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2.1. Introduction

This tutorial illustrates the setup and solution of a problem involving heat transfer between a Newtonian

fluid and a cooled circular die. Along with a good die design, rheological and thermo physical properties

of the melt and the thermal settings in the die are very important in obtaining a geometrically well-

defined polymer product. The heat transfer calculation is important when temperature-sensitive polymers

are shaped and when product surface qualities are of critical importance. The temperature field at the

die exit influences the swelling and drawing behavior of the product.

In this tutorial, you will solve the non-isothermal flow problem for the fluid and the heat conduction

in the die, making some assumptions regarding the rheological and thermo physical properties of the

melt.

Set material properties and boundary conditions for a fluid-solid heat conduction and flow problem.

2.2. Prerequisites

This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the menu structure in Polydata and Workbench and

that you have solved or read 2.5D Axisymmetric Extrusion (p. ?). Some steps in the set up procedure

will not be shown explicitly.

This tutorial examines the coupled problem of non-isothermal flow of a Newtonian fluid and heat

conduction in an axisymmetric steel die. As shown in Figure 2.1: A Schematic Diagram of the Fluid and

the Circular Die (p. 2), the melt enters the domain at a fixed temperature and a given flow rate of

= 180C and =0.6e06 m3/s, respectively. The problem involves flow, heat transfer by conduction

and convection, and heat generation by viscous dissipation. Energy, momentum, and incompressibility

equations are solved in the fluid domain. The energy equation for heat conduction is solved in the

solid domain.

To solve the coupled problem, two sub-tasks are defined: one for the fluid (sub-task 1) and the other

for the solid (sub-task 2). Each sub-task will contain a particular model, domain of definition, material

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Fluid Flow and Conjugate Heat Transfer

properties, and boundary conditions, including interface conditions with the other sub-task. The sub-

tasks are coupled, because the global solution of the problem depends on the values of the solution

variables at the intersection of the fluid and solid domains.

Figure 2.1: A Schematic Diagram of the Fluid and the Circular Die

Viscous heating is taken into account. For the solid region, the thermal conductivity is 35 W/m-K.

The boundary sets for the problem are shown in Figure 2.2: Boundaries and Sub-domains (p. 3), and

the conditions at the boundaries of the domains are as follows:

boundary 2: insulated

boundary 3: = 100C

boundary 4: insulated

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Preparation

2.4. Preparation

To prepare for running this tutorial:

Note

If you do not have a User Name and Password, you can register by clicking Customer

Registration on the Log In page.

4. Narrow the results by using the filter on the left side of the page.

7. Unzip the Fluid-Solid_R150.zip file you have downloaded to your working folder.

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Fluid Flow and Conjugate Heat Transfer

8. Start Workbench from Start All Programs ANSYS 15.0 Workbench 15.0.

1. Create a Fluid Flow (Polyflow) analysis system by drag and drop in Workbench.

2. Save the ANSYS Workbench project using File Save, entering fluid_solid as the name of the

project.

When Polydata starts, the Create a new task menu item is highlighted, and the geometry for the

problem is displayed in the Graphics Display window.

In this step, define a new task representing the fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer problem. The flow

problem for the fluid and the heat conduction in the solid is solved in two different sub-tasks. However, the

task attributes are the same for both the sub-tasks, so define a single task for the coupled problem.

F.E.M. task

Steady-state problem(s)

2D axisymmetric geometry

Since the problem involves an axisymmetric steel die, the computational domain for the problem is

chosen to be a 2D cylindrical reference frame (r,z) with r=0 as the axis of symmetry, and involves two

velocity components (u,v); hence 2D axisymmetric geometry has been chosen. A Steady-state condition

is assumed for the problem.

In this step, define the flow problem, identify the domain of definition, set the relevant material properties

for the Newtonian fluid, and define boundary conditions along its boundaries.

Create a sub-task

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Step 2a: Definition of Sub-Task 1

To solve the coupled problem, the computational domain is divided into two sub-domains with a

common intersection. A sub-task with its own model, material properties, and boundary conditions

is defined on each of the non-overlapping subdomains. Sub-task 1 is defined for SUBDOMAIN_1,

since SUBDOMAIN_1 represents the fluid (as shown in Figure 2.2: Boundaries and Sub-do-

mains (p. 3)).

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Fluid Flow and Conjugate Heat Transfer

SUBDOMAIN_2 is moved from the top list to the bottom list, indicating that subtask 1 is defined

on SUBDOMAIN_1.

Polydata indicates which material properties are relevant for your sub-task by graying out the irrelevant

properties. In this sub-task, Polyflow solves energy, incompressibility and momentum equations, so you

have to define viscosity, density, thermal conductivity, heat capacity per unit mass, and viscous heating.

For a non-isothermal flow problem, the viscosity can depend on both shear rate and temperature. In

this case, the viscosity is constant, so it depends on neither of them.

Material Data

Since the fluid flow is Newtonian, specify a constant value for the viscosity.

Modify fac

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Step 2a: Definition of Sub-Task 1

iv. Click Upper level menu two times to continue the Material Data specification.

Polydata displays the following message, confirming that there is no temperature dependence

for the viscosity.

iii. Click Upper level menu to continue the Material Data specification.

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Fluid Flow and Conjugate Heat Transfer

c. Click Density.

Modification of density

ii. Click Upper level menu to continue the Material Data specification.

As shown at the top of the menu, the thermal conductivity is defined as a nonlinear function of

the temperature:

(2.1)

In this problem, the thermal conductivity is assumed to be a constant for the fluid so only the

constant coefficient is modified.

Modify a

ii. Click Upper level menu to continue with the Material Data specification.

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Step 2a: Definition of Sub-Task 1

As shown at the top of the menu, the heat capacity per unit mass is defined as a non-linear

function of temperature:

(2.2)

The temperature variation of differs with the nature of the polymer melts. In this problem, is

assumed to be constant, so only the constant coefficient is modified.

Modify a

ii. Click Upper level menu to continue with the Material Data specification.

When shearing occurs in a flow, the friction of the different fluid layers generates heat. When the

fluid is highly viscous and/or the shear rate is high, the heating of the fluid caused due to this

phenomenon must be taken into account.

ii. Click Upper level menu to return to the Material Data specification.

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Fluid Flow and Conjugate Heat Transfer

The intersection acts as a wall for the fluid, and since the fluid is assumed to stick to the wall, zero

normal and tangential velocities is imposed along this boundary.

i. Retain the default condition Zero wall velocity (vn=vs=0) along SUBDOMAIN_2.

i. Select Zero wall velocity (vn=vs=0) along BOUNDARY_1 and click Modify.

iii. Retain the default settings, Automatic and Volumetric flow rate.

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Step 2a: Definition of Sub-Task 1

v. Enter 0.6e-06 as the New value in the dialog box that appears, and click OK.

The flow rate of the melt is very low due to the highly viscous nature of the melt.

When the Automatic option is selected, Polydata automatically chooses the most appropriate

method to compute the inflow condition.

It is assumed that a fully developed velocity profile is reached at the exit, so the outflow condition

is most appropriate. This condition imposes a zero normal force, (which includes a pressure

term), and zero tangential velocity, .

i. Select Zero wall velocity (vn=vs=0) along BOUNDARY_5 and click Modify.

For axisymmetric models, Polydata recognizes the axis of symmetry from the mesh file, and auto-

matically imposes the symmetry condition along the line r=0. This condition imposes a zero normal

velocity and zero tangential force along this boundary.

e. Click Upper level menu at the top of the Flow boundary conditions menu to return to the fluid

menu.

For non-isothermal problems, specify either the temperature or the heat flux on each boundary segment.

The temperature along a given boundary can be a constant or a prescribed function of coordinates.

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Fluid Flow and Conjugate Heat Transfer

An interface condition is set at the intersection of subdomain 1 and subdomain 2. This condition

ensures continuity of the temperature field and of the heat flux along the interface. Since you are

solving a coupled problem, this condition of continuity is essential for the global solution of the

temperature and heat flux variables.

iii. Click Upper level menu to accept the default setting (continuous heat flux along the interface).

In the case of an interface condition, both the heat flux and temperature are usually continuous

along the interface. It is possible to specify a nonzero value for the heat flux jump ( ), but

this is mainly used in problems where internal radiation is simulated. Here, accept the default

value for the definition of heat flux discontinuity, = 0.

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Step 2b: Definition of Sub-Task 2

Polydata prompts you for the new value of the constant temperature.

v. Click Upper level menu to return to the Thermal boundary conditions menu.

e. Click Upper level menu twice to return to the F.E.M. Task 1 menu.

In this step, define the heat conduction problem, identify the domain of definition, set the relevant material

properties for the solid, and define the boundary conditions along its boundaries.

Create a sub-task

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Fluid Flow and Conjugate Heat Transfer

b. Click No, since this sub-task has different parameters associated with it.

Material Data

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Step 2b: Definition of Sub-Task 2

In this problem, thermal conductivity is assumed to be a constant, so only the constant coefficient

is modified.

i. Select Modify a.

b. Click Upper level menu two times to return to the solid menu.

In this step, set the conditions at each of the boundaries of the domain. When a boundary set is

selected, it is highlighted in red in the graphics window.

iii. Click Upper level menu to accept the default option for continuity of temperature and heat

flux.

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Fluid Flow and Conjugate Heat Transfer

Polydata prompts you for the new value of the constant temperature.

v. Click Upper level menu to return to the Thermal boundary conditions menu.

e. Click Upper level menu three times to return to the top-level Polydata menu.

After defining your model in Polydata, save the data file. In the next step, read this data file into Polyflow

and calculate a solution.

Polydata asks you to confirm the current system units and fields that are to be saved to the results file

for postprocessing.

2. Click No.

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Step 5: Postprocessing

In this instance, the convergence strategy will not assist Polyflow in reaching a solution as the problem

is quasi-linear.

3. Click Accept.

4. Click Continue.

This accepts the default names for graphical output files (cfx.res) that are to be saved for postpro-

cessing, and for the Polyflow format results file (res).

Run Polyflow to calculate a solution for the model you just defined using Polydata.

1. Run Polyflow by right-clicking the Solution cell of the simulation and selecting Update.

This executes Polyflow using the data file as standard input, and writes information about the problem

description, calculations, and convergence to a listing file (polyflow.lst).

Workbench opens the View listing file panel, which displays the listing file.

b. It is a common practice to confirm that the solution proceeded as expected by looking for the

following printed at the bottom of the listing file:

The computation succeeded.

Use CFD-Post to view the results of the Polyflow simulation.

1. Double-click the Results cell in the Workbench analysis and read the results files saved by Polyflow.

CFD-Post reads the solution fields that were saved to the results file.

Right-click the Graphics window and select View from +Z under Predefined Camera.

(Or you can click +Z on the axis triad in the graphic window.)

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Fluid Flow and Conjugate Heat Transfer

a. Click the Insert menu and select Contour or click the Contour button ( ).

b. Click OK to accept the default name (Contour 1) and display the details view below the Outline

tab.

c. In the details view for Contour 1, specify the following settings under Geometry:

i. Next to Locations, click the ellipsis button ( ) on the right and select SUBDOMAIN_1_surf

and SUBDOMAIN_2_surf (use Ctrl to select multiple items).

ii. Select PRESSURE from the Variable drop-down list, or click the ellipsis button ( ) on the

right and select PRESSURE.

Most of the pressure drop occurs in the upper part of the die where the cross section is smallest (Fig-

ure 2.3: Pressure Contours (p. 19)). The pressure is linear except in the contraction zone. The isobars are

perpendicular to the flow direction, as expected for the fully developed flow that occurs in the second

part of the die.

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Step 5: Postprocessing

a. In the details of Contour 1, select VELOCITIES from the Variable drop-down list.

b. Click Apply.

The velocity is higher in the second part of the die where the cross-section is smaller (Figure 2.4: Velocity

Distribution (p. 20)). It reaches a maximum value in the center of the thin tube.

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Fluid Flow and Conjugate Heat Transfer

a. In the Outline tab, under User Locations and Plots, deselect Contour 1.

i. Click the Insert menu and select Vector or click the button.

iii. In the Geometry tab of the details view of Vector 1, click the button next to Locations.

iv. Select the location SUBDOMAIN_1 and click OK to close the Location Selector dialog box.

v. In the Symbol tab, select Arrow 3D and increase the Symbol Size to 3.

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Step 5: Postprocessing

The flow is fully developed in the downstream part of the die (Figure 2.5: Velocity Vectors (p. 21)). Observe

the classical parabolic velocity profile. The Poiseuille flow is rapidly reached after the contraction because

inertia is not taken into account here.

6. Display of the temperature distribution in the solid and the fluid regions.

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Deselect Vector 1 in the Outline tab under User Locations and plots.

Select SUBDOMAIN_1 Hex and SUBDOMAIN_2 Hex in the Outline tab under Mesh Regions.

iii. Repeat the above operations (i) and (ii) for the right-hand domain.

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Step 5: Postprocessing

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As expected, the temperature gradients are larger in the fluid than in the die, (the isolines are closer

together in the fluid than in the diesee Figure 2.6: Temperature Distribution (Celsius) (p. 23)). This is

because the conductivity of the fluid is much lower than the conductivity of the solid. The temperature

isolines are perpendicular to the boundaries where the (normal) flux becomes zero. The heating of the

fluid due to viscous dissipation can be clearly seen. In order to visualize contours in Kelvin, select the

Edit/Options... menu item, click Units under Common, select K from the Temperature drop-down

menu, and click OK.

ii. Click OK to accept the default name (Line 1) and display the details view below the Outline

tab.

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Step 5: Postprocessing

iv. Enter 0, 6, and 0 for Point 1 and enter 8, 6, and 0 for Point 2.

Note

You will need to ensure that your unit of length is set to meter in CFD-Post.

v. Click Apply.

b. Create a plot.

i. Click the Insert menu and select Chart or click the Chart button ( ).

ii. Click OK to accept the default name (Chart 1) and display the details view below the Outline

tab tree.

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Fluid Flow and Conjugate Heat Transfer

iii. In the General tab, ensure XY is selected for the Chart Type and enter Temperature

Profile for the Title.

iv. In the Data Series tab, select Line 1 from the Location drop-down list.

vi. In the Y Axis tab, select Temperature from the Variable drop-down list.

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Summary

The thermal boundary layer located along the die wall is clearly visible. This boundary layer is the result

of the low thermal conductivity and high heat capacity of the fluid. The temperature of the fluid at the

center is not affected by the low temperature of the solid. The heat does not diffuse quickly enough

through the fluid layer to reach the axis of symmetry, before the fluid exits the die.

2.12. Summary

This tutorial introduced the coupling of sub-tasks of different types: a non-isothermal flow problem and

a heat conduction problem in a solid. Coupled calculations like this are very useful in polymer processing

applications where thermal effects are critical (for example: extrusion, coating, fiber spinning). Coupling

can also be applied through fields other than temperature (for example: electrical potential and pressure

in porous media).

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