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International College of Business and Technology

Assignment Title : Identify standard methods and techniques of


measurements, application of IT and future measurement
works with IT

Module Title : Measurement for Construction Works

Module No : QS 503

Lecturer : Ms. K. S. Kavitha

From : B. B. Chathuranga Fernando (NG/HNDQS/10/26)

Date of submission : 2017.02.26


Programme Higher National Diploma in Quantity
Unit 09 JACS Code K240
Surveying & the Built Environment

Module Number QS 503 Module Title Measurement for Construction Works

Credit Value 15 Module Level H2 Module Value 1.0

Assessment Assessment 01 Assessment Weighting 30%


Identify standard methods and techniques of measurements, application of IT and
Assignment Title
future measurement works with IT.
Lecturer K. S. Kavitha
B.B.Chathuranga
Student Name Student Number NG/HNDQS/10/26
Fernando

Handed Over on 17th January 2017 Due Date 24th February 2017

Date Submitted Pass/ Re-Submission

Course Leader Mr. N.G.A.M.Jayathilake

Module Leader Ms. Kavitha

Internal Verifier Ms. Harshi Madubashini Date Verified 8/1/2017

Developed by The Department of Engineering and Construction - ICBT Campus

Final Grade Fail Pass Merit Distinction

Initial Assessor

Assessors Signature Date Assessed

2nd Assessor

Comments
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to express my special gratitude and deepest appreciation to The


International College of Business and Technology and most of all, our lecturer, Mrs. K. S.
Kavitha, for a successful report on Measurement for Construction Works and giving all the
required knowledge, encouragements and unerring guidance.

Furthermore, it is my great pleasure to bestow my sincere thanks to every other lecturers


who helped me specially Ms. Harshi Madubhashini and Ms. Vathsala Somachandra and my
mother and my friends specially for encouraging me and the support and knowledge we shared.

Finally, I would like to thank everyone who helped me in various ways to convert this
report into a successful one.

Measurement for Construction Works ~i~


TABLE OF CONTENT

Acknowledgements ..................................................................................................................... i
Table of Content ........................................................................................................................ii
Table of Figures ....................................................................................................................... iii
1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 1
2. Task 01 ............................................................................................................................... 2
2.1 Importance of Standard Method of Measurement....................................................... 2
2.2 Standard Methods of Measurement Used in Construction Works .............................. 3
3. Task 02 ............................................................................................................................... 9
3.1 Bill of Quantities ......................................................................................................... 9
3.2 Production of Bill Of Quantities ............................................................................... 10
3.3 Format of Standard TDS Sheet ................................................................................. 11
3.4 Format of Standard Query Sheet ............................................................................... 13
3.5 Format of Bill of Quantities ...................................................................................... 14
4. Task 03 ............................................................................................................................. 18
4.1 Computer Based Tools And Applications in Measurements .................................... 18
4.2 Future of Quantity Surveying Practice With Advance IT Application ..................... 21
5. Conclusion ....................................................................................................................... 24
6. References ........................................................................................................................ 25

Measurement for Construction Works ~ ii ~


TABLE OF FIGURES

Figure 2-1 SMM7 Front ............................................................................................................. 4


figure 2-2 SMM7 classification table ........................................................................................ 4
figure 2-3 NRM 2....................................................................................................................... 6
figure 2-4 SLS 573:1999 front ................................................................................................... 7
figure 2-5 CESMM 4 front ........................................................................................................ 8
figure 3-1 Dimension paper (face side) ................................................................................... 11
figure 3-2 Dimension paper (reverse side)............................................................................... 11
figure 3-3 Standard TDS sheet in modern day......................................................................... 12
figure 3-4 Example use of TDS sheet ...................................................................................... 12
figure 3-5 Query sheet ............................................................................................................. 13
figure 3-6 Elemental BOQ breakdown structure for simple building (source: nrm2) ............. 14
figure 3-7 Work section boq structure (source: nrm2)............................................................. 15
figure 3-8 Work package breakdown structure for discreet works .......................................... 15
figure 3-9 Sample bill formats under breakdown structures (source: nrm2) ........................... 16
figure 3-10 Sample format of boq ............................................................................................ 17
figure 3-11 BOQ format in practice ......................................................................................... 17
figure 4-1 Microsoft Excel ....................................................................................................... 19
figure 4-2 Autodesk Autocad ................................................................................................... 20
figure 4-3 Augmented reality with architect ............................................................................ 21
figure 4-4 Use of augmented reality ........................................................................................ 22

Measurement for Construction Works ~ iii ~


1. INTRODUCTION
What is measurement?

Values made meaningful by counting into specific units. Measurements perform as labels
which make those values more useful in terms of details.

Measurements are so often taken for granted we sometimes do not appreciate the grand
importance measurements play in our lives. On a baseline level, measurements fall into the
categories of weight, area, volume, length and even temperature. Lets take look at some day
to day activities to have idea about the importance of measurement,

Taking Medicine, if u r ill (Serious or minor) you need to take your medicine in
proper amounts or should be given in proper amount. What would be the result if
its given in the doze of nurses thought?
Purchasing clothes, now just imagine an overweight person in a small tee shirt. How
would it look?
Making estimations, just think if a pilot doesnt have proper idea of the fuel levels
in his plane and hes flying long distance, how catastrophic would be the situation.

Like these examples and which can be brought forward in hundreds or thousands,
measurement is everywhere in our lives. We may not know were doing it but its happening
everywhere in its own form. Taking a closer look, some of these measurements have units, as
much as measurements are important, units are important too.

Technique of measurement used in construction industry derived from the measurements


in day to day works as to provide a uniformity all around the world and avoid disputes and
complications and many other uses. Measurement in construction is not just about quantity
surveyor producing a bill of quantities for contactors to price during the tendering and to make
valuation while work is going on. The techniques used in pre contract period it is used to
produce budget estimates, when design evolves, used to provide approximate quantities for
cost planning and ultimately when detailed drawings are finished, it is used to provide BOQ
for tendering. In post contract period, measurements are used for preparing the construction
methodology, ordering goods and materials, procuring sub contract works, calculating effects
on variations, preparing interim valuations, cost control of the project, estimation works and
etc. as measurements in construction includes the quantity and also the quality of the object
measuring.

Following chapters describe the importance of measurements to have a uniform standard,


and some of these established standards in use and the introduction to the IT application for
measurements as a quantity surveyor and future of the quantity surveying profession with
emerging new technologies.

Measurement for Construction Works ~1~


2. TASK 01

2.1 IMPORTANCE OF STANDARD METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

Measurement of building works in the construction industry involve some elements of


variability and uncertainty, for example measuring the excavation work for extensive deep
foundations or the laying of underground services under very variable site conditions. For
these and other related reasons, it is essential that a code of measurement especially applicable
to this class of building works is used to carry out building measurements.

Building measurement is a fundamental requirement for the evaluation of the cost of


proposed works and the calculation of the final account for the works executed (Willis &
Newman, 1988). The principle importance of having the standard methods of measurements as
the basis for measuring building works is that it provides uniformity in the way bills of
quantities are prepared. This helps in set out rules for measuring and describing the works
furthermore unification process develops the good practice to the surveyors involved.

With the fact that building construction involves works that are very large in scale and cost,
following standards of measurement act as a guide in tender costing and valuation when bills
are prepared, hence preventing anomalies and differences in interpretation of works.
Introduction of various levels of works and follow up guidance made the compilation BOQs
more effective and greater consistency in details. Thus another advantage of establishing of
standards made possible to compare and contrast different projects in same nature to have rough
estimates and made possible for contractors to rate the works more easily and value the
variations for similar projects.

The consequences of not having a standard method of measurement would be inconsistency


of contents and descriptions in the bills of quantities (Ashworth, 1973). Effective reading of
documents prepared by different surveyors will be a nightmare since lacking the uniformity in
descriptions and method followed up on taking off. And it will be difficult and complicated for
quantity surveyors to operate in different regions in the world because of varying methods from
place to place. To add on, this greater variability in measuring of building works brings about
risks in estimating and causing disputes between the parties involved. Hence the importance of
having a accepted standard method of measurement is vital in the industry.

Measurement for Construction Works ~2~


2.2 STANDARD METHODS OF MEASUREMENT USED IN
CONSTRUCTION WORKS

There are number of methods implemented by various recognized bodies and institutes
in the construction industry and also number of governments have published their own methods
of measurements for the works within the country as they see fit to their country eg: Australia
having their own measurement for road works, Hong Kong government published their own
etc. due to the various conditions that differs from place to place in works and the widely
accepted method may not suit in particular place. But mainly following are some of main
standard documentations thats being used in the construction industry as standard methods of
measurements.

STANDARD METHOD OF MEASUREMENT( SMM7 )

As a result and the effort of many professionals and bodies, in 1922, Standard Method
of Measurement (SMM) is published by the Royal Institute of Charted Surveyors (RICS)
superseding a Scottish Standard Method of Measurement published in 1915. SMM is now in
its seventh edition (SMM7), which was first published in 1988 and revised in 1998.

SMM is considered as one of the foremost standard that is widely accepted all around
the world for building works. Work sections within SMM7 are classified according to the
Common Arrangement of Work Sections (CAWS). CAWS creates a consistent arrangement of
work sections for specifications and bills of quantities.

SMM7 provides detailed descriptions for the works and classification tables for varying
works conditions within same work category and rules for measuring of building works. SMM7
is typically used in the preparation of bills of quantities, documents that provide measured
quantities of the items of work identified by the drawings and specifications in tender
documentation. (RICS, 1998) (Wiki, 2016)

Measurement for Construction Works ~3~


Figure 2-1 SMM7 Front

Figure 2-2 SMM7 Classification Table

Measurement for Construction Works ~4~


NEW RULES OF MEASUREMENT( NRM 2 )

The measurement initiative steering group was set up by the RICS quantity surveying
and construction professional group to research the problems associated with measurement of
building works at all stages of the construction and they came to a decision that significance
improvement is required on current standard and hence the came forth the NRM2.

The New Rules of Measurement are published by the Royal Institute of Charted
Surveyors (RICS) to provide a standard set of measurement rules for estimating, cost planning,
procurement and whole-life costing for construction projects. Adopting a standard
methodology such as NRM facilitates consistency and benchmarking and helps avoid disputes.

NRM is a suite of documents, comprising three volumes:

NRM1: Order of cost estimating and cost planning for capital building works.
NRM2: Detailed measurement for building works (replacing the Standard
Method of Measurement, seventh edition SMM7).
NRM 3: Order of cost estimating and cost planning for building maintenance
works.

NRM2 was published in April 2012. It became operative on 1 January 2013 and
formally replaced the Standard Method of Measurement, seventh edition (SMM7) on 1 July
2013.

NRM2 provides fundamental guidance on the quantification and description of building


works for the purpose of preparing bill of quantities and quantified schedules of works,
direction on how to deal with unquantifiable items such as preliminaries, contractor designated
works etc. is also provided as well as guidance is also provided on the content, structure and
format of bills of quantities, as well as the benefits and uses of bills of quantities for building
works. (Anon., 2012) (Wiki, 2016)

Measurement for Construction Works ~5~


Figure 2-3 NRM 2

SRI LANKA METHOD OF MEASUREMENT OF BUILDING WORKS


(SLS 573 : 1999)

Sri Lanka did not have a standard method of measurement of building works prior to
1968 and in 1982 Sri Lanka Standards Institution initiated the development of the SLS 573 and
published. This was not complete as sections dealing with paving, glazing and mechanical
installations were not included and Institute of Quantity Surveyors Sri Lanka (IQSSL) along
with the Institute for Construction Training & Development (ICTAD) felt the need of up to
date complete document and hence published the revision in 1994 as a complete and
comprehensive document for the practice and named SLS 573: 1994.

SLS 573 contains 22 work sections and classification of the tables within the work and
preparation of the standard document is influenced by the following publications and practice
in Sri Lanka,

Civil engineering standard method of measurement 2nd edition, Institution of


Civil Engineers United Kingdom
SMM7 : Standard Method of Measurement by RICS
SLS 573:1982 Method of Measurement of Building Works, Bureau of Ceylon
Standards
Model bill of quantities prepared by Australian Institute of Quantity Surveyors,
1st Edition
Practice in Sri Lanka.

Measurement for Construction Works ~6~


SLS 573 was a common practice in the country up until recently and provide the
guidelines on carrying out standard method of measurement for building works and preparation
of estimates and bills of quantities and to site measurements. (Dilkumar, n.d.) (Anon., 1999)

Figure 2-4 SLS 573:1999 Front

CIVIL ENGINEERING STANDARD METHOD OF MEASUREMENT


(4th EDITION)

CESMM4 - Civil Engineering Standard Method of Measurement in its fourth edition


now is published by the Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE).

The first edition of CESSM was published in 1976, following the work of a committee
set up by the Council of the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1971 to revise the Standard Method
of Measurement of Civil Engineering Quantities. The second edition was published in 1985.

CESMM 4 was prepared under the guidance of ICEs CESMM review committee and
prepared to allow it to be used with many of the contract types including NEC (New
Engineering Contract), FIDIC, ICC (Infrastructure Conditions of Contract). In contrast to older
versions, changes have been made to bring in line with the industry practices and new
technology emergence and reference to British codes have been removed to facilitate more
global use.

The work classification system in CESMM4 includes 26 main classes of work


commonly undertaken on civil engineering projects and defines; how work is divided into
items, the method for describing items, the units to be adopted and the method of measurement.

Measurement for Construction Works ~7~


CESMM4 sets out a procedure for the preparation of a Bill of Quantities for civil engineering
works, for contracts based on traditional measure & value principles. (Wiki, 2016)

Figure 2-5 CESMM 4 Front

These are only some of standard methods that is being widely accepted and there are
local and more standard methods that has been used. Out of these NRM2 is more prominently
used and accepted for the building works and CESMM 4 is used for the civil engineering works.
Measurement rules are made in these standards based on the characteristics of the practice such
as in the NRM2, for a building work, there may be hundreds or thousands of items included
that making of a man hole may require measure separately for concrete, formwork and
reinforcement which having the characteristic of larger number of items but the quantities are
smaller. But in the civil engineering project, items maybe few but the quantities are in
humongous numbers compared to a building so that works like man holes are measured as a
single unit item for the ease and fast take off.

The principle importance of having the standard methods of measurements as the basis
for measuring building works is that it provides uniformity in the way bills of quantities are
prepared. This helps in set out rules for measuring and describing building construction works.
Furthermore, the unification of building measurements embodies the essentials of good
practice to the quantity surveyors involved in the preparation of bills of quantities for building
construction.

Measurement for Construction Works ~8~


3. TASK 02

3.1 BILL OF QUANTITIES

The bill of quantities (referred as BOQ and BQ) is a document prepared by cost consultants
(often a quantity surveyor) which provides measured quantities of the work items of a specific
project identified by drawings, specifications in the tender document and costs including
consideration for price fluctuations, day works and value added taxes etc. preparing a BOQ
requires that design has been completed and specification to be finalized and the level of
accuracy of BOQ depends on the degree of information provided to the quantity surveyor.

The primary purpose of a BOQ is to provide a coordinated list of items, together with
their identifying descriptions and quantities of the work need to be carried out which enables
the contractors to prepare tenders efficiently and accurately. And furthermore, when contract
has been entered into, to provide a basis for the valuation of works executed and provide a basis
for valuation of variations.

Essentially BOQ is a list of various components of a building, in a logical order with


detailed identifying descriptions and quantities. Benefits of a BOQ can be listed as follows.

Save cost and time for several contractors to measure the same design in order to
submit their bids.
Provides a consistent basis for obtaining competitive bids.
Provides extensive and clear identification of the work needs to be carried out.
Provides a basis for budgetary control and accurate cost reporting of the contract
(Valuations, variations, cash flow etc.).
When priced, provides data to support claims and taxing.
When priced, support claims for grants.
Provides a cost model in single document which is one of best source of real time cost
data that can be used for estimating the future projects.
(Anon., 2012) (Wiki, 2016)

Measurement for Construction Works ~9~


3.2 PRODUCTION OF BILL OF QUANTITIES

According to the RIBA plan of work published by Royal Institute of British Architectures,
BOQ is produced at RIBA work stage G which is tender documentation. In order to enable the
preparation of a BOQ, the information from RIBA work stages E which is technical design
with specification and information for statutory standards and construction safety is required
along with the information provided at work stage F for data to enabling the tender to be
obtained. BOQ required for lump sum project will normally be prepared by employers
quantity surveyor whereas under a design and build contract, either employers project team in
conjunction with the contractor and maybe with work package contractors involve in producing
the quantified BOQ. But ultimately the decision of who prepares the BOQ will be down to the
employers preference. (Anon., 2012)

The description in a BOQ needs to be in a logical and recognized order and quantities has
to be carefully worked out accordance with the standard methods accepted. Traditionally BOQ
prepared in two stages,

TAKING OFF

In the first step of taking out quantities, the measurements are taken off from the
drawings and entered on measurement sheet or dimension paper. The measurements to
be taken out would depend upon the unit of measurement. And write the descriptions
of each components of works. Taking off is done in a logical order to make the QSs
work easy and reduce the chance of mistakes.

WORKING UP

When taking off is complete the dimensions are squared, which means working out
volumes, areas, etc. and casting up their total in recognized units by dimensions being
multiplied and added up. Then quantities are abstracted which means if works are
measured by a one person or couple of persons, all are collected and similar works are
put together to get the total quantities and arranged in a logical order and then bill is
prepared.

Measurement for Construction Works ~ 10 ~


3.3 FORMAT OF STANDARD TDS SHEET

Paper for taking-off purpose may differs slightly from place to place but the standard sheet
is A4 sheet (210 x 297 mm), ruled vertically. Each dimension sheet is split into two identically
ruled parts, each consisting four columns. The ruling conforms to the requirements of BS 3327:
1970 Stationary for Quantity Surveying. The ruling, widths and purpose of columns are as
follows.

9mm 14mm 15mm 16mm 55mm 14mm 15mm 16mm 56mm


Binding Margin

Description

Description
Dimension

Dimension
Timesing

Timesing
Squaring

Squaring

( ) ( )

Figure 3-1 Dimension Paper (Face Side)

14mm 15mm 16mm 55mm 14mm 15mm 16mm 56mm 9mm


Binding Margin
Description

Description
Dimension

Dimension
Timesing

Timesing
Squaring

Squaring

( ) ( )

Figure 3-2 Dimension Paper (Reverse Side)

Measurement for Construction Works ~ 11 ~


Timesing Column - These columns are used to enter multipliers when there is more
than one of the particular item being measured.
Dimension Column this column is used for recording the dimensions of the item
being measured and there are standards of how the dimensions are written.
Squaring Column - These columns are used to calculate the quantities that are
produced by multiplying the time sign factor in the time sign column by the dimensions
in the dimension column. The results are then totaled to obtain the final amount of work.
Description Column all descriptions should be written in this column on same level
with its associated dimensions. Content such as location references and explanatory
notes called annotations. Preliminary calculations, waste calculations, can also be
carried out in these columns.

Figure 3-3 Standard TDS sheet in modern day

Figure 3-4 Example use of TDS sheet

Measurement for Construction Works ~ 12 ~


3.4 FORMAT OF STANDARD QUERY SHEET

In preparation of bill of quantities, on following up on drawings and details, it is inevitable


that quantity surveyor may face problems and needs clarification. In this situation query sheets
are used to raise queries with the architect as to clarify the information.

QUERY SHEET

Name of Project :
Name of Architect / Engineer :
Name of Quantity Sureveyor :

Item No. Date Query Date Answer

. ..
Quantity Surveyor Architect / Engineer

Figure 3-5 Query Sheet

Measurement for Construction Works ~ 13 ~


3.5 FORMAT OF BILL OF QUANTITIES

There are number of types of formats of boqs are in use today and considering the standard
format, there are number of breakdown structures being used in producing a BOQ. Each has
its own advantages and disadvantages depending on the project characteristics. According to
the NRM2, main BOQ breakdown structures are as follows,

Elemental measurement and descriptions are done by group elements and


each forms a separate section of the BOQ and further divided into elements and sub-elements
as required. These elements are arranged irrespective of order of works in NRM2 and supports
a logical and structured approach to the quantification of a building project which gives
contractors and consultants overlook on each of building element costs.

Figure 3-6 Elemental BOQ breakdown structure for simple building (Source: NRM2)

Measurement for Construction Works ~ 14 ~


Work Section measurement and description is divided into the work sections
in NRM2.

Figure 3-7 Work Section BOQ Structure (Source: NRM2)

Work Package Measurement and description is divided into work packages


such as employers, contractors whichever may apply or work packages can be
based on a specific trade such as concrete work, brick and block work etc.

Figure 3-8 Work Package breakdown structure for discreet works

Measurement for Construction Works ~ 15 ~


More details over these breakdown structures can be found in the NRM2 under guidance of
preparing Bill of Quantities and NRM2 states separately what items included in the BOQ under
each of breakdown structures and the order. Following sample bill formats are also provided.

Figure 3-9 Sample Bill formats under breakdown structures (Source: NRM2)

Bill of Quantities generally contains sections,

Preliminaries
Preambles
Measured Quantities
Provisional Quantities
Prime Cost and Provisional Sums.

Following is a sample BOQ format,

Measurement for Construction Works ~ 16 ~


Figure 3-10 Sample format of BOQ

ROAD DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY


REHABILITATION AND UPGRADING OF PUTTALAM TRINCOMALEE ROAD
FROM ANURADHAPURA TO TRINCOMALEE
CONTRACT PACKAGE : RDA/DW/EP/GOSL/2011/191
BILL OF QUANTITIES

ITEM DESCRIPTION UNIT QUANTITY RATE AMOUNT (Rs)

BILL No.1 : DEMOLISHING

1 REMOVAL OF STRUCTURES & OBSTRUCTIONS

1.1 Disamantal & remove brick masonry structures m3 - - -

Disamantal & remove random rubble masonry


1.2 m3 - - -
structures

1.3 Disamantal & remove concrete structures m3 - - -

Disamantal & remove dress stone masonry


1.4 m3 - - -
structures

1.5 Removing fencing m - - -

Bill No.1 Carried to Summary -

Figure 3-11 BOQ format in practice

Measurement for Construction Works ~ 17 ~


4. TASK 03

4.1 COMPUTER BASED TOOLS AND APPLICATIONS IN


MEASUREMENTS

The construction industry has recently witnessed a rapid shift from traditional paper based
methods of service delivery to electronic information exchange. At least in the western world
like UK and America. It is proved that adopting of information technology can enhance the
productivity and improve communications for effective decision making and coordination. The
ability to avail itself of technology depends on the level of usage by the construction
professionals including the quantity surveyors who plays a vital role in project success in
managing time, quality and cost.

The designing and accountants in the construction industry was the early adopters of the
new technology but nowadays Quantity Surveying practices are embracing the new software
packages available due to the benefits of speed, accuracy, reduction of errors, less effort, satisfy
the clients needs and changes fast and accurately and more importantly ability to compare and
contrast the data of various projects together which is hard to impossible to achieve with
traditional paper based methods. In terms of quantity surveying, these it based applications
made the surveyors work much more efficient and faster, 2D drawings are now 3D models
which these software will give the quantities of exact components precisely. And generate
reports on demand once data has been feed and changes and its effects are reflected instantly
allowing quantity surveyors to be more focused on the managing part of the project. Following
are very few of the commonly and widely used IT applications in Quantity Surveying.

MICROSOFT EXCEL ALONG WITH OFFICE SUITE

Microsoft excel is a part of the Microsoft Office suit and it is a spreadsheet application
which can be said as the most commonly and widely used application by quantity surveyors
for its functions and familiarity and the flexibility. Excel is being used for producing BOQs,
Budgets, Cash flows, Analysis of various kinds, preparation of interim payment applications,
measurement sheets and summaries, record keeping and sometimes for reports preparation due
to having large variety of formulas that can be used to manipulate data and graphing facilities.
Whichever software may come, excel will remain a constant in quantity surveying practice.

Measurement for Construction Works ~ 18 ~


Figure 4-1 Microsoft Excel

AUTODESK AUTOCAD

AutoCAD can be said as the second most widely software used by quantity surveyors
for many purposes. Though it is being developed primarily for drafting and civil engineering
designing works, the included tool set made opportunities that instantly grabbed by the quantity
surveyors and nowadays it has become a basic skill of a quantity surveyor to handle this
software package. Modern building incorporating more and more complex shapes and building
services are getting more complex and laid in positions where its impossible to measure,
AutoCAD allows QSs to have the dimensions of an object with a two three clicks and get it
precisely and get the volumes of unusual shapes after developing within the software made the
works much more faster and reviewing the designs or the works in a QS eyes also made
possible with much more flexibility rather referring a piece of paper.

It is needed to mention that not only AutoCAD but also the other software suits by the
Autodesk company is more and more emerging with the QS to manipulate to data extraction
such as Autodesk MEP for accurate mechanical, electrical and plumbing works, Civil3D
mainly for road construction that would instantly give the quantities if drawn in proper way
and many other.

Measurement for Construction Works ~ 19 ~


Figure 4-2 Autodesk AutoCAD

QSPLUS

QSPlus is a software primarily based on the function of a quantity surveyor and one of
the foremost software suit offered as comprehensive, efficient and cost-effective international
QS software solution for quantity surveyors and cost engineers, for the take-off and production
of Cost Plans and Bills of Quantities.

QSPlus software integrate inbuilt take off tools which works with AutoCAD drawings,
pdf and many other and incorporating many of the standard method of measurement systems,
with simple clicks quantities are taken off and the descriptions are generated based on the
defined method. And more over, QS plus is able to generate BOQs in many of the formats and
generate cost plans accordance with accepted standards in seconds with provided data which
is neatly done and accurate with analysis of various jobs and final accounts too.

CUBICOST BY GLODAN

As same as QSPlus, Cubicost is directly focusing on the necessity of IT in Quantity


Surveying and does a remarkable job on trying to fulfill it. Cubicost is a software suit that based
on BIM (Building information modeling) that works interconnected to allow more users to

Measurement for Construction Works ~ 20 ~


work on the same project thus enhancing the team efficiency and all the perks of software like
QSPlus abilities. And having integrated as a BIM software, it allows real time adjustments and
take off of the models and reflects the effects too.

These are only four of more commonly used but there are numerous software suites
developed in big and small scale on aiding the quantity surveying profession namely CostX by
Exactal, WinQS, Cubit by Natural Estimator, Vico software Intergrating Construction,
Autodesk Quantity Takeoff and Pro Contractor and many more. Adaptation of these software
suits have already begun in more developed countries and its slowly emerging even though it
is still not much popular in Sri Lanka mainly due to the initial cost. But with time, 100 floors
skyscrapers are begin to build, construction professionals will need the help of these software
in order to deliver the demand of clients are asking.

4.2 FUTURE OF QUANTITY SURVEYING PRACTICE WITH


ADVANCE IT APPLICATION

World is moving fast, oldest and golden truth of time is gold phrase is now embraced
by each and every industry and everybody is in a run with the time. With the expanded horizons
made avail by the information technology, everything is fast phased and building owners
requirements are changing rapidly. And the construction technology is also rapidly changing
to match up with this modern world requirement to deliver cost effective, quick and sustainable
solutions. The design and accounting sectors already embraced the new technology and
plucking the fruits that it made available. Architectures are making revolutionary designs and
new construction technologies are emerged and improving day by day to meet the requirement
of the concepts. E.g. Of new use of augmented reality and virtual reality already making strides
in the architectural and engineering fields.

Figure 4-3 Augmented reality with architect

Measurement for Construction Works ~ 21 ~


Figure 4-4 Use of augmented reality

The profession of quantity surveying faced many challenges and changed in many ways
since its first inception to now to be recognized as present. and the reason for this change was
to meet the ever-changing needs of the clients and to beat the competition from other
construction professionals such as architects or engineers. As of these sectors are adopted
new technology, profession of quantity surveying is lagging behind still and missing the
opportunities made available thus making the future of the profession in danger.

World is now moving towards the era of BIM (Building Information Modeling) and
BED (Building Energy Modeling) which is not just a 3d model of a building produced but a
key to future era of construction information sharing and sustainable construction. Adaptation
of these systems rapidly increasing in the construction world which improve the time quality
and cost efficiency of the projects as BIM covers whole lifecycle of the project since its
inception.

As the industry move forward with the use of BIM software suites, quantity surveying
sector has taken step to fully utilize the opportunities made avail. Several complete BIM based
software suites such as Autodesk NavisWorks has been introduced which controls from the
design to operation of the building and numerous software like Cubicost are made available to
use by quantity surveyors for efficient take off and prepare estimates from any drawing or
model given and in conjunction with information of schedules, cost plans are readily available
for critical and accurate analysis for budgetary and time control with no time waste for manual
taking off and preparation of reports.

Measurement for Construction Works ~ 22 ~


Many new and great opportunities are made available to the quantity surveyors with the
embracing of IT into the construction industry. The future of quantity surveyor going to change
with this rapid developments in providing estimates. As of it is nowadays, it is going to be far
more work description than taking off quantities and preparation of reports. Employers are now
recognizing that QSs are the one who in in touch with everyone in a project and slowly
transforming more and more responsibilities to the person of managing the product. If current
crop of quantity surveyors do not embrace this new technologies to satisfy the client needs,
definitely others will.

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5. CONCLUSION
It is evident that a standard method of measurement is a need in construction industry
considering the period prior to establishment of these standards, problems and disputes the
construction professionals faced due to not having a basis for measuring. With the standard
method of measurements in place, it is evident that measurement of building works has been
made uniform and consistent. The order and nature of billed items, the units of measurements
and even the methods of tabulating the information has been made more elaborate in modern
day building construction in terms of uniformity and consistence in the construction industry.
This has enhanced the accuracies of pricing and evaluating various building works.

Along with introduction of standard method of measurements, recognized institutes went


further step ahead and introduced various formats that enhance the uniformity and
understandability with bill of quantities formats and work orders and structures to be adopted
along with formats for such as TDS sheets, query sheets etc.

And moving on with the time, world faced the technological boom and expansion in IT and
IT based application in almost every industry and construction also embraced the IT use for
leveling up with the colleagues and improve the delivery of products. Numerous number of
software, concepts and applications are in use currently which made the delivery of estimates,
analysis, appraisals and recommendations much faster and with the introduction of BIM based
systems, future of quantity surveyors profession may face changes from today to meet the
demand of the industry. If not cope with these new technologies and applications, the future of
the quantity surveyors are in danger.

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6. REFERENCES

Anon., 1999. SLS 573:1999. 1st ed. s.l.:Sri Lanka Standards Institution.

Anon., 2012. Civil Engineering Standard Method of Measurement. 4th ed. s.l.:ICE
Publishing.

Anon., 2012. RICS - New Rules of Measurement - NRM2. 1st ed. s.l.:RICS.

Ashworth, A., 1973. Building Economics. 3rd ed. Great Britain: McMillian Education Press
LTD..

Dilkumar, C., n.d. A Review of standard method of measurements of building works. [Online]
Available at: http://dl.lib.mrt.ac.lk/handle/123/930
[Accessed 24 02 2017].

RICS, 1998. SMM7 - Standard method of Measurement of Building Works. 7th ed. s.l.:Royal
Institute of charted Surveyors and Building Employers Confederation.

Wao, J., 2016. Predicting the Future of Quantity Surveying Profession in the Construction
Industry. [Online]
Available at:
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/295147875_Predicting_the_Future_of_Quantity_Su
rveying_Profession_in_the_Construction_Industry
[Accessed 25 02 2017].

Wiki, D. B., 2016. Bill of Quantities. [Online]


Available at: https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/Bill_of_quantities_BOQ
[Accessed 25 02 2017].

Wiki, D. B., 2016. CESMM4. [Online]


Available at: https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/CESMM4
[Accessed 24 02 2017].

Wiki, D. B., 2016. NRM 2. [Online]


Available at: https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/NRM2
[Accessed 24 02 2017].

Wiki, D. B., 2016. Standard Method of Measurement SMM7. [Online]


Available at:
https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/Standard_Method_of_Measurement_SMM7
[Accessed 24 02 2017].

Measurement for Construction Works ~ 25 ~


Willis, C. J. & Newman, D., 1988. Elements of Quantity Surveying. 8th ed. s.l.:BSP
Professional Books.

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