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Crane Beam Design

Data Input :

Crane Capacity = 50 kN
Span between crane rails = 15 m
Weight of crane = 30 kN
Weight of crab = 10 kN
Minimum hook approach = 0.7 m
End carriage wheel c/c = 1.5 m
Span of crane girder = 6 m
Self weight of crane girder = 8 kN

1) Maximum Wheel Loads, Moments and Shear (Referring to the Figure A)

Maximum static wheel load at A = 36.10 kN


Vertical wheel load, including impact = 45.13 kN
Horizontal surge load transmitted by
friction to the rail through four wheels = 1.5 kN

Load factors, Yf:


Dead load - self weight = 1.4
Vertical load and horizontal crane loads considered separately = 1.6
Vertical load and horizontal crane loads acting together = 1.4

Calculations : (Referring to the Figure A)


a) Moments:
Dead load:
Rb = 4 kN
Mc = 5.91 kNm

Crane load, including impact:


Rb = 39.48 kN
Mc = 103.65 kNm

Crane loads with no impacts:


Mc = 82.92 kNm

Maximum horizontal moment due to crane surge:


Rb = 1.3125 kN
Mc = 3.45 kNm

b) Shear:
Maximum vertical shear:
Dead load:
Ra = 4 kN
Crane loads, including impacts:
Ra = 78.97 kN

Introducing the load factors :


1) Vertical crane loads wit impact and no horizontal crane load.
Maximum moment, Mc = 174.10 kNm
Maximum shear, Fc = 131.95 kN
2) Horizontal crane loads and vertical crane loads with no impact.
Maximum horizontal moment, Mc = 5.5125 kNm
Maximum vertical moment, Mc = 140.93625 kNm
3) Vertical crane loads with impact and horizontal crane loads acting together.
Maximum vertical moment, Mc = 153.37 kNm
Maximum horizontal moment, Mc = 4.82 kNm
Try section : 356x171x45 UB + 254x76 Channel (Enter data in plastic and elastic
Buckling resistance for the X-X axis properties sheet)

Effective length, LE= 6000 mm


Slenderness, LE/ry = 89.68
Factors modifying slenderness:
Buckling parameter, u = 1.0 (conservatively)
Icf = Ix (channel) + 1/2 Iy (UB) = 3772.5 cm4
Itf = 1/2 Iy UB = 405.5 cm4
N= 0.90
hs (distance from centre of bottom flange to centroid of channel web) = 346.63 mm
Torsion constant: J = 559542.24 mm4
Area, A = 9333 mm2
Torsional index, x = 25.34
Monosymmetry index for a T section for a T section with lipped flanges, j where:
DL = depth of the lip = 76.2 mm
D = Overall depth = 359.5 mm
j= 0.713
Slenderness factor, n = 0.67
From table 19, for N = 0.90 ,and l/x = 3.54 , n = 0.74 Table 19
n= 0.74
Equivalent slenderness factor = 66.36
Py = 265 N/mm2
Pb = 195 N/mm2 Get from Table 16, BS5950-1:2000
The buckling resistance, Mb = 198.45 kNm

Moment capacity for the top section for the Y-Y axis :
Zy = 297.00 cm3
Mcy = 78.70 kNm

Check beam in bending:


1) Vertical moment, no horizontal moment:
Mx = 174.10 kNm < Mb = 198.45 kNm OK!
2) Vertical moment no impact + horizontal moment:
(Mx/Mb) + (My/Mcy) = 0.78 < 1.0 OK!
3) Vertical moment with impact + horizontal moment:
(Mx/Mb) + (My/Mcy) = 0.83 < 1.0 OK! 1

Crane girder is SATISFACTORY! in bending.

Check beam in shear:


Py = 369.52 kN
Max. factored shear = 131.95 kN OK!

Weld between channel and UB: Refer to Figure :


Horizontal shear force in each weld = 0.25 kN/mm
Provide 6 mm continous fillet (weld strength from Table 4.5 = 0.9kN/m)
Web buckling and bearing:
Assume a stiffened bracket 150 mm wide, stiff bearing length, b1 allowing
3 mm clearance between the beams = 73.5 mm
Slenderness = 111.29
Compressive strength = 108 N/mm2
Buckling resistance:
Pw = 188.3952 kN
Factored reaction : 131.95 kN
Bearing capacity = 228.63 kN OK!

Local compression under wheels:


Assume 25 kg/m crane rail is used, and the height H R = 65 mm
Bearing capacity = 307.19 kN
Factored crane wheel load = 72.2 kN OK!

Deflection:
Vertical deflection limit = Span/600 = 10.00 mm
Horizontal deflection due to the crane surge limit = 12 mm
The vertical deflection at the centre with the loads in position for maximum moment is :
a= 1875 mm E= 205000 N/mm2
c= 2625 mm I = 183353057 mm4
L= 6000 mm

PL3/48EI = 4.32
3(a+c)/L-4(a +c )/L =
3 3 3
1.79
5wL3/384EI = 0.60

d= 8.35 mm

If the loads are placed equidistant about the centre line of beam a = c = 2250 mm,
3(a+c)/L-4(a3+c3)/L3= 3(2a)/L-4(2a3)/L3 = 1.828125
d= 8.50 mm
Maximum deflection = 8.50 mm OK!

Horizontal deflection due to the surge loads = 1.56 mm OK! 1

The crane girder is SATISFACTORY! with respect to deflection


Plastic Properties

UB SECTION PROPERTIES CHANNEL SECTION PROPERTIES


mm cm mm cm
D 351.4 35.14 D 254 25.4
B 171.1 17.11 B 76.2 7.62
t 7 0.7 t 8.1 0.81
T 9.7 0.97 T 10.9 1.09
d 311.6 31.16
A (cm2) = 36.03
A (cm2) = 57.3

Locate Equal Area Axis


Total Area = 91.8532
(A) 45.93 = 45.93 (B)
Trial and error
y= 4.086 cm Do until (A) = (B)

Locate Centroids of Compression and Tension Areas

Compression Area Tension Area


Area moments about top Area moments about bottom
No Area y Ay No Area y Ay
1 20.57 0.405 8.33 1 16.60 0.49 8.05
2 16.60 1.295 21.49 2 21.63 16.42 355.03
3 7.14 2.45 17.48 3 7.70 28.33 218.26
4 1.61 2.933 4.73 Total A = 45.93 Total Ay = 581.34
Total A = 45.93 Total Ay = 52.04 y2 = 12.66
y1 = 1.13 cm

z= 22.16 cm

y1= 11.33 mm
y2 = 126.58 mm
Lever Arm, z = 221.59 mm
Plastic Modulus, Sx = 1017.68 cm3
cm
UB SECTION PROPERTIES CHANNEL SECTION PROPERTIES
mm cm mm cm
D 351.4 35.14 D 254 25.4
B 171.1 17.11 B 76.2 7.62
t 7 0.7 t 8.1 0.81
T 9.7 0.97 T 10.9 1.09
d 311.6 31.16 Cy 18.5 1.85

A= 57.3 cm2 A= 36.03 cm2


Ix = 12100 cm4 Ix = 3367 cm4
Iy = 811 cm4 Iy = 162 cm4

ry = 6.69 cm Centroid of channel web and UB flange:


y (from top) = 8.02 mm

For combined section:


From top, y = 114.41 mm
Ix = 18335.31 cm4