his now
classic book: Animals in Islam. His research led him to some questions and conclusions where he was led
to believe that: “The basic and most important point to understand about using animals in science is that
the same moral, ethical and legal codes should apply to the treatment of animals as are applied to humans”
and he posed the pertinent central questions: “(i) Can man’s claim to being the apex of value in the world
be justified?"(ii) If a distinctively religious justification of this claim is offered, what are the moral
implications for how humans may treat other forms of life, animals in particular.” 31

Work on Animal Experimentation

Masri was one of the first, if not the first person in modern times to write about Islam and Animal
Experimentation. In fact, his whole ‘entry’ into this field of research and writing started with a lecture
delivered at the International Conference on Religious Perspectives on the Use of Animals in Science, held

30
Nadeem Haque, “Al-Hafiz B.A. Masri: Muslim, Scholar, Activist – Rebel with a Just Cause”, ed. Lisa Kemmerer
et al, Call to Compassion (New York: Lantern Books, 2011), 185-196.

31
Al-Hafiz B.A. Masri, 1986, “Animal Experimentation: The Muslim Viewpoint”, Ed. Tom Regan, Animal
Sacrifices: Religious Perspectives on the Use of Animals in Science (Philadelphia: Temple University Press), 171.

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in July 1984, in London, England. Here, Masri presented a paper entitled: Islamic Perspectives on the Use
of Animals in Science. His other works on the subject appear as follows:

1. The 1984 conference paper was reprinted in Animal Sacrifices: Religious Perspectives
on the Use of Animals in Science, in 1986 by Temple University Press. Chapter 6:
“Animal Experimentation: The Muslim Viewpoint”, pp. 171-197. Designated as the
“First Paper” in the discussion that follows.
2. “Islam and Experiments on Animals”, was published in International Animal Action
(No. 8), IAAPEA, Hertfordshire, England, published in 1986. Designated as the
“Second Paper” in the discussion that follows.
3. In 1987, his views from works cited in #1 and #2 above, were published in two books:
“Islamic Concern for Animals (in Arabic and English)” which formed the first chapter
of the now classic Animals in Islam, published in 1989, by Compassion in World
Farming, The Athene Trust, Petersfield and an abridged version of Animals in Islam
which was published without the chapter on stunning and pig meat consumption as
Animal Welfare in Islam, by The Islamic Foundation, Leicester, in 2009.
4. Animals in Islam has been published with notes, as Les Animaux en Islam, in 2015, by
Driot Des Animaux, translator Sébastien Sarméjeanne, and preface by noted French
Islamic writer Malek Chebel and includes the discussion on Animal Experimentation.

Masri’s methodology in the First Paper

In 1984, there was a paucity of “Islam” and “Animal Welfare” information in the public domain or within
academia and Masri had to introduce the basic concepts of Animal Welfare advocacy and rights to both
specialists and laypersons. His 1984 paper therefore covers a wider range of subjects, animal
experimentation being only the one of them. Through discussing the Quran and Hadith, Masri showed that
Islam is replete with injunctions on animal welfare and kind treatment. This paper was revised and re-
published in the book Animal Sacrifices. All quotations are from this book, rather than the First Paper,
where minor editorial changes were made. In dealing with vivisection, Masri states:

When the Prophet came to Medina, after his flight from Mecca in 622 C.E., the people
there used to cut off camels’ humps and the fat tails of sheep. The Prophet ordered this
odious practice stopped and declared: “Whatever is cut off an animal, while it is alive, is
carrion and must not be eaten.” 32 These verses refer to cutting living animals for food or
as an offering to idols or gods. But the Islamic prohibition against cutting live animals,
especially when pain results, can be extended to vivisection in science…. We are able to
support this interpretation… [from Hadith where we find] the principle that any
interference with the body of an animal that causes pain or disfigurement is contrary to
Islamic precepts.33

Masri then goes on to quote some Hadith in this regard:

32
Al-Hafiz B.A. Masri, Animal Sacrifices, p. 191. Hadith narrated by Abu Waqid al-Laithi. Tirmidhi and Abu
Dawud. from Mishkat al-Masabih, English translation by James Robson, in four volumes, p. 874 (Lahore, Pakistan,
Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, 1963). Hereafter referred to as Robson.
33
Al-Hafiz B.A. Masri, Animal Sacrifices, p. 191.

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Another Hadith states: “Jabir told that God’s Messenger forbade striking the face and
branding on the face [of animals].” 34

Also, Masri quoted Abu Abbas having reported the Prophet as saying: ‘Do not set up any living creature
as a target.”35

He writes of not only physical, but emotional distress too, where he cites the following Hadith of Prophet
Muhammad:
We were on a journey with the Apostle of God, who left us for a short space. We saw a
hummara (a bird) with its two young, and took the young birds. The hummara hovered
with fluttering wings, and the prophet returned saying, “Who has injured this bird by
taking its young? Return them to her.”36

Masri’s exposition in the Second Paper on Animal Experimentation

“Islam and Experiments on Animals” was Masri’s second paper on the subject. He starts out by stating that
many cruelties that exist now did not at the time of the Prophet Muhammad. The contents of the Second
Paper were included in the books, Islamic Concern for Animals and Animals in Islam in with minor editing,
from which we will quote through these books:
It has been mentioned earlier, that certain kinds of cruelties, which are being inflicted on animals
these days, did not exist at the time of …Prophet Muhammad…and, therefore, they were not specifically
cited in the law…37
Needs are denoted by the word Al-Masaleh in Arabic. Masri goes on to see how Islamic juristic rules define
needs and interests (having defined the hierarchical role of Quran, Hadith and ijtihad (reasoning) in the
First Paper).
The basic consideration of such rules, Masri states, is that “One’s interest does not annul other’s right.”38
The needs can be split, he adds into:

1. The necessities.
2. The requisites.
3. The luxuries.

Then he proceeds to discuss Islamic Juristic Rules to deal with these two types of interests. He cites the
following rules39; summaries have been provided in square brackets, by this writer:

34
Al-Hafiz B.A. Masri, Animal Sacrifices, p. 191. Hadith narrated by Muslim, vol. 1, ch. 3, section 9:265 on “Duty
Towards Animals.” Also Yusul al-Kardawi, The Lawful and Unlawful in Islam (in Arabic), (Cairo, Mektebe Vahba,
1977), p. 293 and Robson, p. 872.
35
Al-Hafiz B.A. Masri, Animal Sacrifices, p. 192. Narrated by Abu Abbas. Muslim. Also Robson, p. 876.
36
Al-Hafiz B.A. Masri, Animal Sacrifices, pp. 184-185. Hadith from Muslim.Alfred Guillaume, The Traditions of
Islam (Beirut, Lebanon, Khayats Oriental Reprinters, 1966) p. 106.
37
Al-Hafiz B.A. Masri, Animals in Islam, (Petersfield: The Athene Trust, 1989), 18.
38
Al-Hafiz B.A. Masri, Animals in Islam, p. 19.
39
Al-Hafiz B.A. Masri, Animals in Islam, p. 19.

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“That without which a necessity cannot be fulfilled is itself a necessity: Is an experiment really necessary
(wajib): if it is, then the following principle come into play”.
“What allures to the forbidden is itself forbidden:” [Experiments performed on animals to produce material
gains that are forbidden in Islam are forbidden.]
“If two evils conflict, choose the lesser evil to prevent the bigger evil: …even genuine experiments on
animals are allowed as an exception and as a lesser evil and not a right.”
“Prevention of damage takes preference of interests or fulfillment of needs”: [This involves weighing the
advantages and disadvantages of an experiment].
“No damage can be put right by [the infliction of] a similar or greater damage: When we damage ourselves
with our own follies, we have no right to make animals suffer by inflicting similar or greater damage.”
(Masri also has one more rule which is: “No damage can be put right”, which appears redundant, in light
of the aforesaid rule).
“Resort to alternatives, when the original becomes undesirable.” [This juristic rule can be applied to
alternatives to animal experimentations.]
“That which becomes permissible for a reason, becomes impermissible by the absence of that reason.” [This
refers to the contextual aspect of laws.]
“All false excuses leading to damage should be repudiated.”

Masri cites two important passages that are applicable to cruelty akin to that in animal experimentation.
These are as follows:

It was not God who instituted the practice of a slit-ear she-camel, or a she-camel let loose
for free pasture, or a nanny goat let loose…(Q. 5:106)
Allah cursed him [Satan] for having said: “I shall entice a number of your servants, and
lead them astray, and I shall arouse in them vain desires: I shall instruct them to slit the
ears of cattle; and most certainly, I shall bid them – so that they will corrupt God’s
creation.” Indeed! He who chooses the Devil rather than God as his patron, ruins himself
manifestly (Q:118:119)40

Masri’s conclusion is that:

Some research on animals may yet be justified, given the Traditions of Islam, only if the
laboratory animals are not caused pain or disfigurement and only if human beings or other
animals would benefit because of the research.
The most important of all considerations is to decide whether the experiment is really
necessary and that there is no alternative for it.

Summary of Masri’s Approach

Masri, in his articles/books uses:
Numerous Hadith, some Quranic verses and Juristic rules to show that Islam is against painful and avoidable
animal experimentation. He also uses numerous Quranic verses to show human and animal relationships as
they ought to be in the Quran. Primarily, the methodology and sources he uses are nature, the Quran and

40
Al-Hafiz B.A. Masri, Animals in Islam, p. 22.

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reason, and he does not involve his discussion in mysticism or appeals to authority, save to corroborate that
which he has arrived at through the aforementioned sources.

Four Foundational Quranic Principles against Painful Animal Experimentation

In an article published41 after Masri’s death, combining further research and some of Masri’s unpublished
works, four interrelated principles do clearly emerge that can be applied to the ethics of Animal
Experimentation. Let us now discuss what these are:

Ecognition 1: All nonhuman animals are a trust from God.
Ecognition 2: Equigenic rights do exist and must be maintained.
Ecognition 3: All nonhuman animals live in communities.
Ecognition 4: All nonhuman animals possess personhood

In Animals and Islam and Islamic Concern for Animals, Masri discusses these topics at length but does not
define them as four foundational principles and does not apply them all to animal experimentation directly.
However, in order to systemize Islamic ethics into a coherent whole, that encapsulates a comprehensive
behavioral paradigm, it was sought by this writer, to develop some new terms. One of these is the term
Ecognition, which has been coined from Ecological Recognition. It will be shown that the ‘ecognitions’
absolutely prohibit animal experimentation that cause physical or psychological harm to animals, and that
the Islamic view is technologically proactive in finding alternatives. In fact, the Islamic view is in complete
consonance with the report on animal experimentation prepared by the Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics.42

Ecognition 1: Ownership

The following Quranic passages speak of ultimate ownership:
To God belongs the dominion over the heavens [all galactical and related intergalactical
systems] and the earth: and God has the power over all things. 3:189
Blessed . . . is He to whom belongs the dominion of the heavens [all galactical and related
intergalactical systems], and the earth; He who has begotten no son, nor has any partner in
His dominion: for it is He who creates, designs and shapes everything, and precisely lays
it out through natural laws, that determine its developmental pathway.43 25:1-2

Proper definition of khalifah

“Khalifah” in Arabic means a successor. It has been used in all places in the Quran simply as meaning this
and does not directly translate as “steward”, “viceregent”, “vicegerent” or “viceroy” of God, that is, as a

41
Nadeem Haque, “The Principles of Animal Advocacy in Islam: Four Integrated Ecognitions”, Society & Animals
19: (2011) 279-290
42
Andrew Linzey and Clair Linzey, eds., Normalizing the Unthinkable: The Ethics of Using Animals in Research, A
report by the Working Group for the Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics, The Ferrater Mora Oxford Centre for Animal
Ethics, 2015.
43
The words describing physical processes used in the translation by this writer (Nadeem Haque) are based on their
Arabic root meanings and the shades of complementary meanings, to give a closer and more accurate rendition of the
actual Quranic message, usually lost in the translation in contemporary English translations of the Quran, especially
concerning scientific matters.

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representative of God44. In fact, khalifah, from the Quran itself can only be properly understood as a
relational concept representing the continuity of peoples/tribes etc. In and of itself, there would be nothing
special about this, were it not for the fact that human beings are a class of ‘free-willed’ entities that can
obey or disobey God.
The Quran says, “We offered the trust [amanata] unto the cosmic systems, the earth and
the mountains, but they shrank from bearing it, being afraid; but the human being assumed
it [i.e. the trust]. [However,] he has proven unjust and ignorant. 33:72

The concept here is that in being grateful to God, the human being can fulfill the trust and therefore, the
‘successor’ is a trustee of the mizan (al-mizan (the balance) is one of the four ecognitions, soon to be
discussed).
This poses the critical question: How is the khalifah (successor) to behave? In order to be put things where
they belong (the opposite meaning of the word zulm) and calm, knowledgeable and rational (the opposite
of juhl), one has to observe the universe purpose and realize many of its attributes including that the rest of
the Universe is greater than the human being and that the human being has been created to see who will
pass the test of the universe:

And He it is who has created the universe and earth in six periods; and His throne [of
power] was on the water, in order to test you to see which of you is best in terms of the
performance of deeds. 11:7

With the verse on the creation of the universe being greater than the creation of the human being, this fact
ought to remind human beings to be humble before creation and that which created it. The place of the
human being, or the khalifah is that of being an animal, categorized by the Qurʾanic word dabbah—a
water/carbon-based creature that can move spontaneously, as described in verse 24:45. Not surprisingly, in
the Quran, it is advised that human-beings be sincerely humble:

It is He who has made the earth compliant. So walk in its tracts and partake of the
provisions laid out by Him  bearing in mind that unto Him is the ultimate return. 67:15
Do not walk on the earth in overbearance  for you can neither split the earth asunder, nor
can you rival the mountains in stature. Such arrogance  the wickedness of it all  is
hateful in the sight of your Sustainer. 17:37-38

Ecognition 2: The Equigenic Principle

This refers to the dynamic equilibrium in nature. In the Quran, it is stated:

It is He [God] who has created the expansive universe and established the balance [mizan],
so that you may not disrupt the balance. Therefore, weigh things in equity and do not fall
short of maintaining that balance. 55:7-9
We have surely sent messengers with clear evidences, and sent them with the Book [the
Qurʾān] and the Balance [the Equigenic Principle], so that human beings may behave with
equity. 57:25

44
Sarra Tlili, Animals in the Quran, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012), 115-123. See an extensive
discussion on this point in this book.

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The term Equigenic (originally used and discussed in From Facts to Values)45 is coined from: Equi,
meaning equal (balanced) and genic (origin). This has two significances:

1. Rights based in the Origin of Equilibrium in Nature (written into the inception – the
Big Bang).
2. Origin of Rights based on Equilibrium in Nature.

That is to say, rights are projected onto us by observing the dynamic balance of nature, through realizing
the interconnections of nature and realizing that they are not man-made or synthetic, but truly natural rights.

Equigenic Principle Implies Design and Reason

The Equigenic principle conveys the balance and precision and an interesting mathematical observation
needs to be mentioned as an aside: The main verse on the balance occurs exactly in the midpoint of the
Quran in Chapter 57, in terms of chapter numbers. The Quran has 114 chapters (114 divided by 2 is 57). In
fact, in the Quran itself mentions the “Goldilocks Zone”, 1,400 years ago when the world was in its Dark
Ages, and most people believed in a flat earth:

He (God) has appointed, precisely established and positioned the earth [both the planet as
a whole, and the earth’s crust itself] for the maintenance and development46 of sentient life
forms [both humans and nonhumans]. 55:10

Al-mizan (the balance) therefore is at the core of the Equigenic Principle, and the Equigenic Principle is
brought about by Ecognition. Elaboratng on the implications of the Equigenic Principle, it becomes clear
from studying the Quran that: Those who are cognizant of the design of the Universe; observe the myriad
signs are the ones who use reason and therefore do not engage in acts which are unclean (disruptive of the
natural order): one of the Arabic words for unclean being rijs. In Figure 1, the causal nexus of this type of
thinking is illustrated and its connection to the word “Islam”, where each concept leads to the next, as
follows, noting the fact that the root of the word zulm is “to dislocate/not put things where they belong”:

Figure 1

One of the meanings of the word Islam is “Peace” (derived from the root s-l-m).

Ecognition 3: Animals in Communities

45
Nadeem Haque, From Facts to Values: Certainty, Order, Balance and their Universal Implications, (Toronto,
Optagon Publications Ltd., 1995).
46
The word wada-aha, used in this passage from the Qurʿān, means a combination of all these meanings: appoint;
precisely establish and position; and maintain and develop, as a careful study of the usage of this word in the Qurʿān
attests.

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The following Quranic verse implies that animal communities are similar in principle and in many details
to human communities and that animals are in many ways are ‘like us’:

There is not a nonflying and two-winged flying [water/carbon-based] creature, but they are
in communities like yourselves. 6:38

Ecognition 4: Animal Personhood

Animal personhood is established in the Quran by three concepts; animal communication, intelligence and
consciousness.

Animal Communication
The Qurʾan, for instance, describes ants communicating meaningfully with one another. An ant is on the
lookout and warns fellow ants of impending doom:

[A]nd then they were led forth in orderly ranks, until, when they came upon a valley of
ants, an ant exclaimed: “O you ants! Get into your dwellings, lest Solomon and his hosts
crush you unawares.” 27:17-18

The ant identifies Solomon and his group, and her own ant community, and seeks to avoid being killed.
Solomon, we are told, not only understood this communication but took delight in the discourse:

Thereupon [Solomon] smiled joyously at her communication. 27:19

Modern scientific corroboration of Quranic verse is exhibited in the following happenstance during field
invesigations. E. O. Wilson encountered a variety of chemicals in his observations of ants:

One message means “Follow me.” Another: “On guard! A threat to the public good is
present.” (This was the message in the scent that Wilson had evoked by picking apart the
tree stump in Rock Creek Park; the alarm pheromone [chemical signal] of [the ant species]
Acanthomyops is essence of citronella.) (Wright, 1988, pp. 128-129)

The ant on the lookout is female in the Quran, also in accord with field observations.

Animal Intelligence
The Arabic word for reason in the Quran is ‘aql, from the root ‘aqala, which is based on iqal, a word which
denotes a cord used to tie a camel’s legs so that it does not run away, and which therefore means “to bind”
and hence “to secure something.” Since nonhuman animals also interconnect things to attain goals, they
also use aql.

Consciousness: The Islamic Concept of Animal ‘Souls’
Many people hold that animals possess no “soul” and hence are not secure by any “religious” sanction
against mistreatment and slaughter. This notion is quite contrary to Islamic teachings. Alongside nafs, there
is another term in the Quran, used in connection with life: ruh. Ruh is generally translated as “soul”: “And
they will ask you about the ruḥ. Say: “This ruḥ is by my Sustainer’s command, and you have been granted
but a small portion [of the body] of knowledge [needed to know its exact nature.]” 17:85

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Ruh is brought into existence by Allah’s creative commandment, and is sustained by His will. To explain
ruh requires a treatise on the subject.47 Both nafs and ruḥ are connected to the created consciousness that
arises from the infinitely rich imagination of God, that is, from His transcendent ever-existing
consciousness, since, logically speaking, created consciousness can only come from and be sustained by a
higher consciousness, according to the Qur’ān.

st
Concepts aiming for Optimal 21 Century Human and Animal Relations

The concept of Personhood in relation to consciousness and creative evolution produces what can be refered
to as “Affinity”: Affinity is a much deeper and more all-encompassing than the concept of ‘brotherhood’
which Muslims usually speak about. It also incorporates the concept of brotherhood, as a subset, based on
a solid linkage of our interconnections as living beings. This emerging New Synthesis is what is exhibited
by modern research into nature and animals and documents such as the Quran; these sources of knowledge
provide the motivation and methodology that can lead to Affinity. How so? Firstly, from the Quran, it can
be shown that all life evolved from constituents in clay and water. Furthermore, all consciousness in
creatures has its origin from One Creator (as the claimed solution to the mind body problem) according to
Quranic analysis.48 Remarkably, one word in the Quran captures the concept of evolution and common
source for consciousness. This word is Rabb, which means Sustainer, that is, one who creates and sustains
all consciousness and creation. Rabb also means: The Evolver unto completion of nature and its
constituents, and the entire universe, or the Cherisher of something from one stage to another until it
reaches perfection. The consequences of such a concept are shown in Fig. 2.

Most people in both East and West, Muslims and non-Muslims, are not aware that the Quran not only
espouses creative evolution, but that the origin of evolutionary theory in the West (though now divorced
from God) in mainstream science has its origin in the Quran and the very early Islamic thinkers. For
example, the word yaum in Arabic does not mean day only, but it can be used to mean periods, as per
Quranic usage. The Earth was created in six periods and God did not need to rest after that! These ideas
were taken up by the first French Evolutionists during the Enlightenment and then passed on to Darwin
(who was learning Arabic)49. The conclusion is that: the origin of all animals (including humans) is one:
therefore, individuality is from same source:

Do those who cover the truth not see that the rest of the universe and the earth were one
piece and We (God) ripped them apart and made every living thing (dabbat (carbon-based
animal)) from water. 21:30

Rabb Figure 2

47
In From Microbits to Everything: Universe of the Imaginator, Volume 2: The Philosophical Implications,
published in Toronto by Optagon Publications limited in 2007, Nadeem Haque and M. Muslim offer a detailed
examination of the ruh, mind and consciousness, and argue for a framework that resolves the mind/body problem.
48
Nadeem Haque and M. Muslim, From Microbits to Everything: Universe of the Imaginator: Volume 2: The
Philosophical Implications, (Toronto: Optagon Publications Ltd., 2007) 163-277.
49
Mehmet Bayrakdar, “Al-Jahiz and the Rise of Biological Evolutionism”, The Islamic Quarterly, Third Quarter,
1983.

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Evolver Sustainer

Affinity

Empathy

Compassion

Action

Justice

Peace

Affinity is further reinforced for a Muslim by the following consideration: What does it mean that: “All
non-human animals prostrate to God”, according to the Quran? As was astutely pointed out by Masri: “The
Qurʾān (24:41) further tells us that nonhuman animals, who offer their obeisance to God in every movement,
know what they are doing. This verse makes it abundantly clear that they are capable of consciously
performing such acts, and, being Muslim (always in total submission to God (one of the complementary
meanings of Islam)), they coexist with their environs in constant, natural genuflection.” In this sense, they
submit to God (the prime meaning of Islam):

Do you not see that unto God prostrate all things that are in the universe and on earth - the
sun, the moon, the stars, the mountains, the trees, the animals, and a large number among
mankind? However, there are many who deserve chastisement... 22:18

Ecognition Implications for Animal Experimentation

The four Ecognitions lay the foundation for rethinking our treatment of animals. Legislation regarding
animals must be seen and assessed in light of each of these Ecognitions, and in light of the interrelationships
between these Ecognitions. With the proper Islamic view of animal personhood, would we cage animals
for transportation to labs (Ecognition 4: Personhood)? If we are the trustees of the balance (Ecognition 2)
because God is the owner (Ecognition 1), then are we not supposed to uphold our responsibilities (i.e. non-
harm to animals to maintain equilibrium) by being conscious of a higher power to whom we are

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accountable? If the rainforest, sustaining countless life forms, and life forms sustaining forests belong to
God, would we purposefully desecrate His property (Ecognition 1) by capturing animals for
experimentation (Ecognition 2: al-mizan (The Balance))? If animals possess personhood and dwell in
communities (Ecognition 3), how can animal experimentation be allowed? Are they then not like human
beings (the supposed “chosen species”, to quote Masri?) If animals have personhood (Ecognition 4) and
feelings (like us), should we treat them cruelly? If we perform painful experiments on animals, do we not
violate all four Ecognitions?

Conclusion

The Quranic and therefore Islamic perspective lays the foundation of nature and its link to the Creator on a
rational basis (Ecognitions). It reinforces the position paper of the Oxford Centre’s on Animal
Experimentation.

Figure 3: The Quranic Ethical System for Animal Welfare Issues

It lays a logical, ethical and motivational (taqwa: God-consciousness) structure, where consistent scripture
and evidence from science are united (or re-united) on this issue. The Quranic position fosters affinity
between human and non-human sentience, diametrically opposed to anthropocentrism, selfishness, and
greed  towards a rational and compassionate teleo-centric perspective that prohibits physically and
psychologically harmful Animal Experimentation.

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Article

Rethinking Bio-Ethics
Dr. Michael W. Fox

Part 1: Animal Insensitivity: Recognition and Prevention

Several years ago in my lectures I would use the term ‘animal-deprivation syndrome’, to describe a
condition of insensitivity and indifference toward animals that was acquired in early childhood. Today, I
regard this condition as an impaired sensitivity toward animals that may or may not be caused by a child
being deprived of any meaningful contact with animals, since other factors are involved in the genesis of
this animal-insensitivity syndrome. It is a cognitive and affective developmental disorder that I see as part
of a larger problem of insensitivity and indifference to the Earth, mother of all life. Ethical blindness that

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comes from a lack of empathy with other living beings and natural systems is linked to a lack of respect
and understanding that when we harm animals and the Earth, we harm ourselves. This is especially true
with regard to our production of food and energy, and indirectly with our dietary choices, consumer habits
and life styles.

We harm animals by destroying their natural habitats, and in making them suffer so that we may find new
and profitable ways to cure our many diseases. The actual prevention of disease is in another domain based
on an entirely different currency from what is still the norm in these sickening times. The currency of
unbridled exploitation and destruction of natural resources and ecosystems, and the wholesale commercial
exploitation of animals, cannot continue because it is not sustainable. One of the greatest sicknesses is the
proliferation of factory livestock farms  the intensive confinement systems that are stressful to the
animals, promote disease, are environmentally damaging and also put consumers at risk.

These animal concentration camps of the meat, dairy and poultry industries will only be phased out when
there is greater consumer demand for organic, humane, and ecologically sustainable animal produce for
human and companion animal consumption.

So I was heartened to see that author Richard Louv has written a book entitled Last Child in the Woods:
Saving Our Children from Nature Deficit Disorder (Algonquin Books). This is the flip side of the coin that
has ‘Heads, Nature’ on one side and ‘Tails, Animals’ on the other. In the common currency of compassion
and respect, our transactions and relationships with each other, with other animals, and the Earth or natural
world, should be framed within the Golden Rule, where gold alone does not rule. This currency includes
such ancient coins of wisdom as altruism, that is, enlightened selfishness; ahimsa, Sanskrit for not harming
in any way, and karma, having prescience and understanding that what goes around, comes around: All our
choices and actions have consequences.

Sustainable rates of exchange are based on mutual aid, a point emphasized by Russian Count Peter
Kropotkin, who envisioned the ideal human community like a functioning ecosystem of inter-dependent,
democratically integrated individuals and species creating a mutually enhancing, symbiotic, micro and
macro communities that he discovered in his studies of the co-evolved flora and fauna of the vast wild
Steppes of his native land. (Finding no dictatorial hierarchy in Nature he coined the term “an-archy”, which
now has negative societal associations and which I would instead term Holarchy). Students can easily
comprehend the interdependence of different species sharing and helping maintain an ecosystem or
functional life-community, gaining respect and a will to emulate within their own communities. The prairie
dog of North America’s Great Plains, for example, is a keystone species relied upon by the Burrowing owl
and endangered Black-footed ferret and more than 150 other species. ( www.americanprairie.org).

Nature Deficit Disorder leads ultimately to regarding and treating the living Earth as a non-living resource,
just as the Animal-Insensitivity Syndrome can lead to animals being treated without feeling, as mere
objects. Insensitive, indifferent, and cruel contact and experiences with animals during the early years,
probably a critical sensitization/desensitization developmental stage or period between 18-36 months of
age, can mean a poorly developed and extremely self-limiting capacity to empathize with others, to be able
to recognize, anticipate, experience and share other’s feelings, and to express and deeply consider one’s
own. Adult rationalization, denial and ethical blindness are rooted in early childhood conditioning and
desensitization leading to acceptance and eventual participation in many forms of animal exploitation and
cruelty. This is vividly documented by British hunt saboteur Mike Huskisson showing children witnessing

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deer and fox hunting and being ritualistically “bloodied” and receiving parts of the murdered animals to
take home either to eat or as prized trophies, mementoes of their presence at the kill. (See his book Outfoxed:
Take Two; Hunting the Hunters and Other Work for Animals, published by Animal Welfare Information
Service, www.acigawis.org.uk).

In some countries such as India where I have worked with my wife Deanna Krantz, we have both witnessed
how people simply turn a blind eye to the suffering animal and the polluted stream because they themselves
are struggling to survive. Individuals who feel helpless become resigned fatalists, or are either lazy, too
busy, desensitized, or too blind to lift a finger to try to make a difference. In some contexts, intervention to
help a suffering animal, or to stop a stream from being poisoned by a tannery or a slaughterhouse, could
mean death threats and violence. (For details see our book India’s Animals: Helping the Sacred and the
Suffering, Create Space books, Amazon.com). Observing another’s suffering, and being unable to do
anything to help, leads to learned helplessness. Seeing other’s suffering, and being indifferent about it, is
the next step toward the total disconnect of empathy, termed bystander apathy. The next step is to observe
and derive vicarious pleasure in witnessing another’s plight. (see “Ways of Seeing: Animals in Life and
Art”. pp. 168-174 in Animals & Nature First by Dr. Michael W. Fox. Create Space books, Amazon.com).
This is but one small step away from deliberate torture and calculated cruelty either perpetrated alone, or
in participation with others as in the name of entertainment, sport, quasi-religious or cult ritual, and as some
see it, experimental vivisection.

Becoming desensitized to animal suffering and then treating animals as mere things, as objects devoid of
sentience, is part of the same currency as treating fellow humans as objects rather than as subjects. Such
dehumanization, coupled with demonization, can lead to genocide, and more commonly to ‘speciesicide.’
This is the annihilation of animal species and their communities that are perceived as a threat.

Our attitudes toward other animals, degree of ethical concern and moral consideration can mirror our regard
for each other, for better or for worse. When collectively, our hearts and minds are open to the tragedy of
reality and we really see and feel all that is going on around us, empathizing fully with other’s suffering,
times will begin to change for the better. As we emphasize in our book about our work for animals and the
environment in India we noted a significant change in the community once our presence and services were
known. Where people would formerly walk past an injured animal by the roadside in apparent indifference,
they would bring the animal to us or call us for help once they knew that we provided a free mobile
veterinary emergency service. Clearly such active compassion was catalyzed by our supplanting fatalistic
despair with hope for animals in need of emergency care.

Why does it matter if animals must be made to suffer and die, and the natural environment be obliterated,
so long as human needs and wants are satisfied? For many people it obviously does not matter, even when
their values and actions harm those who do care and who feel that it does matter; and that it is morally
wrong to harm and kill animals and destroy the natural environment. The ethics of compassion and ahimsa
mandate that we find the least harmful ways to satisfy our basic needs, and relinquish those wants, appetites,
and desires that cause more harm than good. Such renunciation is seen by some as the only hope for
humanity and for our sanity: To live simply so that others may simply live.

Animal suffering matters because it is a matter of conscience. Deliberate cruelty toward animals and
acceptance and indifference toward their plight is unconscionable; a zoopathic state of mind. This parallels
the behavior, and cognitive and affective impairment, of the sociopath, and of the ‘ecopath’ who has no

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twinge of conscience over the destruction of the natural environment. Where there is a lack of empathy, of
feeling for others, there can be neither concern nor conscience.

In his book The Denial of Death, social anthropologist Ernest Becker wrote that our awareness of our
personal mortality creates a degree of anxiety that drives much of our behavior. This spawned the so called
Terror Management Theory which identifies various coping strategies people and societies adopt to defuse
the existential anxiety caused by awareness of our own mortality. Animal protection and rights advocate
Michael Mountain contends: “to alleviate the anxiety we feel over our animal nature, [that we too are mortal
beings] we try to separate ourselves from our fellow animals and to exert control over the natural world.
We tell ourselves that we’re superior to them and that they exist for our benefit. We treat them as
commodities and resources, use them as biomedical “models” or “systems” in research, and force them to
perform for our entertainment.” ( See Denial of Death and the Relationship between Humans and Other
Animals by Lori Marino and Michael Mountain Anthrozoös Vol. 28 , Iss. 1, 2015).

I do not fully accept this theory when it comes to the often cruel and indifferent mistreatment of animals by
individuals and societies because other factors are significant such as dissociation to avoid the pain of
empathy which can underlie passive acceptance and apparent indifference. Also, I would theorize that
cruelty toward animals in childhood has less to do with self-awareness of mortality than a perverse desire
to see how the organism responds to being harmed and with identification with the other’s vulnerability
and an unconscious desire to wipe it out.

Antidotes and Spontaneous Sympathy

The antidotes to inhumanity are many. Those in Richard Louv’s book should be coupled with meaningful
contact with companion and other animals, with parental supervision and humane instruction to foster
respect, self-restraint, gentleness, patient observation and understanding. Humane education immunizes
children against inhumanity and helps keep the doorway of compassion open to the divine and the sacred
presence of other beings and our sense of belonging through kinship with all life.

Thomas Merton's asserts: “Life is this simple: we are living in a world that is absolutely transparent and the
divine is shining through it all the time. This is not just a nice story or a fable, it is true.” This reminds me
of the innocent purity and clarity of childhood perception. Walt Whitman captured this key to empathy in
his poem Leaves of Grass (1900):

There was a child went forth every day.
And the first object he look'd upon, that object he became,
And that object became part of him for the day or a certain part of the day,
Or for many years or stretching cycles of years.

I published the following letter in my syndicated newspaper column Animal Doctor (July 11th 2017) from
a mother whose son demonstrated empathic concern for animals at an early age:

Dear Dr. Fox. I read your recent column about the need to bring more environmental and humane
education into schools and applaud the efforts of your daughter Camilla with Project Coyote, and others
who are doing this. I work for Pro Animale in Germany whose book Memento you recently reviewed, and

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I want to share this about my son’s natural empathy toward animals which was quite independent of any
influences from me during his early years.

Since he started talking when he was only 2 years old I could tell that he has had a very special sense and
empathy for animals and their feelings and needs. When he once saw a just hatched chick in an incubator
at a fair, he did not say “how cute”, he immediately looked concerned and said it looks for its mother we
need to find her. In a wildlife park he saw two raccoons in an enclosure sitting by the fence and said they
look sad and do not want to be fenced in but free. When we were on a boat ride to see seals on a sandbank
the tour operators suddenly let a net down on the bottom of the sea and fished out crabs and other creatures
from there to show to the people and tell them about them. Yukon, 3 years old then, got really mad at the
seamen and told them to let the crabs immediately back into the water, because they do not want to be taken
out. Unfortunately, we were not heard by the seamen even when I said that it is very harmful in general for
the creatures on the bottom of the sea when they let a net down every time they have a boat ride to the
sandbanks. They did not understand because they thought since they put the creatures they fished out in a
tank with water and later back into the sea, that is was okay. When one person said to Yukon “look at these
interesting animals in the tank”, Yukon responded “I look at the animals who are in the sea where they
want to be” and looked down into the water where he couldn’t see any animals but I think he imagined
seeing them there. I was so amazed how a three year old can be more understanding of animals and their
needs than grown up people. I am sure you can tell I am very proud of him.

S.B., Sennfeld, Bavaria, Germany.

DEAR S.B. I am sure that many parents reading your letter will have had similar experiences with their
young children’s reactions to animals affirming my contention that they have a natural affinity for fellow
creatures which is the foundation for empathy and compassion as they mature. But cultural norms with
regard to accepted treatments of animals and the attitudes and reactions of adults can either facilitate or
inhibit the development of empathy, which some regard as being a sissy and not facing reality. Indeed,
empathy can be a burden especially when not supported by others and when not expressed in appropriate
action or choice.

Your son reminds me of my younger daughter Mara who, around the same age as Yukon, said that she was
going to friends at Thanksgiving to eat turkey. Her stepmother and I asked her if she knew what the word
turkey meant. Since she did not know, we gently told her that “turkey” was a bird. Her immediate response
was one of shock and she exclaimed that she would never eat a bird or any animal. She later told us that at
the gathering she refused to eat any turkey but was told that it was OK because the farmer had killed the
bird. From that time on, with no prompting from us, she decided to become a vegetarian. My other two
children Camilla and Mike Jr. decided at a later age to become vegan for ethical, humane and
environmental reasons.

In sum, all children, with rare exception, have the capacity to identify with and show empathy toward
others, the absence of which has been linked to a lack of conscience, feeling for others, dissociation and
sociopathic behaviors in later life. It is an attribute best guided by example and enabling the child to make
informed choices and to share and question openly, without ridicule, how they feel about animals and how
they think they should be treated. For more details, see the seminal book by my former graduate student
Dr. Randall Lockwood, co-authored with Frank K. Ascione. Cruelty to Animals and Interpersonal Violence
published by Purdue University Press.1998.

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A child’s sense of wonder, if it is nurtured and is not crushed or left to wither, blossoms into the adult sense
of the sacred; an ethical sensibility of respect for the sanctity of each and every life. Such sensibility is
invaluable in difficult times as in these, where we see so much abuse of life and irreverent treatment of
other beings with whom we share the kinship of sentience and of genetic ancestry.

A child’s sense of curiosity leads to natural science and instrumental knowledge. Combined with a sense
of wonder, curiosity leads to imagination and creativity, while the sense of the sacred is the foundation for
an ethical and just society, and empathetic, caring and fulfilling relationships, human and non-human. This
empathy-based bioethical and moral sensibility that gives equally fair consideration to all members of the
biotic community, human and non-human, plant and animal, is an ideal that may yet become a reality,
provided the potential for such development is properly nurtured, and reinforced by example, in early
childhood.

One may ask: “How can we deal with the existential anxiety that is engendered by the awareness of our
own mortality?” I think this is not so much in the mind of the child to consider mortality but rather fear of
abandonment; and chronically, lack of attachment during the critical period of socialization, as with dogs
and other mammals. Adults suffering from attachment-deficit disorder (often associated with parental
abuse) are likely to show varying degrees of impaired empathy. Where there is extreme impairment there
can be pathological compensation to reduce personal suffering by making others suffer  classic redirected
aggression. (The pleasure of release from anxiety sometimes leads to sadism and eroticism). Or there is
release/catharsis in the vicarious enjoyment of witnessing the suffering of others as in the coyote-killing
“contests” where families come to watch dogs tear caged coyotes and chained bears apart.

Young boys especially may seek to destroy small creatures because they project their own vulnerabilities
upon them. Obliterating the symbolic “other” is an act of nihilism, symptomatic of pathological narcissism
and of a deeply harmed psyche. Such actions can never fully assuage the existential angst and rage, so they
tend to escalate in severity and criminal degree. There is also the innate fear or phobia of certain species
such as snakes, spiders and mice to consider, boys predominantly showing the fright-fight response and
girls the fright-flight response, such reactions being intensified by highly contagious, (socially facilitated)
group panic reactions and associated fear, hatred and loathing, of others.

Totally antithetical to these reaction formations is that of the dedicated “rescuer” who identifies with the
victim or sufferer, many doing great animal welfare and humanitarian work but others becoming obsessed,
often after some deep emotional trauma of loss. This can undermine their own health, culminating in animal
hoarding and unintended animal cruelty and suffering.

Even children of good nature and nurture are just as likely to accept rather than question and reject the too
often cruel, demeaning and indifferent treatment of others they may witness or learn about, because it is
accepted by their peers and class or caste, community and race, especially when it comes to the mistreatment
animals raised for human consumption and of the poor exploited as cheap labor and conscripted into wars.

Environmental and Humane Education

Young children must be informed as to why it is in everyone’s best interests to care for all animals and the
environment; and what they can do to help. Jane Goodall has set up environmental and humane education
programs (https://www.rootsandshoots.org) in many schools around the world, as have others concerned

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about animals and the natural environment. These include the National Humane Education Society
(https://nhes.org/education-2); in addition, my daughter Camilla Fox’s Project Coyote
(http://www.projectcoyote.org/programs/keeping-it-wild/ ) and another of my former graduate students
Prof. Marc Bekoff (see Rewilding Our Hearts: Building Pathways of Compassion and Coexistence).

All educators need to engage young minds with these concerns (involvement is evolvement) and sow seeds
of hope for their own good and for the revolution in planetary consciousness, conscience and conservation.
Wisdom speaks when we listen with our hearts as when we enter a forest and the forest enters us and when
we empathize with other creatures great and small.

Children ought to learn that every life matters; animals and plants have natural purposes and therefore
extrinsic as well as intrinsic value as well as a will to live. Understanding that some of these purposes (and
wills) such as predation, living by killing others for food and also food territory and mates are natural and
necessary for the greater good of the animal and plant communities. But in such natural acts of killing there
is no justification for humans to act in similar ways in their everyday lives.

Children will be enthralled to discover how so many animals, plants and microorganisms benefit each other
and us, from pollinating honey bees and rain-gathering forests to the good bacteria in the soil and in our
guts without whom we cannot live. There is a wealth of educational materials to help children understand
how similar and often identical our basic needs and feelings are to those of many other animal species,
notably how they too can show fear, experience anxiety, anticipation, grief; exhibit empathy and altruism;
express pleasure in social greeting and care-giving; evidence joy, self-restraint and creative imagination
while engaging in play. Many have physical and sensory attributes from speed, strength and survival skills,
to sonar echo-location and celestial navigation abilities which put a big question on the notion of human
“superiority”. Such knowledge can deepen respect and appreciation for other living beings especially when
coupled with learning how animals have benefitted humanity in a myriad ways since the beginning of
recorded history and continue to do so today even as our companions, teachers and healers.

This brings in the question of human choice, ethical decision making and how best to direct our relative
freedom of will and impulses to avoid harming others and acting like predators, parasites and invasive
infestations. Such analogous behaviors we see on occasion in our own species still ruled by
anthropocentrism and mislead by chauvinistic and other prejudicial, even genocidal ideologies and
societies. We can also examine our own assumed rights, entitlements and cultural traditions against those
within our communities and beyond. Is there more or less accord or more conflict arising from our lack of
family planning around the world with a rising population with an insatiable demand for meat, fish and
other foods from animals on the one hand while millions of others are landless and starving?

To shield children from such realities “until they are old enough to understand” is a form of denial and
obfuscation that I have confronted in giving talks to school children who, from middle-school on should be
encouraged and guided into this realm of human existence and ultimate responsibility

Like our physical health, our mental health and Earth health are deeply interconnected. For us to be whole
in body, mind and spirit, our connections with each other in our communities and cultures and beyond with
animals and the earth must be properly established in early childhood in order to prevent the harmful
consequences of the Nature Deficit Disorder and Animal-Insensitivity Syndrome. Our collective inertia over
doing anything constructive to address such critical issues as human population growth, over-consumption,

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pollution, global warming, and the plight of domestic and wild animals will then become something of the
past. Then initiatives, local and international, to promote planetary CPR  conservation, preservation, and
restoration and to promote the humane treatment of animals, will become a reality, because, in the final
analysis, it is enlightened self-interest to do so.

When we harm animals and the Earth, we harm ourselves, and the generations to come will all suffer the
consequences of our actions and inaction. As the Iroquois Confederacy advised, the good of the life
community mandates that we think seven generations ahead, and seven generations back. This translates
into the bioethical consideration of consequences, and in practice means that those who do not learn from
the mistakes of their ancestors shall live only to repeat them.

Part 2 Bioethics: Bringing Ethics to Life

Ethics is the evaluation of human conduct and moral judgement, the scope of which has increased over the
past two centuries in spite of the opposition of a host of vested interests in preserving the status quo of
racism, sexism, speciesism and other forms of discrimination and exclusion from moral consideration and
legal protection. Progressive acceptance of human rights and responsibilities has also facilitated the
consideration of animals’ rights and our moral obligations toward them, along with environmental ethics
 how we treat our shared environment.

The scope of ethics has clearly increased from being primarily human-centered to becoming life-centered
bioethics. Bioethics expands the moral imperative of the Golden Rule50 (of treating others as we would
have them treat us) to give equal consideration to all living beings and the natural environment/ Earth’s
creation.

The core principle of bioethics is respect for all life, Albert Schweitzer MD asserting that without reverence
for all life we will never know world peace. From his perspective as a physician this simple injunction calls
on us to find ways to avoid causing harm to others, human and non-human, animal and plant, to the land
and water and the air we share in satisfying our basic needs. Living by this principle is enlightened self-
interest for our own health and ultimate well-being. It is a challenge and our collective responsibility.
Current societal conflict over human euthanasia, abortions and executions is indicative of moral and
personal values and beliefs overriding compassion and fundamental bioethics.

Finding alternative ways to cause the least harm calls for putting expediency and profits aside, as with the
use and misuse of antibiotics and pesticides, and the identification, qualification and quantification of
potential harms as well as their concatenation and summation. If crops were grown more ecologically and
pigs and other farmed animals kept more humanely, the respective, routine use of pesticides and antibiotics
would be virtually eliminated and consumer health and food safety enhanced. Consequential harms can be
avoided by applied bioethics and sound science, as with the issue of neonicotinoid seed treatment that kills
pollinating insects where seeking to avoid one harm (crop damaging insects encouraged by certain farming
practices) causes a series of other harms of far greater magnitude.

Earthday 2017 World-Wide March for Science

50
This Rule, embraced by all world religions, is to treat others as we would have them treat us.

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I was in sympathy with fellow scientists across America and abroad who marched together in hundreds
cities around the world on Earth Day, April 22nd, 2017, to champion independent research and scientific
fact. Many expressed concerns over the Trump administration’s denial of the scientific consensus on the
anthropogenic causes and remedies of climate change and global warming, and his proposal to cut federal
funding for basic scientific research from cancer to conservation of endangered species along with
dismantling the Environmental Protection Agency.

Such anti-American and anti-science initiatives are irrational but self-serving. The highly consumptive and
disruptive human population’s intensifying and calamitous contribution to climate change and associated
extinction of species, ecosystems and once sustainable communities, human and non-human, cannot be
denied. Nor can public policy and governance be sanctioned by the negation of reason, responsibility and
sound science for short-term profit regardless of the externalities or hidden costs and adverse consequences.
I am concerned about the corruption of scientific objectivity and ethics and also about scientific
determinism which has served to advance and protect vested corporate interests and bolster pseudo-
philanthropic imperialism. Science has been used and abused to further investors’ ends as with the limited
safety testing of pesticides and other petrochemical and pharmaceutical products and also of genetically
engineered crops approved by governments world- wide. Science is now being suppressed selectively, even
seen as subversive when presenting evidence of harm from various marketed products and corporate
industrial activities that are not adequately regulated, if at all.

Science is limited and potentially harmful when not founded on the basic bioethical principles of right
mindfulness, right relationships and right living. These principles stipulate the governance of our singular
and collective actions and relationships under the Hippocratic injunction: First do no harm.

This translates into our relationships with Nature  ecosystems, species and communities: Do not disturb.
With the soil and water: Do not poison and deplete. With other animals, plants and our own kind: Do not
hurt. These empathy-directed, rational bioethical principles engender compassion, respect for life and the
morality of lawful order and justice for all. My friend the late Fr. Thomas Berry saw this bioethical
incorporation as birthing the Ethicozoic Age, the next stage in human evolution in this Anthropocene epoch
where ethics and governance are consonant with seeking the greatest good beginning with planetary CPR
 conservation, restoration and protection. Like other species long gone, the choice is ours; either evolve
or perish.

Changing hearts and minds

There is no reverence for life in the dominant culture of the global biotechnological imperialism with its
false promises and casuist proclamations of progress and necessity. Patented GMOs (genetically modified
crops) have done more to impoverish and disenfranchise indigenous peoples than benefit the poor and the
malnourished. Patented pigs, genetically engineered to ostensibly cause less pollution and gene-edited to
serve as organ donors for humans are profit-driven non- solutions to problems we continue to create that
have a multiplier effect on our failing global economy as well as environmental and public health.

This destructive juggernaut of technological and industrial imperialism cannot be stopped by reason, sound
science, good governance and rule of law alone but by what economist-philosopher E.F. Shumacher called
“metanoia”, a change of mind and heart involving a total revision of values, beliefs, perception and purpose
(beyond making money) within the dominant culture of today. Some corporations and industries are indeed

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exhibiting signs of metanoia in addressing issues such as energy use, pollution and economic sustainability,
a revolution/evolution most evident in the organic, ecological and humane farming movements. With
metanoia, facilitated by brining bioethics to bear on all human activities. biotechnology and other advances
in science and technology may begin to address and rectify the core problems that humanity has created for
itself and now faces, from over-population and energy and natural resource needs to air, food and water
quality, safety and availability; and all the factors that are driving species’ extinction, loss of viable habitat,
aquatic and terrestrial, and climate change affecting all planetary life.

Much suffering we bring upon ourselves, our families, our communities, and other animals, wild and
domesticated, when we are not mindful of the consequences of our actions and fail to examine the truths
we live by. We are challenged to live as harmlessly as possible in a culture of consumerism where life is
treated as a commodity along with Nature’s resources. Albert Schweitzer wrote: “A man is ethical only
when life, as such, is sacred to him, that of plants and animals, as that of his fellow-men, and when he
devotes himself helpfully to all life that is in need of help.”

As animals have served and benefited us for millennia and continue to do so in myriad ways, so we benefit
the more we serve and help them as our wards, companions, healers, teachers, patients and friends  all of
whom are related to us, but are more ancient, if not wiser than we. The bond that people have with the
animals in their lives must become a boundless circle of compassion, expanding to encompass all living
beings, domestic and wild, captive and free, if we are to justify keeping any animal as a domesticated
companion beyond our selfish needs. Also, if not eating animals and their products and parts on a daily
basis causes less harm, then why are not most people’s meals vegan and vegetarian?

Why Save the Last of the Wild?

All biodiversity-rich, natural ecosystems and bioregions around the world, terrestrial and aquatic, are in
urgent need of CPR  conservation, protection and restoration. They are endangered by human
encroachment and overexploitation as by climate changing deforestation, mining, hydroelectric dam
building, agricultural and cattle and other livestock decimation.

Spiritually, especially to many endangered indigenous peoples, these places are sacred. Scientifically they
are unique habitats rich in animal and plant diversity essential to sustain our need for clean air and water
and to help correct and stabilize climate change. Economically they are genetic biobanks for society, not
only for tourism but for biologics and microbiota of medical, agricultural and other industrial use. Ethically
they represent our ancestral roots, the biological and evolutionary history of Earth's creation that all must
cherish if not for Nature's sake, then at least out of enlightened self-interest. Environmental CPR of all
Federal and State owned and leased lands should be a top national security issue and priority, and not as an
obstacle to progress. If we do not secure the present, there can be no future.

Educationally these natural, “wild” but variously degraded places are galleries and libraries of inspiration
and information. But we will not have a jungle for the last of the tigers or forest for America’s lions a
generation from now if planetary CPR is not adopted by every nation state, kingdom and principality. The
health of one affects the health of others. Wisdom speaks when we listen with open minds and hearts as
when we enter a forest and the forest enters us. And when we empathize with other living beings we are
moved to treat them as we would have them treat us  and live in closer accord with the Golden Rule.

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How many groups reaching into grade schools to inform children about the importance of conservation and
respect for all life are being adequately funded, staffed and even allowed? Certainly not enough. Young
children must be informed as to why it is in everyone’s best interests to care---and what they can do to help.
My old friend Jane Goodall has set up environmental and humane education programs
(https://www.rootsandshoots.org) in many schools around the world, as have others concerned about
animals and the natural environment. These include my daughter Camilla Fox
(http://www.projectcoyote.org/programs/keeping-it-wild/ ) and one of my former graduate students Prof.
Marc Bekoff (see Rewilding Our Hearts: Building Pathways of Compassion and Coexistence). Teachers
must deal with the issue of despair, apathy and hopelessness one side and denial and indifference on the
other. But none the less we do need to engage young minds and sow seeds of hope for their own good and
for the revolution/evolution of planetary consciousness, conscience and conservation. It is within the
intellectual reach of middle-grade school children to comprehend the connections between the world’s
escalating environmental, ecological, economic and societal crises. With such perception, solutions global
and local, great and small, may then be found.

Afterword

The limited ethical constraint over our exploitation of others has been long condoned by society and the
justice system. It arises from the core of our inhumanity, the cruelties and injustices of which the human
and animal rights and environmental protection movements have long documented. The recovery of our
humanity from the insanity of our collective inhumanity and chauvinism is an evolutionary challenge. The
dawning of Self-awareness is our awakening to the realization of the spiritual and ethical dimensions and
connections of human existence, experience and relationship and of the universal and universalizing nature
of selfhood shared with all living beings. Cosmologically, biologically and ecologically we and all life are
related and interdependent. The existential truth of the miraculous presence of other sentient and sapient
life forms in Nature’s abundance affirms our sense of the sacred and kinship with all life; inspires reverence
for all beings; awakens our empathic sensitivity and ethical sensibility to transcend our human-centeredness
to express our humanity through compassionate action, humility and loving kindness toward all our
relations.

Contributors

Nadeem Haque
Nadeem Haque is a researcher and the author of several nonfiction and philosophical fiction
books, as well as numerous articles focusing on several areas at the frontiers of knowledge:
consciousness, the foundations of evolution, physics unification, the history and philosophy of
science, environmentalism, animal rights and human history. His main goal has been to show the
unity between “science” and “religion”—one of the most crucial areas facing humanity today.

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Nadeem Haque is the grandson of pioneering Islamic scholar al-Hafiz B. A. Masri, who wrote the
book Animals in Islam and whose work he has now extended. He resides in Canada where he
works as a professional civil engineer, having graduated from King’s College, University of
London. He is also Director of the Institute of Higher Reasoning (see the Facebook page
https://www.facebook.com/instituteofhigherreasoning). Among his books are: From Facts to
Values: Certainty, Order, Balance and their Universal Implications; From Microbits to Everything:
Universe of the Imaginator, and his philosophical science-fiction novella: Escape from Sirius: The
Doomsday Protocol.

Dr. Jaafar Sheikh Idris
Dr. Jaafar Sheikh Idris is considered one of few Muslim Scholars of high repute this era who has
grasped thoroughly the philosophical knowledge of both Islam and Western Ideologies. He has
worked on and stressed reason and Islam: the neglected foundation. Dr. Idris has authored many
articles and research papers and visited many countries around the world where he has lectured
in Arabic and English. After that, he joined University of Khartoum where he completed his
education and earned his bachelor’s degree in the Philosophy of Science. He then traveled to
the United Kingdom (University of London) to complete his postgraduate studies, where he
earned his Ph.D. His Facebook page is: https://www.facebook.com/jaafaridris

Mohammed Muslim
Mohammed Muslim (aka “The Bridge”) graduated from Osgoode Hall Law School, Ontario,
Canada, practiced law in Toronto. He now works in Africa, where he has a very active legal
practice and also serves as an educator at the university level, including being a Registrar for
Academic Excellence at a major African university. He has written numerous works, in various
areas, including, law, physics, developmental economics, and social development. He was the
co-author with Nadeem Haque in their major challenge to the scientific status-quo, and proposed
unification of knowledge, in Volumes 1 and 2 Microbits’ book series: From Microbits to Everything.

Dr. Michael W. Fox
Dr. Michael Fox, is a world renowned veterinarian and bioethicist, who currently writes the
syndicated newspaper column Animal Doctor with Universal Uclick and the author of numerous
books on animal welfare. He is the former Vice President of the Human Society of the United
States. For further discussion visit www.drfoxvet.net and see Fox’s Bringing Life to Ethics: Global
Bioethics for a Humane Society published by the State of New York University Press and The
Boundless Circle: Caring for Creatures & Creation, Quest Books.

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