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Chapter 2: Fluid Flow and Conjugate Heat Transfer

2.1. Introduction
This tutorial illustrates the setup and solution of a problem involving heat transfer between a Newtonian
fluid and a cooled circular die. Along with a good die design, rheological and thermo physical properties
of the melt and the thermal settings in the die are very important in obtaining a geometrically well-
defined polymer product. The heat transfer calculation is important when temperature-sensitive polymers
are shaped and when product surface qualities are of critical importance. The temperature field at the
die exit influences the swelling and drawing behavior of the product.

In this tutorial, you will solve the non-isothermal flow problem for the fluid and the heat conduction
in the die, making some assumptions regarding the rheological and thermo physical properties of the
melt.

In this tutorial you will learn how to:

Start Polydata from Workbench.

Create a new task.

Create multiple sub-tasks.

Define a Newtonian non-isothermal flow problem.

Define a Heat conduction problem.

Set material properties and boundary conditions for a fluid-solid heat conduction and flow problem.

2.2. Prerequisites
This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the menu structure in Polydata and Workbench and
that you have solved or read 2.5D Axisymmetric Extrusion (p. ?). Some steps in the set up procedure
will not be shown explicitly.

2.3. Problem Description


This tutorial examines the coupled problem of non-isothermal flow of a Newtonian fluid and heat
conduction in an axisymmetric steel die. As shown in Figure 2.1: A Schematic Diagram of the Fluid and
the Circular Die (p. 2), the melt enters the domain at a fixed temperature and a given flow rate of
= 180C and =0.6e06 m3/s, respectively. The problem involves flow, heat transfer by conduction
and convection, and heat generation by viscous dissipation. Energy, momentum, and incompressibility
equations are solved in the fluid domain. The energy equation for heat conduction is solved in the
solid domain.

To solve the coupled problem, two sub-tasks are defined: one for the fluid (sub-task 1) and the other
for the solid (sub-task 2). Each sub-task will contain a particular model, domain of definition, material

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Fluid Flow and Conjugate Heat Transfer

properties, and boundary conditions, including interface conditions with the other sub-task. The sub-
tasks are coupled, because the global solution of the problem depends on the values of the solution
variables at the intersection of the fluid and solid domains.

Figure 2.1: A Schematic Diagram of the Fluid and the Circular Die

The material properties for the fluid are as follows:

= density (950 kg/m3)

= Newtonian viscosity (2500 Pas)

= heat capacity per unit mass (2300 J/kg-K)

= thermal conductivity (0.5 W/m-K)

Viscous heating is taken into account. For the solid region, the thermal conductivity is 35 W/m-K.

The boundary sets for the problem are shown in Figure 2.2: Boundaries and Sub-domains (p. 3), and
the conditions at the boundaries of the domains are as follows:

boundary 1: flow inlet, = 180C, = 0.6 106 m3/s

intersection of subdomain 1 and subdomain 2: interface

boundary 2: insulated

boundary 3: = 100C

boundary 4: insulated

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Preparation

boundary 5: flow exit

boundary 6: symmetry axis

Figure 2.2: Boundaries and Sub-domains

2.4. Preparation
To prepare for running this tutorial:

1. Prepare a working folder for your simulation.

2. Go to the ANSYS Customer Portal, https://support.ansys.com/training.

Note

If you do not have a User Name and Password, you can register by clicking Customer
Registration on the Log In page.

3. Enter the name of this tutorial into the search bar.

4. Narrow the results by using the filter on the left side of the page.

a. Click ANSYS Polyflow under Product.

b. Click 15.0 under Version.

5. Select this tutorial from the list.

6. Click Files to download the input and solution files.

7. Unzip the Fluid-Solid_R150.zip file you have downloaded to your working folder.

The mesh file flusol.msh can be found in the unzipped folder.

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Fluid Flow and Conjugate Heat Transfer

8. Start Workbench from Start All Programs ANSYS 15.0 Workbench 15.0.

2.5. Step 1: Project and Mesh


1. Create a Fluid Flow (Polyflow) analysis system by drag and drop in Workbench.

2. Save the ANSYS Workbench project using File Save, entering fluid_solid as the name of the
project.

3. Import the mesh file (flusol.msh).

4. Double-click the Setup cell to start Polydata.

When Polydata starts, the Create a new task menu item is highlighted, and the geometry for the
problem is displayed in the Graphics Display window.

2.6. Step 2: Models, Material Data, and Boundary Conditions


In this step, define a new task representing the fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer problem. The flow
problem for the fluid and the heat conduction in the solid is solved in two different sub-tasks. However, the
task attributes are the same for both the sub-tasks, so define a single task for the coupled problem.

1. Create a task for the model.

Create a new task

2. Select the following options:

F.E.M. task

Steady-state problem(s)

2D axisymmetric geometry

Since the problem involves an axisymmetric steel die, the computational domain for the problem is
chosen to be a 2D cylindrical reference frame (r,z) with r=0 as the axis of symmetry, and involves two
velocity components (u,v); hence 2D axisymmetric geometry has been chosen. A Steady-state condition
is assumed for the problem.

3. Click Accept the current setup.

The Create a sub-task menu item is highlighted.

2.7. Step 2a: Definition of Sub-Task 1


In this step, define the flow problem, identify the domain of definition, set the relevant material properties
for the Newtonian fluid, and define boundary conditions along its boundaries.

1. Create the sub-task for the fluid flow.

Create a sub-task

a. Select Generalized Newtonian non-isothermal flow problem.

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Step 2a: Definition of Sub-Task 1

A panel appears asking for the title of the problem.

b. Enter fluid as the New value and click OK.

The Domain of the sub-task menu item is highlighted.

2. Define the domain where the sub-task applies.

To solve the coupled problem, the computational domain is divided into two sub-domains with a
common intersection. A sub-task with its own model, material properties, and boundary conditions
is defined on each of the non-overlapping subdomains. Sub-task 1 is defined for SUBDOMAIN_1,
since SUBDOMAIN_1 represents the fluid (as shown in Figure 2.2: Boundaries and Sub-do-
mains (p. 3)).

Domain of the sub-task

a. Select SUBDOMAIN_2 and click Remove.

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SUBDOMAIN_2 is moved from the top list to the bottom list, indicating that subtask 1 is defined
on SUBDOMAIN_1.

b. Click Upper level menu at the top of the panel.

The Material data menu item is highlighted.

3. Specify the material properties for the fluid.

Polydata indicates which material properties are relevant for your sub-task by graying out the irrelevant
properties. In this sub-task, Polyflow solves energy, incompressibility and momentum equations, so you
have to define viscosity, density, thermal conductivity, heat capacity per unit mass, and viscous heating.
For a non-isothermal flow problem, the viscosity can depend on both shear rate and temperature. In
this case, the viscosity is constant, so it depends on neither of them.

Material Data

a. Click Shear-rate dependence of viscosity.

Since the fluid flow is Newtonian, specify a constant value for the viscosity.

i. Click Constant viscosity.

ii. Specify the value for .

Modify fac

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Step 2a: Definition of Sub-Task 1

Polydata prompts for the new value of .

iii. Enter 2500 as the New value and click OK.

iv. Click Upper level menu two times to continue the Material Data specification.

b. Select Temperature dependence of viscosity.

i. Select No temperature dependence.

Polydata displays the following message, confirming that there is no temperature dependence
for the viscosity.

ii. Click OK.

iii. Click Upper level menu to continue the Material Data specification.

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c. Click Density.

In this problem, specify a constant value for the density.

Modification of density

i. Enter 950 as the New value and click OK.

ii. Click Upper level menu to continue the Material Data specification.

d. Click Thermal conductivity.

As shown at the top of the menu, the thermal conductivity is defined as a nonlinear function of
the temperature:
(2.1)

In this problem, the thermal conductivity is assumed to be a constant for the fluid so only the
constant coefficient is modified.

Modify a

i. Enter 0.5 as the New value and click OK.

ii. Click Upper level menu to continue with the Material Data specification.

e. Click Heat capacity per unit mass.

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Step 2a: Definition of Sub-Task 1

As shown at the top of the menu, the heat capacity per unit mass is defined as a non-linear
function of temperature:
(2.2)

The temperature variation of differs with the nature of the polymer melts. In this problem, is
assumed to be constant, so only the constant coefficient is modified.

Modify a

i. Enter 2300 as the New value and click OK.

ii. Click Upper level menu to continue with the Material Data specification.

f. Click Viscous heating.

When shearing occurs in a flow, the friction of the different fluid layers generates heat. When the
fluid is highly viscous and/or the shear rate is high, the heating of the fluid caused due to this
phenomenon must be taken into account.

i. Select Viscous heating will be taken into account.

ii. Click Upper level menu to return to the Material Data specification.

g. Click Upper level menu to return to the fluid menu.

The Flow boundary conditions menu item is highlighted.

4. Specify the flow boundary conditions for SUBDOMAIN_1.

Flow boundary conditions

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a. Set the conditions along the intersection of SUBDOMAIN_1 and SUBDOMAIN_2.

The intersection acts as a wall for the fluid, and since the fluid is assumed to stick to the wall, zero
normal and tangential velocities is imposed along this boundary.

i. Retain the default condition Zero wall velocity (vn=vs=0) along SUBDOMAIN_2.

b. Set the conditions at the flow inlet (BOUNDARY_1).

i. Select Zero wall velocity (vn=vs=0) along BOUNDARY_1 and click Modify.

ii. Click Inflow.

iii. Retain the default settings, Automatic and Volumetric flow rate.

iv. Click Modify volumetric flow rate.

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Step 2a: Definition of Sub-Task 1

v. Enter 0.6e-06 as the New value in the dialog box that appears, and click OK.

The flow rate of the melt is very low due to the highly viscous nature of the melt.

When the Automatic option is selected, Polydata automatically chooses the most appropriate
method to compute the inflow condition.

vi. Click Upper level menu.

c. Set the conditions at the flow exit (BOUNDARY_5).

It is assumed that a fully developed velocity profile is reached at the exit, so the outflow condition
is most appropriate. This condition imposes a zero normal force, (which includes a pressure
term), and zero tangential velocity, .

i. Select Zero wall velocity (vn=vs=0) along BOUNDARY_5 and click Modify.

ii. Click Outflow.

d. Retain the default, Axis of symmetry along BOUNDARY_6.

For axisymmetric models, Polydata recognizes the axis of symmetry from the mesh file, and auto-
matically imposes the symmetry condition along the line r=0. This condition imposes a zero normal
velocity and zero tangential force along this boundary.

e. Click Upper level menu at the top of the Flow boundary conditions menu to return to the fluid
menu.

The Thermal boundary conditions menu item is highlighted.

5. Specify the thermal boundary conditions for SUBDOMAIN_1.

For non-isothermal problems, specify either the temperature or the heat flux on each boundary segment.
The temperature along a given boundary can be a constant or a prescribed function of coordinates.

Thermal boundary conditions

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a. Set the conditions at the intersection of SUBDOMAIN_1 and SUBDOMAIN_2.

An interface condition is set at the intersection of subdomain 1 and subdomain 2. This condition
ensures continuity of the temperature field and of the heat flux along the interface. Since you are
solving a coupled problem, this condition of continuity is essential for the global solution of the
temperature and heat flux variables.

i. Select Temperature imposed along SUBDOMAIN_2 and click Modify.

ii. Click Interface.

iii. Click Upper level menu to accept the default setting (continuous heat flux along the interface).

In the case of an interface condition, both the heat flux and temperature are usually continuous
along the interface. It is possible to specify a nonzero value for the heat flux jump ( ), but
this is mainly used in problems where internal radiation is simulated. Here, accept the default
value for the definition of heat flux discontinuity, = 0.

b. Set the conditions at the flow inlet (BOUNDARY_1).

A constant value for the temperature is imposed along this boundary.

i. Select Temperature imposed along BOUNDARY_1 and click Modify.

ii. Click Temperature imposed.

iii. Select Constant.

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Step 2b: Definition of Sub-Task 2

Polydata prompts you for the new value of the constant temperature.

iv. Enter 180 as the New value and click OK.

v. Click Upper level menu to return to the Thermal boundary conditions menu.

c. Set the conditions at the flow outlet (BOUNDARY_5).

A zero conductive heat flux is imposed along this boundary.

i. Select Temperature imposed along BOUNDARY_5 and click Modify.

ii. Click Outflow.

d. Retain the default, Axis of symmetry along BOUNDARY_6.

e. Click Upper level menu twice to return to the F.E.M. Task 1 menu.

2.8. Step 2b: Definition of Sub-Task 2


In this step, define the heat conduction problem, identify the domain of definition, set the relevant material
properties for the solid, and define the boundary conditions along its boundaries.

1. Create a sub-task for the solid.

Create a sub-task

a. Polydata asks if you want to copy data from an existing sub-task.

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b. Click No, since this sub-task has different parameters associated with it.

c. Click Heat conduction problem.

A small panel appears asking for the title of the problem.

d. Enter solid as the New value and click OK.

The Domain of the sub-task menu item is highlighted.

2. Define the domain where the sub-task applies (SUBDOMAIN_2).

Domain of the sub-task

a. Select SUBDOMAIN_1 and click Remove.

b. Click Upper level menu.

The Material data menu item is highlighted.

3. Specify the material properties for the solid.

Material Data

In this problem, specify a constant value for the thermal conductivity .

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Step 2b: Definition of Sub-Task 2

a. Click Thermal conductivity.

In this problem, thermal conductivity is assumed to be a constant, so only the constant coefficient
is modified.

i. Select Modify a.

ii. Enter 35 as the New value and click OK.

b. Click Upper level menu two times to return to the solid menu.

4. Specify the thermal boundary conditions for SUBDOMAIN_2.

In this step, set the conditions at each of the boundaries of the domain. When a boundary set is
selected, it is highlighted in red in the graphics window.

Thermal boundary conditions

a. Set the conditions at the intersection of SUBDOMAIN_1 and SUBDOMAIN_2.

An interface condition is set at the intersection of the sub-domains.

i. Select Temperature imposed along SUBDOMAIN_1 and click Modify.

ii. Click Interface.

iii. Click Upper level menu to accept the default option for continuity of temperature and heat
flux.

b. Set the conditions at the bottom boundary of the solid (BOUNDARY_2).

A zero conductive heat flux is imposed along this boundary.

i. Select Temperature imposed along BOUNDARY_2 and click Modify.

ii. Click Insulated boundary / symmetry.

c. Set the conditions at the outer boundary of the solid (BOUNDARY_3).

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A constant value for the temperature is imposed along this boundary.

i. Select Temperature imposed along BOUNDARY_3 and click Modify.

ii. Click Temperature imposed.

iii. Select Constant.

Polydata prompts you for the new value of the constant temperature.

iv. Enter 100 as the New value and click OK.

v. Click Upper level menu to return to the Thermal boundary conditions menu.

d. Set the conditions at the top boundary of the solid (BOUNDARY_4).

A zero conductive heat flux is imposed along this boundary.

i. Select Temperature imposed along BOUNDARY_4 and click Modify.

ii. Click Insulated boundary / symmetry.

e. Click Upper level menu three times to return to the top-level Polydata menu.

2.9. Step 3: Save the Data and Exit Polydata


After defining your model in Polydata, save the data file. In the next step, read this data file into Polyflow
and calculate a solution.

Save and exit

Polydata asks you to confirm the current system units and fields that are to be saved to the results file
for postprocessing.

1. Click Upper level menu.

This confirms that the default units are correct.

A panel appears, asking if you want to activate convergence strategy.

2. Click No.

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Step 5: Postprocessing

In this instance, the convergence strategy will not assist Polyflow in reaching a solution as the problem
is quasi-linear.

3. Click Accept.

This confirms that the default Current field(s) are correct.

4. Click Continue.

This accepts the default names for graphical output files (cfx.res) that are to be saved for postpro-
cessing, and for the Polyflow format results file (res).

2.10. Step 4: Solution


Run Polyflow to calculate a solution for the model you just defined using Polydata.

1. Run Polyflow by right-clicking the Solution cell of the simulation and selecting Update.

This executes Polyflow using the data file as standard input, and writes information about the problem
description, calculations, and convergence to a listing file (polyflow.lst).

2. Check for convergence in the listing file.

a. Right-click the Solution cell and select Listing Viewer....

Workbench opens the View listing file panel, which displays the listing file.

b. It is a common practice to confirm that the solution proceeded as expected by looking for the
following printed at the bottom of the listing file:
The computation succeeded.

2.11. Step 5: Postprocessing


Use CFD-Post to view the results of the Polyflow simulation.

1. Double-click the Results cell in the Workbench analysis and read the results files saved by Polyflow.

CFD-Post reads the solution fields that were saved to the results file.

2. Align the view.

Right-click the Graphics window and select View from +Z under Predefined Camera.

(Or you can click +Z on the axis triad in the graphic window.)

The central-mouse button allows you to zoom in and zoom out.

The left-mouse button allows you to rotate the image.

The right-mouse button allows you to translate the image.

3. Display contours of pressure.

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a. Click the Insert menu and select Contour or click the Contour button ( ).

b. Click OK to accept the default name (Contour 1) and display the details view below the Outline
tab.

c. In the details view for Contour 1, specify the following settings under Geometry:

i. Next to Locations, click the ellipsis button ( ) on the right and select SUBDOMAIN_1_surf
and SUBDOMAIN_2_surf (use Ctrl to select multiple items).

Click OK to close the Location Selector dialog box.

ii. Select PRESSURE from the Variable drop-down list, or click the ellipsis button ( ) on the
right and select PRESSURE.

iii. Click Apply.

Most of the pressure drop occurs in the upper part of the die where the cross section is smallest (Fig-
ure 2.3: Pressure Contours (p. 19)). The pressure is linear except in the contraction zone. The isobars are
perpendicular to the flow direction, as expected for the fully developed flow that occurs in the second
part of the die.

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Step 5: Postprocessing

Figure 2.3: Pressure Contours

4. Display contours of velocity.

a. In the details of Contour 1, select VELOCITIES from the Variable drop-down list.

b. Click Apply.

The velocity is higher in the second part of the die where the cross-section is smaller (Figure 2.4: Velocity
Distribution (p. 20)). It reaches a maximum value in the center of the thin tube.

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Fluid Flow and Conjugate Heat Transfer

Figure 2.4: Velocity Distribution

5. Display velocity vectors.

a. In the Outline tab, under User Locations and Plots, deselect Contour 1.

b. Define the vectors.

i. Click the Insert menu and select Vector or click the button.

ii. Click OK to accept the default name, Vector 1.

iii. In the Geometry tab of the details view of Vector 1, click the button next to Locations.

iv. Select the location SUBDOMAIN_1 and click OK to close the Location Selector dialog box.

v. In the Symbol tab, select Arrow 3D and increase the Symbol Size to 3.

vi. Click Apply.

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Step 5: Postprocessing

Figure 2.5: Velocity Vectors

The flow is fully developed in the downstream part of the die (Figure 2.5: Velocity Vectors (p. 21)). Observe
the classical parabolic velocity profile. The Poiseuille flow is rapidly reached after the contraction because
inertia is not taken into account here.

6. Display of the temperature distribution in the solid and the fluid regions.

a. Deselect the vectors.

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Fluid Flow and Conjugate Heat Transfer

Deselect Vector 1 in the Outline tab under User Locations and plots.

b. Select the domain.

Select SUBDOMAIN_1 Hex and SUBDOMAIN_2 Hex in the Outline tab under Mesh Regions.

c. Define the contour plot.

i. In the graphic window, right-click the left-hand domain.

ii. Under Color, select Temperature.

iii. Repeat the above operations (i) and (ii) for the right-hand domain.

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Step 5: Postprocessing

Figure 2.6: Temperature Distribution (Celsius)

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Figure 2.7: Temperature Distribution (Kelvin)

As expected, the temperature gradients are larger in the fluid than in the die, (the isolines are closer
together in the fluid than in the diesee Figure 2.6: Temperature Distribution (Celsius) (p. 23)). This is
because the conductivity of the fluid is much lower than the conductivity of the solid. The temperature
isolines are perpendicular to the boundaries where the (normal) flux becomes zero. The heating of the
fluid due to viscous dissipation can be clearly seen. In order to visualize contours in Kelvin, select the
Edit/Options... menu item, click Units under Common, select K from the Temperature drop-down
menu, and click OK.

7. Plot the temperature along a line at y = 0.006 m.

a. Define the stating and ending points of the line.

i. Select Line from the Location drop-down menu ( ).

ii. Click OK to accept the default name (Line 1) and display the details view below the Outline
tab.

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Step 5: Postprocessing

iii. Select Two Points from the Method drop-down list.

iv. Enter 0, 6, and 0 for Point 1 and enter 8, 6, and 0 for Point 2.

Note

You will need to ensure that your unit of length is set to meter in CFD-Post.

v. Click Apply.

b. Create a plot.

i. Click the Insert menu and select Chart or click the Chart button ( ).

ii. Click OK to accept the default name (Chart 1) and display the details view below the Outline
tab tree.

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Fluid Flow and Conjugate Heat Transfer

iii. In the General tab, ensure XY is selected for the Chart Type and enter Temperature
Profile for the Title.

iv. In the Data Series tab, select Line 1 from the Location drop-down list.

v. In the X Axis tab, select X from the Variable drop-down list.

vi. In the Y Axis tab, select Temperature from the Variable drop-down list.

vii. Click Apply.

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Summary

Figure 2.8: Temperature Profile Along the Line Y = 0.006 m

The thermal boundary layer located along the die wall is clearly visible. This boundary layer is the result
of the low thermal conductivity and high heat capacity of the fluid. The temperature of the fluid at the
center is not affected by the low temperature of the solid. The heat does not diffuse quickly enough
through the fluid layer to reach the axis of symmetry, before the fluid exits the die.

2.12. Summary
This tutorial introduced the coupling of sub-tasks of different types: a non-isothermal flow problem and
a heat conduction problem in a solid. Coupled calculations like this are very useful in polymer processing
applications where thermal effects are critical (for example: extrusion, coating, fiber spinning). Coupling
can also be applied through fields other than temperature (for example: electrical potential and pressure
in porous media).

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