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CHAPTER 3 LOW FLOW ANALYSIS

3.1 General

The purpose of the low flow analysis is to provide a general idea about the
hydrological condition of the Bengawan Solo River basin based on the available
climatic and hydrological records at the hydro-meteorological observation
network stations. The low flow analysis was carried out to estimate the low flow
conditions at an arbitrary location in the CDMP study area including Bengawan
Solo River system. The estimated low flow conditions are essential for the water
demand and supply balance calculation from the viewpoint of water supply
assessment.

A natural runoff is usually necessary for the water demand and supply balance
calculation. The natural runoff is defined as the river runoff that is not affected by
any water uses in a catchment area. The continuous natural flow is also necessary
in a time sequence of more than 20 years. The natural flow is principally obtained
based on the observed discharges with some adjustment to eliminate the
influences due to water uses.

The observed Bengawan Solo River discharges are subject to various river
structures such as dams, intake weirs, irrigation pumping stations, etc.
Furthermore, the available runoff records are more or less interrupted due to
lacking of observation (see Fig.3.1.1 of the observed daily discharge hydrographs
at Jurug, Ketonggo and Babat station and Table 3.1.1 of the monthly mean
observed discharge at major river water level gauging stations).

For the low flow analysis, it has been decided to model the hydrological process
of the basin using a computer model.

The low flow analysis and overall work flow of master planning for this study is
schematically shown as follows:

NIPPON KOEI CDMP Study
March 2001 3-1 FINAL REPORT
362539195.doc SUPPORTING REPORT No. 1

Data Obs.L. Data Obs. Weir Industry. (Dam. 1 . Gro undwater Geolo gical Discharge GWL Rain fall SurfaceWater Dam Operatio n Map piratio n Pump Up Data Data Data Intake Data Data Data Data Verification Data 1 Data 2 Data 3 Data (Rain & Ev) (Water Usage) (Topo & Geo) Basic Data Sub-Basin Block (Present Condition) Division Development of Low Flow Analysis Model (PLUMP) Setting & Tuning of Parameters Evaluation of NO Sim.) NO Water NO Balance OK Environmental Cost & Benefit Impact Estimation (Natural & Socio) NO NO Evaluation OK Note) : Process Component of Low Flow Analysis.Weir) Discharge Operatio n Geolo gical Land use Obs. etc. Data Irrig atio n Industry Record Data Map Rain fall Penman WaterUse WaterUse Analy sis Method Soil H-Q Curve Map Evapotrans. Rain fall Climate UnitWater Cropping Domestic Topographic Level Riv erWater Hydraulic Obs. domestic. Results Data 1 Data 3 OK (Rain & Ev) (Topo & Geo) Completion of Low Flow Analysis Model Basic Data (Natural Condition) Estimation of Natural Flow Geological Regional Conditions Plan.doc SUPPORTING REPORT No. Alternative Selected of LEDGEND Priority Projects : Documents of Data : Data (Input Data) : Data Sets for Model Implementation : Preparation/Analysis Programming : Predefine Process Management : Decision Plan :Other Process Master Plan for CDMP Study Area Low Flow Analysis and Overall Work Flow of Mastre Planning NIPPON KOEI CDMP Study March 2001 3-2 FINAL REPORT 362539195. Water quality) Groundwater use. Reservoir. etc Water Demand Water Supply Plan (for Agriculture. Hydrological Water Usage Hydrogeo- Maps Data Data logical Data Gro undwater Major Soil Riv erW. Data Requirement Pattern WaterUse Map Obs.D ata Facilities Data (Dam.

Model parameters are physically determined (see Table 3..2. Unit-graph.2 PLUMP Model (1) General The PLUMP model was originally developed by Dr. it was decided to use a lumped parameter model capable for simulating the hydrological processes.) For the low flow analysis.2. Japan and Nippon Koei Co. Mushiake of Tokyo University.) Analysis Concentrate model (Tank model.2.1 shows the comparison of typical computer models for runoff analysis in view of model applicability and computer capacity required. and various water uses in the basin for irrigation and domestic purposes. PLUMP. IHDM. a distributed numerical model is the most suitable. Table 3. in 1992.) Low flow Model Lumped model (SWMM.1 Comparison of Major Low Flow Analysis Model Variety of runoff models have been developed and applied for runoff analysis. called the Physically based Lumped Parameter (PLUMP) model. It was assessed that the Tank model was not recommendable for the low flow analysis of the Bengawan Solo River basin duly because of recent urbanization in the basin. to forecast the changes to the main components of basin-scale hydrological cycle due to the construction of new town and to evaluate the effect of different remedial schemes NIPPON KOEI CDMP Study March 2001 3-3 FINAL REPORT 362539195. The analysis procedure is briefly explained below. Herath. The Bengawan Solo natural flow was estimated applying a state-of-the-art simulation model.2 Low Flow Analysis Model 3. 3.3. 1 . etc. active exploitation of groundwater. the existing runoff analysis models are classified below: (Rational formula. seasonal land uses in the cultivated area. the Tank model is generally applied to natural river basins.2 of the comparison of low flow analysis models). However considering the data availability as well as the time limitation. Based on the requirement of this study. Flood Analysis Model Runoff Storage function. Dr. etc. etc.2. etc. Ltd. Parameter values of Tank model are required for adjustment according to the change of land uses.) Analysis Model Distributed model (SHE. As seen. However the Tank model is not suitable for the basin where the land use condition has changed due to urbanization.doc SUPPORTING REPORT No.

Rainfall Paddy/Fishpond Pervious Area Pervious Area Evapotranspiration (crop field) (forest etc. Evapotranspiration Rainfall Sub surface runoff Infiltration Surface runoff Ground water le Unconfined vel groundwater flow Leakage to deep aquifer Hydrological Process Modelled The entire river flow consists of the surface flow. representing infiltration and storage facilities and groundwater routing.doc SUPPORTING REPORT No. This simulation model is also able to apply to a river basin where human activities on nature.) Impervious Area Intake P Surface Runoff Surface Soil P Unsaturated Zone P Groundwater Pump Up Infiltration Unconfined Groundwater Subsurface Aquifer (Saturated Zone) (Inter) flow Richarge to River Confining Bed Leakage to Deep Aquifers Confined G. Aquifer Hydrological Cycle in the River Basin Figure below shows the hydrological process in a catchment that is incorporated into the PLUMP model. 1 . such as irrigation development and urbanization in the Bengawan Solo River basin. and unconfined groundwater flow.W. sub-surface flow from adjoining mountainous areas. (2) Hydrological process considered for modeling General hydrological process in the river basin is schematically shown below. There is no recharge to the NIPPON KOEI CDMP Study March 2001 3-4 FINAL REPORT 362539195. are changing the catchment condition.

river flow from the confined aquifer when the aquifer water level (unconfined groundwater level) is lower than the river bed level.. NIPPON KOEI CDMP Study March 2001 3-5 FINAL REPORT 362539195. This model component of basin flow constitutes the unit of the PLUMP model. As shown below. The upper soil moisture storage mainly takes part in the hydrological changes. (3) Model description The hydrological process in a catchment (basin flow) described above is schematically simplified for modeling dividing into the upper soil layer (soil moisture storage) and the lower underlying aquifer (groundwater) as shown below. 1987).doc SUPPORTING REPORT No. Rainfall Surface flow in Evapotranspiration Sub Surface flow in Surface Moisture Block flow out Sub Surface flow out Recharge to groundwater Supply from groundwater Groundwater flow in Groundwater Block Leakage Groundwater flow out Components of the Hydrological Processes Modelled Continuous observations of soil moisture variation at different soil depths in humid climates show that at a depth of about 1. It implements the hydrological process in storage components using the soil hydraulic parameters.5 m-2. The moisture content from this depth down to the vicinity of unconfined groundwater remains at a constant value termed as field moisture capacity. The transfer between the groundwater and upper moisture storage takes place in unsaturated conditions where groundwater is sufficiently low. the model developed is a combination of process and storage type of modeling. 1 .0 m the moisture content is almost constant throughout the year (Mushiake et al.

topography. geology. basin area is divided into a number of sub-basin-blocks based on the soil hydraulic properties (soil type). surface flow from adjoining blocks is assumed to be zero). unconfined groundwater and confined groundwater. The lumped hydrological responses are modeled in each block by means of various hydraulic equations. With this background a catchment is represented by a number of interacting layers in vertical direction for the purpose of hydrological simulations. If the basin is sub-divided using many blocks. If the surface block includes paddy field or fish pond. Rainfall Impervious Evaporation Evapotranspiration Area Pervious Area Surface Surface flow retention Excess Infiltration capacity Surface retention Top Soil River Groundwater Flow Sub surface flow recharge Unconfined Groundwater flow Groundwater Confining layer Leakage Catchment Simulation Procedure Input to each surface layer is computed as summation of rainfall and surface flow from adjoining blocks (for the Bengawan Solo River basin model. (4) Computation procedure The computation flow of hydrological process in the PLUMP model component is schematically shown below. On the horizontal plane. 1 . it is possible to represent more spatial variations in the basin model. These layers represent the surface and sub-surface layer. water abstraction (irrigation water) is also added the above NIPPON KOEI CDMP Study March 2001 3-6 FINAL REPORT 362539195.doc SUPPORTING REPORT No.

Limit of the G. Notation mark description unit mark description unit 2 area Area (km2) km K0 Saturated conductivity cm/sec t Time step in model (=1 day) day k Unsaturated conductivity cm/sec R Rainfall (block mean) mm/day kr Relative conductivity cm/sec 3 D in Surface flow (Direct runoff) in m /s  Suction pressure cmH2O 3 D out Surface flow (Direct runoff) out m /s  r Suction pressure at wilting point cmH2O 3 Irr Irrigation water supply in m /s  w Specific density of water 3 3 Per Percolation from surface to top soil mm/day  Soil moisture content cm /cm Surface depression stotrage in 3 3 IR (imp) mm/day  r Residual moisture content cm /cm Impurvious area (< 2mm day) 3 3 S Storage mm  0 Saturated moisture content cm /cm 3 Hor Hortonian mechanism Surface flow m /s C Storage coefficient - 3 Dun Dunne mechanism Surface flow m /s Se Effective saturation - Horizontal sub-surface flow 3 Arbitrary parameter of Haverkamp et f in m /s  - (interflow) in from upper block al's model 3 f out Sub-surface flow (Interflow) out m /s  . summation. Din  R  Irrin  Per  Dout  Ev (3. 1 . Max.2.4) Per  Per( prv )  Per( paddy ) (3.2.2.m GWL min groundwater flow to the river i) Equation for the surface [Water balance at the Surface] The water balance at the surface is expressed as.5) NIPPON KOEI CDMP Study March 2001 3-7 FINAL REPORT 362539195. n Parameter of Mualem's model - 3 2 Pump Pump up of groundwater m /s area (river) Contact area of riverbed with GW m Recharge to unconfined groundwater Length of contact area of riverbed with rech mm/day L (river) m (frol top soil) GW 3 L max(river) . contact area of riverbed with GW 3 Gwf out Groundwater flow out to next block m /s W (river) Width of river m 3 Baseflow Groundwater flow to river m /s W (block) Width of this block m 3 Leak Leakage to deep confined GW m /s GWL n Groundwater level at this block El.3) Irrin  Irrin ( prv )  Irrin ( paddy ) (3.do .2) where Din  Din ( imp )  Din ( prv )  Din ( paddy ) (3. The main equations are described below.&Min.m Dis toRiver Distance to river from center of GW m GWL lower Groundwater level at lower block El.m GWL max .2. - Slope Slope of the interflow deg. This input is then scaled with respect to the block area and the new surface flow and the infiltration components are computed.1) Inflow  Din  R  Irrin (3. level for Dis toBlock Distance to next lower GW tank m El.2. Max & Min limit of the length of Gwf in Groundwater flow from upper block m /s m L min(river).W.doc SUPPORTING REPORT No.

W. Am. In case of paddy field..7) The surface flow (direct runoff) is divided into that generated by the impervious area. NIPPON KOEI CDMP Study March 2001 3-8 FINAL REPORT 362539195. the surplus will overflow as a surface runoff (Hortonian mechanism 1). Then. When the groundwater level reaches the surface level.478-490. Dout  Dout ( imp )  Dout ( prv )  Dout ( paddy ) (3. In the computational scheme.6). pp. pp.. The mechanisms of Hortonian and Dunne are schematically shown below.2.446-460. pervious area and paddy field or fish pond area (see Equation 3. 14. 2 Dunne.2. T. E.8) area ( block ) dt [Surface flow from the Pervious area] The surface flow generation from pervious areas includes paddy field and fish pond areas results from two mechanisms: a) If rainfall intensity is higher than the saturated conductivity of top soil. R. (1933): "The role of infiltration in the hydrologic cycle". Level Dunn Mechanism at t1 (Surface flow starts at t4) (Surface flow stars at t5) 1 Horton. 1 . surface runoff will occur (Dunne mechanism2). irrigation water is also added to the rainfall intensity. Level Hortonian Mechanism G. Trans.. [Surface flow from the Impervious area] If the input to the impervious area is higher than the depression storage of the impervious area.W. irrigation water including groundwater abstraction is also added to the rainfall intensity. Rain Rain SATURATED MOISTURE CONTENT (%)  SATURATED Dry MOISTURE CONTENT (%)  Wet Dry Wet t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t5 t1 t2 t3 t4 TIME TIME t4 t5 t3 D E P T H (m ) DEPTH (m) MOISTURE PROFILE MOISTURE PROFILE t2 G. In case of paddy field. Wat. b) The groundwater level rises due to infiltration caused by rainfall. 6. surplus will overflow as a direct runoff.2. area ( imp ) dS ( imp ) Dout ( imp )  R   IR( imp )  (3. (1970): "An experimental investigation of runoff production in permeable soils". first the maximum infiltration that can take place is computed. Union..6) Ev  Ev ( imp )  Ev ( prv )  Ev ( paddy ) (3.2. and from that the Hortonian flow is estimated. Resour. after computing water balance of the soil moisture layer. Res. R.doc SUPPORTING REPORT No. D. Black. overflow due to Danne mechanism is estimated. Geophys.

10) area ( block ) Dun( prv )  S soil ( prv )  S max( prv )   Inflow( prv )  f in ( prv )    f out ( prv )  Hor( prv )  E ( prv )  rech ( prv )  (3.13) [Surface flow from the Paddy field or fish pond] D( paddy )  Hor( paddy )  Dun( paddy ) (3.2.21) rech  rech( prv )  rech ( paddy ) (3. D( prv )  Hor( prv )  Dun( prv ) (3.2.11) Permax( prv )  K 0  S max( prv )  S soil ( prv ) (3.17) Inflow( paddy )  Din ( paddy )  R  Irr( paddy ) (3.2. NIPPON KOEI CDMP Study March 2001 3-9 FINAL REPORT 362539195.2.2. 1 .2.2. Recharge (infiltration) to groundwater is expressed by.2.2.18) ii) Equation for the top soil moisture storage [Water balance at top soil moisture tank] The water balance in the top soil moisture tank is given by.2.2.14) area ( paddy) Hor( paddy )   Inflow( paddy)  Permax( paddy )  * area ( block ) (3.19) dt where f in  f in ( prv )  f in ( paddy ) (3. The time step of calculation in the model is hourly (one hour each).2.15) Dun( paddy )  S soil ( paddy )  S max( paddy )   Inflow( paddy )  f in ( paddy )    f out ( paddy )  Hor( paddy)  E( paddy)  rech ( paddy)  (3.12) Inflow( prv )  Din ( prv )  R  Irr( prv ) (3.unsaturated soil conditions.2.9) area ( prv ) Hor( prv )   Inflow( prv )  Permax( prv )  * (3.16) Permax( paddy )  K 0  S max( paddy )  S soil ( paddy ) (3.doc SUPPORTING REPORT No.22) [Recharge to groundwater] Recharge (infiltration) to groundwater from top soil will occur under the saturated .20) f out  f out ( prv )  f out ( paddy ) (3.2. dS soil f in  Per  f out  rech  (3.

t  24 hr .. A..26) d Unsaturated hydraulic properties are divided into two basic relations.23) [Sub-surface runoff] The sub-surface runoff (interflow) component is next estimated from the remaining moisture storage. Physics.al. Soil Sci. J. pp. and Vachaud. R. t  24 hr ..24) [Richard's equation] The saturated .unsaturated flow is estimated using Richards formula shown below.al (1977) ] (3. 41. M. J.25) t where d C    (3. 1.suction ( k  ) or the conductivity .2.2.  0 (3. L. (1977): "A comparison of numerical simulation models for one dimensional infiltration". referred to as the soil moisture content . In this model. Wierenga. Touma. 1 . Soc.  Se  4  [Haverkamp et. pp. J.doc SUPPORTING REPORT No. 1 rech   k   dt t  0 hr .2. 318-333 4 Haverkamp. P.27)    ln    where 3 Richards.2. The time step of calculation in the model is hourly (one hour each).suction (   ) relation (pF curves) and the soil conductivity .. 285- 294 NIPPON KOEI CDMP Study March 2001 3-10 FINAL REPORT 362539195.moisture content ( k   ) relations. st f out   sin Slope  k   dt t  0 hr .2.  0 (3.'s formulas is applied shown below. G. Vauclin. Vol. Amer. Haverkamp et. the sub-surface runoff is assumed as a component of unsaturated flow belongs slope. (1931): "Capillary conduction of liquids though porous mediums". [   relation] For the (   ) relation.               k x     k y      k z    1  C   x  x  y  y  z  z  t  or    k     z    C   [Richards (1931)3] (3.

Vol. Y.2.2.31) n   r   k r      (3. Amer. Amer.2.2.32)  0 r  The equation (3.  0 n  3  0.29) and (3.34) Therefore the ( k   ) relation is expressed by. The parameter n in the above relation is estimated by the model of Mualem (1978).2. NIPPON KOEI CDMP Study March 2001 3-11 FINAL REPORT 362539195. AGU.. given by. pp. F.2. Kozeny-Irmay's ( k r   ) formulas is applied shown below.doc SUPPORTING REPORT No. Water Resources Research.30)     r   [ k   relation] For the ( k   ) relation. S. pp. Collect..2. (1954): "On the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils". Geophys.015     w d [Mualem (1978)7] (3. S.2. Se     r  [Averjanov (1950)5] (3.2. Vol.35)  0 r  [ k  relation] From equations of (3. 35.. Union.29)    ln    1         or   exp  0 r    (3. k r  Se n [Kozeny-Irmay (1954)6] (3.35). Trans. 7.32) is used to generate the ( k r   ) relation from the (   ) relation in the absence of ( k  ) data.33) r The relative conductivity kr is expressed as. (1978): "Hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated porous media: generalize macroscopic approach". Geophys.28)  0   r    0   r    r (3. n   r  k    K 0   (3. Eng. k kr  K0 (3.2. 6 Irmay.. Union.325-522. the ( k  ) relation is expressed by. 1 . (1950): "About permeability of subsurface soil in case of incomplete saturation". 5 Averjanov. 463-467 7 Mualem.2. 114(2).

whereas the k   relation measured from small soil samples show a large field scatter and may not be representative for a given site. In the PLUMP model system. The k r   is either measured from small samples or else is generated from the moisture- suction (   ) relation of the soil. The (   ) relations (pF curves) of the representative soils are shown as follow. 9 Mushiake. Y.2. Israel Institute of technology.707 0.97 Kanto loam 0.104 6. 8 Mualem.598 72.576E+07 9. K. Experience with field tests show that if the k   is expressed as k    K 0  k r   . This database contains about 90 different soil types at present including the soil data described in the Mualem's catalogue 8.752E+10 16. Haifa Israel.95 3. n  1  k    K 0    (3.38 Source) Kanto Loam: Mushiake & Herath (1988). a suitable set if data are taken from the soil database. Res. If none of these basic data are available.00 4. 1 .37 Loam 0. [1976]: "A catalogue of the hydraulic properties of unsaturated soil". [1988]: "Determination of hydraulic conductivity function using in- situ permeability tests".100.36)     ln     As mentioned. The (   ) relation measured from small soil samples are generally representative for a given site.doc SUPPORTING REPORT No. Others taken from the Mualem's catalogue (1976).400 0.077 1. Japan.project 442. S. Kyoto.11 Clay 0.394 0. and the Kanto loam (volcanic product loam) was measured in Japan by the Tokyo University9. and Herath. Saturated Residual Parameter  of Parameter  of Parameter n of Parameter Moisture Moisture Haverkamp  Haverkamp  Mualem k  Content Content Relation Model Relation Model Relation Model 0 r   n Soil Type cm3/cm3 cm3/cm3 . pp. user specifies the available data for a given soil. 6th APD-IHAR Congress.8 3.92 3. Above parameters of sand. TECHNION. - Sand 0. loam and clay taken from Mualem's catalogue. The parameters for each of the representative soils are lists as follow.451 5. Proc.100 6.422 0. . NIPPON KOEI CDMP Study March 2001 3-12 FINAL REPORT 362539195. (   ) and ( k  ) relations are required for analysis of unsaturated domain flow problems. the estimation of K0 from field tests is sufficient to obtain a reliable and representative conductivity relation.56 3.

The discharging into the river from groundwater tank is computed using contact area of riverbed with groundwater.40) [Groundwater flow to lower block] Q=Ko*A*dh/dx [Darcy (1856)] (3. Whereas.In: "The theory of ground water motion and related papers.4 loam (Log Suction =log10 ()) 4. tank] dS GWfin C  rech   Pump  GWfout  Baseflow  Leak (3." By M.39) GWLn  GWLmin L( river )  Lmin( river )    Lmax( river )  Lmin( river )  GWLmax  GWLmin (3. two types of unconfined groundwater process are considered.2.2. (1856): Les fontaines publiques de la ville de Dijon.W.305-311. and the difference in height between groundwater level and river water level.42) 2 DistoBlock [Leakage to deep groundwater] 10 Darcy.2.6 0 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 3 3 Soil Moisture Content   [%] or [cm /cm ]  Relation (pF Curve) of the RepresentativeSoil (by Haverkamp's Equation) iii) Equation for the Groundwater Tank For the groundwater. K. 6 sand 5. H. [Water Balance in the G. The transfer between the groundwater and river water is assumed to be linear for groundwater blocks discharging into the river.8 1.loam 4.4 1. Hafner.2.2.38) DistoRiver where area ( riverbed )  L( river ) W( river ) (3.8 K. Hubbert. 1 .2 0.2 3.2.41) GWLn  GWLlower GWL  GWLlower GWf out  K 0 W( Block )   (3. the transfer between interconnecting groundwater blocks as non-linear (Darcy's law10) are computed using the water head between the blocks.doc SUPPORTING REPORT No. NIPPON KOEI CDMP Study March 2001 3-13 FINAL REPORT 362539195. New York.37) dt area [Groundwater outflow to the river] GWLn  GWLmin Baseflow  K 0  area ( riverbed )  (3.6 clay pF 3 2. pp.

2 PLUMP model system diagram The PLUMP model system diagrams was then constructed based on the divided sub-basin-blocks considering the present overall water uses. leakage is not considered) (3.1 Basin division (sub-basin-block) For the low flow analysis model.4.e. the entire Bengawan Solo River basin is divided into 39 sub-basin-blocks based on the available topographical maps. Upper Solo River basin. Figures 3.100 km2.3. soil maps and hydro-geological information from various reports.3. Dengkeng River.3.e.3.) f) Geological classification boundaries g) Soil type classification boundaries h) Administration boundary i) Scale size of the sub-basin-block area Figure 3. Madiun River basin and Lower Solo River basin) b) Confluence points with major tributaries (i.3 shows the PLUMP model system diagram of the Bengawan Solo River basin. The number of components used to represent the basin depends on the number of soil groups and the variations in topography as well as the degree of detail expected.3.doc SUPPORTING REPORT No. and the respective catchment areas are listed in Table 3.2 and 3. etc. Kening.3 Modeling of the Bengawa Solo River Basin The PLUMP model was applied to the Bengawan Solo River basin with an area of some 16. Following items are considered for the Sub-basin-block division. slope.2.43) Each block is simulated separately and forms a network representing the basin. etc.) c) Watershed boundaries of the key stations (major existing river discharge and water level gauging stations) d) Watershed boundaries of the existing water storing facilities (major dams and intake weirs) e) Topographic conditions (i. The analysis procedure is as follows: 3. 1 .3. a) River basin boundaries (such as the Bengawan Solo River basin. 3. NIPPON KOEI CDMP Study March 2001 3-14 FINAL REPORT 362539195. The model component of a sub-basin-block that is built in the PLUMP model is shown in Fig. 3.1 shows the location map of divided 39 sub-basin-blocks with several information. groundwater flow and return flow of irrigation systems. 3.1. Leak  0 (in this model.3. especially the inter- sub-basin flow connections such as the surface flow. catchment area.

3.doc SUPPORTING REPORT No. Figure 3. 3.3 Selection of key stations for calibration Eleven river water level gauging stations were selected as the key station for calibration of the PLUMP model parameters.3.5 presents the data availability of river runoff records at the key stations.3. 1 . The location map of the key stations is already shown in Fig. NIPPON KOEI CDMP Study March 2001 3-15 FINAL REPORT 362539195.3.1.