NASA Conference Publication 2133

Rotordynamic Instability Problems
in High-Performance Turbomachinery

Proceedings of a workshop sponsored by
Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas,
the University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky,
the U.S. Army Research Office, Durham, North Carolina,
and the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio,
and held at Texas A&M University,
College Station, Texas
May 12-14, 1980

National Aeronautics
and Space Administration

Scientific and Technical
I nformation Branch



In the past decade researchers in rotordynamics have met with considerable
success in modeling the structural dynamics of flexible rotors and in develop­
ing analysis techniques for the bearings that support these rotors. Parallel
advances have been made in the development of effective balancing techniques
for flexible rotors. As a result of these advances rotor critical speeds and
synchronous response amplitudes due to rotor imbalance can be predicted with a
reasonable degree of confidence. Further the utilization of tilting-pad bear­
ings eliminates hydrodynamic bearings as a mechanism for rotor instability.
Partially as a result of these substantial technical advances, new high­
performance turbomachinery has been designed, developed, and put into service
that operates at higher speeds and higher energy-density levels. Many of these
units, including the HPFTP (high-pressure fuel turbopump) of the SSME (Space
Shuttle main engine) and various multistage centrifugal compressors, have experi­
enced severe development and operational problems as a result of subsynchro-
nous instabilities. Incidents of rotordynamic instability have stimulated the
development and refinement of squeeze-film dampers for stability control, but
the crisis circumstances accompanying these incidents have generally precluded
the development of any basic understanding of the underlying mechanisms that
are responsible for the instability. Hence, although techniques have been
developed to cope with units that prove to be unstable, the degree of under­
standing is completely inadequate to design stable high-performance turbo­
machinery. Stated differently, the stability of a new or upgraded design can
only be demonstrated by full-load operation in place.
This workshop was organized to address the general problem of rotordynamic
instability by gathering those persons with immediate interest, experience, and
knowledge for a discussion and review of both past stability problems and pre­
sent research and development efforts. The intent of the workshop organizers
and sponsors is that the discussions within the workshop and the proceedings
that documents these discussions provide an initial catalyst for the systematic
resolution of these problems.


Dara W. Childs
Texas A&M University

Robert C. Hendricks
NASA Lewis Research Center

John M. Vance
Texas A&M University



The proceedings of this workshop is respectfully
dedicated to the memory of Professor Henry F. Black,
MSc, DSc, MIMechE, of Heriot-Watt University,
Edinburgh, Scotland. Henry was born in 1928 and died
on 17 January 1980. He is survived by his widow and
It is difficult to briefly summarize Henry's
technical contributions to rotordynamics. He had
extensive first-hand industrial experience with rotat­
ing machinery and was in demand as a consultant on
rotordynamics problems. His recommendations and con­
tributions as a consultant to NASA and Rocketdyne
Division of Rockwell International were fundamental
to the resolution of rotordynamic instability prob-
lems with the Space Shuttle main engine.
Henry published numerous journal articles over a comparatively wide range
of topics during his professional lifetime. His papers were rarely "easy"
reading, requiring (and meriting) careful study and rereading. The standards
he applied to his published work were stringent, requiring in his judgment that
the results be worthwhile and of continuing interest as well as original. In
fact, conversations with Henry frequently turned up technical "gems" and re­
sults that he felt to be obvious and had declined to submit for publication.
Listed below are Henry's major contributions to the field of rotordynamics.
The breadth and quality of his work provide a continuing legacy and inspiration
to those of us who continue to work in this area.

Analysis of Turbulent Seals in Pumps

Henry pioneered the analysis and testing of liquid seals in pumps. His
publications alone, and in conjunction with Jensen and Cochrane, defined the
forces developed by neck-ring and interstage seals of pumps. He also defined
dynamic seal coefficients for linear rotordynamic analysis, demonstrating the
vital dependency of pump rotordynamic behavior on seal characteristics.

Clearance Effects Between Rotors and Stators

Henry's 1968 paper in the Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science de­
fined the necessary conditions for response interaction between a rotor and
stator across a radial clearance. The results apply for any multidegree-of­
freedom linear rotor and stator models, being restricted only by assumptions of
circumferential symmetry. This is a difficult paper to digest but remains the
definitive analysis of the phenomenon of rotor-stator motion across a clearance.

Optimum Bearing Damping for Flexible Rotors

The 1976 ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry paper demonstrated the
retrospectively obvious result that an optimum value for damping at bearings


exists. In other words this paper's message is that too much damping ca n be
provided at the bearings of flexible rotors.

Parametric Excitation of Flexible Rotors Due to Stiffness Orthotropy

Henry's contribution in a 1969 Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science
paper is remarkable in that one would be pessimistic that any significant con­
tribution in this "mined-out" technical area would be possible. However, Henry
demonstrated the potential for adjacent mode interaction, yielding new and to
date definitive results.


Henry's contribution to the field of lubrication were twofold. First, he
presented bulk-flow turbulent lubrication theories in two 1970 papers in the
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science. Second, he originated methods for
"fast" solutions to the Reynolds equation to be used in conjunction with tran­
sient rotordynamic analyses. Work in this latter sector continues by his col­
league R. David Brown of Heriot-Watt University.

Impeller-Diffuser Interactions

In the 1974 International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics rotor­
dynamics proceedings, Henry proposed an impeller-diffuser interaction mechanism
for rotordynamic instability. Typically, this work relies heavily on physical
insight and intuition. Its eventual validity remains to be demonstrated by
more complete analysis and hopefully by experimental programs presently under
development. The paper will remain, however, the initial direct attempt at re­
solving this problem.
Henry had planned to attend the workshop and coauthored a paper with
Dave Brown of his university. He was a personal friend and professional col­
league of many of the workshop participants, having worked and published in the
area of rotordynamics for many years. Although it is regularly stated that no
man is irreplaceable, Henry's absence is keenly felt by those who had come to
rely on his extraordinary physical insight and analytical capabilities. His
personal qualities of humor, integrity, consideration, and perceptiveness make
his personal absence even more regrettable.

Dara Childs
Texas A&M University
June 1980














Edward Saibe1, U.S. Army Research Office


Field Experiences with Rotordynamic Instability in High-Performance
Turbomachinery, H. E. Doyle, Phillips Petroleum Company Europe-
Africa. • • • • • . • • . • • . . . • . . . . • . • . . . . . . • . . . . 3

Field Verification of Lateral-Torsional Coupling Effects on Rotor
Instabilities in Centrifugal Compressors, J. C. Wache1 and
F. R. Szenasi, Southwest Research Institute . . . . • . • . . . . 15

Practical Experience with Unstable Compressors, Stan B. Ma1anoski,
Mechanical Technology Incorporated. • • . • • • . . . • . . . 35

Analysis and Identification of Subsynchronous Vibration for a High
Pressure Parallel Flow Centrifugal Compressor, R. G. Kirk,
J. C. Nicholas, G. H. Donald, and R. C. Murphy, Ingersoll Rand Co. 45



This type of installation would allow production of a part of the oil prior to completion of the gas pipeline to shore. The flow was from the suction through the first four impellers in series out the center of the casing to an interstage cooler and then return to the opposite end of the compressor with flow through the final four impellers and discharge from the center of casing. Accordingly. pro­ cess and compression facilities were installed offshore to separate oil from gas and to compress the gas to approximately 625-bar pressure for injection into the formation. Each casing contains 8-stage rotors with back-to-back impeller construction. By June it was evident that we were not going to be able to operate them in 3 . Phillips Petroleum has been involved in two major incidents relative to rotordynamic instability of centrifugal compressors. EKOFISK OIL FIELD PROBLEM The Ekofisk oil field in the Norwegian Sector of the North Sea was devel­ oped by the Phillips Petroleum Norway Group (1) on the premise that early deliv­ ery of some of the crude oil would be possible by temporarily reinjecting all of the gas produced. extended construction periods and costs. This arrangement would permit producing oil to the equivalent gas capacity of the injection compressors. This arrangement necessitated a long labyrinth in the center to break down discharge pressure from 625 bars to 440 bars. Fortunately. In one instance we sus­ tained a substantial loss of revenue on crude oil sales since we had no method of disposing of the gas which is associated with oil production. The reinjection compressors receive gas from the separator area at 68-bar pressure and boost it through two parallel trains to 625-bar pressure. nevertheless it was very impor­ tant to the principals involved since it was the beginning of a return on a very large investment.. An attempt was made in March 1974 to commission the reinjection compressors. considerable con­ sternation and eventually resulted in lost production. Although this represented only a portion of the ultimate capacity of the field. England Instability in centrifugal compressors is a very serious problem and one that has caused the Phillips Petroleum Co. In the second instance we faced a possible shortfall in delivery of gas to meet contractual commitments. Both incidents have re­ sulted in serious problems for all parties concerned. and heavy maintenance expenditures. FIELD EXPERIENCES WITH ROTORDYNAMIC INSTABILITY IN HIGH-PERFORMANCE TURBOMACHINERY H. with the combined efforts of the manufacturer and our own people we were able to avert a major shortfall in gas delivery. Each train consists of two 15 OOO-kW units in series. Doyle Phillips Petroleum Company Europe-Africa London. with the first unit discharging at 240-bar pressure and the second unit at 625 bars. E. and our partners.

On Christmas Eve 1974 we started gas injection into the formation. built. yielded negative results and which has become characteristic of similar situations. The compressors are divided between two parallel trains.their existing state and further that we had a full-grown rotordynamic instabil­ ity problem with no immediate solution in sight. and finally one additional identical unit in 1979. add­ ing seal grooves. Concurrently with the design and manufacture of the new squeeze film bear­ ings the compressor manufacturer started work on a new rotor design incorporat­ ing a larger diameter shaft and a slightly shorter bearing span. During the initial operation of the plant no compression was necessary but. two additional identical units in 1976. First the manufacturer tried the relatively simple changes such as adjusting seal clearances. They operate at 13 750 rpm. They are actually only needed when the gas pipeline is out of service for some reason or when it is operating at restricted capacity. was designed. adjusting lube oil temperatures. but they have no bearing on the problem under discussion. compressors must be added to deliver gas at a con­ stant 68-bar pressure. back-to-back. a very laudable accomplishment. The machines have operated successfully since. parallel-flow impellers. several months had elapsed with no solution in sight. At this time it was decided by the manufac­ turer to design a squeeze film bearing that in a subsequent test proved to be successful and was adopted as an interim solution. The gas comes from wells located approximately 17 miles offshore. Each set of compressors. when the new design rotors were installed. All these many changes required that we operate the compressors to deter­ mine their effectiveness. There are other compressors of different sizes in each train. which were manufac­ tured by different firms. seal lockup. Three identical 3000-kW centrifugal compressor u�its were installed in 1973. What followed was a long peri­ od of testing which. HEWETT GAS PLANT PROBLEM The Hewett Partners (2) operate a gas plant on the East coast of England that furnishes natural gas for use in Britain. We were able to operate the compressors successfully with the squeeze film bearings and continued injecting gas and producing crude oil until the summer of 1975. At the conclusion of this period. It is interesting to note that the calculated payout of these new compressors was somewhat less than 1 week in terms of lost crude oil production. Bearings are the 5-lobe. 4 . All compression equipment is located on shore. pressure-pad type. as the field pressure declines. At about the same time we decided to hedge our position and secure new compressors for the final stage of each string which incorporated a change in design by using two compressor bodies rather than one. They operate at red�ced head now since the formation pres­ sure is much lower. and shortly thereafter we commenced producing crude oil close to the anticipated design rate for that period. for the most part. and numerous bearing config­ urations. The compressors in question are fitted with single­ stage. and full-load tested at actual operating conditions in approximately 1 year.

unit 6 rotor was removed and unit 7 rotor. particularly since many hours of running time had been logged on this and simi­ lar compressors without difficulty. it would appear that this was the beginning of our instability problems. Events concerned with this problem can best be presented in a chronologi­ cal order as this gives a much better feel of the time frame required to iden­ tify and solve this type of problem. At this stage no one thought that the problem could have been instability. Unit 7 rotor was re­ moved. April 1976: Unit 7 compressor was commissioned. The compressor has experienced numerous intermittent trip­ outs from that time to present date. 19 December 1978: With little or no improvement in operation of the com­ pressor of unit 7. 22 December 1978: There being no improvem ent in the operation of unit 7 and with high-vibration tripouts continuing. On this particular compressor the instability has always remained bounded when instruments were in place. The rotor has remained on this unit through current date. and reinstalled. and unit 6 rotor was installed. In late November the unit would not go back on line because of constant high-vibration tripouts. The unit was operable. and the rotor was reinstalled. November 1978: Unit 7 started to experience random intermittent tripouts similar to those experienced on unit 6. January 1976: Unit 6 compressor was commissioned. January 1975: Unit 1 rotor was damaged by foreign object in compressor. and the original spare rotor was installed. but there is certainly no reason to believe now that the many tripouts were any­ thing other than instability. 2 December 1978: Unit 7 continued to experience tripouts. 5 . Unit 1 rotor was removed and replaced with original unit 3 rotor. Chronological History June 1973: Units 1. presumably caused by foreign object damage.4-mil amplitude at 2/3-running-speed frequency. Unit 3 compressor rotor was removed during commissioning. although on this compressor we have never had our diagnostic instruments connected during a tripout to confirm this. a new coupling assembly was fitted. 2. Unit 6 rotor was pulled and rebalanced. the unit 7 rotor was pulled. and even the gearbox and coupling were changed in an effort to determine the cause of the problem. and 3 were installed. A check somewhat later than the onset of tripouts indicated a O. and replaced with the rotor removed from unit 1 in January 1975. which had been repaired and rebalanced. November 1976: Unit 6 was shut down because of high vibration. In retrospect. was installed. re­ balanced. and once again on-line opera­ tion was established at reduced speed and head. Numerous attempts were made to correct the problem: Alignment was checked.

However. As a general rule. It was a typical example of an in­ stability trip accompanied by a slow buildup of the 2/3-running-speed component. The compressor tripped at 13 200 rpm as a result of this subsynchronous vibration. and immediately upon startup the compressor began experi­ encing high-vibration tripouts. Examination with diagnostic instruments in place a few days later revealed a strong subsynchronous component at 2/3 running speed. only about 0. Where operation is possible but limited by instability. Unit 6 rotor was installed. Unit 7 compressor rotor was installed. As an example of the amount of work encountered on this problem. as was the case with this compressor as well as others. Figure 1 is a plot of speed versus amplitude of vibration for the unit 8 inboard horizontal bearing probe. which then suddenly became unbounded and reached several mils amplitude. but we were unable to do so because of high vibration and the resulting tripouts. It was decided to remove this rotor to make minor repairs of a nature not related to the instability problem. it was necessary to rebuild the compressor rotor. rotors were changed eight times during this interval. and in all probability was the cause of all the troubles on the other units. and two months since starting to commission the unit 8 compressor. 12 March 1979: For the first time a run was attempted with unit 8 with diagnostic instruments in place.5 mils. particularly unit 7. Six months had elapsed since the begin­ ning of serious troubles on unit 7. and the results clearly showed a subsynchro­ nous vibration at 2/3 running speed. This permitted the plant to operate but at much lower head than always needed. This was the first clear indication of the reason for our inability to commission unit 8. This figure shows the first indication on in­ struments of the presence of instability. and an acceptable level of operation was finally estab­ lished although at something less than normal head.11 January 1979: Frequent tripouts in unit 7 again required a shutdown. On 7 March a short run was attempted with the rebuilt rotor in position. 5 February to 7 March 1979: During this period numerous attempts were made to commission the unit 8 compressor.25 mil. Figure 2 is a plot of speed versus amplitude of vibration for the inboard horizontal bearing probe and shows the instability tripout that occurred immediately following the plot in figure 1. An upset on another compressor in 6 . Instability is building up slowly around 8000 to 9000 cycles per minute. 15 March 1979: Unit 2 had been operating since commissioning in June 1973 with the original rotor and during this period displayed no problem with trip­ outs from high vibration. and at this point the amplitude is quite low. Tripout oc­ curred at a frequency of 9300 cycles per minute and an amplitude of 12. an area of the performance curve between the surge line and the design point and extending roughly from 80 percent speed to 100 percent speed was observed to be particularly sensitive to instability. but this ended with a severe tripout because of high vibration on both bearings. the compressor was able to operate continuously at heads some­ what below design. but certainly not in all cases. operation was feasible in the section well to the right of this area. Because of damage from foreign objects and frequent tripouts.

9 April to 14 May 1979: During this period four rotor changes were made in the unit 7 compressor in an effort to obtain some level of acceptable opera­ tion.the same train would often force the unit to operate in or near the sensitive area and result in an instability trip. 7 . at the end of this period unit 7 was still exhibiting in­ stability and was unable to operate for any length of time. Figure 3 is a plot of speed versus vibration for the unit 7 inboard bear­ ing probe. and reinstall it. and then only at reduced head. No problem external to the compressors was identified. This plot shows an instability tripout that reached 4 mils. many of them as a result of coupling unbalance. (2) Units 2 and 6 had some instability at all times. which were later identified as instability. On starting up after shutdown with instruments in place. the machine tripped at a running speed of 13 000 rpm. Unit 7 had operated for only brief periods since the beginning of its serious problems in November 1978. Each of these changes required a run to determine results. With regard to the six iden­ tical units the following conditions existed at this time: (1) Units 1 and 3 never experienced any difficulties with instability. Once again instability was present. However. 21 March 1979: Continued high vibration of the unit 6 rotor in the unit 7 compressor required a shutdown to remove. (4) The manufacturer had been actively involved in arriving at a satisfac­ tory solution and had undertaken the following: ( a ) Performed a complete rotor stability analysis ( b ) Arranged for a consultant to study and conduct field tests to determine if a problem existed external to the compressors. (3) The instability experienced on unit 8 has prevented this unit from operating since its commissioning on 5 February 1979. ( c ) Collected and analyzed a large accumulation of data from various field tests to determine a solution. These compressors continued to run satisfactorily the entire time. rebalance. For the most part these units had operated satisfactorily but at a reduced head for the preceding 6 months. Mid-year 1979 summary: By this time it was recognized that we had a seri­ ous instability problem with no solution in sight. and a check with a frequency analyzer showed only a very small pip at 2/3 running speed. Numerous tripouts were experienced. and an un­ bounded component at 2/3 running speed was observed. This included several bearing and seal configurations and even impeller changes.

The instability frequency appeared to be locking on the critical frequency of the shaft. Units 2 and 7 have been fitted with the new diaphragm arrangement. Tripout amplitude was 8. However. To do this it was necessary to key impellers to the shaft. The combination proved successful and on Oct. Cd) Made an exhaustive study to determine any differences between the six units which would explain why some units did not experience instability whereas others did. Thus it was necessary to operate at low speed. a major lessening of instability was detected. Nothing of any significance was determined. Although there were several high-vibration tripouts upon startup. Unit 7 has operated satisfactorily without instability since this change. Fig­ ure 6 is a plot of the inboard and outboard vertical and horizontal probe vibra­ tion representing unit 8 as finally modified. The bundle was rebuilt with the same diaphragm arrangement as previously but by reverting to the original rotor design by eliminating the keyed impeller and the reduced shrink fit. Figure 4 is a plot of vibration for the outboard vertical probe made just before a tripout. it was believed prudent to obtain a new one. but no reasons could be found. The compressor continues to run to date in this manner with no instability difficulties. There were no changes in this rotor over previous ones. 1979. and it was possible. rubs. Finally. and foreign object damage experi­ enced on Units 7 and 8.1 mil. 18 September 1979: The manufacturer fabricated a new bundle for unit 8 with two major changes. with a strong insta� bility indicated at 2/3 running speed.2 mils at 8300 cycles per minute. be­ cause of the large number of tripouts. Maximum instability is only 0. unit 2 still has had some vibration tripouts but at present is operating satis- 8 . however. Figure 5 is a plot for the the inboard vertical bearing probe at tripout. The shrink fit of impellers was reduced in areas by shortening the length of the fit. At first it operated satisfactorily. 10. 13 July 1979: A complete new rotor had been manufactured and was installed in unit 8. The ini­ tial run on this rotor was very similar to previous runs. The machine was dismantled and completely inspected and care­ ful measurements made of all clearances and fits to try to determine what change had occurred during the tripout which could account for the improvement. to operate unit 8 at full speed and load. but its performance gradually deteriorated and it suffered a number of instability tripouts during August. Even after a violent surge the instability remained bounded. at least for a period. it was observed to be in much the same condition as on previous runs. The diaphragm wall was extended into the area between the backs of the two impellers and gas was introduced by two holes to induce a laminar flow along the back plates. Upon restarting unit 8. Note that instability is not tracking running-speed frequency. the unit was placed on the line with the instability completely bounded. enough data were collected to indicate a change in instability frequency in that instability no longer tracked running speed but remained at one frequency regardless of running speed. After having operated at low speed for several hours an instability tripout occurred. The compressor was rebuilt and started up once again.

reducing bearing span. along with seal configurations. 9 . Far too much time is consumed in making minor changes and operating the compressors to determine results. although you can understand that after having gone through the experiences of the past 18 months everyone is not convinced that similar problems will not recur. Wider use of rotordynamic analysis by designers will be an aid. clear­ ances. I hope that such improvements will be forthcoming because the need is great and the potential penalty very high. Bear in mind that this is even before we have encountered the heavy-artillery-like effects of hysteresis at the impeller shaft mating surface. I am certain that many im­ provements have been made.. and others. will un­ doubtedly help this situation. Better specifications by users and contractors in defining all aspects of service in which the compressor will be used will also help. along with more widespread use of diagnostic instruments. manufacturers. consultants. etc. preloads. whereby laminar flow was induced on the impeller back plates. More effective means of making analytical determinations of the results of various modifications is needed in order to reduce the time required to obtain a satisfactory solution. squeeze film bearings. I strongly advocate users owning or at least having ready access to such equipment along with trained personnel to operate and interpret results. Endless combina­ tions of bearing designs. From our standpoint it would appear that the combination of the new dia­ phragm arrangement. Signature analysis and good records of operation and maintenance are also very important. Only successful operation over a long period will pro­ vide the final proof. larger diameter shafts. along with better than normal rotor balance results in successful opera­ tion with the 2 / 3-running-speed component remaining bounded.the very serious consequences of an instability problem. contractors. but it remains bounded. I believe there is a great need for better methods of identifying potential instability problems in the design stage.. (2) Ineffective methods are used and excessive time is required in deter­ mining the cause of instability. Field solution of instability problems may be characterized as follows: (1) Difficulties are encountered and time is lost in properly identifying the problem. but there is need for many more. and users alike .design­ ers. Conferences such as this will help. FIELD SOLUTION OF INSTABILITY PROBLEMS My purpose in leading you through this rather detailed description of a maj or instability problem is to point out forcefully to all concerned . The plant is now operating smoothly. etc. Maybe closer cooperation between all parties will eventually lead to this. Add to this the time required to determine if the cause of the insta­ bility is external or internal to the compressor and you may have encompassed a very long costly period of time. new diaphragms.factorily. A clearer understanding of the phenomenon surrounding instability by users. Unit 6 will be modified as soon as plant schedules permit. grooves. Finally. can require weeks if not months to check out. Some instability appears to be present.

58% North S ea S un Oil Co.30892% Oil Exploration Ltd.700% Total Marine Norsk A/S 4. Ltd.040% Elf Aquitaine Norge A/S 8. (1) The Phillips Norway Group consists of the following companies: Phillips Petroleu m Company Norway (Operator) 36. 2.68667% Superior Overseas Development Co.456% Coparex Norge A/S 0.52666% North Sea Exploration & Research Co. 9. 8.91324% Plascom Ltd.26% A gip (UK) Ltd.26667% Canadian Superior Oil (UK) Ltd. 2.399% Cofranord A/S 0.13% Century Power & Light Ltd.16% 10 .304% (2) The Hewett Group consists of the following companies: Phillips Petroleum Company (Operator) 18. 3. 4.094% Norsk Hydro A/S 6.30892% Halkyn District United Mines Ltd. Ltd. 1. 2. 4.58% ARCO Oil Producing Inc.047% Eurafrep Norge A/S 0. Ltd.000% Norsk Agip A/S 13.960% American Petrofina Exploration Company Norway 30. 15. 10.97% American Petrofina Exploration Company 16.30892% ARCO British Ltd.

Z C .O.8 ___ Vert. .fill./div 0 STRAIN DATA )l-in.M.4 . 3 0.2 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 X1000 R.M. ===t == H O.R.ENGINEERING AND SERVICES 8.P. D 12 MA . �� ���.'N".2 12 15 18 21 24 2 7 0 3 Xl000 R.fin div D PULSATION Di\TA psifdiv 0 NOISE DATA dBfdiv VOL TS 9. Scale 1.4 VOLTS 14 MILL l'im'.-.BO".div D PljLSATION DATA psijdiv o NOISE DATA dB/div Test Point_�'N�B"'O�A"RO"-'-H�_ Plant__-'8"'A"'C" TO"''- N _-.4 VOLTS 14 MILL Tim<: _______ _ . ________ I-Iori?_ScaJ�O.H.P M =Jfi ".2 J.0 0.6 .6 0. 30000 .4 0. R ENGINEERING AND SERVICES m VIBRATIO� DATA mils/div o STRAIN DATA )l-in.M.AOAMS PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY­ . c . FIGURE 2 11 .�����=:������ ��� ��������� i S O .8 ��==== u. 81 J. =========: � � � _l -..3 Te_'1 PO!nt _-".p. % lhtc��_ 10 MILL 1.1. R C H '979 12.2 . .P.8 ______________ J/L ___________ �A�_________________________ . l R . 0 10 .8 8. FIGURE 1 PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY .-_ Plant_ BACTON Unit___-'N""'''' 1.30aOOR. ADAMS [yj VIBRATION DATA mil.== A ==== 12 VOLTS 11 -----1--r-'/�---J'.A:"R".__ UnitSpet:d � rpm Unit________ Vert Scale 1.

.P.M. FIGURE 3 79 MV @7900C.P.P.. O""A". PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY-ENGINEERING ANO SERVICES 71 J R ADAMS [0 0 I VIBRATION DATA milsjdiv STRAIN DATA Il-in. PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY-ENGINEERING ANO SERVICES B. Plant BACTON Unit Spccd ____ 'pm Unit Vert.30000 R.div o PULSATION DATA psi/div 0 NOISE DATA dB/div ." J.M.D__ -TO C ' "' '" -- "' N ' - . 27 3..P.R.div o PULSATION DATA psi/div D NOISE DATA dB/div Test Point O.ADAMS []I VIBRATION DATA mils/div o STRAIN DATA iJ·in. Scale 0. FIGURE 4 12 .fin.M. % Datc Xl00 R.M.4 fl 12.R". " 12. B.M..P. Sc alc: 100 MV/Mlll Timc __ 18 SEP 1979 HUril" Sc ale 0. X1000C..V..2 A 12 12 IS 18 21 24 27 3.30000 R. � A 12./in.95 . Xl000 R.7____ UnitSpeed � rpm V cr t . ''-J " 12 IS 18 21 2.9 A 12.M. Jl'f Date 10 APRil 1979 A A 12.P. Tcst Point_ ' "B -".6 A " 12.5 A 12 11\ A 11 � I.N Plant __-'B"A __ Unit __----'N "o'-'.8 " 12. Scak ______ Time ________ Horiz.8 A " 12. I\.

S. Scale 1". 30000 C...3.HR. Scale O..M. PCLSA"IION DATA pSljdiv D NOISE DA.M. __ A"-CT"O. B".2 MilL rim" __- ..-. -t �H R".M.5�6_.j/div 0 NOISE llAL\ dBfdiv rC'st Pnint ______ Plant __-"B"AC"T"O""N___ lInitSpeed�rplll DlUt Vert. INBOARD H INBOARD V 12 15 tB 2t 24 27 30 XlOOO C. yh 18 SEP 1979 to MILL Xl00Q R.t P()int __--".. Scale 1". Planl __-.ENGINEERING AND SERVICES 810 J A ADAMS D I [Il VIBRATIO. to".ENGINEERING AND SERVICES B t9 J R ADAMS � 0 I VIBRATION DATA milsjdi\ STRAIN DATA IJ·in. FIGURE 6 13 .V fe.nilSp"ed�rpm llnit ____�___ Vat.. DATA )l-in.>..-__ lio'.div o PULSATlO:-l DATA p. 0..P. % Ddk laOeT 1979 8300 C. PHIlliPS PETROLEUM COMPANY ..z.fin.S.Scale 0- 30000 R . A.-. OATA rni I."' B'"� ... N.-.P.P.!diV STRAI./in..M. OUTBOARD V. FIGURE 5 PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY. ___ Horil.M l --- OUTBOARD H. P. 2 MILL rimc _ _-"12 ".TAdB/div .P.div D .-_ _ t.


Guidelines are set forth to eliminate these potential problems by minimizing the interaction of torsional and lateral responses and their effect on rotor stability. Wachel and F. internal friction. i. Real time analysis of the vibration data has shown that on most units that have instability problems. bearing span. most serious problems are subsynchronous and have forward whirl (refs. Szen asi Southwest Research In stitute San Antonio. The lateral and torsional coupling mecha­ nisms of shaft systems have been investigated both in theory and in laboratory models by other investigators.. The data also indicates that excitation energy from gear­ boxes can reduce stability margins if energy is transmitted either laterally or torsionally to the compressors. This paper documents these coupling mechanisms in a large industrial compressor train and demonstrates the potential effect on rotor stability . vibrati. 4). a trace of vibration at some instability frequency 15 . before the machine experienced the high level vibrations normally associated with full scale instability. R. The field data verifies that the stability of centrifugal compressors can be adversely affected by coincidence of torsional natural frequencies with lateral insta­ bility frequencies. including hydrodynamic bearings. Texas 78284 SUNNARY Lateral and torsional vibration data were obtained on a centrifugal com­ pressor train which had shaft instabilities and gear failures. These compressors differed in manufacture. and may be forward or back­ ward precession. Rotor instabilities can occur in flex­ ible shaft units which operate above their first critical speed.on data has been collected on several compressors that have experienced severe instabi. INTRODUCTION R otor instability vibrations in compressors and turbines have occurred more frequently in recent years and have caused severe failures and costly downtime for several large projects. 1. weight. 2. and running speed.e. aerodynamic cross coupling. and torsional coupling. In the past few years. critical speeds. FIELD VERIFICATION OF LATERAL-TORSIONAL COUPLING EFFECTS ON ROTOR INSTABILITIES IN CENTRIFUGAL CONPRESSORS J. Using modern instrumentation. 3. The whirling motion can be subsynchronous or supersynchronou s. The whirling instability frequency is u sually near one of the shaft critical speeds and can be caused by many factors.lities. however. the instantaneous spectral characteristics of shaft vibrations were observed in real time as the compres­ sors approached the onset of instability . C. seals. shaft diameter.

however. Units have run satisfactorily for several years before serious instability trip-outs occurred. therefore. or electrical trip-outs. The threshold of instability can be fully defined only from testing over the full performance range of the machine. etc. alignment. but the exact improvement required to make an unstable system stable is sometimes difficult to predict. or upsets in the process such as liquid slugs.normally exists at all times. It follows. it is not possible to verify the severity of the instability from vibration measurements at one operating con­ dition. Because the stability margin on some units is so delicately balanced. The logarithmic decrement evaluation of rotor system damping as presented by Lund (ref. and even this approach is not always completely adequate. 16 . flow. This paper will present measured field data on several compressors which exhibited instabilities. There are several mechanisms which have been observed to contribute to rotor instabilities. The normaliza­ tion procedures compensate for unknown dimensional variations which affect bearing and seal properties and adjust for actual aerodynamic loading.. surge transients. better esti­ mates of the possible effects of system changes can be made if measured field data is available for normalization of the mathematical model. oil temperature. When instability vibrations occur in installed machinery. its characteristics can be drasti­ cally changed whenever small changes are made in factors such as pressure ratio. and process variations. un balance. The most sensitive elements which influence rotor sta­ bility include the following: (1) hydrodynamic cross coupling in fluid film bearings (2) seals and labyrinths (3) aerodynamic cross coupling forces (4) hysteretic or internal friction damping (5) pulsations (6) pulsating torque and axial loads (7) asymmetric shafting (8) fluid trapped in rotor (9) stick-slip rubs and chatter (10) dry friction whip. Field experience shows that while this technique provides proper direction in designing for sta­ bility. Data analysis techniques presented can define rotor stability thresholds and the effects of modifications to seals. bearing clearance. shafts. that the threshold of stability can likewise be improved by small changes in these same parameters. To properly calculate the stability margin of a rotor. bearings. After one year of satisfactory operation. one compressor failed eight times in the next three years from instabilities caused by unexpected transients. the mathematical model must be able to simulate all poss�ble destabilizing components. 4) is useful for predicting rotor stability. uncertainty still exists in quantitatively predicting the onset of instability and defining the contribution of individual influencing parameters.

The complex waves ( ampli­ tude versus time ) of two shaft vibration probes during a compressor insta­ bility trip-out are given in figure 2. B y making sequential frequency analyses and incrementing the analysis verti­ cally on a storage oscilloscope. spectral time histories. including a real time analyzer. . it is difficult to define the system running speed from strip chart records. switch boxes. seals. are shown in figure 1. The spectral time histories. and order tracking plots. Comprehensive experimental data can be invaluable in defining critical elements in the computer simulation of rotor instability. transducer amplifiers for pulsation and accelerometer measurements. By using a fiber optics strip chart recorder. and signal cables. and can aid in improving their modeling. The authors have found these data acquisition techniques to be particu­ larly useful in the solution of instability problems in large industrial compressor units. since the initiation of instability will com­ pletely mask other vibration components. spectral time history generator. or rasters. ANALYSIS OF ROTOR INSTABILITY VIB RATION DATA Capturing rapid instability transients and presenting a maximum of readily understandable information requires specialized instrumentation to develop Campbell diagrams. a frequency analysis versus time record can be conveniently generated and effectively displayed and photographed. Compare the spectral time history ( figure 3) of the same compressor rotor instability shown in figure 2. FM tape recorders. etc. Although thi& method of presentation is important in obtaining the total peak-to-peak vibration amplitude as a basis for identifying damage to bearings. of vibration data are generated using a real time analyzer. Field instrumentation used to document compressor instabilities. X-Y recorder. order tracking instrumentation. A clearer understanding of the sequence of events during instabilities can be obtained by the development of spectral time histories than by viewing events on a strip chart recorder or oscilloscope. The time intervals marked on the strip chart correspond to the numbers on the analysis. the complex wave can be displayed alongside the frequency analyses. 17 .. and labyrinths. trim balance analyzer. and can be taken either off the machine directly or from FM tape or using digital FFT computer techniques ( waterfall diagrams ) . oscilloscope. due to touch-off or high vibration. proximity probe instrumentation. tachometers. allowing a direct comparison of overall peak-to-peak amplitudes with amplitudes of each spectral component ( figure 4).

was made to determine the cause of the problem and to evaluate the modifica­ tions.10 inches ) of material removed. A complete investigation of the system. several gear failures were experienced in the intermediate and pinion gears. The seals and labyrinths were wiped in an increasing bow pattern such that the inner labyrinths had approxi­ mately 2. Several modifications were required to improve the machine's stability characteristics. but little experimental data is available on large industrial units ( refs. 5. and the machine has run for several years without further nonsynchronous vibrations. The suc­ tion pressure was 10. requiring extensive testing. and 7). The compressor had a 163 cm (64 inch ) bearing span with a critical speed of 3800 cpm and a rigid bearing critical of 4300 cpm. The vibrations then shifted to 6000 cpm and then locked in on 4300 cpm (406 �m. TORSIONAL-LATERAL C OUPLING EFFECTS ON STABILITY A recent study involving a complex centrifugal compressor train reveals considerable evidence that the torsional natural frequency of the system coin­ cided with an unstable vibration mode of the fourth stage compressor and con­ tributed to the failures encountered. 10600 rpm.4 �m to 101 �m (1 mil to 4 mils ) over about a 1 second interval. and then sharply increased to 406 �m (16 mils ) in approxi­ mately 0. The inboard vertical probe had slightly different characteristics. The complex wave ( figure 2) shows that the instability component at 4300 cpm increased from 25.5 bars (500 psi ) .3 bars (150 psi) and the discharge pressure 34. Vibrations as high as 101-127 �m (4-5 mils ) occurred when the instability was excited. The impeller hubs were undercut to reduce the hysteresis effects at the mating surfaces. The data obtained illustrates the influence of the torsional natural 18 . O thers have discussed this problem.2 seconds. This compressor failed eight times due to these nonsynchronous vibrations. The high speed compressor (17000 rpm) could not be operated above 70 per­ cent load because the lateral vibrations would suddenly increase to destruc­ tive levels whenever the load increased. resulting in seal wipes. In addition to the high lateral shaft vibrations on the fourth stage com­ pressor. or 16 mils ) until the compressor speed was below 4000 rpm. 6. INSTABILITY OF SYN GAS COMPRESSOR The spectral time history of the compressor instability presented in figure 3 was for a 13000 horsepower. 8 stage compressor with back­ to-back impellers. and shaft scoring. In this compressor the installed recommended changes were sufficient. The five-shoe tilted pad bearings were modified by reducing the pad areas on the side and by increasing the radial clearance to force the rotor to vibrate in a horizontal elliptical orbit. bearing failures. The clearances in the seals and labyrinths were increased. The vibration orbit was so circular that the pieces appeared to have been turned in a lathe. emphasizing the need for full instrumentation.5 mm (0.

the influence of the lateral vibrations of the shafts in the gearbox upon compressor vibrations wil l be documented. The compressors were instrumented with proximity probes. The first three torsional critical speeds occurred at 1155 cpm. 1590 cpm. and 4760 cpm. and two pinions. The horizontal vibration of the third stage compressor ( figure 8) shows vibrations at 4800 rpm which was the insta­ bility frequency that was tripping out the fourth stage compressor. The system consists of a gas turbine. and modulate with fairly high amplitudes. 19 . to com­ pletely evaluate the instabilities in the fourth stage compressor and gear tooth failures. The instability vibrations at 4800 cpm are only about 13 �m (0. The other pinion drives the third. one monitoring the bull gear and one on each of the plnlons. The gas turbine gearbox has a bull gear. The resulting demodulated signal can be frequency analyzed to obtain the torsional velocity vibrations in the system. The torsional natural frequencies of the train can be seen from the Campbell diagram generated from the bul l gear torsiograph signal ( figure 9). In addition. In addition. The FM torsiograph measures torsional vibrations by monitoring the gear tooth passing frequency signal from a magnetic pickup or proximity probe and demodulates this signal using a frequency-to-vo ltage converter. two gearboxes. Vibrations at the same frequency (4800 cpm ) as measured in the fourth stage compressor also occurred in other compressors in the train even though no apparent ex citation source exists in the train at that frequency. The unstable lateral vibration characteristics of the compressor can be seen in figure 7 which gives the outboard horizontal vibrations in a raster plot or Campbell diagram presentation. One interesting p henomenon to note is that the first and second torsional critical speeds are always present.frequency upon compressor instabilities and lateral vibrations in the gearbox. Directly in line with the bull gear is another gearbox with an auxiliary steam turbine. three FM torsiographs were installed in the gearbox ( figure 6). the third stage compressor is on one side and the fourth and fifth stage on the other side. This system is rigidly coupled between the plnlons and compressors as opposed to having gear coup­ lings. One pinion drives the first and second stage compressors in a back-to-back arrangement on opposite sides of the pinion. This Campbell diagram was made directly in the field with a real time analyzer and appropriate electronic instrumentation. and five centrifugal compressors ( figure 5). It can be seen that the amplitude of the instability near 4800 cpm reduces as the speed is lowered. two intermediate ( idler ) gears. and fifth stage compressors. Note that the third torsional natural frequency at 4800 cpm cor­ responds with the lateral instability frequency of the fourth stage compressor. which caused lateral vibrations to be transmitted throughout the entire system.5 mil ) . fourth. however. Both reduction in speed and reduction in load caused the instability amplitude to decrease. steam turbine. additional proximity probes were installed in the gearbox to measure lateral vibrations. however. the gas turbine speed had been lowered to 3460 rpm ( com­ pressor speed of 16400 rpm ) to keep the instability amplitude from tripping the unit.

low frequency vibrations measured on the fourth stage com- pressor were unexpected due to the predicted improvement in the stability 20 . These measured critical speeds match those determined from the critical speed map. It has been found that to determine if proposed bearing mo difications will be satisfactory from a stability standpoint. In figure 15 ( the peak-store plot of the compressor shaft vibrations. it was suspected that a change to tilted pad bearings would be sufficient to solve the instability problem. no instabilities were found. Under maximum operating condi­ tions. The field data supports this analytical prediction. load-between-pad bearings. One interesting p henomenon that occurred on startup was the excitation of lateral vibrations in the fourth stage compressor due to the idler gear fre­ quency excitation as it passed throu gh the compressor shaft critical speeds. significant improvement in the log decrement is apparent and the tendency toward instability as a function of load is not evident. the change to tilted pad bearings would not definitely solve the problem since there are many systems which have tilted pad bearings and still have instabilities. The torsiograph on the pinion gives the same frequency information and also shows modulation of the first and second torsional critical speeds. To ensure that an adequate range of loading is covered.- high amplitude. The new bearings were four-shoe. and rated flow. however. from a stability standpoint. The maximum amplitude measured over the entire running speed range is recorded by the peak store envelope ( figure 10). the . as com­ pressor speed went from 5700 rpm to 13300 rpm ) . stability calculations were made for the original system and the system with tilted pad bearings. The crit­ ical speed map was generated and forced vibration analyses were performed to verify that the location of the new critical speeds would be acceptable. vibrations in the low frequency range were carefully examined for all types of incipient instabilities and none was found. At this high speed of 17000 rpm. The fourth stage compressor originally had pressure pad bearings. therefore. The lowest calculated instability forward mode near 4600 cpm agreed with the 4800 cpm which was actually measured ( figure 7). as can be seen from figure 14 which shows that as the gas turbine speed increases above 3000 rpm. the excitation of the shaft criticals at 3000-4450 cpm can be seen. nor­ mally the log decrement versus effective aerodynamic loading is evaluated as plotted in figure 13. The critical speed map in figure 12 has the presure pad and tilted pad bearing curves superimposed. Therefore. The new system critical speeds are near the horizontal critical speeds for the original system. to ensure that the system would still operate satisfactorily under design loading c onditions. This calculated stability data indicates that the unit should be stable. it is necessary to analyze the system for the fluid or aerodynamic loading that the compressor will be experiencing. The compressor stability is lowered as the effective aerodynamic cross coupling l oading increases. the changes made in the unit were satisfactory. Also the effect of the change to tilted pad bearings upon the lateral critical speed response was investigated. The compressor running speed is above the fourth critical speed. Figure 11 illu strates the correlation of the natural frequencies measured from the pinion gear torsio­ graph. On this initial startup. With the new bearings. maximum pressure.

there was a modulation of the amplitude of the lateral vibrations on the high speed pinion when tracking this frequency. These data show that in closely coupled systems the lateral energy can be transmitted throughout the train. Notice that whenever the idler gear frequency matches the tor­ sional natural frequency at 4800 cpm. the lateral vibrations drastically increase. there is a sharp increase in the ampli­ tude.characteristics for the rotor with the tilted pad bearings. Therefore. These characteristics were shown in figure 14 for increased suction pressure. therefore. bull gear. The energy from the idlers can couple directly into compressor shaft lateral vibrations. When the experi­ mental Campbell diagram of the vibrations was displayed. it was found that the instability was not the classical type of instability. order tracking was performed to separate the vibration components in the pinion vibration. This amplitude increase can be directly transmitted to the fourth stage compressor and serve as an instigator for the instability frequency. and the idler gear frequencies present on the pinion over the speed range. The cause of the excitation was the lack of steady-state loading on the gears in the gearbox. the mechanism which causes the increased lateral vibration at torsional natural frequencies is the same for all rotating equipment. While it is felt that the rigid couplings greatly influence the magnitude of the coupled torsional to lateral amplitudes. The interaction that occurred between the torsional and lateral vibrations for this system is discussed below. it is vitally important to design systems which are free from gear excitation which might coincide with the torsional natural frequency of the system or the instability frequencies of individual shafts in the system. the Campbell diagram in figure 16 shows that whenever one of the excitation sources matches a tor­ sional natural frequency. For the pinion driving the fourth stage compressor. 21 . COUPLING OF TORSIONAL VIBRATIONS INTO LATERAL VIBRATIONS The following data illustrates the coupling of torsional vibrations into lateral vibrations throughout the compressor train. Figure 17 gives the lateral vibrations at the bull gear. The two idler gears had slightly di fferent frequencies. the pinion. The important factor to be stressed is that the coupling of the torsional vibra­ tions into the entire system can also serve as an instigator of instability. The low frequency vibrations were a result of the idler gear frequency exciting the lateral critical speeds of the fourth stage compressor. Subsequent runs were made with higher suction pressures which significantly reduced the idler gear excitation. increased lateral vibration would occur and this could be transmitted to the compressors. therefore. In addition to presenting the data in the form of the Campbell diagram. it can be surmised that any time the idler gear. or one of the excitation sources is coincident with the torsional nat­ ural frequency.

excitation sources in the gearbox should n ot match potential instability natural frequencies since this could serve as an exciting mechanism for the instability. Notice that every time one of the excitation frequencies is coincident with the torsional natural frequency. it would be important in designing systems not to have the torsional natural frequency of the system coincide with potential unstable vibrating modes of a centrifugal compressor. There were large vibrations excited even on the second stage compressor. indicating that this exci­ tation can cause large lateral vibrations. how­ e ver. this system was completely stable over the range of operations. (2) In rigidly coupled systems. this compressor also had a lateral critical speed near 4800 rpm which may have caused some amplification. Several u seful guidelines have been set forth for evaluating new designs of high speed rotor systems as well as existing systems with chronic stability problems. therefore. This is a time raster rather than a Campbell diagram. as can be seen in figure 20 which gives the second stage compressor inboard vibrations. Again there are similar characteristics on the pinion with large responses at the first and the third torsional critical speeds. (1) Torsional vibrations in a system can serve as an instigator for an instability. For this system with the new tilted pad bearings. the stability was significantl y improved. a potential exists for coupling of the vibra­ tions into the gearbox to increase the dynamic loads on the gears and in some cases can cause gear tooth failures. 22 . (3) In systems where an instability mode could occur near a torsional natural frequency of the system. The new instability mode frequency was out of the range of the idler gear and bull gear excitations. The Campbell diagram for the other plnlon lateral vibrations ( figure 18) s hows that the torsional energy is transferred laterally throu ghout the train. it would be easy for the torsional resonances to act as perpetrators for instabilities. This data shows that if a compressor had a potential instability. CONCLUSIONS These field investigations have served to provide insight into potential destabilizing instigators and sensitive operating conditions for high speed r otor systems. The effect on the idler gear horizontal vibration is shown in figure 19. This data is pertinent relative to the two problems experienced: the instability and the gear tooth failures. therefore. The increase in lateral vibration can be seen when the idler gear frequency approaches 4800 cpm. This energy is transmitted through the shafts to the first and second stage compressors. the torsional vibrations and the lateral vibrations increase.

vol. 23 . Vance. Machinery Vibrations III" September 1979. E. Szenasi. 6.A Theory to Explain Nonsynchronous W hirling Failures of Rotors with High-Load Torque. R. pp. J. Wachel. no. (4) If gear failures are experienced in a gearbox.: Quantitative Signature Analysis for On-Stream Diagnosis of Machine Response. 1975. vol. 100. M.: Isolation of Torsional Vibrations in Rotating Machinery. L. Texas A&M University. R.. Gunter. Eshleman.: Rotor Bearing Instability. April 1973. Cecil R. C. ASME Paper 75-PET-22. 235-240. April 1978. 7.: Torque-Induced Lateral Vibrations in Rotating Machinery. ASME Paper 73-DET-l03. Sparks. L. Materials Evaluation. Journal of Engineer for Power. C. J. 2. 4. REFERENCES 1.: Nonsynchronous Instability of Centrifugal Compressors. National Conference on Power Transmission. and Wachel. Vibration Institute Seminar. J. F. October 21 - 23.: Torquewhirl . XXXI. 5. J. 4. The system should also be checked for unstable vibrations on one or more of the compressors which may be cau sing increased dynamic loads through the torsional-lateral cou pling mechanisms as demon­ strated in this example. E.. it is standard pro­ cedure to check for torsional natural frequencies in the system which can amplify the dynamic loads. 3. Lund. 1972 Turbomachinery Conference Proceedings.: Stability and Damped Critical Speeds of a Flexible Rotor in Fluid-Film Bearings. and Blodgett.


16 sec/line RPM x 1000 Figure 3 25 . 0. SPECTRAL TIME HISTORY OF COMPRESSOR TRIPOUT SHOWING INSTABILITIES 254 �m/div (10 mi1s/div).


4th 5th C Stage i--. Pinion Stage Stage p Figure 5 Figure 6 27 .----- L---- Idler 3rd i-. Gear I Turbine p Box C Gas Turbine Bull Gear L. SCHEMATIC OF COMPRESSOR TRAIN C 1st Stage I Pinion 2nd Stage p Idler r---- Steam r--.

.!.n..�:t+J-I-I++1+J-I-I++AJ-I-I-++++-J-I-I-++++-�-++++-J-I-I-++++-J-I-I-!+ .4 �m 1200 CPM IN THOUSANDS Figure 8 28 . CAMPBELL DIAGRAM OF FOURTH STAGE COMPRESSOR VIBRATIONS SHOWING INSTABILITIES SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE-APPLIED PHYSICS DIVISION ri?J VIBRATION DATA o PULSATION DATA mils/div pSI/dill 100 STRAIN DATA NOISE DATA './d. _____ ____ \ SNUT� � Sr"'6E" .!' II: 12 ./0 Nf.._.M:h6e 04- ..� 9. is 18 21 24 27 30 CPM IN THOUSANDS Figure 7 LATERAL VIBRATIONS OF THIRD STAGE COMPRESSOR SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE-APPLIED PHYSICS DIVISION Instability 1 0 ".M"'OO M" ·'-10 STRAIN DATA �·m.i<. �511M _ .. Frequency .d Un."" .1 mil ...Do..lolE ./ T. �fHM II! II I.1 3600 . .Hn....4 J-I 2400 � � � 1800 � 1200 ________ 600 .I 'I ! III ' :I I : I I : :j � � i./in.t IJ'P PULSATION DATA 0 NOISE DATA psi/dill dB/div 4800 cpm TeltPoinl �. �Mow. . ././di dB/div 3600 1 mil . Un" S ". . 25. 1\ \�S. 25.

d � V� rplll .I! ' i i 11 .. "'-l. : I'.r-jOOjrlTIfmu jj - - II -� : i" I 3rd Torsional .i. i/. III "�i. . II i i j i 1800 2400 3000 3600 �200 . . . �u I . �590 cpm .� � 1iQ ' . " 11'I. . ' Ii ' . §:: " 1200 III II I mBJ1?JV ��Wlfff#I'. NOISE OA T A in. . i I ' l�t' ���s iO��� : j I 2nd '.... -1500 4800 5400 �lihltm 6000 CPH Figure 10 29 .. 2400 II . 'I . �ilii.m . 1 ill I I! '-J 1 4 CPim 7It. l � I I I'!I I�! 1 JI 1� 1 00-3550 rpm �'!I illll. !.5 M"%e-c. . . • 480� - C i l. I .'r'�'. . � � 1J!j I I L/f J 1800 � " I\.. ".-roT HomScdll!O III Dal� _____ u--. Analysis at .!I':[I T . 'ii mOrpm ' iA.\�mWlj I ! l�. I .. I' J " " .. LU'1 \:ti' 1:: II ! I i Illffi: iii i ! iill j jill U IIAi i lilillil �:0 1 600 1200 r . .�I: ... BULL GEAR TORSIONAL VIBRATIONS SOUTHWESTAESEAACH INSTITUTE-APPLIED PHYSICS DIVISION I .' I I I! I : " yl till fT II ill I' III I �' : 3000 I lU' . /00 IT ''''[' ' 3rd' Tor81onal ': " . -r 'IT if II . I� :t" [' ! .1. 3600 .!iJtltI.i'lli!lliil'II:'::'i!III::'i..l" j-i�". i '1 I I"I! ' 1 i 1 1 1 I I' . ' . Ii i ' " � ' . TI III [liTiTlll 600 1200 HlnD 2"00 III 11111:1000 3600 1IIIIIInllllili IT 4200 4800 I 5400 600 6000 CPH Figure 9 PEAK-STORE BULL GEAR TORSIONAL VIBRATIONS SOUHIWEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE-APPLIED PHYSICS DIVISION H". .�\lWlll IJ -f-H++++++l ./ln. .I l III 'II i"'ii'�l ii . /all" Time A -'X$/rhv 1:00#1 llnil _____ _ p5i/div I rJ [] STflAIN DATA p.o�L��a�l 1155 cp. "i. � .1. I ' I 1 1111.ldiv dR/dry 1 1 r: ' ]TI '�nlll 1 Veri.rllll!II!I'i!lili'lil'!iiiiliilpm l:j!!:!iliill("I I ." I I ".l ll �i" .' ..I :! . Ii " . .GI:ifR��Qt1 ______ Unit Sr"' . <:--:- . � . .i�. " cq " III t-' If }N] . !kalr. � o VlUnATION DATA PUtSA liON OA 1 Tp�tP. '.

/ V - I 11. I 1/ ... . -./ - \ J---."£.-.I \ �. .-p'_i/d_w-LD N _O _IS E_ _DA_T_A__d�8/-=:dill'� T I __ 1590 cpm Tell Point tlv4w /CJR:iKJ6BIW 04.. "7� ". __ _ A _ _ R go.... ---. ..-----J 0:: V U .ln i . ------ 0:: t XX l_J-i-- '-. " Iii 600 1200 1800 2400 1000 3600 4200 4800 5400 6000 CPM Figure 11 CRITICAL SPEED MAP ........ 75 N/cm I I = 5 6 10 10 STIFFNESS CLBS.. ! i ! I' I I 'I I II ./INCH) Figure 12 30 . 6�/I 3600 E�tlitijtJjttltttffiijj�!ttW:l:tmW+H�m Un d s . " 0&0. ---l __ « � u - H 1\ J::::-:- I- H l-./ --.--. 4 I /---1- if) 10 I_ -. 1Ja18 3rd Torsional 4800 cpm 2400 � 1800 I a 1200 I 'i!: I i I �..:- " "Sc:___ � � """ . ·-tJ2�� I . TORSIONAL VIBRATIONS MEASURED ON PINION SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE-APPLIED PHYSICS DIVISION Ilts� l .:5nJ&r .- xx -- \ \ --- -- Tilted Pad � \" Bearings \ � I---- ---.. . -- HOIil.0 _ ��m-<. ""'"'' DItPt-.---.. _.. Pressure Pad w Bearings w 0.! Ii .. - . f V 1\ I 1 lb/in 1...�flfl. a --. _ .. ..I.-/ V l\- T I V .+H_H-D PU_ L _SA_ _ ON_ O_A_TA_ --./div /0. _... .\ .:.!rts ��l1/i-1_1--l 1-++l-l+JI I-l+. : II I' ..e ..--.._-- !-..S""c. - � r'\ :E ! - 0./diw 1155 cpm .!rls'i:'-�'l H J J UIII IIII t t"1 t I H � VIBRAT ION DATA . STRA IN DATA "'-in.------. - II f--+- . -..

&0"1. iii: !Ii i il!i . . 3000 -.. JI . II! Present I.". :� � : 2400 � ... 75 N/cm Aerodynamic Loading. � --+.e O r:.....j l ."1.I 'II' i. ' 600 :1 . is � I � LX .. /"I>-- k ..o <' j ��" e?:> + cP c.p' 0.. 1 . s<:l' • j 1- .0 +1..f. . r !" .1- ' J."." "j '1'''' 11. j)Q: �b. ---t�• ..:Jnfff(/. . I.. N/cm Figure 13 FOURTH STAGE COMPRESSOR VIBRATIONS WITH TILTED PAD BEARINGS I1 II1 II SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE � APPLIED PHYSICS DIVISION }11 Ijlll I : ILl ����a'bli�:.'.:e& co'G\'\'I e d s v e �O '" f" ' 1200 � >'--' -... ' II " I ' . . I :TI .. .0 5950 CPl1 Tilted Pad Bearings c � 0'5 1----. m"lld. . ." " I i .. .0 lIb/in '" 1.foliA!: I I: '! !i il I....".*""'" . il .P�� eO.. I ' l l 5wvr.-. i'ii'' \ 12 IS IR 21 24 27 30 CPM IN THOUSANDS J:<'lgure 14 31 ...c.b�"'''' II I"t/ftl. .I r 1 mil . I! / :/" I .II i.4 l-iW. . .. 25.L: I i iii � VIHHATION DATA I [l STRAIN DATA " Inl m/dtv ! IIIII i !]PULSATIONUAJA o NOISi::DA1A dBId .. " I /# . '... I �I rl 1800 � lIINl.. . .I! �III I 111111 ! I ! '[ I !Il! . . 4Dt 51116".v :'. � "Jjt�./' �01il ' I! . . ' �X /1 [f' ' I II!II' ! : . ! I I ' " ·1 Ii ��nilillil lll i llilill III ilili Ilil..qe I I 'l. 3600 !II!I /11 t 107 I .' -:N<'< "" 'I :I .-.. ... Ii I : Ilillljm 1IIIIIIilili /' . -- I! I i! II .. 1 : I L . I' . .011 ..Ii . . .:J -1.-. .0 -2. . 1 � . rr.. III 1111 1111 I� I.. I " -I ITTTI " '" X .' I ' . ' ' IIII kf'1' ' .. .---------- u � 4600 CPM " � . EFFECT OF AERODYNAMIC CROSS COUPLING ON STABILITY +2. ". ..

p<2. �i . : I! 0 PULSAriON DATA f--.1111 ". 5/v'l!�_ Tim.\.". .e.___ --- f I . c/P.>__ H' 1 t 0".� ___ 1 1' 1n irT v..25.____ I" " 1 """'.l._ rpm Unit _ .rf.:.---.--. s". .[i!l-IIl>.id'.n. UniISpe�d.. S� ee1\ I! 1- i-- .rL D1 ______.. _� 1155 cpm 4B00i-+c++pm+++l--H-l-l-l+l-+++l+l+l-l+l-+++l--H-l-H-l Unit Sp�("d5r.64!"/l. --- TestPoint#8a..' � 1)" ' I iJ i :}Ooo I . "I 1800 � � 1.-- fUlfrliv ------- 0 NOISE DATA dB/d.".- 1st TorSlonal 3rd TorSional TeHPoiflt 8.:5S' PN?_� HOfIT.o _. 1200 600 1 24 27 30 CPM IN THOUSANDS Figure 16 32 ._ p."" . ' o PULSATION DATA psi/d.£1".1V1<:J'Y SH. '7':'1l .ot' . ..v --------.I '" 1 ! 2400 � lli 5 (N . COMPRESSOR SUBSYNCHRONOUS VIBRATIONS EXCITED BY IDLER GEARS SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE-APPLIED PHYSICS DIVISION � VIBnATION DATA J O1itS/diV O SlRAIN DATA Ii ". s. _7 .=-. � /"I4/L&II/ Time /2. Scale 0 �_ III OM'> �__________ I 12 15 18 21 27 30 CPM IN THOUSANDS Figure 15 PINION LATERAL VIBRATIONS CAUSED BY TORSIONAL-LATERAL COUPLING 1[: SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE-APPLIED PHYSICS DIVISION Q'lI VIBRATION DATA llll!IJl lllllllllllllllllll!. ::rrIJ6f!f____ _ Vert.1FL-L 04."1 . . _. Sf�I".liflJ.'''/d: ' 0 STRAIN DATA � '""". .. __..4 "m � ."l'\.v 0 NOISE DATA dB/di'l' .zoo-::&80t)'I'r" UIIII ¢T/.

a VIBflATION nATA mtls/div Ll SlHAIN DATA iJ.� 1.61 x (Idler Modulation of amplitude occurs due to beating effect of two idler gears . ORDER TRACKING OF PINION VIBRATIONS Lateral vibrations increase when idler speed matches third tor­ sional natural frequency at 4800 cpm . rpm Figure 17 FIRST STAGE PINION LATERAL VIBRATIONS SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE-APPLIED PHYSICS DIVISION t.--/tvv' ji"" _______ SOo 3600 24 CPM IN THOUSANDS Figure 18 33 .erUP rpm Urlll GEA?'£ 130 X V.5 � :.'" $".<. ['Oil.:' MII.0 � '" k � :> 0.1fl/riiv 1<'1-. 1.s�O'1· -co---cc- Unit "1...<'(1 :::5l?1. 2.0 '" 1.5 o 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600 Gaa Turbine Speed.v [J PUISI\TION (JAT/\.. Wifdiv lJ NOISr." 0.! /1/'nf:)N. 2. " .5 I p...../rl. DATA . in/i. :..

.t\\.. 04._ _ ___ It Speed ��c.. : T I !. BD� Vert.o ./d'.� '\. 0.5 MIL TiJM 7OOt!lM Horiz.f/ • Tlnto _'l�joJI=(V{'L.RAIN DATA �-'nJln..Sc:..I2./di 0 NOISE DATA dB/diw 5t POint �t:!: . '1.-in. S"'l 0'" '9teo.-- I mil . 0 NOISE DATA dBldiv 1st Torsional -.. SC8le 0.� rpm Unit fiNO SP1fiG <t.Jr. 1-t'f../in. � 1.5 At&&.lco.. 25. �S�ea. ....... &6 Co'O\ e IT . T.•... Unjt G�e./dI. ZOO H.. 0 1200 rl rli 2400 3600 4800 IIII6000 7 200 00 9600 lORon 1200 CPM Figure 19 SECOND STAGE COMPRESSOR VIBRATIONS SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE-APPLIED PHYSICS DIVISION 1 I GrVIBRATION DATA o PULSATION DATA mill/dill Pii/di" 10 STRAIN DATA ..'" SVe 11 )�i-'-'�!I .. psi/diw 10 ST. IDLER GEAR LATERAL VIBRATIONS SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE-APPLIED PHYSICS DIVISION t+H+tt+ rrrVIBRATION DATA o PULSATION DATA ml.stPojnt �& Sl:i.�€. ___ 'l. l..4 }1 -- I. - 111£- OW lli:l...50-32:I.Sc�lIIeO.�O Hz Date 't 'b 'iP �e \'p�"'I eeb. e1: 'l.� ... l' e.I8-IIQC.r:.__ _ . 12 1> 18 21 24 27 30 CPM IN THOUSANDS Figure 20 34 .. I � 1155 cpm Un .

Before getting into the detailed discussion of these experiences. ammonia. It should be noted that a complete list of references with discussions on the subject of rotor-bearing dynamics emphasizing subsynchronous instabilities could be the subject of another paper since there have been numerous important contributions in this area during the past seven years. natural gas. an attempt is made to gauge the destabilizing effects in a number of compressor designs. overhung. carbon dioxide. All have been analyzed before manufacture and have func­ tioned well in the field. PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE WITH UNSTABLE COMPRESSORS Stan B. are the seals (both gas labyrinth and oil breakdown bushings) and the aerodynamic components. Using analytical mathematical modeling techniques for the system components. nitrogen. A number of these compressors have been selected as repre­ sentative examples of subsynchronous vibration and are discussed herein. and freon. Over 50 compressors of predominately the "straddle-mount" design have been analyzed to determine the causes for high vibration and to propose subsequent corrective actions. custom designed. The reference list pro­ vided herein cites publications which are familiar to this author and are related 35 . New York 12100 SUMMARY High and low pressure compressors which operate well above their funda­ mental rotor-bearing lateral natural frequencies can suffer from destructive subsynchronous vibration. These machines compress such gases as air. based on experiences with stable and unstable compressors. The practical experience gained is the main subject of this paper. other than the shafting and the bearings. Recommendations are made. Usually the elements in the system design which con­ tribute to this vibration. which can be used as guides in future designs. high-speed compressors have been shipped by the author's firm. Malanoski Mechanical Technology Incorporated Latham. I NTRODUCTIO N During the past ten years. the author had the experience of analyzing new designs or "trouble-shooting" existing machines suffering from high vibration. The methodology used in the rotor-bearing design analysis is referenced her2in. carbon monoxide. a review of the literature on the subject of subsynchronous vibration in turbomachinery is given. hydrogen. oxygen. Over 200 single-stage.

By no means is this list meant to be complete. with which this author is intimately familiar. In the bearing area. It is the author's opinion that considerable knowledge has been-accumulated over the last ten years in the area of vibrations in rotating machinery in general and in sub synchronous whirl in particular. such as Reference 1. 15. confidence in available analysis techniques. References 12. Presently. 4. 36 . 23. Reference 1. As mentioned above. DISCUSSION OF REFERENCES In 1973. seals. and 25 should be referred to. and fluid dynamic components are included in the reference section. and fluid dynamic forces and the gauging of the rotor-bearing system sensitivity to vibration in terms of a system logarithmic decrement have been followed by the author's firm. and it would behoove the manufacturers and users of rotating mechanical equipment to be aware of the content of these papers. Procedures for rotor-bearing dynamic analysis have been recommended in References 2. and 20 are cited. Various important contributions that have been made which should aid in the preparation of the mathematical models of the bearings. 17. In the area of aerodynamics or fluid dynamic excitation. and 16 are the theme of the present paper. The recommended procedures for preparing the mathematical model for the rotor. including the balance piston. designing. and 5. An excellent discussion on mechanisms causing unstable whirl in rotating machinery is presented in Reference 31. References In the oil breakdown bushing seal area. One message obtained from this reference is that liquids can either provide significant benefits or problems depending on how they act with the rotor. and 28 form an excellent foundation. least in this author's viewpoint. References 3. Lack of confidence was previously stated in the use of these analytical methods in References 6 and 7 as a substitute for full-load testing.was presented at an ASME conference. In the labyrinth seal area. In the squeeze-film. seals. and 12. 18. damper bearing area. 24. 3. The extensive use of this methodology over this past time period has provided the author with the experi­ ence reported herein. 11. which should be considered a classic in rotor dynamics. are reported in References 9. manufacturers of compressors are analyzing. However. and manufacturing compressors without troublesome sub synchronous vibrations (References 29 and 30). 13. References 21 and 22 are useful. has grown. 19. 10. 26. 27. bearings. Practical experiences with high pressure compressor vibration instabilities. References 23. This paper offered a method for calculating the damped critical speeds of a general flexible rotor in fluid­ film bearings. actual tests (Reference 8) and experiences have provided a better understanding such that confidence has been regained .

second. (Note that compressor dynamic stability is affected by gas density and mass flow levels. A good design for this application is to have each tilt-pad in the bearing serviced by an individual inlet restrictor.000 rpm. Where possible. it did run stably after modifications were made to the wheel-to-shaft fits and the oil distribution within the bearing pad clear­ ances.) 37 . This range is a function of the clearance tolerance in the tilt-pad bearings. In a second three-stage overhung design which operated at 33. which operate at high speed. manufacture. when compressing C02. However. in gear-driven units.05 to 0. In one of these designs which compresses air and operates at 52. and also well above its first rotor-bearing natural frequency of approximately 9000 cpm. reference is made to two particular three-stage overhung design. Because rotor modifications were impractical. The machine was marginally stable. the base rotor-bearing log decrement varies from 0. and assembly procedures such that the model agrees with the machine and vice versa. A serious problem in compressor design and/or trouble-shooting with regard to rotor dynamics and vibration sensitivity is the inability to prepare the proper mathematical model of the contributing members and to police the design. Furthermore. a discussion is given on a number of case histories where subsynchronous instability was a predominant vibration problem. the gear loads on the bear­ ings have a variable load direction with speed which must be accounted for. Overhung Designs In Reference 20. In overhung designs. the rotor-bearing log decrement was calculated to range from 0. Also.000 rpm. the machine was unstable in a sub­ synchronous mode.5 and a stable running machine. This is a case where the machine did not represent the mathematical model. practical problems which reflect upon the analytical model versus the actual machine are discussed. low pressure compressors that were completely stabilized by employing squeeze-film damper bearings. a gauging of the damping or lack of damping is given in terms of system log decrement (References 1 and 2). for machines operating with similar temperatures and pressures the gas molecular weight becomes a convenient gauging parameter.08 to 0. gyroscopic stiffening is important and can be present only if the wheel-to-shaft fits are retained at operating speed. In the following.15 because of clearance tolerances in the tilt-pad bearings. However. well above its first rotor-bearing natural frequency (approximately 12. This machine had proper wheel-to-shaft fits and properly lubricated bearings and ran stably in air.000 cpm) . The rotors are supported on tilt-pad bearings and only labyrinth seals are used. a squeeze-film damper bearing was employed to achieve a log decrement well above 0. the straddle-mounted (or simply supported) compressor design is addressed.25. This machine provides a gauge on the stability of machines with gases with molecular weights of 29 and 44. DISCUSSION OF EXPERIENCES The following discussion is divided into two sections where first the overhung (or cantilevered) compressor design is addressed and. however.

None of these compressors is suffering from subsynchronous vibrations. tilt-pad bearings possessing stiffness and damping. 32 0. a nominal geometric preload of 0. Oxygen 17.* * It should be noted that changing the load orientation of the tilt-pad bearing is an effective means of gaining stability in marginal machines.32 to 0.45 3 to 2 Carbon Dioxide 44 0. the following is a list of system log decrement versus gas molecular weights for machines that have run stably above their first damped natural frequency and are free from subsynchronous vibrations: Ratio of Operating Speed to First Minimum Log Damped Natural Gas MW Decrement Frequency Ammonia . These rotor-bearing systems are operating above the first natural frequency and below the second. and usually load orientation on a pad. A gauge that has been followed for this machine design is the minimum allowable system base.75 2 to 1. • Tilt-pad bearings must have the proper oil distribution in order to achieve the calculated stiffness and damping. and fl�id dynamic forces at the wheel and / or gas labyrinths seals. over­ hung compressor design is discussed.62 to 0.15. 38 .5 These values have been used to provide machines with stable operation and are not to be misconstrued as threshold values. The key parameters for achieving high stability ( high log decrement ) for these compressors are • Minimum overhang length • Minimum wheel weight and inertia • Maximum shaft diameter between overhang and inboard bearing centerline • Bearings with a nominal machined clearance ratio of 3 mm / m.52 Freon-Air Mixture 94 0. Lessons that can be learned from these experiences are as follows: • Wheel-to-shaft fits must be retained at all speeds. The basic elements that comprise the dynamic mathematical modeling of this machine are a flexible. overhung rotor. high-speed. For example. • Higher molecular weight gases do provide larger fluid dynamic forces. In Reference 29. log decrement versus gas molecular weight (MW).42 to 0. thus necessitating a higher base system log decrement. This author had the opportunity to make rotor-bearing dynamic analyses on over 200 compressors of this design. the state-of-the-art of single-stage .

2 x 107 Pa (9000 psig). A simple breakdown seal can have an axial force as high as n/2 Dt 6p. they could short circuit the effect of the bearing damping and reduce the log decrement to a low value of 0. this would correspond to a pressure of 6.5 x 10 5 N/m (2000 lb/in. This machine has a base rotor-bearing log decrement of apprOximately 0. By tuning the mathematical model to the machine performance.000 horsepower compressor. in terms of radial cross­ coupling stiffness.) per wheel is a reasonable design value.0 was achieved with the damper design. The machine ran stably under full-load test. The breakdown oil seals were designed to be ineffective as desta­ bilizing elements.) per impeller brought the theoretical log decrement down to 0. The base rotor-bearing log decre­ ment of this machine was reported at 0. The first design had a base rotor-bearing log decrement of 0.11 x 104 N and 3. it was fur­ ther determined that a fluid dynamic excitation. In the final machine design stage. a face of t = 1/4 inch.* For three seals and assuming * In SI units. a diameter.76 x 107 Fa (4000 psig). it was determined that.) per impeller. From the above. operates at 6500 rpm and compresses natural gas (molecular weight of approximately 20) to pressures over 2..030 with a damped natural frequency of 4300 cpm.35 x 10-3 m. The particular 13. reported in this reference.44 with a damped natural frequency of 3900 cpm. the axial locking force is approximately 2500 pounds. calculations were made to assess the rotor dynamic stability of the machine. 39 . respectively. At various stages in this compressor development. This author has performed analyses on other similar compressors and some of the experiences are reported in the following paragraphs. For a seal with 6p = 1000 psi. if the oil breakdown seals were active dynamically.21 with a damped natural frequency of 3500 cpm.15 x 106 N/m (6570 lb/in. was present at approximately 2. By deactivating the seals (pressure balancing) and incorporating a squeeze-film damper bearing. a seal diameter and face width of 0. a rotor with a larger shaft diameter was employed.98 x 105N/m (1700 lb/in. "Straddle-Mount" Designs An excellent discussion is given in Reference 30 on the design and fu11- load testing of a high pressure natural gas compressor with this mounting type. Reports on a very high pressure natural gas compressor are given in References 10 and 11.89 x 106 Fa. respectively. The value of 1. However. A rotor-bearing system capable of retaining a positive log decrement with this excitation should be stable in the field.165 m and 6. an aerodynamic excitation cross-coupling stiffness of say 3.6 with a damped natural frequency of approximately 4800 cpm and proved very insensitive to seal and aerodynamic excitations. A log decrement + value of 1. An aerodynamic cross-coupling stiffness was used at each impeller to represent the fluid dynamic excitation.34 x 103 N. This statement is made based on the assumption that the oil break­ down seals are not locked or are deactivated dynamically.000 horsepower) with a discharge pressure approaching 6. and locking and radial forces of 1. it would appear that. This particular eight-stage compressor is presently operating at 8500 rpm (�20. D = 6. stable operation was realized. for natural gas injection compressors.5 in.19.

In the bearing area. With a representative aerodynamic cross-coupling stiffness.11.01.000 rpm with a damped natural frequency of approximately 5500 cpm. with locked oil buffered seals. and insufficient oil flow or improper oil flow distribution have caused problems.46. In the damper bearing area. or hang-up. lower pressure machines this interaction is less likely. the base log decrement was reduced from 0. Shafts which are too small in diameter or have improper wheel fits (too loose. the high pressure can indirectly cause instability in otherwise stable machines by influencing the gas density and.1.29 to -0. improper clearances. oil buffered seals. However. the radial load capacity could be as high as 750 pounds. the rotor-bearing.29. or too long) are poor in mechanical design integrity and can be the main causes of high vibrations. 40 . In heavy rotor. aero. and means for causing seal lock-up should be eliminated from the compressor design.46 to 0. and by locking oil breakdown seals axially such as to cause interaction with the stable rotor tilt-pad bearing system. high pressure machines.29 to 0. therefore. A softer. Thus. and too low an oil supply pressure have prevented effective damper performance.29 to 0. or a value equal to a typical bearing load. Thus. the fluid dynamic excitation levels. the base log decrement was reduced from 0. damper bottoming out. seal log decrement was increased to 0. a pressure balanced seal should be a design requirement. low geometric preload bearing provided more damping and increased the basic log decrement from 0. Finally. This particular compressor was operating above 13. It is easy to see that.25. With the new bearing design and typical aerodynamic and oil seal destabilizing forces acting together. too tight. oil-buffered seals should be designed to act as sealing elements only and should not be part of the dynamic system of rotor and bearings. unless a special pressure balanced seal is employed in medium-weight rotor. the bearings and seals will interact as rotor supports. the base log decrement was reduced from 0. Other recurring practical problems are worth mentioning because they have caused considerable loss of production and much grief between the analyst and the operating personnel.08 (still greater than zero). The analytical results for a representative machine are discussed in the following paragraphs. With circum­ ferential grooved oil seals. The primary problems associated with these machines have been tilt-pad bearings with too high a stiffness and locked.a coefficient of friction of 0. The base rotor-bearing log decre­ ment was calculated to be 0. Many natural gas reinjection compressors have been analyzed because of instability problems experienced at the oil field sites. Success was achieved at the site by incorporating the new bearing and seal designs. too small an axial length pad.

Oklahoma. manufacture. Limited for the Inst. A. D. and Colsher. 509-517. 5. 1977. 1976-9. 2. and assembly procedures such that the mathematical model agrees with the actual machine and vice versa. and Miles. Kirk. S. 65-70. 96. Design with these facts in mind. Tulsa." ASME Publication: Computer-Aided Design of Bearings and Seals. 4. 5. Malanoski.. pp. This appears to be representative of practical. Beware of high pressure compressors because they can have inherent destabilizing effects from not only fluid dynamic forces at the impellers and in the labyrinth seal areas (including the balance piston). Lund.. See discussion herein and design accordingly. "The Use of the Computer in the Design of Rotor-Bearing Systems. J. "The Impact of Rotor Dynamics Analysis on Advanced Turbo­ Compressor Design. Tilt-pad bearings with looser clearances (lighter geometric preloads) in conjunction with stiffer shafts usually yield higher system log decrements. Eng. Texas A & M . "Vibration Problems with High Pressure Centrifugal Compressors. Fowlie. Presented at Atlanta. W. I Mech E Conf.4th Turbomachinery Symposium. Pub. Journal of Engineering for Industry. 2. 6. ASME.. high pressure oil breakdown seals." ASME Publication: Turbomachinery Developments in Stearn and Gas Turbines. and Solution Approaches. 139-150. S. Design for a base rotor-bearing log decrement of 0. W. J... G. Smalley. Pub. May 1974. D. pp. Shapiro. No." ASME Paper 75-Pet-28. but from locked. Higher molecular weight gases require higher base log decrements. 4. Presented at the Petroleum Mechanical Engineering Conference. 41 . Mech. September 1975.. LCCC #76-028853. Georgia. "Rotor Whirl in Turbomachinery: Mechanisms.. London and New York. and Malanoski. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. of Mech." Trans. Gas Turbine Laboratories. 6. B. REFERENCES 1. Prepare a complete and accurate mathematical model of the dynamic system and then perform a dynamic analysis as suggested in Reference 1. See discussion for details. 3. W. Analysis. Eng. D. Vol." Proceedings . stable systems. pp. B. "Stability and Damped Critical Speeds of a Flexible Rotor in Fluid-Film Bearings. November-December 197 7. 89-98. October 1975. Police the design. 3. pp. 2. R. R." Vibrations in Rotating Machinery.5 if possible as suggested in Reference 2. 1976. "Rotor-Bearing System Design Audit .

"Experimental Parametric Study of a Squeeze-Film Bearing. "Design and Closed Loop Testing of High Pressure Centrifugal Gas Compressors for the Suppression of Subsynchronous Vibration. "The Stability of an Elastic Rotor in Journal Bearings with Fle�ible Damped Supports. Presented at the Petroleum Mechanical Engineering Conference.. Wachel. of Mech. May 10. ASME Paper 7s-Pet-22. 7. Gas Turbine Laboratories." Trans.. pp. pp. Journal of Engineering for Power." ASLE Trans.. April 1979. Nicholas. 11. J. 10. and Wendt. 16. Eng. 14. 13. pp. 2. et al. Journal of Engineering for Power. C. pp. Limited for the Inst. 342-352. Criqui. J. October 1975. Injection Centrifugal Compressors. J. ASME. K. L. 98. "Stabilization of Turbomachinery with Squeeze-Film Dampers - Theory and Applications. 1-5. No. Tonnesen. Vol. W" "New Generation Compressors Injecting Gas at Ekofisk. Ferrara." Pro­ ceedings .. Barrett. 7.." Journa� of Petroleum Technology. 22. Nicholas. Paper No." ASLE Trans. A. 100. Vol.. Tech. Texas A & M. London and New York. 9. 911-920. W" "Spring and Damping Coefficients for the Tilting Pad Journal Bearings. pp." . Gunter. "Optimum Bearing and Support Damping for Unbalance Response and Stability of Rotating Machinery." Proceedings - 8th Turbomachinery Symposium. Geary. 89-94. W." Trans.. J. Vol.. 1976. L.. Lund. F. 63-70. and Kirk. C. G. 206-213. H. "Nonsynchronous Instability of Centrifugal Compressors." Trans.. "An Operation History of Fractional Frequency Whirl. December 1979. 113-124. L. pp. 15. et aI. . Texas A & M. P. Vol. J. 87. Paper No. pp. and Damratowski. R. No. April 1976. W. G. 18. 17. 1979. September 1975. C. No. pp.. Eng. E. 1977.. P. E Conference Publication 1976-9. I Mech. 630-638. 115-126. " Vibrations in Rotating Machinery.4th Turbomachinery Symposium. June 1977. 8. ASME. Lund. J. Oklahoma. pp." Trans. ASME Miscellaneous Paper. pp. 1964. Journal of Applied Mechanics. Jr. C. Gas Turbine Laboratories.. "Stiffness and Damping Coefficients for the Five­ Pad Tilting Pad Bearing. 77-DET-ls. E. 43-57. 42 . Conf. 1965. Presented at the ASME Design Eng. Cochrane. J. "Selection and Design of Tilting Pad and Fixed Lobe Journal Bearings for Optimum Turborotor Dynamics. P. "Evolution of High Pressure Gas­ . "Vibrations in Very High Pressure Centrifugal Compressors." The Oil and Gas Journal.. Pub. J. 2. January 1978. pp. ASME. Smith. 19. 291-300. Chicago. Tulsa. Illinois. Journal of Lubrication Technology. ASME. Mech. September 1977. 79GT86. 12.

on Turborotor Stability. J. and Miller. 22. 35-42. 100.. Lund. Vol. July 1975. H.8th Turbomachinery Symposium. 23. ASME." Trans. pp. December 1979.. J. "Design and Full Load Testing of a High Pressure Centrifugal Natural Gas Injection Compressor. Gas Turbine Laboratories . 22. 1." Trans. 19. and Soler. Vol. "Studies on Vibrations Stimulated by Lateral Forces in Sealing Gaps. Warner.7th Turbomachinery Sym­ posium. Kirk. Gas Turbine Laboratories. 333-344. March . 29." Proceedings . 3.20. and Saibel. 73-78. ASME. Vol." Presented at the Workshop on The Stability and Dynamic Response of Rotors with Squeeze-Film Bearings. No. Texas A & M. R.. Teploenergetika. 1979. 29-34.. No. " Trans." In German. Institut fur Thermische Stromungsmaschinen. 24. December 1979. A. H. pp. "The Influence of High Pressure Oil Seals . 26. 461-471. 31. pp. "A Theoretical Analysis of the Aerodynamic Forces in the Labyrinth Glands of Turbomachines " Moscow Power Inst. Texas A & M. pp. No. K. S. 43 . 1972. Lund. Army Research Office. W. F. 7. University of Virginia. 5-12. H. 29-33.8th Turbomachinery Symposium. Gas Turbine Laboratories. pp. 1978. "Stability of Rotor-Bearing Systems with Generalized Support Flexibility and Damping and Aerodynamic Cross­ Coupling. E. " Proceedings . ASME. January 1979. . R. Unwersitat Stuttgart." ASLE Trans.. pp.. W. 97. Journal of Engineering for Power. 813-823. October 1965. Malanoski." The Shock and Vibration Digest. Vol. November 1967. A. Sood. B. Pennink. G. Vol. 25. No. "Some Unstable Whirl Phenomena in Rotating Machinery. 87. Journal of Fluids Engineering. E. S. J.. 4. "Protecting Turbomachinery from Self-Excited Rotor Whirl. Sponsored by the U. 30. 28. pp.. 14-24. Black... May 8-10.. 1. H. Texas A & M.. Kostyuk. G. "Fluid Dynamic Excitation of Centrifugal Compressor Rotor Vibrations " Trans. 11. "Effects of Fluid-Filled Clearance Spaces on Centrifugal Pump and Submerged Motor Vibrations. H.W. December 1978 . Thompson. "Case Histories in Which Sub synchronous or Synchronous Vibration Amplitudes Have Been Minimized After Employing Custom Designed Damper Bearings. and Wachter. Journal of Lubrication Technology.S. June 1975. pp. Alford. J. 21. "The State-of-the-Art of High Speed Overhung Centrifugal Com­ pressors for the Process Industry ." Proceedings . Vol. No. E. "Oil Whip Whirl Orbits of a Rotor in Sleeve Bearings. pp. Journal of Engineering for Industry. 6. ASME. Benckert. 35-46. pp. V. 27..


and R. Improved data retrieval and data reduction equipment make it possible for mechanical vibration and aerodynamic pressure levels to be moni­ tored to assist in test stand design verification and / or the solution of field problems in the event that they should occur ( ref. Pennsylvania 18042 SUMMARY The evaluation of turbomachinery designs prior to actual hardware test and field installation is now the rule rather than the exception for rotating machinery manufacturers. To meet this challenge it is necessary for the designer of the turbomachinery to utilize state of the art aerodynamic and mechanical vibration analytical prediction ca­ pabilities. G. The comparison of predicted and observed peak response speeds. 45 .C. parallel flow compressor in a gas trans­ mission facility. ANALYSIS AND IDENTIFICATION OF SUBSYNCHRONOUS VIBRATION FOR A HIGH PRESSURE PARALLEL FLOH CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR R.G. 9-12). Donald. This is especially true in regards to the pre­ diction of levels of destabilizing forces and the self-excited whirl frequencies. The summary of the compressor rotor dynamics analysis will be presented in addition to selected field data taken to characterize the vibration before and after a successful field redesign to eliminate the source of the non­ synchronous excitation. This paper presents the summary of a complete analytical design evaluation of an existing parallel flow compressor and reviews a recent field vibration problem that man­ ifested itself as a sub synchronous vibration that tracked at approximately 2/3 o f compressor speed. The following paper will document such an occurrence for a particular de­ sign configuration of a single-stage. Tremendous advances have been made in the past ten years in these areas ( ref. The correlation of predicted to actual system behavior has been less than desirable in the area of rotor-bearing system stability. Conclusions and recommendations are made as to the degree of accuracy of the analytical techniques used to evaluate the compressor design. Kirk. Murphy In3ersoll Rand Company Easton.H. J. and the performance of the bearing-seal sys­ tems are presented as the events of the field problem are reviewed. frequency spectrum content. Nicholas.C. It has generally been the rule that actual whirl frequencies are higher than predicted frequencies for turbocompressors. 1-8). Further complications arise when the exact source or characteristic of an excitation cannot be categorized rela­ tive to prior operating behavior of turbocompressors. IN TRODU C T I ON The design of dependable turbomachinery has always been of utmost impor­ tance in natural gas pipeline and petro-chemical installations. This requires the verification of the current state of the art analytical techniques for rotor-bearing-seal dynamics by development testing and / or controlled test stand or field vibration studies.

-1 bearing or seal damping coefficients (FTL ) Cyx. Cxy. Kxy. tilt pad bearing assembled radial clearance in line with a pivot (L) Cp Rp . NOMENCLATURE Values are given in both SI and U. The measure­ ments and calculations were made in U.R.S. tilt pad bearing preload N shaft rotational speed (RPM) 1 N compressor first critical speed (RPM) CR 2 Ps sea 1 rlng · supp 1 y pressure (FL.R. Kyy L bearing axial length (L) LB bearing span (L) M l-(CB/Cp). Customary Units.Y horizontal . CB Rv . Customary Units.) 1 Q aerodynamic cross-coupling (FL.) Rv radius from bearing center to pad surface in line with a pivot (L) Rp pad radius of curvature (L) U imbalance (FL) WR total rotor weight (F) X. vertical fixed coordinates 46 . C yy D journal diameter (L) Kxx.s. pad radial clearance (L) Cs seal radial clearance (L) Cxx. -1 bearing or seal stiffness coefficients (FL ) Kyx.

Nos. from December 1978 through May 1979. The compressor configuration is shown in fig. Compressor Number 6 had been damaged on commissioning via foreign object ingestion resulting in excessive vibration and rubbing on the impeller rims. As of May 1979 two of the units. The bearing and seal housings are close tolerance double cartridge design to facilitate assembly and disassembly. Three of the compressors have been in service since 1973 with no major vibration problem encountered prior to the spring of 1979. associated with coupling adjustments. one of which had not been disassembled since shipment in 1973. being unsatisfactory to the customer and Ingersoll­ Rand. 1 for parallel flow operation. 3 where the parallel flow stages are shown with the vaneless diffuser in cross-section. and the examination of potential retrofit de­ signs for the rotor-bearing-seal system. Upon retrofit this unit began experiencing vibration tripouts at high speed and load. Tripout due to surge related phenomena had occurred but the units were always capable of restart without incident. Two additional units were shipped in late 1974 and the sixth in mid-1978. 4 and 6. The rotor was locked in a 13 mil bow on one occasion which came straight upon disassembly. Unit Number 5 experienced vi­ bration problems at high speed and load which necessitated several rebuilds. OPERATING HISTORY OF COMPRESSORS The compressors that are the basis for this paper are similar to over 80 units in operation throughout the world with the same basic shaft and bearing configuration. Nos. The remaining units. 47 . The rotor is supported on preloaded 5-shoe tilting pad bearings with high pressure oil seal rings just inboard of the bearings as shown in fig. were capable of continuous operation without limitation. 2 and 5. at a max speed of 14. and bowed rotor induced imbalance. This fact. The units under discussion consist of 6 separate com­ pressors that may be operated either in series or isolated for closed loop evaluation. The compressors are driven through a flexible gear coupling by an Ingersoll-Rand GT-22 power turbine which is rated at up to 4250 H. The bearings are fed from the discharge of the outer seal ring and hence the seals and bearings have a common lube oil system. Nos. The compressor rotor stage configuration is indicated in fig. prompted action including analytical studies of the existing design using latest analytical techniques. All six units are design­ ed for purge gas injection for sour gas service while only three are typically utilized for this service. im­ peller fits. Rubs were noted on the latter runs of this unit. would vibrate such that restart was questionable. documentation of vibration and pulsation data on site by both IR and consultants. were experiencing tripouts but could be restart­ ed. The stages are balanced aerody­ namically at inlet and discharge as a result of system symmetry about the center diffuser ring. Compressor Number 2 had sustained damage in the seal area due to a lack of cleanliness during reassembly which required that the shaft be built up by chrome deposition in the seal area.P. 2. The high pres­ sure loading locks the cartridge with several tons of axial loading and thus assures a rigid interface to the compressor casing. 1 and 3. The units will be denoted as 1-6.500 RPM. but was capable of restart. Two units.

The thrust of the initial analytical investigation was therefore to con­ clude what could be modified in the bearing-seal system to improve the response and stability of the compressor. The undamped critical speed map for the 160 lb. 4). The units were typically started under full pressure which raised the peak response frequency to 130-140 Hz as a result of the increased stiffness and damping from the seal rings. This figure does not have the line frequency (50 Hz) and 3X line frequency interference as noted on the earlier data given in fig. The obvious potential sources . seal dynamics (ref. 8 indicates that the first critical can be raised as much as 17 Hz ( � 1000 cpm) by the impeller fit since the midspan position of the fits have a large influence on the first mode.000 cpm) rotor speed. 5 where the 2/3 component is corning into coincidence to the fixed frequency. It is noted that the scales of figs. The fits were more likely to add stiffness since the design was keyless and the fit was nec­ essary to transmit the horsepower. 7 plotted for a portion of the accel. 13). but at that time the source was unknown. 7).. 4 where the 2/3 component is noted to appear above 200 Hz (12.* SUMMARY OF ROTOR DYNAMICS ANALYSIS The vibration problem as described in the previous section had not been documented by any reference that was available to the knowledge of Ingersoll­ Rand or numerous consultants contacted concerning the nature of the field prob­ lem (ref. This startup had a sequenced pressur­ ization and fast accel through the critical of approximately 124-129 Hz. The distinct frequencies are shown more clearly in fig. Terry Mitchell of Ingersoll-Rand. The compressor was analyzed by in-house computer programs for bearing analysis (ref. 6 for the coupling and thrust end probe locations. Wythenshawe. rotor response (ref. 4. Fig. England. and system dynamic stability (ref. This is shown in fig. 5). pumps. This procedure was less desirable than elim­ inating the source of the excitation. which is in general the most conservative design technique since added stiffness typically improves stability. Vibration data had been taken and reduced in March of 1979 that revealed a 2/3 rotative speed component of vibration that tracked with speed and carne into coincidence with another fixed frequency component at a frequency of ap­ proximately 140 Hz. power takeoffs gas generator. 8 including and neglecting the potential impeller fit stiffness. 6 and 7 are not all the same but the values of peak amplitude and frequency noted on the traces were read from an RTA and give an accurate indication of the peak response frequencies and amplitudes. rotor is given in fig. 6 Unit is given in fig. etc.motors. * All experimental data presented in this report was very capably taken and reduced by Mr. 48 . The forced response for the same No. 14-20). This influence is indicated by the traces given in fig. The compressor shaft was initially modeled neglect­ ing the impeller shrink fits. Overplotted on this map are the bearing characteristics for the minimum and approximate maximum clearance for the current bearing design to be referred to as the new design. were investigated without a valid mechanical element in the overall system design that could give the 2/3 x compressor speed forcing func­ tion.

The dashed line has a better optimum stability and a preload range of 0. 13. Since all current units utilize the new design.000 lb/in could be tolerated for nominal design conditions without excessive exci­ tation. The compressor stability or growth factor is plotted in fig. 11 for a range of bearing clearances showing that the compressor can experience a peak response. For example. ranging from 108 Hz (6500 RPM) to 137 Hz (8200 RPM) depending on the actual build clearances in the compressors. While the higher frequency mode is indicated to be backward. The results of the analysis indicated the old design to be less desirable for stability. It should be noted that when the bearings were designed the capability to predict stability was not available and hence the judgement indicates good design practice. The response of the coupling end bearing is plotted in fig. This design is referred to as the redesign bearing (see table I). The frequencies vary as a function of speed as indicated in fig. It is noted that one damped critical tracks with little change in frequency at near 130 Hz (7800 cpm) while the lower damped critical also remains reasonably fixed in frequency but becomes less stable at higher speeds. The influence of the seals' eccentricity on system damped natural fre­ quencies and stability is shown in fig. Figure 10 presents the stability of the compressor as a function of bear­ ing preload.7 is indicated to be acceptable. 5. table II gives the characteristics for the outer seal at N=208 Hz (12.The original units were shipped with a shorter pad and are referred to as the old design. exhibited strong instability with the old design.24 to 0.500 RPM) for a suction pressure of 1000 psi. The unit with the longest trouble-free operation had the old design bearings. The rotor system was modeled including the influence of the oil ring seals under design pressure and temperature conditions. The properties of these designs are given in table 1 for reference. However. Three compressors had the old design and three the new. 12. The basic design has proven very stable in applications having more stages and hence higher design to 1st peak response speed ratios.52 will result in the optimum bearing configuration. The solid curve is the new design and the preload range of 0. another unit.8 Hz (168 cpm) to 26 Hz (1567 cpm) for maximum pres­ sure at startup. Classical aerodynamic excitation is not known to be characterized by a tracking component. 9 and indicates that a total level of over 10. Compressors having covered stages are considered to have little or no destabilizing aerodynamic cross-coupling. the analytical results herein are for the new bearing design. 14. No. The influence of the seals on the response is indicated in fig.55 to 0. the response study of fig. For centered seals a single peak response at 112 Hz (6700 RPM) is indicated whereas the more likely response would appear as a double peak with peaks occurring in the range of 115 Hz-145 Hz (6900 RPM-8700 RPM) without any account of impeller stiffness. The eccentric seal is noted to split the 1st mode from 2. 15 clearly illustrates that both these modes are excited by a forward 49 . but no correlation existed between bearing type and severity of vibration.

wherein the rotor system was artifi­ cially stiffened to match the forward mode to the 140 Hz frequency are presented in figs. 4).7 which puts this compressor out of the class of the original Kaybob (N/Ncr 2. The present design places the critical at 60% of design speed. The forward modes are noted to optimize for the nominal redesign bearings with a seal ring groove. The following section will summarize the redesign steps and results that paralleled the analytical studies briefly reviewed in this section.rotating excitation for bearing and seal characteristics fixed at values for N=225 Hz (13.000 rpm will be increased by 255% for nominal bearing clearances with the peak response speed occurring as high as 11. It is evident that the once-per response level at 13. The stabilizing influence of the seals on system stability is also indicated by these plots. The present design is noted to be at a NINcr ratio of less than 1. Consideration was given.2) designs (see refs. These response levels may be scaled linearly to approximately 2. nominal bearing conditions. The compressor design is now and was always considered to be acceptable for normal levels of aerodynamic excitation. to possibly overboring the impeller and retrofitting a larger diameter shaft in an attempt to improve the overall system rotor dynamics. The results of a stability study. the potential oversize clearance condition is indicated to be more severe for the redesign bearings. 18 and 19 for the new and redesign. 16 and 17 for the new and redesign bearings (reference table I). This is characteristic of rotors operating below 2. A summary of the bearing optimization study is presented in figs. following recommendations from the customer. 9 and 11). The plots are given as growth factor versus aerodynamic excitation with the conclu­ sion being that the redesign nominal condition is far superior to the new bear­ ing design. An improvement in stability is pre­ dicted as would be expected but the once-per response levels and minimum speed range would be greatly influenced as noted by the response results of fig. 20. It is noted that the Ekofisk redesign shaft moved the critical from 48% to 66% of rated speed. the concept of the stiffer shaft was considered as an absolute last resort redesign consideration.8) � and Ekofisk (N/Ncr � 2. while the redesign bearings can be optimized. Further. 50 .0 mils for in­ creased levels of imbalance. whereas the new bearing design is best for the condition of no seal ring groove.2 times the rotor first peak response frequency (ref.500 RPM) whereas on runup the only mode excited is the higher (backward) mode. With this background the concept of a stiffer shaft for the compressor seems inconsistent with past experience.000 rpm. With the above facts indicating a very possible degradation of design speed response and only a marginal improvement in stability.

No correlation was found to this small difference and the severe tripouts. Also of concern. the compressor spectrum was noted to be substantially cleaner but the 2/3 component was still present and the units were speed limited. and the center diffuser inside diameter was dropped to improve stage isolation. The basic conclusion of the consultants was that the analytical studies were state of the art and only selected checks were run on the basic model to con­ firm the results. This was tried and the result was affirmative but not sufficient to control the nonsynchronous forcing mechanism. As mentioned previously. As mentioned earlier. 5 compressor instrumented with internal dynamic pressure transducers. At the same time an order was placed for the redesign bearing. Some concern existed for a possible internal friction mechanism at the impeller-shaft interface since these fits were at midspan. 6 compressor was modified to a keyed shaft with reduced fits. the laby clearance was increased to assure that no rub was occurring before tripout. Initial field variations in hardware consisted of changing out rotors and impellers to assure that an impeller blade rework to remove a casting problem on the leading edge blades of the original compressor stages was not responsible for the superior response of the original units. These concerns were overshadowed by possible excitation from reflected pressure pul­ sation from either inlet or discharge (see fig. No evidence of pulsations that tracked or correlated to the vibra­ tion was detected in the No. but without any analytical grounds for verification. the most sensitive position for reexcitation of the 1st critical. was the stage spacing and the design of the center ring diffuser (see fig. the stages were not keyed but relied on the shrink fit for torque transmission. The analysis indicated that removing the circumferential groove from the outer seal ring would improve the dynamic performance. lower preload bearings but no correlation could be made relative to bearing type and the sensitivity to the nonsynchronous excitation. no occurrence of the 2/3 tracking phenomena was known to any of the consultants engaged. After the laby clearance was increased. and since deep grooving was noted in the buffer gas laby babbitted surface. the inlet area of the stages. the original units were fitted with shorter. 51 . 3). the No. For this reason. The latter concerns were proven to be of no consequence by dynamic pres­ sure pulsation data taken in the piping. Prior test stand experience indicated light rubs could reexcite the first critical on this type compressor. 1) and the potential for a rotating stall cell in the inlet or rotating stall in the vaneless diffuser. In addition. SUMMARY OF FI ELD MODIFICATIONS A ND CONCLUSIONS OF OUTSIDE CONSULTANTS The analytical study summarized in the previous section was paralleled with field modifications and discussions with major turbomachinery consultants. and the diffuser. Additional piping pressure pulsation data were taken on other units without any correlation to the forcing frequency. Additionally.

All units were then capable of going the full speed range without encountering sub-synchronous vi­ bration levels in excess of acceptable or tolerable levels. The result of this modification was the elimination of the 2/3 forcing frequency. Upon replacement with an original impeller shaft configuration the 2/3 component was still absent. but do have a small 2/3 component that is detectable but remains bounded. parallel flow compressors discussed in this report: 1. The improved low level of fixed frequency is acceptable to both Ingersoll-Rand and the customer. the speed limit was removed. The compressors with the modified diffusers have no 2/3 component while the unmodified compres­ sors are not speed limited. It is practical to do a design optimization to study design variation trends without achieving exact agreement between predicted and actual measured levels for damped frequencies. 52 . When this was corrected. the cavity was pressurized to force flow radially up the back sides of the stages. 21 and 22. 2. 6 (No. In addition. 5 is given in figs.25 mil sub synchronous was still present at a frequency of 130 Hz (7800 cpm).05 mil max. CONCLUSIONS The following conclusions have been reached from a critical review of the design evaluation and field vibration performance of the six single-stage. bearing clearances. As much as 0. 2 and No. and balance levels are known. The critical was noted to drop in speed from 135 Hz (8100 RPM) to 122 Hz (7350 RPM) after a shutdown and immediate restart. RESULTS OF FINAL DESIGN MODIFICATIONS The events of the field retrofits and analysis resulted in a decision to use the original. This con­ figuration was installed in two other compressors in addition to No. typical). initially. 5 in addition to another trial of the old style bearings. The frequency spectrum before and after the final design modification for compressor No. 2 compressor was speed limited due to balance. seal clearances. 3. The No. At this time the redesign bearings were tried in compressor No. the diffuser was dropped and the center cavity pressurized to discharge pressure. 5) with the result being the elimination of the 2/3 component and only a very small level of fixed frequency sub-synchronous vibration (0. respectively. keyless shaft with the new bearing design and grooveless seal rather than the redesign bearings and grooved seal. Complex turbomachinery can be modeled to the necessary accuracy to study response sensitivity if all impeller fits. Achieving bearing optimization in production bearings requiring less than 1/2 mil total variation in radial clearance at assembly is impractical and im­ possible to achieve in reality.

Journal of Fluids Engineering.. pp. 1970. No. J.8 x N r cannot have substantial improvements in overall dynamic sensitivity by increasing the rotor shaft stiffness. "Modal Response of a Flexible Rotor in Fluid-Film Bearings". 5. Journal of Engineering for Power. 11. 96. Vol. and Miller. ASME. E.G.J. 6. 2.C. J. A successful solution to the 2/3 x speed forcing component was arrived at by combined field tests. R. 65-72.2 - � 2.. 1979.1. "The Influence of Tilting Pad Bearing Characteristics on the Stability of High Speed Rotor-Bearing Systems.H. Oil seals can alter the peak response speed of compressors by as much as 30 Hz with likely variation during startups on the order of 10 Hz. This is especially true when a speed range is desirable from 80-100% design speed. No..5 x N r can have increased stability and improved forced response sensitivity with eccentric seals as compared to centered seals. Jan. 53 . pp. Both forward and backward analytically predicted damped natural modes can be excited by forward rotative forcing mechanisms..4.E. � Compressors operating below 1.G. et aI." Topics in Fluid Film Bearing and Rotor Bearing System Design and Optimization. Trans. April 1978. Journal of Engineering for Industry. Trans.. Journal of Engineering for Industry. 1977. 2. Zero or low preload tilting shoe bearings used in compressors having oil seals are more susceptible to oil seal or aerodynamic excited shaft whip than higher preload designs. Gunter. and engineering judgement. Dussourd. January. ASME. ASME. an ASME special publication. pp.. 509-517.22. March. 55-78. 3. pp. 8. May 1974. ASME. The detected mechanism produced a 2/3 x compressor speed excitation that can produce large level subsynchronous vibration when this frequency of excitation coincides with a system natural frequency. and Barrett. REFERENCES 1. W.W. Trans. A forcing function mechanism has been proven to occur in parallel flow com­ pressors due to the spacing and flow of high pressure gas in the space and on the back sides of the double flow stages. pp.H. 2. 14-24. No. Vol. 525-533. 9. 96.. pp. E. 7.. Kirk. 4.L. Lund. "An Experimental Investigation of the Control of Surge in Radial Compressors Using Close Coupled Resistances". Series B. Compressors having oil seals and tilting pad bearings should have the bear­ ing designed with a minimum preload value greater than about 30% for the best stability characteristics. J. 5. 64-75. Vo1.. 10. "Unsteady Flow Phenomena in Rotating Centrifugal Impeller Passages". High pressure compressors utilizing oil seals and operating below 2. and Howard. "Stability and Damped Critical Speeds of a Flexible Rotor in Fluid-Film Bearings". Lennemann. 6. Nicholas. analytical work. Series B. "The Influence of High Pressure Oil Seals on Turbo-Rotor Stability.W. Lund. J. J." ASLE Trans. for instance. L.. May 1974.. Trans.

C. 87. May 1965. Vol. D.C.. pp. Vol. Ferrara.C. AFAPL-TR- 65-45. 17. Petroleum Engineer. pp. J. 86. Kirk. 607-619. Sept. and Kirk. "Pulsations in Liquid Pumps and Piping Systems". Technical Digest. "Stiffness and Damping Coe fficients for the Five-Pad Tilting-Pad Bearing". J. College Station. 1965. NASA CR-2300. Jansen." Journal of Engineering for Industry. ASME. College Station. Sept. Oklahoma. Aero Propulsion Laboratory. Feb. "Phillips' Landmark Injection Project".J. Series D. 1979. ASME.. J. E. Nicholas. pp... ASME. "Rotor Bearing Dynamics Design Technology. R. pp. 333-344. Series D. ASME Preprint 77-DET-15. Black. "Protecting Turbomachinery from Self-Excited Rotor Whirl". Ohio. Trans. R.J. C. pp. 18. College Sta­ tion. 14.... 15. Vol. ASME Paper 75-Pet-22. 11.E. "Nonsynchronous Instability of Centrifugal Compressors". 2. Part V". Smith. "Rotating Stall in a Radial Vaneless Diffuser". 105-109. Proceedings of the 8th Turbomachinery Symposium. Gunter. Oct. Wachel. Proceedings of the 5th Turbomachinery Symposium. Vol.R.G. 1964. 1975. Oct. 12. 113-124. 54 .W.. K. Texas. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. and Gunter. Illinois. 20.. April 1979. Lund. and Wachel.. Trans. Chicago. 1964. pp. H. J.. Tulsa. ASME. 8. Journal of Engineering for Power. CAGI.C.. "Selection and Design of Tilting-Pad and Fixed Lobe Journal Bearings for Optimum Turborotor Dynamics". P. 19. W. Nicholas. Vol.. 115-125. "Stability and Damped Critical Speed . "Non-Linear Transient Analysis of Multi-Mass Flexible Rotors . "Vibrations in Very High Pressure Centrifugal Compressors". 13. Journal of Basic Engineering. R.F. Kirk. E.. 26-30. Sept. W. 1976. pp.. Texas. J.. 86. Trans. 22.How to Calculate and Interpret the Results". P. No. Presented at Design Engineering Technical Con­ ference. Texas A & M University. and Allaire. Texas. Alford. 21-25. 43-57. 9. 1973. Jansen.Theory and Application". Series A. 1975.G. Texas A & M University.. 10.L. pp. ASLE Trans. Sparks. 87-91. "An Operation History of Fractional Frequency Whirl. Trans." Pro­ ceedings of the Fourth Turbomachinery Symposium. "Steady Fluid Flow in a Radial Vaneless Diffuser". 1977. J. pp. 16. 12. 1975.G. No. Journal of Basic Engineering. 750-758. "The Stabilizing Capacity of Bearings for Flexible Rotors with Hysteresis. 2. Presented at Petroleum Mechanical Engineering Conference.. 55-61. 7.J.. Texas A & M University.J. Booth.. 1976.

24 .150(5.08) 204 (357) 212 (371) (3.62 ( 2.03 310 717 .83) Min .96 (13.86 -1.86 (13.400(3.27 .50) 3.29) 131 (229) 142 (249) 1.87) .84) .49) 2. 84 (13.49) 2.49) (-3.03) Nom .52 1.71) 159 (278) 172 (301) 2.750(6.76) 7.70 7.375 New 1.46) Max .62 4.985 em) 1/2 (New.76) (-1.27 (5.43 ( 7.85) 1.73) Max .55) (543) (1256) K Kyy C y Cy 0 1000 psi (689.63 ( 2.94) 433 (758) 436 (764) 1. Redesign) 160 1bs (711.51) Nom . N = 12.375(6.73) 277 (485) 283 (496) 1.20 ( 2.78) Nom .499 ( 0.57 ( 4.000(5. 1.36) Min .50) 2.90 ( 1.82 em) Table I Geometry and dynamic characteristics for old.76 (3.58) 76 (133) 99 (174) 1.55 (8.37) .275(5.1016 mm) N 12.785 ( 1.500 RPM L CB M Kxx x 10-5 Kyy x 10-5 Cxx Cyy Bearing in (em) mils (mm x 10. and redesign five shoe tilting-pad bearings Kx y X 10-5 Kyx X 10-5 Cxx Cyy Lock-up S e al 1b/in 1b/in (lb-s/in) (lb-s/in) Eccentricity (N/em) (N/em) (N-s/em) ( N-s/cm ) w/groove 7.979 (1. 2) 1b/in (N/em) 1b/in (N/em) 1b-s/in (N-s/em) 1b -s/ in (N-s/em) 1.500 RPM Table II Oil ring seal characteristics for outer ring with and without circumferential groove 55 .0 mils radial (.55) 4.68 ( 4.40 .10) 98 (172) 114 (200) (2.76) 291 (510) 295 (517) (3.69) 205 (359) 209 (366) 2.38 1.96) (299) (2557) w/o groove 4..650(6.52 3.88 ( 3.08) Min .375 Redesign 2.55 2. new.000 Old 2.900(4.7 N) 33 in (83.54) 2.75 in (6.55) 1.12 171 1460 .14 ( 5.887 ( 1.99) Max .775(4.85 -2.4 N/em2) xx = x = x = Ps Cs 4.31 ( 7.

I �--.-�--- 1 Figure 2 Cross-section of bearing-seal cartridge including the buffer labyrinth 56 . PARALLEL ARRAIIIIiUIiUT Figure 1 Top view of a single stage parallel flow compressor configuration similar to the units discussed in the text TILT PAD BEARING I �I .------�-- Ill' -.

.LJ § ����I�� ��� >­ -' a.. Figure 3 Rotor mid-section showing diffuser elements in cross-section l. 6 showing Figure 4 Field data for compressor No. Hz Figure 5 Detail spectrum for compressor No. 6 showing non­ 2/3 tracking component moving into fixed 140 Hz component synchronous vibration increasing above 200 Hz rotor speed as rotor speed is increased above 200 Hz 57 . � a 100 200 FREQUENCY.

I ' Figure 8 Undamped critical speed map with and without impeller stiffness with new bearing characteristics overplotted 58 . FREQUENCY Figure 6 Peak hold response for accel under step pres­ Figure 7 Peak hold response for normal accel under full surization from 95 psi showing peak response frequencies pressure (800 psi ) showing increased peak response fre­ of 124 and 129 Hz quencies of 136 and 139 Hz SINGLE STAGE PARALLEL FLOW COMPRESSOR FOURTH i I : I : .

06 l� I- 1I-'. 6-''' .04 -- � <Q � <.J 1 2 3 4 5 -200 L-. M Figure 9 Stability map for standard design new bearings Figure 10 Stability map for bearing design variations on showing growth factor as a function of aerodynamic cross­ preload showing optimum for new design (Cp = 4.J:.0 =::==::: N ::=====E==== ::-::: 12. _ +20 r-----. --. LBSIIN PER WHEEL x 10-3 PRELOAD.. 0 ij en >< � g:j .-. .z : WID IMPELLER STIFFNESS � w NEW BEARINGS D- o � . .02 :z: ::i D- = C> U o 4 6 8 12 14 16 SPEED. 4====. FORWARD MODE 1--- --_ -- --- i -=====� .. AERODYNAMIC CROSS-COUPLING.:=='---"==-=: :....500 RPM = = ___= E_= :=-- =1±=� -"-==�-=:::_-=l __ WID IMPELLER STIFFNESS -.':==:.3::==:l ..­ _----" .c. ! "J � 1-- -i -' .0 ..:..:===:.:. SEALS WI GROOVE .=. 200 E�::r:: Q 0..73 mils ) coupling per stage and redesign bearings (C 2._--�--r__.5 mils ) B = .10 .:::.. RPM X 10-3 Figure 11 Coupling end response versus rotor speed for numerous bearing clearance values showing response levels increasing above 8000 RPM for increased clearances 59 .=�::".06 OZ-IN I = � ::E .: �. ==::'.:.08 D- /! I II t .. WI SEAL GROOVE .----r--��--.12 ! i U 0. u . _ .''-' . <n -150 I-'---===-==:::..:".:..:...=::= J..7 0 5 Q.

06 OZ-IN = :><: ex: I.: �. NOMINAL CLEARANCES � .LJ <Xl <=l z I.!:J .LJ 0- WIO IMPELLER STIFFNESS . S-1 Figure 13 Rotor system stability versus seal ec centricity Figure 14 Rotor system stability versus rotor speed for ratio for new bearing showing improved stability for new bearings and seals without circumferential groove increased seal eccentricity showing nearly fixed damped natural frequencies 60 .LJ t.02 14 +++-+-+-1 .08 (I) SEALS WI GROOVE >< ex: NEW BEARINGS 0::: o --. .!:J .10 ���-r�----�--����--�n-�-n�� L"5 0- f U 0 .I­ z -l 0- = o w Figure 12 Coupling end response versus rotor speed for numerous seal clearances and operating eccentricity ratios o -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 -120 GROWTH FACTOR.04 0::: ex: I.:::.06 fr I[ - W t. (I) -l - :F.

::. BEARING CLEARANCE. °r-... �'-' M ..IIIi ii.J -='--"'-'-----. �j: I . ' I 1 1/ .25/3. ANDCONSTAN AT 13..-�""""'-�":"".�-"¥"--"'- .: f-H E )1 + 11' .0 MILS RADIAL ': II I. � " � i 'Ii i Ii II i I! Iii :E " R BACKWARD CB 2. I 2. I'ft ' \ 1. RADIAL Figure 16 Stability plot showing design optimization Figure 17 Stability plot showing design optimization study for the new bearings study for the redesign bearings 61 .06 IMPELLER STIFFNESS � :i .08 F O R WARD ...�''''"'-'''-:M�XA+��=.'�I. '�: I11I11 I' II .45/. I ! - ! ' '! I I ! � : I I j [ � III! i I : I I i i.! '! i .! I I I i ! ! � \t 1-1.J. II: � rr� III ' I I I I" ' 1.12 AR . o 2 4 6 10 12 8 14 16 10-3 SPEED..35 a.1-! : Hi/I'I: II :1' '1 �.1/1 . N UP j ' rHo U I II II f I ' j I RU SPEED.I I I I I - = I I 8 I I.1�i i f I.. I ! I! . -200� MAX M IN��� NOII ::'--"''-�-''-'' MAX �'::'-''.5/3.. .... I -[ i-t-!.. 11' W I = Cs ! ..II. I) ' I I u . !.04 l-t-n' + �1 � I . � 2 : !' "! I' ' 'Ii ill 11 111I11I ':: 'I" :' I ..-.: �. CH SEAL 'J: ill T7\l.:. I I I � • 16 t. 1 l -li iJI I.I Ii i _ I ! _1 . I I EXCITATION I I I ROTAT IV ' I' I m I �111'llill' I :ii lilI 'i' j' flvii I r� 'j-I!\:.1 I . � ! 11111 i I II i II I : : I RPM I i j' I " :E I I r . '! I.0 WID IMPELLER STIFFNESS N = 12. RADIAL CB.TO --I I- 1 lill � ill I" :[1 ' I'�I' I � I 'i' II I!]' �! H I�III! � "'II - � . 'II i '/ ! !. 01111 III! i '��ljl! II I.. RPM x Figure 15 Response study showing that both the forward and backward modes may be excited by a forward rotative forcing function when the bearing and seal characteristics are fixed at values for N = 13.500 RPM 200 � 150 � Q z 0.. /I I I './' II! 1.-'-''-=-�MAX+l MIN MAX+� MAX+l CD' BEARING CLEARANCE. I I..500 BRG.11'/ ' I.� ' i ill I IT I ..J �'i i Li�" i I I I If j I . II I: II I ' i I = I I' i:'7't' I �.. ii �'I : -.- 1. 1I.I I f- U = I OZ-IN ..--. II .0 MILS RA DIAL I): IO • en � .500 RPM -150 -200 L:.' .����ri:-��� i �rT���TM������������____� I j f I l�i JUi O R �A D .J I!: I I i I.' :. I : Ii.( I.I-j in ./ I � .---.

� N • 13.04 Q.00 lBSllN �� =---- ---I---.. .1. --.-.. 1 I: . 14.*. . ..06 <Xl '" Z UJ '-" :J . -- -350 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Q.. ..06 OZ-IN i 'I ..--r----. -2� ����-�T��!�. over size rotor shaft showing greatly increased response sensitivity between 166 and 266 Hz 62 ...r-rT"'O""'T--r--r...� u '-" z 0:: il'i . .���i:I FORWARD IIlDE . => <=> u I I-'I 6 8 10 12 14 16 SPEED.... .12 I! 1 i SEALS II/GROOVE NEil BEARINGS r ·'1 I � il'i '.'!"'""" '"T"- " --.--� -. I ' 'i g Ii � : Ij � Ii U = 0..... RPM X 10-3 Figure 20 Coupling end response versus rotor speed for the current and over-bored impeller.. AERODYNAIHC CROSS-COUPLING. lBSllN PER WHEEL x 10-' Figure 18 Stability versus aerodynamic cross-coupling Figure 19 Stability versus aerodynamic cross-coupling for the stiffened rotor system to give the forward mode for the stiffened rotor system for the forward mode at 140 Hz for the nominal new bearing for various oil and redesign bearings for various seal conditions seal conditions .75 N/"" • 1...----.. I Q..10 r1 1- � [I i'+H++-r.� RPII 1. � .-""'T. 1 .

5 after final design for diffuser showing the total absence of the 2/3 component and a maximum sub-synchronous component of 0. 1 I I I-I . -1 I i- ! 1 I I 11 X I I 112:000 RPM I I I I I o 100 200 300 400 500 FREQUENCY. I I I I I I i ! I · 1 A 11-i�'-4-RP_M IX .i I ! -+-----""-. 5 before the final design for eliminating the 2/3 tracking comoonent showing rapidly increasing sub-synchronous vibration at 140 Hz 5 10 15 20 25 30 FREQUENCY._ !.05 mils at fixed frequency 63 . Hz Figure 21 Spectrwn for compressor No. : Ii i i 1 !Jt� TI. CPM X 10-3 Figure 22 Spectrum for compressor No.


. Timori. J. . Joseph Alford. DIAGNOSIS. . . • 95 Comments and Perspectives on Recent Advances in Design Features for Turbomachinery. • • . Private Consultant . . . and A. • . • • . • • . • . Allis-Chalmers Corp . • • . Kobe Steel. L. . Bently. 107 Asynchronous Vibration Problem of Centrifugal Compressor. . . NASA Lewis Research Center Chairman Subsynchronous Instability of a Geared Centrifugal Compressor of Overhung Design. . Bently Nevada Corp • • • • • . Bonciani. 85 The Parameters and Measurements of the Destabilizing Actions of Rotating Machines. . H. 67 Aero-Induced Vibrations in Centrifugal Compressors. . Donald E. . 109 65 . . . . Wittman. . . Takeshi Fujikawa. Ltd. . • . . Naotsugi Ishiguro. SESSION II ADDITIONAL FIELD EXPERIENCE WITH UNSTABLE MACHINERY. . . J. • . . Hudson and L. • . AND DATA ANALYSIS Albert Kascak. . . Nuovo Pignone • • . . Ferrara. P. . and the Assumptions of the 1950's. . and Mitsuhiko Ito. L.


and loading. The motor speed is 1200 rpm. Operation of the process plant is basically constant weight flow at constant pressure. Wittman Allis. At the time of design the compressor represented the highest horsepower and largest volume for a three-poster design that had been built by Allis­ Chalmers. SUMMARY OF ORIGINAL ROTOR DESIGN METHODS According to usual practice for a compressor of this type the aerodynamic requirements were defined initially. Because of unequal bearing properties the usual intersect point on this curve is not appropriate. are given in table 1. The gear vendor then designed the gearing to satisfy power and ratio requirements in accordance with Al1is­ Chalmers' specifications. The compressor is rated at approximately 40 000 acfm and an approximate discharge pressure of 100 psia under normal summer conditions of temperature and humidity. SUBSYNCHRONOUS INSTABILITY OF A GEARED CENTRIFUGA L COMPRESSOR OF OVERHUNG DESIGN J. thus establishing minimum pinion center distances to allow for casing clearance. Milwaukee. with impellers mounted on the extensions of a twin pinion gear. H. J. rotor analysis was limited to undamped critical speed and synchronous unbalance response analysis. modifications. Wisconsin 53201 INTRODUCTION This paper presents the original design analysis and shop test data which were obtained for this compressor. sub­ sequent rotor dynamics analysis. driven by an 8000-hp synchro­ nous motor. which included data on pinion extension details. After the pinion was designed to satisfy gearing and bearing loading require­ ments a rotor response evaluation of the pinions was performed. BASIC COMPRESSOR CHARACTERISTICS The subject unit is a three-stage (poster) air compressor.Chalmers Corp. Figure 1 is a pseudo-undamped critical speed map for the low-speed pinion. Four-poster designs had been built for higher horsepower levels using the same frame size. Hudson and L. both as­ suming a circular orbit (isotropic bearing properties). with speeds of 8057 rpm on the low­ speed pinion and 9400 rpm on the high-speed pinion. Details of speeds. horsepower. At the time this compressor was designed. The stiffness for the bearings range from 5x105 to 6 4x10 lb/in. and final rotor behavior. A similar pseudo-mode shape plot is also presented in figure 2 67 . Also included are field test data. as well as the lubricant. bearing types.

Figure 5 is an undamped critical speed map of the high-speed plnlon with part. The high-speed pinion was tested with atmospheric inlet conditions and was loaded to approxi­ mately 35% of its rated load. The vibration spectrum for the high-speed pinion showed a synchronous component of 0. Test tape recordings revaled that about 0.and full-load bearing stiffnesses superimposed. SHOP TESTING The compressor was mechanically and aerodynamically tested. Figures 6 and 7 are mode shapes of the rotor at lxl06.3 and 0. however. FIELD PERFORMANCE Shortly after startup the compressor exhibited overall vibration levels of 1.65 and 0.5 mils. as the flow was decreased the subsynchronous component continued to increase until the sub­ synchronous component was approximately 1. for the thrust bearing end probe.1 mil).1 mil. therefore the low-speed pinion was loaded to approximately 45% of design horsepower. The compressor was equipped with radial proximity probes in the vertical direction only. Based on the rotor dynamics analysis the compressor design was deemed accept­ able and proceeded through manufacture. Test points were taken at flows from beyond the rated point to close to the surge limit of the compressor.and lxl07-lb/in bearing stiffnesses. respectively.75 mil existed at slow roll. A test was conducted with the compressor guide vane fixed at 00 prewhirl. for the impeller end probe and 0. the program at that time could not accommodate variations of this type. re­ spectively.0 to 1. Figure 8 is a synchronous unbalance response plot with combined unbalance to excite the first and second modes. It was observed that nearly 0. The vibration signals were tape recorded for quality assurance documentation. however. Assumption of constant bearing loading and direction is not correct.5 mils.2 mil at both pinion probes and was virtu­ ally free of all nonsynchronous components. The compressor met mechanical and aerodynamic requirements and was shipped. Vibration was monitored by using a digital vector filter and real-time analyzer. The high flow points showed very little subsynchronous vibration «0. The additional elec­ trical runout was attributed to magnetic fields induced by welding cables that slung over the casing during installation. Figure 3 is a synchronous unbalance response plot assuming unequal but constant bearing loadings with unbalance distribution to excite the first mode.5 mils and occasionally levels of 3 mils and great­ er were reported. At periods the overall vibration level was around 1. Figure 9 reveals operating points where moderate and high vibration conditions existed.3 mil existed as electrical and mech­ anical runout when the unit was tested at the factory. as can be seen from figure 4. During the early commissioning of the compressor the customer reported sporadic vibration behavior of the low-speed rotor. or 3 times the synchronous 68 . The first stage was tested at atmospheric discharge conditions. The vibration spectrum for the low-speed pinion contained synchronous and low-level two-per-revolution signals at 0.1 mil. This range encompasses the actual bearing stiffness.for a stiffness of lxl06 lb/in.

This analysis resulted in a relatively sizable value of log decrement (table 2 and fig.level of vibration.0093 inch with preload between 0. con­ siderable improvements were made to Allis-Chalmers rotor dynamic analysis capa­ bilities (refs. respec­ tively. Refer to figures 10 to 13. Several other cases were analyzed and are summarized here. such as gear reactions. No attempt was made to make allowances for labyrinth seal effects or nebulous factors such as internal friction. where significant dif­ ference in shaft diameters exists. This finite-element method of analysis enabled us to calculate undamped critical speeds with unequal bearing forces. They revealed that the actual bearing diametral clearance ranged from 0. The effective stiffness of the center section of the rotor. Input of bear­ ing forces to reflect external loading. Destabilizing Forces It was assumed that the primary cause of instability in the rotor was asso­ ciated with aerodynamic destabilizing forces. A pad assembly program was developed which enabled the development of a full matrix to represent bearing stiffness and damping for the stability analysis with a minimum of effort. Synchronous unbalance response was upgraded to account for possi­ ble bearing asymmetry. 18). It was apparent that a bounded subsynchronous instability existed in the rotor. Rotor stability calculations were improved and made more convenient and less expensive. which depict the changing sub- synchronous spectrum. ANALYSIS OF FIELD DATA Between the time when the compressor design was originally analyzed and the time of the field tests in which subsynchronous vibration was found.0 was obtained (fig. The low-speed pinion was modeled by using these programs to gain insight into its base log decrement at operating conditions and subsequently to evalu­ ate proposed modifications. A horsepower level was chosen for analysis based on aerodynamic data for a test point represented by figure 13. 14). The frequency and mode shape were in good agreement with probe data from field tests. The modeled original configuration was analyzed without any calculated destabilizing force at the impeller. 1 and 2). The rotor model included the added weight of shrunk-on parts without any additional stiffening effect of these parts. was an added capability. Several levels were analyzed until a log decrement of 0. As a point of reference the destabilizing force was calculated according to references 4 and 8 per the equation T -Kyx 2rh where 69 .2 and 0. Bearing and gear manufacturer's quality re­ cords were procured.0075 to 0. was based on data presented in reference 5.4. which reflect mode shape and response plots for the subject rotor with these capabilities. A point of interest is that two levels of sub synchronous frequency appeared. Refer to figures 16 and 17.

Kxy. 13) test point is 742.5 inches. It was deter­ mined that rotation would be of little benefit.75 with an average preload of 0. h blade height. The bearing LID was maintained at 0.0 LID) was analyzed to establish if improvements in the log decrement could be made. Increased Bearing Width The effect of increased bearing width (1. in. Again a considerable improvement was found in the log decrement. in-lb r impeller mean radius.2 and 0. or 21. respec­ tively) was performed for load between pivots. A run using the above preload and clearance (0. Refer to table 2 for summary details. A decrease in log decrement was found (table 2).0 is approximately 16 000 lb/in.2 and a clearance of 0. Several combinations of diametral clearances and preload were evaluated for loading into the pivot. Increase in Shaft Section Modulus An analysis was made of the compressor rotor as designed except for increas­ ing the pinion bearing diameter to 4. 70 .5 times the calculated value.2) and bearing clearances toward the upper range of the clearance range defined in table 2 would produce the best im­ provement in log decrement.. 0 The computed value of the 0 guide vane instability (fig. lb/in T torque input to stage.0085 inch is pre­ sented in figure 18. An analysis was made for loading directly into the pivot and directly centered between the pivots. The destabilizing value calculated to create a log decrement of 0. as detailed in table 2.0085 in.5 lb/in.2 and an average diametral clearance of 0. in. Details are listed in table 2. The relative increase in log decrement for a bear­ ing preload of 0. Rotation of Existing Bearings It was decided to determine the effects of rotating the journal bearings based on data presented in reference 6. Reduction of Impeller Overhang An analysis was performed of the bearings as designed and installed and the pinion as designed except for removing 2 inches from the shaft between the im­ peller and the impeller end bearing.Kyx aerodynamic destabilizing force represented as cross-coupled bear- ing stiffness. As a basic of comparison it was decided to use 16 000 lb/in for the re­ mainder of the analysis. nearly equal to that for reducing the overhang.0095 inch. It was found that a lower preload (normally 0. The effect on the log decrement was a con­ siderable improvement. Details are tabulated in table 2.

3 would still exist. It is postulated that some not-yet-defined level of excitation exists on this type of rotor.0095 inch was specified. The compressor was modified and retested. a log decrement of ap­ proximately 0. however.2 and clearance range of 0. A point of interest is that the lower frequency agrees reasonably well with a peak on the synchronous response curve (fig.0) with a nominal preload of 0. It is assumed to have been generated as a result of unequal bearing loadings compounded by the magnitude of levels of subsynchronous vibration. ACTUAL FIELD MODIFICATIONS AND FIELD RETESTING As a result of this analysis it was apparent that the most expedient modi­ fication to improve rotor stability is a bearing modification.No attempt has been made to add any destabilizing force as a result of gear inaccuracies or torsional-lateral coupling. Allis-Chalmers' analysis predicted the higher frequency of approximately 3100 cpm quite well. All signs of subsynchronous frequencies were removed. Oil Viscosity Effects A higher viscosity was used in the compressor to favor gear lubrication. There are many conventional midspan rotors with log decrements much lower than this value with equal or higher destabiliz­ ing force values that have a history of successful operation. Second. Bearings were oriented such that each bearing would be loaded into the pivot at rated power. 17). The effects of viscosity changes were analyzed for the case of a bearing LID equal to 1 with load into the pivot. and most disconcerting. It is physically impossible to assure operation of this type of impeller with uniform circumferential and axial clearances. (2) Effects of open impellers . First is the observation of two distinct subsynchro­ nous frequencies. A wider bearing (LID = 1. even though load angles were different for each bearing. the frequency of major amplitude occurred at approximately 2700 cpm. DISCUSSION There are two areas for further investigation as a result of this problem and subsequent analysis. As can be seen from the data in table 2 further increase in oil viscosity would either raise or lower the log decre­ ment for this rotor. The retesting at previous test points and other operating and nonoperating points revealed only synchronous frequencies. Even if one were to increase the destabilizing force four times.0075 to 0. Perhaps the non­ uniform clearances along with the turbulent bypass effects from blade to blade are generating much higher destabilizing forces than normally associated with a 71 . There are several possibilities: (1) Gear error effects . is the fact that subsynchronous instabili­ ties did develop despite the substantial values of the log decrement. Allis-Chalmers had not seen this type of double subsynchronous frequency previously on a conventional midspan compressor rotor .The impeller on this pinion was of an un­ covered design.

E. ASME Paper 79-DET-70. overhung rotor.: Compressor Division Engineering Report l6-ER-4 16. J. 7. Brown. It is worth noting that our experiences are in reasonable agreement with data presented in reference 7. 2. J.. M: Lateral and Torsional Stiffness of Shafts of Varying Diameter. other aerodynamic factors such as flow separation and stall have not been quantified as to their destabilizing influence. Jones. S. In addition. J.closed impeller. A. 87. and Kao. K. L. 6. Wittman. ASME Series A. S. 1979. ASME Paper 7 3-DET-103.: Stability and Damped Critical Speeds of a Flexible Rotor in Fluid Film Bearings. 8. 119-1 40. pp. was made to the compressor and eliminated the instability. Doctoral thesis. State-of-the-art rotor dynamics analysis techniques provided a reasonable ana­ lytical model of the rotor. A subsynchronous instability existed on a geared. S.. Sound Vibr. J. 1. 3. Trans. 72 . J. Proceedings of 7th Turbomachinery Sym­ posium.: Reduction in Rotor Dynamics by the Finite Element Method. 5. 1952. J.. W. F. J. vol. CONCLUSIONS 1. Alford. Hans: The State of the Art of High Speed Overhung Centrifugal Com­ pressors for the Process Industry. arrived at analytically. E. A bearing modification. Paper AT449 / 80. Lund. and Kao. 2.: A Tapered Beam Finite Element for Rotor Dy­ namic Analysis. Purdue University. 1973. Pennink. vol. K.: Protecting Turbomachinery from Self-Excited Rotor Whirl. J. October 1965. 333-334. Rouch.: Geometry Effects in Tilt Pad Journal Bear­ ings.. 66. Rouch. Glacier Publication. Further research is required to more accurately define the mechanism and to quantify the forces which cause the instability. J. REFERENCES 1. 1978. and Martin. November 1 3. no. G. pp. Power. Eng. 4. 1979.


.000 3261 Fw d.0 • 75 . Dec Comme nts Uo. .2 4. 10..000.0084 180 Of{.Configuration 4. I.BI.d.000 3328 Fwd.0085 Into 4.0 .5 8 rg .4 t·wd.2 011 'rt.0084 180 Off.. .0085 Between 4.0 I. 16.000 3189 fl.0071 m • • 285 makes essen- l.0 .. .285 P I Yot P i vot · Between Pivot ' (. .0 . .� · 7� .5 · 7� .0 · 7� ..()09� 80 Off. 2" Shorter Overhang 4. 3014 Fwd. • 0026 II .1 Clr·Un·l Dlr.0 . Load 4.IRD �rDE Case Dla. 1200 Pivut Pivot .2 .·IlIP.0084 180 Off.000 3151. !lU.082 . Sha r t r i v ot PI vot 10 Stl ffer Shaft 4.0 1.l Original 4.2 4. 16.000 3275 Fwd • .. 1400 Pivot Pivot 12 Ca:1t� 7 w/rcdll('(>d 11. Load Aero Freq.TABI.0084 � Off. PI vat P i vo t 8 At tcrnate Arrangemt.0 .7� . 4.2 wI 1. 3596 Fwd • . . Pivot Pivot 9 Stl ffer Shaft 4.0065 Into 16.15 .5 . .0 1. 1.285 PI vot Pi vo t Final Fix 4.181 . 1.0 .0085 Into 4.0 1.0 ..2 Oil 'feMp.E iEA§IRr.0084 180 Off./0 D I Brg. 4. l Dlr.0084 Into 16. .0 ./0 .0 1.0 1.0 . . . 3086 Fwd.75 . 4. .oaJ Into PIvot P i vo t Pivot tlaUy no dlf fe re n ce • Rotated Brg.E 2 BEARING 151 SIA{.. 3288 Fwd.0095 Into 4.5 8 rg � Sha ft PI Yot Pivot II Casl' 7 w!r�duccd 4. . .0 .0 .0084 B e twee n 16.0 .75 ...0085 Into 4. Log I Descrletlon { In .0085 Be n:e en 16.75 ./) .0085 Into 16. ..75 .0 .. . 4.136 II ./0 018.0084 Betwee n 4.75 ..285 Pivot Pivot ""J Org .0085 Into 16.168 II .3666 .0 ..0 .75 • 0084 80 Off • 0 3151 Fwd. .bllul H:etll P ree .75 orientation 4 Rotated Brg.0004 PIYot Pivot For 1.0 .0084 In t o 4. � .0084 80 Off • 16.000..0 1.�<j5 Into 16.000..75 .285 Configuration Pivot Pivot o Org.0764 . / LID .0 . 3195 Fwd.oad Dla.Conflguratlon 4.75 .009� 180 Off.0084 80 Off.15 . . I Drg.. 4. 4.000.5 . 4. Clr· (I u.75 ./0 Dta. 3185 Fwd. .0 1.184 II .000.000.1161 m . . . .054 II .

OO GO.· H BEARING STIFFNESS (LB/lN) .--.J '1 d LOW SPEED PINION ASSUMES EQUAL STIFFNESS Figure 1 ROTOR MODE SHAPE AT CRITICAL SPEED PROGRAM 8166-001 BRG 11 BRG 12 3 DATE 1 2 JUN 75 BRG BRG NO.OO 20.00 �O.- __ _ _-� _ ���_-_-_-_�_����!���0-_-_-_-b o w w "­ en �+lo"--.-rrrn-ri-f--. INCHES LOW SPEED PIN ION Figure 2 75 .OO SO_DO 100.---r-""nt -- 1-rf r-. STIFF 1 1X 1 0G 2 1X10G w o ::l" " +-��----����---­ CRITICAL SPEEO 1 � -1" 2G87 RPM 2 14029 CL >:: RPi'l a: 3 26044 RPM w >" -� �I a: -. CRITICAL SPEED MAP J2 JUN 75 '" �----_-_-_-_-_-_-__-_+--_.00 DISTANCE ALONG ROTOR . w '" " " �.

w X STA 2? o � STA 3& >-­ .S. . STR UNB(Qz-rN) cos SIN 10 .00 fO .000 . a: 't 5TA 5TA '19 59 " :c­ U) b � L--" ic::: / i L7 ------.. V. PINION Figure 3 I' 'I".00 L .0'6 -0 ' U) -' - >-­ (!) STA 10 U UJ A STA 1* -' + STA 23 .. 'I·" 'i LOW SPEED PINION .-'214 0.. FT'.L.� b tt A 0..' . .00 1" .� 76 . .. BEARING LOADS . "� .000 5S 0. CIRCULAR ORBIT R O T O R UNBALANCE RESPONSE PROGRAM 8166-002 12 DEC 75 .

CRITICRL SPEED MRP 12 JUN 75 I I Iv V I J I I- "" ! ....9400 RPM o w w I-. .-1--' . "' : "­ 'N> r" .0. >-- V '" 1 u I r ." a: .00 OISTRNCE RLONG ROTOR .INCHES HIGH SPEED PINION Figure 6 77 . STIFF o � lX10· 2 lX10· w o ::lo . I I -' V ! i 'I / II.0 "­ 1 3713 RPM :E 2 5049 RP M a: 3 17211 RPM w >0 4 4 43416 RPM -� >-...oo 20.CRITICRL SPEED >--0 --.. III � .J w <r o o b. . +-�------��--�-. .. a: �'b / r '.00 &0.00 �O.00 100.OO .I I i II I i i i Jd' J 0' J(f BEARING STIFFNESS (LB/IN) HIGH SPEED PINION Figure 5 ROTOR MODE SHRPE AT CRITICAL SPEED PROGRRM 8166-001 BRG 11 BRG 12 o o ORTE 12 JUN 75 BRG BRG NO.':.

00 16..: .000 0.ES '.. C) STA 6 r"p C9 u .00 100.00 DISTANCE ALONG ROTOR . 000 0 .�� 0. 14 ! l' STA 5"'SE"l'tl .151 -. � � � "" "" PI< ".OO 80. V STR '18 P!r'o�c A�VI .\ 1'= �F! 10.000 OJ 0. 00 0 58 . -' STA 21 SRC.oo 20..157 .I z STA 16 PKo/3E .00 20.192 21 0.00 HIGH SPEED PINION Figure 8 78 . STA "'3 �1(-c. "­ + w Cl � X STA 32 C�Nr�tr � .00 SO.00 �0.It STA S8 I"'PC4 ".[N) cos GIN • .19'2 .: >­ "":1. w STA S ScAd. ROTOR MODE SHAPE AT CRITICAL SPEED PROGRAM 8166-001 BRG 11 BRG 12 '" '" DATE 12JUN 75 BRG BRG NO 7 STIFF 1 1X10? 2 lXlO CRITICRL SPEED 1 5�7� RPM 2 5 8 10 RPM 3 �17�3 RPM '" '" �.INCHES HIGH SPEED PINION Figure 7 CIRCULAR ORBIT ROTOR UNBALANCE RESPONSE PROGRAM 8166-002 27 JUN 75 'b - GTA UNSCOZ.

�::� :=. = lt5� :�':=j OF SUBSYNCHRONOUS _� . - H rim . EXHIBITEDGSUBSYNCHRONOUS TIN rxP F m = . A f2Vj.. -.�.••••• • •••.=. .. V . .\.:: �22 OOO��26 OO()�)O OOO�34 00b-¥38 006��42 OOO�46 oo6� Figure 9 8100 RPM 1� 55 MILS II· if II .'I.. acfm.�J�::t����:��=��4�':�: � ��i� :·:�1�:�:.�t�." ALLIS-CHALMERS CORP. V A G D R � �:: � .····I··'i".c. .•• . i� . rJ JJi li Figure 10 .:I •• ..�. . 30 DEG?" .�.3150RPM I· �i f� .•••. •. J .?::�gE�:£':@=..: - .-lR !�. . COMPRESSOR T�FTcT.�. 6 pSla ...••.q-.!!!! I i •. 79 .� :"�:: .INLET OLUME.-. U + I� m t !� ff - Ii: (+ . �iJ .: ·:.. I R 1> ! E t.-�.I :I··:···I··.e l OPER TIN POINTS THAT Lrl' PIN 14.J. :� �i�j:� ����j��� ..�F ".�F:�.t.Ll?ri l : j : ..�.•. IB TIO i-� E� ������ :.y.'j··t.. ! "I.

41 MILB 286 0 RPM 0.62MILB : +- Figure 13 80 .j 56MIUl 8040RPM.46MIUl· Figure 11 8040RPM O. HtHHt l:tJJlJH I tgltii 1+1H-l++++H 307 6 RPM ++-++++++-f-t 8066 RPM 0. 0.6 4 MIUl .60MIUl . i- 3090 RPM t+ .· O.16MI18 Figure 12 p Wi �t-I+t It 2670RPM 1.B6MILB 1. 3120RPM 0.

LO" SPEED PINION g '10DE LD= .-ol 1B "\ oJ b'l "\ Q wo � 1I §:r -' (L I: cr- .0 -'� "1 0 co '0 DO 8. 1-0 -' (L " cr . DO 16 _00 2� D O LENGTH 32_00 40_00 48.00 56 00 LENGTH Figure 14 FIRST-STAGE BEARING BLIND-SIDE BEARING LOAD DIRECTION LOAD DIRECTION Figure 15 81 .00 24.3? RPM=3151 FWD �J oJ 53 53 "\ "'I w 00 :� ::0 .00 48.0 -'� w .DO �D . 00' 0 Q I II \ I I '0 DO 8_00 16 .00 56_DO 0 Q �1 MODE 2 LD=.13 RP/t-1613 REV --1I .00 32 .


HillHHHHHHI I t: HliiHI HHfIj�+lHlHlHiH.30 Figure 18 83 . lHl Him. AERODYNAMIC DESTABILIZING . IT[ ' . OVERHUNG GEAR COMPRESSOR . ' .LOG DECREMENT VS.50 III i IIII III Ilfl .11111 Iii. I�fijHJH:.III I " III II: I . I j I rmn nll+.


hypothesis. The amplitudes were calculated at the vibration probe locations. Between the end of 1979 and the beginning of 1980. . was tested with natural gas according to the ASME PTC la. Aero-induced Vibrations in O nT the last few years. 4 shows the frequency response of the system Centrifugal Compressor Design Department. College Station. mainly at flows nearing bar-IO. 85 . to be driven by an electric motor on-site. Characteristics of compressor A The design features of compressor A arc SUI1l­ merized in Table.OOO psi) compressor was tested at full load surge. was tested with natural gas according to the ASME PTe 10. Fig. special attention was paid to investigating the vibra­ tions along the compressor performance range. such as injection of natural gas at high pres­ SUITS.. in light of this hypothesis. presence of asynchronous vibrations due to In Septcmber 1975. g. in­ L. The peri()rmancc of the liJur machines P. I. Amplitudes were • This paper was presented at the Workshop on Rotordynamlc Instability at Texas A & M University. Florence. a very high pressure (700 aerodynamic forces. 1. handled gas having the highest molecular weight (ethane in­ jection). asynchronous vibrations occurred when approaching surge. Analysis of the behavior of the rotors with natural gas.1980 a gain calculated at (he \'ibratiot1 probe locatiot1s. designated com­ pressor A. The first. Nuovo Pignone.l. Italy to an asynchronous e xcitati o l l . designated compressor B. The second. A cross-section of the fi\'('-stage compressor of in­ line design is shown in fig. Fig. Full load tests carried out on high pressure which at times had the result of limiting their range centrifugal compressors confirmed the of applications (3) (4) (5). Texas on May 12-14. to be driven by a variablc­ speed gas turbine on-site. 2 shows tbe rotor responses fiJr synchronous excitations (e. the second. Throughout testing. and at speeds between 74 and 112% of design. Class III) and nitrogen (in completely ofI�design condi­ tions). Analysis of the two rotors would seem to suggest that there could be aerodvnamic excitation on the final stage. The test results arc described lIt a would seem to suggest that there could be prcvious paper (6). BONCIANI * cluding surge. Class I. In all cases. The first compressor. the use of centrifugal­ compressors for high density gas compression Centrifugal Compressors services. FERRARA* was qualitatively similar. :) shows the damped llatural lateral frequen­ cies of the rotor (with logarithmic decrements) (7). aerodynamic excitation on the final stage. has become increasingly widespread (1) (2). had the highest delivery pressure of those tested. four different injection compressors were tested The vibration analysis results are discussed at full load with natural gas. Class I. the early experiences on these machines revealed the occurrence of asynchronous vibrations. The viiJr<l­ tion analysis results will be di s cus s ed in light of thi. However. Fig. A. unbalancing) located in the tl1iddle and at both ends of the rotor. with carbon dioxide (ASME PTC 10. TIMORI* A detailt"d analysis of the results obtained on two of these machines fiJllows.

-£--[ 15 a. 3 86 .VERTICAL MODE aerodynamic effects. has been developed to check the sensitivity to .9 (120) discharge pressure bar (psia) 394 (5715) design speed RPM 10. . 1 Fig . 2 TABLE I.450 3"1 30 gas handled natural gas 26 . 14 14 � 10 10 This type of diagram.1 asynchronous excitations of these compressors.bearing type tilting pad o iii � 22 driver 27. COMPRESSOR A (TYPE BCl 400/C) COMPRESSOR A .300 0791 max continuous speed RPM 11.717 it o > . The diagram (fig.specific gravity 0.7 (2490) suction temperature °C (OF) 48. to which we will refer again 0131 later. DISCHARGE SIDE 15 -E -t+Hi. 4) indi. since �l::::::::s""" 0201 0158 0134 experience of previous tests (6) demonstrated that such excitations could occur as a result of -. Calculations were carried out for HORIZONTAL MODE _ _ _ the complete operating speed range. SYNCHRONOUS RESPONSE SUCTION SIDE . '0-' Fig. '* __ 1 . assuming that 10 12 an excitation {()fCC be applied to the final impeller. Fig. "' 05 05 " w � ii' � 3 z o " <i 5 2 --�-�-- 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 SHAFT SPEED RPM .DAMPED NATURAL FREQUENCIES suction pressure bar (psia) 171.500 hp (ISO) gas turbine il 0533 � *-2"'J 0524 coupling diaphragm type � 18 i o a. a. SHAFT SPEED RPM x 10 1 whose position was believed most critical from an aerodynamic standpoint.DESIGN FEATURES OF COMPRESSOR A COMPRESSOR A .

---.1--.000 hp (ISO) gas turbinc was used to drive the compressor through the job step-up gear box. H OR I�� � r��. flOW o () . Q The compressor was tested according to AS!\l1� � PTe: 10. modynamic data WCl'e processed during the tcst SO 100 150 through it data acquisition systcm. anc! a pressurizing statioll us­ ing reciprocating compressors to boost the inlet pres­ so sure t() the desired \alu('.DISCHARGE SIDE VIBRATION SPECTRUM AND SHAFT ORBIT AT 10.E Q SHAFT SPEED 10300 RPM I-- -.ll \·. Class I. 1--. The gas was circulated ill a loop provided with an air cooler.. the other to w l) monitor the phase <lngle. --.1 150 0" Test results of compressor A Upon sllccesful completion of the llJechanical test.. of ciesi.due..on the final dcli\l ' TV line. . fWM • ..) f()] full load testing. A two-shaft :)5.I-- � " -05 < Z o 02 f= 02 - -- ffi::. Shaft vibratiolls o· were detccted by two no-contact probes at 90° on ()� each bearing. the gas composition was constaIltl� checked. CE 100 ~ Q one to monitor the shaft axial m()\'('mcnt.s])('cds COMPRESSOR A . Similar behavior was bcen f(Hlllel f(»' all . All mechanical alld ther­ ---. the compressor was installed on the outdoor facilitic. while suctioll pressure and tempnaturc \\cre maintained within 1 (X. During the tests. Tests W(TC also � carried out at spceds iJetween 74 and 112%.. -- 02 10 12 13 14 FREOUfNCY CPM x 10 J Fig.300 RPM t 08 � W�� K [ 08 -. of design 50 .l'. COMPRESSOR A . Two axial probes wne also provided.:lOO RPM. ---. 87 ..TESTED PERFORMANCE CURVES ()f the operating rangc..ASYNCHRONOUS RESPONSE COMPRESSOR A . 4 Fig. using natural gas. 6 cates the behavior at the design speed of I (J.'. The gas sYstem was completed by a throttling \'a!\e .. 50 WO ISO with a maximulll discharge pressure of 7 100 psi. l.. �- I-....H:. f-- I I� Q � 06 06 � � � o 04 I� 2 04 I-. -. a blow-off valve.

C I 05 SEC 500 Hz 500 Hi Fig 7 Fig. The compressor exhibited an experimental data arc: extremely wide operating range with 20'/. and there were no other frequencies worthy and did not seem to be appreciably modified by of note. stant speed in the area right by surge (corresponding to approximately 50% of reference flow at design speed).0 increase in the asvnchronous vibration fi-equencies were in an polytropic head betwecn reference and minimum flow appro�imatdy constant ratio to the RPl\l at constant speed. in general.8). 7. The occurrence of The -design features of compressor B are sum­ this asynchronous component was sudden. It is worthwhile noting that nonc the asynchronous component of the vibrations of'the tested points at minimum flow correspondcd to usually increased as rotating speed increased surge on the test loop. Fig. 5 shows the polytropic head and efficienc) \Taled by the time histories presented (fig. 8 88 . the vibrations wne practically wholly syn­ This disturbance was usually of slight importance chronous.900 RPM / 05 SEC / 05 SEC 500 HI 500 Hz SUCTION SIDE SUCTION SIDE / 05 SE. ft)r flows other ft)r flows slightly exceeding those characterizing than minimum. As can tion at approximately 27% RPM often occurred. COMPRESSOR A . marized in Table II.300 RPM COMPRESSOR A . but rather to the onset of a the basic frequcncy at which excitation occurred well-defined asynchronous \'ibration.TIME HISTORIES AT 10. the compressor presented an ex­ the occurrence of excitation at 8°/" RPM. cunTS \-ersus flow as percentages of the reference The remarks that can be made concerl1lng the \'alues at design speed. and. the appearance of excitation at the lower fre­ \\'hcn delivcry prcssure was increased at a con­ quency. corresponded to approximately 8'X. invariably appeared.TIME HISTORIES AT 10. he seen. of RPM At design t� ()int. 6). a low frequency vibration with amplitude Characteristics of compressor B comparable to the synchronous one and often ex­ ceeding it. excita­ tremely clearcut vibration spectrum (fig. as is re.

discharge pressure bar (psia) 220 (3190) . 9. 10 shows the rotor responses for synchronous excitations (e.220 RPM. compres­ sor B featured a higher number of stages of smaller diameter.bearing type tilting pad 05 05 . 10 89 .000 hp electric motor . Fig. 9 which was gas-turbine driven.g. Fig.DESIGN FEATURES OF COMPRESSOR B COMPRESSOR B . 12 shows the frequency response of the sys­ Fig. A cross-section of the six-stage compressor of in­ line design is shown in fig. The diagram indicates the response to an excitatiml force applied on the final impeller. In addition. TABLE II. with the compressor running at the design speed of 9. tem for asynchronous excitation. It should be noted that compressor B exhibited a greater sensiti\'ity to asynchronous excitation than compressor A.5 (1008) . unbalancing) located in the middle and at both ends of the speed 9.220 RPM 15 15 .049 .driver 10. required clearances on journal bearings higher than those on compressor A. . as described for compressor A. Compressor B. in particular for frequencies not higher than the first lateral mode. The amplitudes were calculated at the vibration probe locations. SYNCHRONOUS RESPONSE .suction pressure bar (psia) 69. COMPRESSOR B (TYPE BCl 400/B) Fig.suction temperature °C (OF) 88 (190) . 11 shows the damped natural lateral frequen­ cies of the rotor (with logarithmic decrements) (7). being dri­ \·en by an electric motor.gas handled ethane .specific gravity 1.coupling diaphragm type 10 11 12 13 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 SHAFT SPEED RPM x 10-3 Fig.

__ ___ _____ 3fO 0 42 150 0 423 042 2<J 2<J SURGE '8 16 16 16 b 100 i'u 14 14 > TEST GAS TEST CLASS � � NATURAL GAS • CO2 8 12 12 � 50 � � w 10 z 50 100 150 �� l1 p/ll p Rce � 0 <f Or u ili 100 � 0 265 <3 o 3D2 :L_ 0 323 ::::& __ __ 151 0 279 � 0 389 0 0: Ii' S -..220 RPM 14 circulated in a loop similar to the one described for 2 I compressor A. TESTED PERFORMANCE CURVES 22. with natural gas at design speed.__________________________________-.')00 10 11 12 13 14 RP.. The gas was SHAFT SPEED 9..l'. the compressor was installed on the second out­ door facility for full load testing. with carbon dioxide at 8.3 Fig 11 Fig. Data processing.VERTICAL MODE it . _ _ HORIZONTAL MODE 50 50 100 150 W FLOW "" 0/0 REF SHAFT SPEED RPM x 10-. and analyses were also handled in a similar way. COMPRESSOR B .. FREQUENCY CPM x lO--J Fig. with an increase in polvtropic head of 25°/c. An additional test with nitrogen in completely off­ design conditions was also carried (Jut at 10.2:JO RPM.----. according to ASM E PTC 10 06 in Class I. vibration read-out. A two-shaft 14.8 hp (ISO) gas turbine was used to drive the compres­ t 16 II WHU[ sor through a shop step-up gear box.600 ==:c-:-c=---.------� 1.___ :::I . The 0. and in 04 Class III.'c. 22 HpiHp �----__.. 90 .8 compressor was tested. 13 shows the polytropic head and efllciellcy versus flow felr both natural gas and carbon dioxide tests. The compressor exhibited a satisfactory operating Fig. DAMPED NATURAL FREQUENCIES COMPRESSOR B .\1 and normal suction pressure. 0_ 0_ oq ---*-. 13 Test results of compressor B COMPRESSOR B ASYNCHRONOUS RESPONSE Upon successful completion of the mechanical - test. 12 ral1...

between maxImum efficiency and mHllmum flow at
constant speed.
As previously noted for compressor A, the spec­
trum of the vibrations was practically wholly syn­
chronous at the design point and, in general, for
flows other than minimum (fig. 14). When the com­
pressor flow was decreased below 65% of maximum
efficiency flow, asynchronous vibrations, with
characteristics similar to those occurring on compres­
sor A, appeared. The time histories (fig. 15, 16, 17)
show a sudden onset of asynchronous vibrations, as
for compressor A. \Ve note that, on suction side, vib­
ration readings were affected by a run-out distur­
The following remarks can be made concermng 05 SEC

experimental data:

the asynchronous vibration frequencies were in an
approximately constant ratio to the RPM
the asynchronous component of the vibration in­
creased when increasing the speed from 8,250
RPM (test with carbon dioxide) to 9,220 RPM
(test with natural gas), while decrcased when in­
creasing the speed from 9,220 RPM (test with
natural gas) to 10,500 RPM (test with nitrogen).
the basic frequen c y at which excitation occurred
corresponded to approximately 15% of RPM
IlO significant asynchronous components were
found ot her than 15% of RPM.

Fig. 15

An attempt to correlate test data
AND SHAFT ORBIT AT 9,220 RPM Let us assume, as a working hypothesis, that the

� �
situation occurring is due to an aerodynamic excita­

HORIZ NTAL SUCTION PRESSURE lOoo PSI tion Oil the final stage. In such case, the fiJllowing
conditions should be verified:

� ·· · �·v a ) Ranging the Mach numbers during the tests in a

� �4r region where no appreciable variation of the stagc
charactnistics occurs, the phenomenon should
,,--,- appear for the same value of the flow codIicient of
the last stage. This may be considered valid
whether the aerodynamic disturbances derivc

I: ; U j 11 .[1T II
A from the impeller itself or from the statoric com­
ponents. Considering the tcst conditions, it could

.".. be demonstrated that the inlet flow codlicien t of
the last stage may 1)(" represented by the inlet flow
250 500Hz ·1
codlicient of the compressor (cp) times the ratio
between the discharge (vJ and suction (\'1)
specific volumes. In accordance with this
Fig. 14 hypothesis, the phenomenon should thus appear


for an almost constant value of cp (vjvJ. asynchronous vibrations should occur at the dis­
b) As aerodynamic conditions are similar, it is charge side.
reasonable to assume that the amplitude of the The ratio between the amplitudes at both ends
stall cell is nearly the same. Considering the dis­ can be theoretically estimated from the asyn­
charge density representative of the mean density chronous frequency response of the rotors (fig. 4,
on the final stage, the excitation force should be 12).
proportional to the product of the discharge den­ d) Most of the theories on rotating stall and relevant
sity (yJ and the impeller tip speed (U2) squared: experimental data (8) (9) (10) indicate constant
F = const. Y2 U�. ratio between stall frequency and rotating speed,
so that it is reasonable to expect asynchronous
As a consequence, Mil and M, respectively being vibration frequencies proportional to RPM.
asynchronous vibration on the discharge and suc­
tion side amplitudes at pick-up location when a Fig. 18 shows, for both compressors, the discharge
unit force is applied on the last impeller, the flow coefficient cp ( V2 / V] ) versus the suction flow
tested amplitudes versus speed should be: coefficient cpo It should be noted that the onset of the
asynchronous vibrations occurred for a constant
All const. Mil Y2 U�
value of the discharge flow coefficient. This would
As const. M, Y2 U�
also appear valid for compressor B, even running it
c ) If the theory regarding the location of the excita­ with nitrogen in a complete ()fl�design condition.
tion (last stage of each rotor) is valid, higher Point a) is, therefore, verified.


/ 05 SEC /05 SEC

500 Hz 500 Hz


/ 05 SEC / 05 SEC

500 Hz
500 Hz

Fig. 16 Fig. 17


Analysis of the asynchronous vibration component
of the discharge and suction sides (fig. 7, 8, 15, 16, EXPERIMENTAL VERSUS EXPECTED VIBRATION AMPLITUDES
1 7) shows that the amplitude of vibration on the dis­
charge side was always higher than on the suction 120
120 ?FI REF Md/Md

side, as theoretically predicted (fig. This
4, 12). 100 Md/Md REF 100
� .'"
would appear to verify point c). 80 80
60 60 AEF ",- F/F
As already pointed out in t he proccciing para­ --
-- ... _--- 40
-- ---
graphs, an analysis of" the vibration carried out with a 20 20 F/F
real time spectrum analyzer clearly showed that the 10 11 12
9 10 11 12 9
frequency of the asynchronous component was in an APM x 10-3 RPM )( 10-3-

approximately constant ratio with the rotating speed. 120

This ratio is for compressor A and for com­
.08 .15 100
80 80
pressor B. This seems to verify point d).
••• AsJAsREF

60 60 -
Let us now attempt to verify point b). 40
As/As REF 40
� ___ ...x---x- �- ;�
Assuming the onset of asynchronous vibrations at 20 20 .
10,300 RPM as a reference situation for compressor 9 10 11 12 9 10 11 12
A and that of asynchronous vibrations at 9,220 RPM RPM x 10-3 RPM x 10-3

as a reference situation for compressor B, fig. 19
shows, as a function of RPM:

Fig. 19

ONSET OF ASYNCHRONOUS VIBRATION VERSUS FLOW the relative amplitude of the calculated asyn­
chronous vibration at the discharge and suction
RPM % sides for a constant excitation force acting on the
last impeller (�1/MRII)
0100 the rcla ti\'(" <unpli tudes of the ('Xci ta lion force (F/FREF)
CD ,12 the relative amplitude of the asynchronous com­
ponent of the vibration at the discharge and suc­
tion sides (A/ AREF) compared with experimental
data. (Of course, A/ AR EF = M/MREF F/FREF.)
It should be noted that specific delivery volume
(evaluated using the Benedict, Webb, Rubin equation
generalized by Starling) progresses in such a way as

50 100 '50 , 200 to almost exactly balance the tip speed squared. As a

'·2 result, F is plotted practically as a straight line. A
II v;- .---______________________-,
150 similar procedure was followed for compressor B, for
which data exists at three different rotation speeds,
• C02
each of which corresponds to one of three different
e N2
gases (fig. 19).
Despite the fact that the discrepancies are hardly
negligible, the agreement may be termed fairly satis­
100 factory, considering the type of measurements. In
particular, it can be noted that even in the test using
nitrogen at 10,500 RPM (114% of the design speed)
performed on compressor B, the asynchronous vibra­
tion amplitude recorded is in satisfactory agreement
with the predicted one.
50 These considerations, of course limited by the
small amount of available data, would seem to indi­
cate that shaft asynchronous vibrations are excited by
100 150 11 200
aerodynamic forces which are not of a self-excited
Fig. 18 nature.


Further investigation is needed to ascertain the
validity of the explanation proposed.


Two compressors handling high density gas were
In both cases, disturbances were observed in the
� zone nearing surge, which could be explained by
aerodynamic excitations on the last stage.
� The vibrations observed do not appear to be of a
self-excited nature.
As a consequence, artificial introduction in the log
decrement calculation of destabilizing forces propor­
-so tional to rotor displacement and normal to it, would
not seem to be a satisfactory approach.
Proper evaluation of the stability of this type of
rotor can be made by asynchronous excitation fre­
quency response. As a consequence, theoretical-ex­
perimental investigations into single stages are re­
Additional remarks quired in order to determine amplitude and fre­
quency of the excitation forces.
The analysis of these two cases ends on a curious
Examining the vibration spectrum on a
logarithmic scale, as for example in fig. 20, it can be
seen that, when the low frequency component (f) ap­
(1) A. !\1EOZZI: Satural (;a.1 Rl'inj{'((ioTl StatioTl.I n>itl! Turh(l(ompu.U()T {"Tlit.
peared, small components at 2f and I XRPM ± f al­
G E, ESO.\ Lisbon, May 1972.
ways appeared as well. (2) C. H. GEARY, JR. L. P. DAMRATOWSKI, C. SEYER: Drl
. ign and Op"a!ion

Their amplitude usually became more pro­ (�f tIlt'
If 'or/d'.\ Hi/!,hf'.lt Prfl.lUrt Ga.1 Injl'rtiofl (;('T/{,!fuga/ (;omprl'.I.lOn. Pap er

!lO. O.T. C. 248;) pr (' (' nt (' d at ttl(" (?J/ihoTI' Tl'chl l % gr (.'O!!!f'li'TIU, Hou­
nounced as the amplitude of vibration at frequency f ston, Texas, �lay 1976.
increased. The phenomenon appeared on both com­ (:l) K.J SMITH: An Opan/ion !lil/or)' of FIac/ional Frl"qul'nCl' Irhir/. 4/h Tur­
h(}ma(hinl'� l' '�'l'mpo\
. ium, Gas Turbine Laboratories, Texas :\ & :\1 t"ni­
pressors and, moreover, has been observed in other
\"{'rsil\, October 197.1, pp. 11.1-12',.
compressors approaching surge. A possible explana­ (4) D. D. '-IlLES, D. IV FOWLIE: I'ibra/ion Pro!;l"n.1 Ii'lIh lIigh Pm.lurI' (;1'71-
tion of the phenomenon most likely lies in a non­ trUu/!,a/ (;ompu'.I.lor.l, prc:-,elltcd at A,V.HI<.' P('/uilfU1lI (,'roup C'OT!!I'rN!tf,
Tulsa, Oklahoma, September 21, 197',.
linear response of the bearing system. In effect, if the (5) .1. C. \VACHEI: Son�l'nchrrm()1J.\ lr/lt(Jhili�)' (! l C'mtrifiJgal (:omprl'\Wr.l,
forces on the bearings are represented by a series de­ .. \S'-IE paper :\0. 7S-PET-22.
(f») P. L. FERRARA: 1'Ih}(JtlOT/I in rf�), High Pre\\urt' (;mlri/ ('om/!lI'\ \or.\ ,
velopment truncated at the 2"d order in the shaft dis­
..\S\IE paper :\0. 77-DET-IS.
placement (instead of at the I" as is normal in a (7) .J, \\" LUND: Sta/nli(r rind f)ampl'd (.',ifira/ SII/'I'd, oj" a FIn/hi!' RollIl in
linear analysis) and assuming that the excitation con­ Fililr/-Film Hl'lilil/�', . \ S\I E paper :\" 7 1-I1FT-III"\

sists of a sinusoidal disurbance of frequency I XRPM (H) () . ,\ClON: .\'ut!w 1/Jl'llfnm/a/f I' /nJli{(1 tilllf! \/a//(I III lUi (omln/'l\(}1{' antli­
jugo, ;\tti dcl]':\n:acinnia dell<' Sciclll.(, di Torin() Yo!. 9:J, I�H)()-til.
and another sinusoidal disturbance of frequency f, a (9) :\. :\NTONINI, :\. O. !'.IARTEGANI: Sui It'Tloml'lli r/z iTlltabilila Jluido-dirw­
small perturbation method makes it easy to find ad­ mica in una \
. (dlwnh Cf'Tllri/up,(l, La Tnlllo{(,("lIica \'01. XXXI 11. -1 -
ditional components at 2 X RPM, � f and 1 RPM ± f
(jO) . \. :\. ABOELIlAMID, :\. H. C:OI.WIU .. ,J. F. BA RR O WS : F,pl'riml'Tltallll1'f'I­
(modulation of the low frequency signal \\ith carrier li,Ralinn (!l ('n.\t('a�l' PhmnmfTia in J'anf'lf\\ Radial ni//UI/'TI, .\S:\f E Jour­
I XRPM). nal or Engin('('J"ing fell" Pm'dT, Yo!. 101, Januar� 197Q, pp. :,2-(){).



Donald E. Bently
Bently Nevada Corporation
Minden, Nevada 89423


Employing a rotor built to produce one of the forward circular self-excited
category malfunctions known as "gas whip", "steam whip", or "aerodynamic
whip", it is possible to show the results of deliberate perturbation while
the rotor is still in stable operation. This test indicates that the desta­
bilizing actions are not mystical or unmeasurable and that the mathematical
modeling done today can be more realistic than the models assumed in the
1950s and which still exist essentially unchanged more than 25 years later.
The continued use of the original modeling is unfortunate in that it has led
to the use of inappropriate words to express what is happening and a lack
of full understanding of the category of forward circular whip instability
mechanisms. It is hoped that this work, although incomplete, will be
followed by better mathematical theory and better experimental tests to help
clarify the mysteries of rotating machinery stability.


The measurements and calculations are expressed in both SI and English

Q Amplification factor (dimensionless), as specified for lateral and angu-
lar position, and for synchronous or balance resonance speed

s (Zeta) damping factor (dimensionless) = 1/2Q = D/2\1K}1

W (Omega) angular velocity (radians/sec)

K Spring coefficient (lb/in)

M Mass (lb sec2/in)

D Damping coefficient (lb sec/in)


The test rotor kit for this study used a slightly tapered aluminum wheel 3.2
inches long and 4.25 inches in diameter mounted at the mid-point of the span
on a 0.375-inch diameter rotor shaft. The tapered wheel was fitted into an


equally tapered seal housing mounted to the base of the rotor kit. The seal
housing was designed for adjustment in the axial direction thereby per­
mitting selection of a desired radial clearance from the aluminum tapered
wheel. A diametral clearance of 30 mils was employed for all of these
tests. An antifriction bearing was employed on the driver end of the rotor
system and a bronze OIL-LITE bearing was used on the free end of the system.
The total bearing span was 23.25 inches.

Dynamic motion measurments were taken adjacent to the seal housing with
Proximity transducers mounted in an X-V orientation. The data from the
transducers was conditioned via a Bently Nevada Digital Vector Filter
(DVF 2) and an HP 3582A Spectrum Analyzer and displayed on a Tektronix
oscilloscope. The digitized data from these instruments was then acquired
through the Bently Nevada A DRE Computer System and reduced into polar, Bode,
and spectrum cascade graphical formats.


The rotor system speed was increased from 0 to 10,000 rpm; however, the
acceleration rate was very slow to provide accurate identification of the
translational and pivotal balance resonance speeds. The first balance reso­
nance was observed at 1550 rpm. The test procedure was as follows:


The rotor system was slowly accelerated and the location of the first
balance resonance was plotted and defined.

The rotor system was then accelerated to the rotative speed at which the
onset of instability occurred.

The nature and frequency of the instability were then described.

The system was then accelerated until the shaft deflection initiated a rub
between the tapered wheel and the seal housing.

This data base was then presented in polar, Bode� and spectrum cascade


A free-spinner perturbation device was attached to the rotor system adjacent
to the seal housing.

With the rotor system held stationary, the free spinner was accelerated to
8000 rpm. This procedure documents the location of the first balance


The rotor system was then operated at a constant speed (approximately 4000
rpm). The free spinner perturbation device was operated in the forward mode
(rotating in the same direction as the rotor system) and also in the reverse
mode (opposite rotation of the rotor system).


A spring scale was attached to the perturbation spinner keeping it from
rotating but allowing application of a known soft unidirectional preload
(like gravity) in order to determine the steady-state attitude angle of this
rotor system at various speeds.


Using a gap setting of 30 mils diametral clearance, it was observed that
with forward circular whip at the self-balance resonance speed ("first
critical") of 1550 rpm the rotor became unstable at about 6000 rpm. This is
shown in the "There it is; darned if it isn't II cascade plot of figure 1.
The polar plots and Bode plots of the rotor system response with deliberate
unbalance shown in figures 2, 3, and 4 confirm the self-balance resonance
rpm to be centered at 1550 rpm.

A further test was run with the stator removed to confirm that contributions
from other forward circular whip categories, especially internal friction,
were not making large contributions to the action. It is the nature of
rotor systems that this category is distinctly mutually aiding and abetting
(in fact it is only the lagging attitude angle mechanisms of dry, semi-dry,
and lubricated rubs that provide a limit cycle of these instabilities). The
rotor exhibited about a 5 degree synchronous leading attitude angle through
10,000 rpm; thus, it was concluded for this fairly basic test that the other
contributions were negligible.

The synchronous amplification factor Q (from figure 3) is approximately 6.6,
so the damping factor s is about 0.075.

Next, the free spinner was run in the forward direction with just sufficient
unbalance to drive the system without rubbing at the resonant peaks shown in
figure 8. Obviously, the translational self-balance resonance damping fac­
tor is reduced virtually to zero, due to the existence of the destabilizing
aerodynamic whirl forces. Figures 5, 6, 7 and 8 show this action.

The next test was run in exactly the same manner except that the pertur­
bation from the free spinner is the reverse of shaft rotation. The cascade,
polar and Bode plots are shown in figures 9, 10, 11, and 12. The evidence
that the aerodynamic forces are providing a net force adding to the damping
to the reverse perturbation may be observed. The reverse resonance amplifi­
cation factor is approximately Q 2, yielding a reverse resonance damping

factor of s = 0. 25.


It may be observed from figure 1 that the resonance increases from 1580 rpm
with rotative speed of 3800 rpm to 1980 rpm at a rotative speed of 6800 rpm.
Since this system has very little gyroscopic action for the translational
balance resonance, and is not yet rubbing at 6800 rpm, it must be concluded
that an additional direct spring is being added by the gas bearing. A cal­
culation by the point transfer matrix method shows that for the resonance to
increase by that amount, the gas bearing has an added 30 lb/in stiffness at
its lateral location at the rotative speed of 6800 rpm. This effect seems
to increase linearly with rotative speed.

The seal in the cartoon (figure 13) demonstrates the delicate balancing act
that any bearing or bearing-like area always has in either a liquid, gas, or
mixed medium. With the vertical input force shown, the shaft is moved over
with just enough positive attitude angle to allow the lubrication wedge to
balance the load exactly. In the situation of oil whip, steam whip, pumping
whip, internal friction whip and all the rest of the forward circular self­
excited instability mechanisms except oil whirl, it is easy to see that if a
force were set up which acted counter to the system damping such as to
nullify the effect of the damping, then the shaft is restrained only by the
(K-w2M) term. Below a self-balance resonance region the spring constant K
predominates, above a resonance the w2M term predominates. However, exactly
at resonance, shaft orbit energy is exchanged between kinetic and potential
energy (evenly between spring and mass). The limit size of the shaft orbi­
tal whipping is determined by additional drag-type damping from dry,
semi-dry, and lubricated rubbing at seals and bearings.

While the steady-state attitude angle apparently can be any value (for this
particular forward circular instability mechanism), high positive attitude
angle (in the direction of rotation) is an indicator of a tendency toward
instability. This test rotor, however, exhibited only 20 degrees positive
steady-state attitude angle at 5000 rpm.

The situation of the very commonplace oil whirl forward circular instability
is a most unusual type of instability mechanism. Rather than determining
its frequency from spring and mass, it is reliant on the average speed of
lubricant around the bearing and sets up oscillation by a difference
equation which acts like a second order differential equation but is fre­
quency dependent on rotative speed. Further, pure oil whirl will occur only
when the steady-state attitude angle reaches and attempts to exceed 90

In figures 2 , 3, and 4 a small structural resonance at approximately 1600
rpm, caused by local variations in amplitude and phase on the Bode plots may
be observed, and also a pivotal balance response at 7800 rpm, but both of
these may be ignored in this study.

For 30 years many experimenters have noted that these forward circular se1f­
excited mechanisms have a tendency to get locked into 1/2, 1/3, 4/9, etc.,
of rotative speed. This author spent many hours puzzling about that ten­
dency until he observed that it was simply a separate, resultive Mathieu


effect from the nonlinearities of the partial rub. The mechanism of the
Mathieu, Hill, Meissner, Duffing equation as applied to rotating machinery
was described and documented by this author six years ago in an ASME paper,
and recently further studied by D. Childs and by M. Adams. Any integer
fraction of rotative speed may be latched onto by way of the Mathieu action,
but this effect has very little to do with the prime action. It does, how­
ever, cause upward frequency shift in the IIThere It Is Again" cascade plots
shown in figure 1.

On the general subject of rotor instability, it should be noted that there
is a Mathieu effect that is a full reverse circular self-excited action, but
it requires such poor damping to reverse orbiting action that this malfunc­
tion category remains a laboratory curiosity, and does not seem to appear in
operating machinery.


Oil Whirl: This mechanism occurs at an average rate of lubricant travel
around the bearing, from 15% of rotative speed on a lightly loaded starved
bearing to 48% of rotative speed (usually in the 40 to 48% speed range), and
is governed by the relative roughness of shaft and bearing. It can be
pulled to 50% or a little higher with a smooth bearing and rough shaft. but
this is rarely a consideration. It can also be locked to any integral frac­
tion of rotative speed by a resultive Mathieu action and must have 360
degree lubrication, except for the lightly loaded starved case. The 360
degree lubricant may be pure liquid, pure gas, or a mixed flow. The bearing
with stable void islands in the high clearance area exhibits a classical
Half Sommerfeld Curve and never can oil whirl as long as that is main­
tained. Pure oil whirl, like internal friction, must exhibit very high
positive attitude angle.

Oil Whip, Radial and Thrust: This mechanism occurs at the self-balance
resonance nearest the 40 to 48% rotative speed. With poor system damping it
may occur from 15 to 85% of rotative speed, but occurrences are usually at
37 to 47%. It can also be locked to integer fractions of rotative speed by
Mathieu action. This mechanism frequently occurs with 360 degree liquid,
gas, or mixed flow lubrication but may also occur on the Half Sommerfeld
Curve, with a small attitude angle. Thrust oil whip is a laboratory
curiosity as thrust bearings are always segmented. However thrust bearing­
like surfaces of impellers are fully subject to this action, whether
handling gas or liquid.

Internal Friction: This mechanism occurs at the self-balance resonance
speed that allows the greatest shaft deflection. Rotative speed must be any
speed above that resonance speed. This action is also subject to locking at
an integral fraction of running speed by Mathieu action and must exhibit a
high positive attitude angle as in the case of oil whip.


Steam Whip, Pumping Whip, Aerodynamic Cross-Coupling, Alford Whip, etc.:
This mechanism occurs at any self-balance resonance which allows major
deflection of the shaft by bowing or by eccentricity in the bearings. In
several instances of poor damping after seals have been opened by a prior
malfunction, this excitation has occurred above running speed, but it most
often occurs below running speed and at the translational self-balance
resonance. On these compressors, the synchronous amplification factor to
translational self-balance resonance had increased to Q > 6, so not only has
the natural damping degraded, but the shaft is easily deflectable due to the
excessive seal clearance. It may also experience locking by Mathieu action.

Vortexing, Helmholz, and Near Surge: While these are oscillations which may
be separate from the rotor action as reported by P. Ferrara in an ASME paper
two years ago and observed by this author, they are often highly mobile in
frequency, and if they succeed in getting close to the self-balance reso­
nance rotor rpm, will tend to latch onto that resonance, strongly exciting
the instability. Their occurrence frequently has been observed from 10% to
over 200% of rotative speed.

Entrained Bubbles in Pumps: While this is a forced category action, its
symptoms are the same as the forward circular self-excited category. The
bubbles amount to a lack of fluid mass and therefore provide the imbalance.
The frequency is just below rotative speed down to 80% of rotative speed. A
self-balance resonance in this range may be strongly excited by this cir­
culating imbalance.

Conclusions: Some Notes on the Studies of Rotating Machinery Instabilities.

Even though a rotor is a simple structure that goes around in a circle and
the compressible or incompressible fluids in bearings and seals between
rotor and stator also go around, the rotor system tends to do more tricks
than a monkey on a 100 meter rope. In every rotating machine, velocity-to­
displacement is sinusoidal in timing, and therefore if the shaft is orbit­
ing, the velocity vector is 90 degrees ahead of the displacement vector.
Every rotating machine therefore has cross-coupled tendencies, allowing
forces to be set up which may act against the damping forces. The more
easily deflectable the shaft, the easier it is for these forces which act
against damping to occur.

Add to this the complexity of the Navier-Stokes equation and suddenly a
simple object becomes difficult to describe mathematically. Furthermore
some unfortunate assumptions and misused expressions have come into
existence and continue to be used. The use of the word "criticals" to
express the rotor self-balancing speed regions is one example. Another is
the use of the expression "unbalance sensitivity." This should be properly
stated as an "imbalance response."

Another pitfall expression is "influence coefficient." The expressions
"kelley constant" or "finagle factor" are equally inappropriate. When a
calibration weight is added to a machine to unbalance it, there is a direct


response observed at the lateral plane where the weight is added, and a
transfer response at each other plane. It is a vector quantity, not a
scalar, and it has dimensions. Typically, an unbalance weight of 1 gram
installed at 8 cm balance hole diameter at 0 degrees, yielding a direct
response of 4 pip (peak-to-peak) mils at 172 degrees and a transfer response
to an adjacent lateral place of 2 pip mils at 355 degrees, yields at a
specific speed:

4 pip mils � 0.5 pip mils Llz£:
Direct response

8 gm cm gm cm

2 pip mils /355· 0.25 pip mils /355·
Transfer response

8 gm cm gm cm

The use of the expression "log decrement" is also unfortunate. Log decre­
ment is applicable where there are responses to unit or step impulses, as in
diving boards. Amplification factor Q. damping factor s and attitude
angle are directly applicable to the study of rotor instability. Often the
expression "negative log decrementli is used to express instability. Of
course it does, but the expression does not pass the "so what" test. Once
the log decrement and damping factor become negative the rotor system is
unstable by definition.

Perhaps the most misleading expressions, however, are the references to
"cross springs" and "cross dampers.1I When these originated in the 1950s
they were probably adequate for the original experiments, plus they have the
misfortune of fitting into point matrix equations very neatly; too neatly.
If these cross-coefficents are to be used, they must first be proven. Once
proven, they may be acceptable provided that they are not a function of the
term that they are multiplied by. For example, in the-rDrce term KxyY, if
Kxy is a function of Y itself, then no differentiation or integration can be
done on the term treating Kxy as a constant and still retain much rela­
tionship to reality. The term, however, could be a function of anything

It is most interesting that the strength of aerodynamic forces are often
referred to in terms of lbs/in or newtons/meter instead of pounds, or
newtons, or, if treated as moments, should be ft-lbs or newton-meters. A
typical statement is, "This machine has an aerodynamic cross-coupling of
40,000 lb/in."

It would seem logical to go back to the basics and re-examine the fluid
mechanics by both careful experiment and by sophisticated computer studies
of fluidics finite elements and also by observing the results of iterative
solutions to bearing and seals where the computer is given very few assump­
tions and is working on the Navier-Stokes equation with inertial effects


Vance to neutralize the forward instability tendency of virtually all rotating machinery. It should be more widely recognized that there are clearly two different mechanisms of instability in fluid film bearings. In addition to further experiments and mathematics to clarify the forward circular instability mechanisms of rotors. The transparent bearing clearly shows that when a bearing can mix flow it can change sud­ denly to a 360 degree bearing and become unstable. They are (1) the widely accepted stability rules of Half Sommerfeld assumed lubrication and (2) the largely neglected 1956 works of Cole and Hughes. Provide active damping by way of force balance active bearings ( noting the limitation above ) . Provide more passive damping to the rotor system ( this has limits if damping must be at the bearing as pointed out by E. Gunter ) . 102 . Deliberately introduce reverse circular whirl mechanisms to the rotor system such as the propeller whirl shown by Chen and by J. 2. such as limiting the soft unidirectional preloading by gasses and liquids as well as limiting the introduction of the aerodynamic forces which act against the damping force. the following general rules should be applied for better control of harmful actions: 1. 4. Control the machine design. 3.

. F'I -F'I FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 103 .�- - __7� 2: .'-� --..<' " 15 MIL CLEARANCE • NO FREE SPINNER 9(1 • SYNCHRONOUS ROTOR RESPONSE ::...l15E:f.:t.=. 'l" 14�4 Ir 1'::. 5 :-: WITH STATOR RUN 1A ROTN VERTICAL ( �. 17 ----=---' "3:..F'k-F'� F'EF: F'OItH FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 RUN 1A 27(1 ROTN ( HORIZONTAL RUN lA(J '1-�--- PIVOT VERTICAL-- HORIZONTAL--- o TBR 't1435 I • 15 MIL CLEARANCE • NO FREE SPINNER \'tI517 • SYNCHRONOUS ROTOR RESPONSE }.�1 Sbb -<152 [ - • 15 MIL CLEARANCE • NO FREE SPINNER • SYNCHRONOUS ROTOR RESPONSE lom:'l) FULL At'lF' = 41) r'lIl':. F'I -F'I Ht'lF' '�.. RESONANCE SHIFT DUE TO ROTOR CONTACT I:.CALE = t'111. [53iC . FPrl 18D0 f: IJLl HI"1F' " 40 r'lIL':.Fl::ED. . .. 1 b2 -'{15'35 .

.: 155 L 3 .-. F'Ffl 1006 liMP PEP DI'. .!....�X '..-+.L E t1tlP -In til L.'::. } w a..-! I I I I I I I I I I ROTOR AT 5000 rpm '" V "' W '" 180 FORWARD SPINNER F-... : ..5 VERTICAL Q IS) Q '" a..�-- 1 5 MIL CLEARANCE 1.l. -.. ! /.I.·' FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 104 .lll :f.j ( EI/E�H�.../" 15 MIL CLEARANCE ROTOR AT 5000 rpm 90 ).'EC'LlEI'i':.• ..--. . a: ···· · ·· .." "16481/ .. PER POWT FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 RUN 5 27n ROTN RUN 5 ( HORIZONTAL III W W '" -19121 0. FORWARD 1 5 MIL CLEARANCE PERTURBATION ROTOR AT 5DOO rpm .'< .. Pk-PI.. Pf -PI A�lP f-'EP III'. .9 W \\ Cl . ." .- / / } 'o.-.. SPEED FORWARD SPINNER --. . '..... f-+ -r..-1.L.I��.' t=-H'lP SCALE = t1i l:s. �nN 1(00) FI.'- '.1543 'r 0'b ./ W ··Jbl<! u1 'I I \ CL :.ot -- -7 I � �:I � E.. �-- oJ -1"" LJ Z H I U '\"'_t�:'6 ... __ + � . /-. '" 0 W + 1-+ -t-+-+--t.�1-. \4"i"5�'� .++�<-+-+-t ...1. . """11c. 0 -541<1 .. . FORWARD SPINNER '':IF'E ED.. RUN 5 HORIZONTAL 3 - RUN 5 3)( 2.-L.....J. > ' .

. "__����J 15 MIL CLEARANCE ROTOR AT 5000 rpm REVERSE SPINNER \ __1---'" 15 Mil CLEARANCE ROTOR AT 5000 rpm REVERSE SPINNER :WEED. .E Hl'lF' =.->H+H ---.. F'F'rl lDDO FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 105 .1) LJ Z H I " IT L 15 MIL CLEARANCE ROTOR AT 5000 rpm REVERSE SPINNER 15 MIL CLEARANCE . __._ L _ <-------..) (I /'111 :" .... HORIZONTAL o 1..F' I F'EF" II 1" FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 RUN 6 o RUN 6 TBR VERTICAL I HORIZONTAL .' I .5 w w (L (.-. l ROTOR AT 5000 rpm REVERSE SPINNER 100(1'"1 1_ �-i.L._ ---'-__---' -'.RUN 6 REVERSE PERTURBATION RUN 6 3}:. VERTICAL / 271] t�>-+-++HHH..L. .-_J_.


October 1965. COM MENTS AND PERSPECTIVES OF RECENT ADVANCES IN DESIGN FEATURES FOR TURBO��CHINERY Joseph Alford Retired. Another aerodynamic disturbing force is due to eccentricity of rotor causing circumferential variation of blade-tip clearance. and a corresponding variation of local efficiency and un­ balanced torque. correlate design parameters of four examples of uns table rotor systems which exhibited whirl. the form of which comes from analysis of rotor dynamics. particularly within labyrinth seals. Ohio 45215 SUMMARY Mr. General Electric Company Cincinnati. pp. One disturbing force investigated is due to circum­ ferential variation of static pressure acting on the cylindrical surface of rotor. Seal deflection criteria and torque deflection criteria are presented as design guides for stable rotor systems. The abstract of that paper was as follows: "Aerodynamic exciting forces have caused severe rotor whirl of axial compressors and turbines. Alford repeated the major conclusions of his landmark paper." 107 . "Protect­ ing Turbomachinery From Self-Excited Rotor Whirl". 333-344. which was published in the ASME Journal of Engineering for Power. These criteria.


various kinds of remedial actions are tried based on the results of the complex-eigenvalue analysis mentioned later. Fig. etc.2). (high pressure) compressors through the speed up gear. compressor are connected with a diaphragm type flexible coupling. REMEDIAL ACTIONS AND SOLUTION In order to prevent the above vibration.P. Ltd. This paper describes the similar problem we have experienced and the remedial actions against it. Asynchronous vibration was observed in H. Smith(ref. Japan INTRODUCTION Unstable asynchronous vibration problem in high pressure centrifugal compressor were reported by J. 6 shows the shaft orbit just before the vibration growing up large. L. 4 is the spectral time history of the shaft vibration in the condition like Fig.W. Wachel(ref. 3 shows the typical spectral data of the shaft vibration while Pd is increased. Fig. and H.C. 5. Fowlie (ref. after the rotor was already at full speed.J.l. 2 shows the cross sectional view of the H.P. compressor took place when the discharge pressure Pd was increased by controlling the valve. The amplitude of pre-unstable vibration fluctuates at some levels.P. The compressor has 1703 mm bearing span length with the rigid critical speed of 3894 rpm in the original design. Remedial actions adopted and their results are summerized in table 2 109 . (e). Kobe. compressor. (low pressure) and H.l). ASYNCHRONOUS VIBRATION PROBLEM OF CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR Takeshi Fujikawa. and large unstable asynchronous vibration occurs suddenly at Pd = 5. as shown in Fig. Naotsugi Ishiguro and Mitsuhiko Ito Kobe Steel. D. OBSERVED VIBRATION Asynchronous vibration of H.P. The Kingsbury type thrust bearing is used. The rotor has 6 shrink fitted impellers and one balance piston which is integrated with the shaft.3). 3 (c).49MPa in this case. A typical relationship between vibration amplitude and Pd is shown in Fig.P. As the pressure Pd increases. Fig. pre-unstable vibration appears and becomes larger. compres­ sor. The rotor is supported by tilting pad journal bearing characteris­ tics of which are described in table 1. Fig. 3 (d). K.P. GENERAL CONFIGURATION A schematic of compressor train system is shown in Fig. 5000kW moter drives L.P.

The program calculates the logarithmic decrement and the damped natural frequency of the rotor bearing systems. Rigid critical speed increased from 3894 rpm to 4560 rpm. The procedure of the program is as follows.and Fig. the full load operation is successfully carried out in the condition of case "ED . where Case CD The original design Case 0 The width of pads of journal bearings is reduced to 2/3 of case CD . The impeller has the mass effect and the gyroscopic effect. the equation of motion of rotor bearing system is given by : [M lye + [ C ] 1C + [ K] R = &l (1) where [M] mass matrix [C] damping matrix [K] stiffness matrix The mass matrix consists of the concentrated mass of the rotor sections. Case CD The bearing span is shortened from 1703 mm to 1553 mm to increase the shaft stiffness. Case &. The destabilizing force Q is estimated by eq. (2) based on Lund (ref. 8. ANALYSIS The computer program is used to analyze the rotor stability problem in order to help the remedial plans. Case CD Lubricating oil is changed from #90 (viscosity of 34 cSt at 38 degrees C) to #140 (50 cSt at 38 degrees C) in order to increase the damping effect. Case ® Bearing width is put back to original one and 0. 0. (2) . After all.5 pre-load journal bearings are used.1 pre-load journal bearings are used. Q = 0 �--. Using a finite element method. The stiffness matrix of rotor is obtained based on the beam theory. The bearing characteristics and the destabilizing factors are dealt with as the concentrated added damping and spring coefficients in the program. 2rh where destabilizing force coefficient 110 .4).

Fig. The stability of case C§') was improved and the pre-unstable vibration was suppressed sufficiently small in the field test. the six cases of remedial actions were prepared and carried out in order to be able to operate at full pressure load. 111 . DISCUSSION Since there are many obscure points in the destabilizing forces (aero cross coupling forces). eq. it is effective to increase the shaft stiffness and to select the appropriate bearings in order to increase the system damping. In calculation of J. Details of the mechanism of destabilizing force is not clarified. The stability analysis of S is effective in the design stage of the rotor bearing system and in the remedial actions in order to prevent the unstable vibration. the nondimensional factor 0 is estimated to 5 including the labyrinth effect. (2) As the remedial actions. the pre­ unstable vibration level was not small. The system became to be operated in almost full load in case CD . The bearing was selected in order that the limit Rand J of case I�I be larger than those of case �. CONCLUSION (1) The high speed and high pressure compressor has inherently the possibility of the occurrence of unstable vibration. Lower oil temperature gives better h . Fig. 9 shows the change of stability due to oil temperature. (b). However. so the case @ was carried out. The example of calculation model and results are shown in Fig. 8 shows the calculated results of log-decrement J and the maximum pressure Pd attained without large vibration for the six cases in the field test. 10 . (1) is transformed into the canonical form and QR method is applied. It is seen that the increas­ ing of the rotor stiffness and the oil viscosity are effective to improve the stability of the system. The comparison between the results of calculation and field data is shown in Fig. The high preload bearing is not good. 7(a). T torque r nominal radius of impeller h nominal width of impeller In order to get the eigenvalues. so it seems better to consider the cross coupling force and the negative damping into the stability analysis.

J. : Vibration Problems with High Pressure Centrifugal Compressors. Texas A & M University. 1975 (3) Fowlie. D. ASME Paper No. Trans. May 1974. Proc. 7S-Pet-28 (4) Lund. 4th Turbomachinery Symposium. 7S-Pet-22 (2) Smith. REFERENCES (1) Wachel. and Miles. J. : Nonsynchronous Instability of Centrifugal Compressors. ASME. : Stability and Damped Critical Speeds of a Flexible Rotor in Fluid-Film Bearings. K. J. W. pp. C. : An Operation History of Fractional Frequency Whirl. Journal of Engineering for Industry. Oct. S09-Sl7 112 . ASME Paper No. D. Gas Turbine Laboratories. W. D.

---. ------"'-.-..----.._-----"--. 8 0.--"�---... 2 0 " CIl " " " 1553 0 ® " " 3l..-..-�...5 11140 " " " " ® 0. Table 1 Tilting pad journal bearing Diameter 76.-. 8 mm Number of pads 5 Arrangement Load on pad Table 2 Remedial actions 1----.. "� -.2 mm -----...----. '"�--.1 ---. . 8 2. ---.5 " " " G) " 0. -.--.5/1000 0 #90 " @ " 2l. .______0 ____.-'--- CASE Q) 1703 3l.. -.----. . -. " ."'. j 113 .----�----"-.'.--��� ------.----.�- Bearing Width of Bearing Bearing Lubricating span length bearing pad diametral preload oil clearance nun nun 2 c/D I ------�--.'-.------------1 Width 3l.--.

865 MPa Sh a f t horse power 2980 kW Shaft speed 10400 rpm F:!.912 MPa Discharge pressure 6.Comp. Motor � -4-. compressor (Original design) 114 . uid N2 gas Fig.P. H. compressor Suction pressure 1. -+-III tl Specifications of H.2 Cross-sectional view of H.P.P.P.P" • 110J _ Fig.1 Schematic of compressor train henna . Gear Box L.Comp.

.. . t . A 1 at. . ¢ rel-S. 'r81-00C7 .. . U . -u�tab1 ... . PeI-1.49M1'a ---ayadl � �� (eI) (.U_ . '1 .. "i 50 .Uar. vlbrartoe "i 200 I ..1' •• "t�r&ti_ .9:mJ'..904P& II- (c) 0- 100 SO SO Ll'·'-....ynchronous '13- .1 aec o 100 200 II: 115 .4IoIPa t ........chroooua eoaopon... t (&'0 FI" '"1-""'7 50 pr ...... ... �SR:"""o.. .> PeI-).. ....) 113Rz .. ..... .. ..... 130 0 t �[ L:4.

. . t 10 o ) 4 4.5- • 20 1 . In case ® JO .5 'Iar l a t l on of rntor vibration with discharae pressure Pd 'I: vertical ro tati on B: horizontal Suction .­ ..e presaure Pd (KPa> V1.. .ide Vl.....o vibratinG 116 ..6 \lh i rl orbit of asynchronou.5 Diac:har..

'"<) �.ttaln�d 117 ._ • 518te.2 I • l� . tJopeU. " I ____ /0 ..'" �. :t . c-) 1703 1703 1..r lumped .' 31.. .' 0 ... I ...2 21. (b)It....01 ---. s..7 Calculation .1 .. a 0... .. 7 • • .53 l.' 21.5. i". i_cral cle . 2e ...53 un "'arinl widell (_> ll.-0. .11 '90 'M '90 #90 '140 1140 fi. .)fode . nd �x1.hL D 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 pre-l0a4 0 • • 0. CD (2) (J) ® � ® ' •• rinl . Fla. bearing .:�:... .'�.. damp!nl . . nt .. . .. 110.1 .5 • . ..adel and result.53 1.u.2 �ecr .. 31. discharle pre"sur.. ult.... oriltaal /0 o final �/ :t • 0. ..5.hL . i --/ =.hL 2 .5.2 ll.. . ..1 condi tion !l : I \ eaa...5 • 0..5• � 2 ... .

. .....3 . case@ t - -60 dotted 11ne . � • /C .peratnra (degree C) Fl •• ' Variation of stability due to 011 temperatura .. � jl a 1. a I• = 0.. .parison be�een calculated r and field data (ralatl...1 30 lS 40 45 aupl1ed 011 te... -0- • -----� j 0. "nchronoua synchronous .5 • Case @ j 0. "nchronoUII componen '1 �.. 0.. __ - "0 -. ' synchroDOUII componen t -40 1:---:1 ..0 I .a representation) 118 .. -50 .0 1\ rr equen cy L Destabl11zinl forca coefficient � ril. 0..... • "0 Case U :2 a ..2 • 0.10 eo.c. . c omp o n en t component .' 1. .

• • . Fleming. . Universitat Stuttgart . . NASA Lewis Research Center. . • . . NASA Lewis Research Center Chairman Testing of Turbulent Seals for Rotordynamic Coefficients. . . Wachter. . University of Louisville. . . . . . Dressman. . . . . Childs and John B. . • 189 Hydraulic Forces Caused by Annular Pressure Seals in Centrifugal Pumps. • • . 169 Flow Induced Spring Coefficients of Labyrinth Seals for Application in Rotor Dynamics. Ltd . Hendricks. . SESSION III SEAL FORCES IN TURBOMACHINERY Robert C. . . . . . . and S. . . . . . . . . Kaneko. . . T. . . . . . . . . . David P. . . H. 121 Evaluation of Instability Forces of Labyrinth Seals in Turbines or Compressors. . Benckert and J. . . Texas A&M University. Kobe University . . • . • . Takuzo Iwatsubo. . . Iino and H. . . Bart Childs. . . . . 213 119 . • . . Dara W. • . . . . . . . 139 Damping in Ring Seals for Compressible Turbines. . . . Hitachi. .


Dressman Mechanical Engineering Dept. The University of Louisville Louisville. since the seals of figure 1 are geometrically similar to plain journal bearings. INTRODUCTION Black [1. The pressure field is integrated to yield seal reaction-force components. 4] in a series of publications incorporating theoretical and experimental results has demonstrated that the rotordynamic behavior of pumps is critically dependent on forces developed by neck-rings and interstage seals illustrated in figure 1. Robert C. 12l . Hendricks. and has the objective of separately identifying stiffness. Texas A&M University College Station. and inertia coefficients for turbulent seals. Kentucky 40208 S. The test program discussed here was stimulated by stability diffi­ culties encountered in developing the turbopump of [5]. Bart Childs Industrial Engineering Dept. Subsequent experience [5] has demonstrated that the stability of cryogenic turbopumps is comparably dependent on seal forces. 3. applicable prior test programs to identify journal bearing coefficients are also reviewed. technical monitor Dr. Representative test data are provided and discussed. damping. 2. ��The work reported herein was supported by NASA Lewis under NASA Grant 3200. Dynamic measurements are made and recorded of the seal-displacement-vector components. and added mass coefficients. with the capability of separately determining both direct and cross-coupled stiffness. Also. The test apparatus causes the seal journal to execute small-eccentricity centered circular orbits within its bearings. * TESTING OF TURBULENT SEALS FOR ROTORDYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS Dara W. Texas 77840 SUMMARY A facility has been developed for dynamic testing of straight and convergent-tapered seals. Childs and John B. The displacement and force vector components are analyzed via a generalized Newton-Raphson procedure to yield the desired seal dynamic coefficients. damping. and of the pressure field. The contents of this section are provided to briefly review theoretical models and prior experimental results and procedures for seals.

and ). L is the seal length. and 0 is a friction-loss coefficient defined by o = ).. (3). Black subsequently [2] examined 122 . Yamada's definition for T.. p is the fluid density. Black's analysis for a plain non-serrated seal yields a motion/reaction­ force definition of the form (4) where L/V (5) the coefficients � ' � ' � O 1 In Black's original analysis [1]. and w is the rotor's rotational speed. R is the seal radius. and is based on the following leakage relationship from Yamada [6] for flow between concentric rotating cylinders. t. The friction law definition of Eq.p (1) where � is a constant entry-loss coefficient. R RwC/v (3) a 8R a r a where v is the fluid's kinematic viscosity. "circumferential pressure-in uced flows � are negligible compared with axial flows". V is the average fluid velocity. Black's analysis yields a definition of the force acting on a rotor due to its motion at a seal location.L/C (2) In the above.. = 0. Seal Analysis: Leakage and Dynamic Coefficients Black [1. 2. R ) a r 7R -1/ r 2 3/ 8 ). were developed for short seals for which. has been defined by Yamada to be the following function of the axial and radial Reynolds numbers (R . 4] is largely responsible for developing currently employed dynamic seal models. C is the radial clearance. is based on an assumed 1/7 power velocity distribution. 3.. and fits the Blasius equation for pipe friction.079 R 4 £1 + (_) ] R 2VC/v.

28 (L/R) 2}-1 ]J 0 (R:) ]J O {l + L ( ) 0. (6). This latter measurement yields 0 which in turn yields A. in previous analyses. Yamada's model for the friction factor was based on testing for these variables over the Reynolds number range (200 < Ra < 40. For example. Plots of �O' � ' and �2 are pro­ 1 vided in figure 2 as a function of Sand 0 for � 0. a fluid element entering a seal was assumed to instantaneously achieve the half-speed tangential velocity Rw/2. Specifically.000. 0106 � C/R � -:-0129) . w . The results resemble.23 (L/R) 2}-1 ( 6) ]J l{1 + ]J 1 R L 1-1 ( ) == � {1 + 0. (4) and (5). Finally. and the axial pressure gradient within the seal. The practical consequence of this swirl effect is that predictions for the cross-coupling terms k. They also do not include the finite­ length correction of Eq. if the journal segment 123 . Black in [4] demonstrates that a fluid element must travel a substantial distance axially along the seal before asymptotically approaching this limiting velocity. and developed the following formulae to account for finite (L/R) ratios L 0. These coefficients = are comparatively insensitive to anticipated variations of the entrance loss factor �.(3) are 6P. Prior Seal Testing Procedures and Results The pertinent data which must be measured to confirm the seal leakage model of Eqs.9]. but do not coincide with Black's results. (1) .06 (L/R) 2}-1 2 R 2 - Black's second refinement of the original development [3] was the defini­ tion of Va' VI' V2 in terms of the following additional parameter (7) which accounts for a circumferential variation in A due to a radial displace­ ment perturbation from a centered position. 0 < Rr < LIO. One of the authors [7] has recently completed a seal analysis based on Hirs turbulent lubrication model [8.5. Black [4] examined the influence of inlet swirl on seal coeffi­ cients. which largely repeats Black's develop­ ments (which were based on various ad hoc models) .the effect of circumferential pressure-induced flow for finite-length seals. c may be substantially reduced. V (from flow rate) .OOO) and clearance to radius ratios of (. Various approaches can be taken to the measurement of seal dynamic pro­ perties as defined by Eqs.

the direct stiffness of a non-serrated seal represented by i{ may significantly influence the location of a critical speed. Specifically. rX i: y rX r y 0) . known imbalances were applied to the test rotor. of this nature. For softly supported rotors.e. 10. i. 3. Eq. I r I IFs From Black's model. The second type of test cited consists of analytically modeling a test rotor including the theoretically predicted seal dynamics. 10. and onset speed of instability. For example. However.. are helpful in deciding whether the general seal model is reasonable. in [2] the test rotor was rapped and a correlation was made with the observed logarithmic decrement on the decay curve. Hence by applying the static load definition (F F ' F 0). the relative magnitudes of the direct i{ and cross-coupled k stiffness coefficients depend on the relative magnitudes of the axial and radial Reynolds numbers. and a comparison was made with synchronous amplitudes and phase. 11] has been of the static nature cited above. (4) can be inverted to obtain r i{ -k � { X} A [ K 2 i{2 + F r R7TPK 2 k e y e i{]{Ry} . the cross-coupled damping coefficients c. 11] is provided in Table 1. and can exceed K. and comparing the dynamic characteristics of the model with test data. and inertia terms ill have no appreciable influence on rotor stability or response. In [3]. Most of Black's testing [2. However. and direct damping coefficient C. The nature and results of the test support the following general conclusions 124 . A summary of the test results of references [2. discrepancies between predictions and results can be the result of either an inadequate rotor model or an inadequate seal model. Further. This is predominantly the type of testing performed by Black. one obtains a combined measure of the X y direct and cross-coupled stiffness coefficients.e. but increases with Rr. at zero running speeds k is zero. depending primarily on the cross-coupled stiffness coefficient k. critical-speed location.of the seal is stationary (i. For most rotors. who cites results in the form of "receptance magnitudes". Black indicates that discrepancies in synchronous amplitude and phase results could result from an inadequate initial balance. For example. Comparisons between rotor model results and tests. in [3]. 3. this type of test-correlation does not yield specific information about the individual dynamic coefficients. The correlation in these tests ranges from "good" to "fair". and measuring X s y = = the displacement components r ' r . the stability of a flexible rotor is less sensitive to the direct stiffness term..

the motion/reaction-force relationship for a hydrodynamic bearing is defined. both axially and circumferentially. Identification of the dynamic coefficients of seals in a centered position as functions of the axial and radial Reynolds numbers is the objective of the current test program. Further. (5)] for the dynamic coefficients as functions of the axial and radial Reynolds numbers. On the basis of various analyses.concerning the adequacy of Black's dynamic seal model: (a) Over the Reynolds number range tested. while the operating eccentricities of journal bearings vary with running speed and load. and have a substantial direct stiffness at a centered zero eccentricity position. Seals customarily operate in the turbulent regime. it is inadequate to specifically verify the proposed relationships [Eq. for small motion about an equilibrium position. Black's test results indicate a divergence between tests and theory for the direct damp­ ing coefficient C as the axial Reynolds number is increased. Hence. The general similarities between bearings and seals are such that procedures developed for bearing-coefficient-identification may also apply for seals and are briefly reviewed below. dynamic bearing-identification work has generally had the objective of validat­ ing dynamic coefficients versus eccentricity relationships. by the equation K K xx xy (8) K K yx yy The equations of motion of a rigid rotor of mass 2M supported symmetrically by two identical bearings can then be stated M a r \ C C r K K r cos(wt) x '>_ xx xy x xx xy x + + + a M r C C r K K r sin(wt) y"\ yx yy y yx yy y 125 . the prediction of the direct stiffness coefficient K is adequate for plain and serrated seals. although less accurate for serrated seals. (b) Although the data cited generally supports Black's dynamic seal model over the Reynolds number range considered.01 as compared to bearings for which C/R is on the order of 0.001. Prior Journal-Bearing Coefficient Identification Approaches The seals of figure 1 are geometrically similar to plain journal bearings but have larger C/R ratios on the order of 0. seals are nominally designed to operate in a centered position.

to calculate bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. Water enters the center of the section and flows axially across the two rotating test seals exiting at the bottom of the test section. Published work related to the identification of the stiffness and damping coefficients of Eq. = The nominal seal clearance is C . Their estimation procedure consists of the following steps: (a) The governing differential equations of motion (2) are expressed in state-variable format.000 rpm) and flow­ rate. 30.25. while turbine flowmeters separately measure flowrate through each seal. a is the imbalance vector magnitude and w is the constant rotor spin speed.e.. (c) The unknown coefficients are calculated based on a minimum error­ squared criterion from measurements of the state variables and the pros input signal.Ol. The stiffness and damping coefficients are calculated from the frequency-domain equations.m. as a system of first-order differential equations.Where Fx' Fy are the components of the external force vector.16 cm. shaft rotation causes the seal journals to execute circular centered orbits at the nominal eccentricity ratio E = 0. thereby defining the bearing transfer function. The seal journals (L = 4 in = 10.08 cm) are mounted eccentri­ 4 cally on the shaft with a constant eccentricity es = . D = 2 in = 5.02 in 5. Morton [13] adopted this test procedure on a full-scale 308 mID (20 in. Shaft-speed is measured by a once-per-revolution counter.08 mID. Axial and radial Reynolds numbers may be specified over the range Ra E[5000.) industrial bearing. (b) The first-order differential equations are replaced by first-order difference equations. (9) date from Gleinecke [12] who excited the bearing seg­ ment of a 120 mID model bearing in two mutually orthogonal directions while measuring the amplitude and phase of the relative motion between the bearing and journal. Accordingly.000] by varying the shaft rotational speed (0 . They also applied the method to the estimation of squeeze-film damper coeffi­ cients [16]. THE UNIVERSITY OF LOUISVILLE DYNAMIC SEAL TEST PROGRAM Test Section Design Figure 3 illustrates the test-section design employed in the current seal test program. 11.000] RrE[O. i.005 in 1. and subsequently [14] developed a technique for introducing a step input into a full-scale operating turbine bearing. = = which yields C/R = .27 x 10.4. The rotor of figure 3 is supported in Torrington hollow roller 126 . Burrows and Stanway [15] have proposed the use of a pseudo-random-binary sequency (pros) excitation force with a multiple-regression analysis for estimating the coefficients.

ducers are provided exclusively to define the time history of the axial pres­ sure distribution.!1:>"1!. ' . bearings 1 [17].... have zero internal clearances.8) is definable in terms of either past or future time measurements p(z.. the corresponding pressure sienals for 8 0 are = p*( t) 1 p.� "�. .. and the circumferential pressure distribution at time t... P2 (t). the steady-state pres­ sure distribution is constant with respect to an observer fixed to the shaft.•. When supported in these��" .. the pressure measure­ ments Py ct) define the axial pressure distribution at time t t for 8 O. . .. whose assistance is gratefully acknowledged.... transducers is provided primarily as a matter of convenience. Specifically. = = The seal reaction forces at a given time t = t are defined by the integrals 1 These bearings were donated by Torrington through the kindness of W. In words...?tE §l?Zfa}ly" . .. despite the fact = that the transducers are distributed circumferentially around the seal as illustrated in figure 4.500 rpm. L...•.��----...•....tially ----."". These preclslon bearings are preloaded radially. of Bently eddy-current motion transducers and five piezo-elect�:Lc. The end thrust bearing is pro­ vided to react the small axial load developed by the opposed test-seal design..g.... P5(t).du �����h� c:h". and an accurately predictable radial stiffness.� ..� �.. p(z. ....':�...� �� ra"�.��"" ..-.....�-"-----' along and around the sea1. The direct extraction of circumferential pressure distributions from pressure time histories also permits the "reconstruction" of a pressure time history at a given circumferential location (e.... ..�(t) 2 (10) where w is again the shaft rotational speed.':!=!:�"EE. 8 0).�E. 12 7 . for each seal.". Since the seal journal is forced to execute a closed circular orbit at constant speed w within its journal. since the trans- .t) at a fixed value of 8...£".� "' . Instrumentation and Data Analysis The dynamic instrumentation illustrated in figures 3 and 4 consists. given the measurements P1(t)... ... the stiff rotor design of figure 3 yields a first critical speed of approximately 12. The circumferential "clocking" of the pressure . ------. -.�".:r:�I1..cir <:: ll!1lf �. Bowen."..

z) dz . The axial spacing of ������!"e �_r��!I:�c:l}:. .?-n8.���� .r �l.. integration with respect to z where 0. pressure time histories p � (t) over a total time period �T will yield force histories RX (t) . Note that a pressure time-history is required over the interval [t..-�� _. and yielas the following simple formula for the "" __� ________� . (13) is evaluated numerically from the pressure time histories p � (t) .47862..23693."'.§ � £�E:!� chosen __ . Ry (t) over the reduced interval [�T . A 0.56889 2 3 The time integrals in Eq.."�valua!. 2'TT L R (t) f f p (8. t + 2'TT/w] to obtain RX (t) .��__ .!!'l inte&. (12) are executed with a simple Simpson's-rule­ based algorithm. These integrals may also be stated as 2'TT 2'TT W � (t) -RL f sin8 p (8)d -RwL f sinwT p (T) dT 0 0 (12) 2'TT 2'TT w �(t) -RL f cos8 p (8) d8 -RwL f COSWT p (T) dT 0 0 where p is the average axial pressure defined by L L 1 1 p (8) f p (8..2'TT/w]. A 0.lS:gI."fr.z) dz (13) L L 0 0 The integral of Eq. Ry (t) .-". . \ from Gauss-Legendre quadrature formulas [18] to minim1z� the error involved in . .z) cos8 Rd8 dz Y 0 0 with 8 as illustrated in figure 4. p (t) f p (t. an 128 . However. since the signals are periodic.. th.z) sin8 Rd8 dz x 0 0 (11) 2'TT L R (t) f f p (8. Hence.

These solutions are obtained by numerical integration of the ordinary differential Eqs. 2 adequate sampling rate yields sufficient output (rx(t). i 129 . and is not a frequency-response or transfer-function approach. and the test procedure which yields rX(t). In fact. Note that this procedure operates on the differential Eq. ry(t). The N-R procedure as applied to Eq. RX(t). [20]. the N-R procedure can separately identify the coefficients. Identification Procedure A generalized NR (Newton-Raphson) procedure [19]. c. r y(t). Ry(t) is not influenced by dynamics of the test-section rotor. forming the dot and cross products r·R 2 k .K T For a given speed w. in much the same manner regression analysis does with algebraic models. (14) to the observed data. Ry(t» from a limited number of data cycles to identify the dynamic seal coefficients K. (14) is solely the seal govern­ ing equation. mw . C. a frequency-response approach can provide only a restricted amount of information from the circular-orbit data of this program. (4) r K + (14) L-k Note that m in this equation is the seal added fluid mass. and has nothing to do w�th the actual mass of the test rotor. solving for (RX' Ry). and. (14).Cw . This statement is illustrated by substituting the assumed solution A coswt . ry(t) and P ety. a frequency-response approach yields the sums on the right hand side of these expressions.000 Hz to digitally record rX(t). (14) requires the following first­ order restatement 2 Biomation data acquisition units are employed with a sampling rate per channel of 100. k. m of the following dimensional verion of Eq. RX(t). (14). [21] is employed for parameter . Eq. however. (14). This procedure can be visualized as fitting the solution of Eqs. ry A sinwt into Eq.

as illustrated in figure 6(a). Y5 = Clm. These data sets indicate that experimental estimates of m. CIR 0. The displacement vector components are illustrated in figure 6(b). 2 2 . and Y9 = 11m. etc. Y7 Kim. this procedure involves the solution of a multipoint­ boundary value problem for which existence and uniqueness theorems are simply not available. and is at present unexplained. Y3 -Y Y3 Y Y4 Y7 Y Y Y + Y9 f (t) (15) 5 6 1 S 2 1 Y4 +Y Y3 . Y Y Y7 Y Y9 0 S 6 S ----. The oscillation observable in P3 of this figure is exactly IS times rotational speed (3660 rpm). Y Y 1 3 Y Y4 2 . the integration which yields the force components eliminates this and all other fourier components. in a least-square sense. (14) and (15) are Y 1 Y2 Y3 = �X. l30 . = �y. (15) and the test data. C. Y6 =elm. k are smaller than predicted. The identification procedure mirdmizes. Unfortunately. Even with severely degraded data.. Tests were conducted on straight seals CD 4 in. ill 0. the bulk of the dynamic data taken in June was unusable. LID = 0. The "notch" in the lower portion of these signals is the result of damage to the seal journal extension caused by rubbing of the displacement transducer probe during start up. - " )<.5. c. while K is substantially larger. TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Experimental Results The beginning phase of testing has consisted of marginal advances followed by precipitous retreats. Rr sets are provided in the first three rows of Table 2. Y S kim. however.01) in June and October 1979. Figure 5(a) illustrates the theoretical [ 7] and experimental pressure distribu­ tions for case 1 of Table 2. Note that the = = = original differential equations have been augmented by the trivial differential equations. ::. Y4 ry. test results for three good Ra. to enforce the time invariance of these seal = = coefficients. K 0. = �x. = =Because of data transfer problems.Y Y4 + Y Y Y7 Y + Y9 f (t) 6 5 S 1 . The identities relating Eqs. the procedure was validated [21] by generating fake data with simulated noise and theoretically predicted seal coefficients. and then analyzing the data to "identify" the coefficients. demonstrating that the experimental pressure amplitudes are smaller than predicted. the procedure yields errors less than S%. However. leaving only the fundamental component of running speed. Hence. �he errors between th� solution to Eq.

and dynamic pressure gradient. the measured pressure fields were noisy and erratic. however. the coefficient W2 is much more sensitive to 0 than WO. The reduced leakage results obtained in the tests as compared to Yamada's and Black's predictions are at present unexplained. however. Strain-gauge pressure transducers are on order to replace and/or comple­ ment the piezo-electric transducers presently employed. It is possible that the oscillating entry clearance accounts for this result. 131 . The taper angle for the seal tested is less than optimal [22] from a direct stiffness viewpoint. These deposits apparently formed when the test section was drained following the June test series. The result s of two tests from this series are provided in the last two rows of Table 2. we should get a better idea of the dynamic entry loss. Hence. Note. With these new trans­ ducers. and substantially increased the surface roughness of the seals. The differences between the tests in June and October are consistent with the theory in that an increase in surface roughness would increase 0. Tests will be repeated in June of 1980 on the straight seal over a wide Reynolds number range. When the test unit was disassembled. Tests will also be con­ ducted on both an optimal taper seal and a seal with a taper angle approxi­ mately 2 5 % larger than optimal. an inadequate amount of data has been taken to support any conclusions about the adequacy of the theory. Over the range of 0 anticipated. and one of the pressure transducers failed. Additional Planned Testing Tests were conducted on a seal with a convergent tapered sleeve segment during April 1980. WI. The deposits were irregular. chemical deposits were found on the seal bearing and journal. a relatively sharper increase in the added mass m is anticipated with increasing surface roughness. The straight seal will then be modified by rounding the sleeve inlet. that the added mass term is now larger than predicted. demonstrating the same basic trend as the June tests. The leakage -6P data for a large number of tests has consistently deviated from Black's and Yamada's results in that the leakage is consistently (by 5 to 8%) smaller than predicted. Discussion of Results Generally speaking. Tests in October 1979 were repeated in the straight seal configuration. and the dynamic data related to this test are currently being processed and analyzed.

Sci. February 27 . pp. of Lubrica­ tion Technology. F. J. Yamada. and Jensen. "A Bulk-Flow Theory for Turbulence in Lubricant Films.. Engin. . 116. 1966-67. J. pp." Proc. . pp. Vol. . D. E. S. G. Delft. Munich. F. 18." Paper G5. 92-100. 7l-WA/FF-38. H. 8. German Federal Republic. .March 2. F. 137-146. . "Fundamentals of a Bulk-Flow Theory for Turbulent Lubricant Films. Y." ASME J. 4. J. Vol. pp. 11. . "Effects of Hydraulic Forces in Annular Pressure Seals on the Vibrations of Centrifugal Pump Rotors. 143-150. . Delft Technical University.. . REFERENCES 1. "Effects of High Pressure Ring Seals on Pump Rotor Vibrations. and Cochrane. 1962. 2. 181. . 1970. No." Bul. 3. 9. Engin. Black. Vol. . 12. June 1970. W. Eng. Black. D. lIirs. E. . D. Va. 1973. Black. "Leakage and Hybrid Bearing Properties of Serrated Seals in Centrifugal Pumps. 1971." ASME Transactions for Power. 1970." J. D. Mech. January 1978." Doctoral Thesis. "Empirical Treatment of Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing Per­ formance in the Superlaminar Regime. 206-213. Vol. "Experimental Investigation of the Stiffness and Damping Coefficients of Turbine Bearings and Their Application to Instability Prediction. p. "Resistance of Flow through Annulus with an Inner Rotating Cylinder. P. 12. April 1973. "The Space Shuttle Main Engine High-Pressure Fuel Turbopump Rotordynamic Instability Problem. G. 2. Mech. Vol. A. Black. "The Effect of Inlet Flow Swirl on the Dynamic Coefficients of High-Pressure Annular Clearance Seals. 116-122." Proceedings of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers. 48-57. Charlottesville. F. No. H. Hirs. H. and Jensen. Childs. 11. H. Morton. 2. G. . "Measurement of the Dynamic Characteristics of a Large Sleeve Bearing." J. . . 6th International Conference on Fluid Sealing." submitted to ASME Trans. H. pp. Glienecke. II ASHE Paper No. 10. G. . January 1971. 7. Sci. 5. 302-310. Black. N. 184. 13. . "Dynamic Analysis of Turbulent Annular Seals Based on Hirs' Lubrication Equation. Series 88. F. August 1977. The Netherlands. Black. Lubrication Technology. "Dynamic Hybrid Properties of Annular Pressure Seals. H. J. . N. 1969. 5. No. M. M." ASME Trams. Journal of Lubrication Technology. 132 ." unpublished analyses per­ formed at the University of Virginia. Childs. pp. 6. . pp. G. F.

l33 . Froberg. D.. 1980. Cambridge. R. pp. September 1977. B.14. 22. C. 16. 43-47. England. pp. September 2-4. H. Childs. R. "Numerical Solution of Multipoint Boundary Value Problems in Linear Systems. and Bhateja.. "Parametric Excitation of a Squeeze-Film Bearing. J. Fleming. Journal of Dynamic Systems.. Doiron. 2(1971). Burrows. R. J. and Stanway. Childs. B." ASME Paper No. 77-DE7-10. Design Engineering Technical Conference. J." Int. 1979. Journal of Science and Technology. 17." Int.. Bowen. "Estimation of Seal Stiffness and Damping Parameters from Experimental Data. 21. 53-66. 79-Lub-15. Morton. P." G. Stanway. "The Hollow Roller Bearing. B. 1. Burrows.. 1979... 2(1971). 15. "The Derivation of Bearing Characteristics by Means of Transient Excitation Applied Directly to a Rotating Shaft. C. Childs. J. Systems Science." ASME Paper No. Ohio.C. "Identification of Journal Bearing Characteristics. and Dressman." 5th IFAC Symposium on Identification and Parameter Estimation. Luckinbill. Dayton. 18. C.. P. Chicago. October 16-18. 26-30 September 1977. Systems Science." ASME Trans. 20. 49-57. R.. pp. pp. Second Edition. R. Childs. D. 19. G." accepted for presenta­ tion at the 2nd International Conference on Vibrations in Rotating Machinery.. 1975. Vol. September 24-28. Introduction to Numerical Analysis. Illinois.. "Numerical Solution of Multi­ point Boundary Value Problems in Nonlinear Systems. J. W. Measurement and Control. 42. Bryan..E.. D. and Holloway. Addision Wesley.. and Boyd. 1969. "High-Stiffness Seal'S for Rotor Critical-Speed Control. ASME-ASLE Lubrication Conference. 167-173... and Holmes..

O. and onset speed o f in stab i lity . 10.0 9106 855 0.5.013 r 2. 2. 2. R R LID (C/R) x 1 0 Seal Type Cited Resul ts a r [2] [6.3 plain d.079 Estimated 21.8. d. 3.834 Theory 50.500] . 12203 3879 0. 14.33 14759 2200 0. TABLE 1. 10. 5 ) versus Theory [7] (in-lb-sec units) 134 . 20. R = 19.06 a R = 10. 6.5 .000) [a . 25 . Correlation includes amplitude.7 plain f [11) [3.022 Theory 54.5 14170 2700 0.410 Estimated 22. Receptance magnitude and phase at centered position.07 a R . PRIOR DYNAMIC SEAL TESTS c c K k m 1.017 r 3. Static force-deflection curves for O2 E 2 0.5.997 Theory 31. f.000) . 6. 12.89 16972 2556 0.17.000. . 23 . R = 20.232.33 8859 3204 0. R .644 Estimated 13.9 plain a.317 Theory 47. 12. 0. 1.000.07 a R . s c. 1. 14. e [10) 10.000) 1. . 14.0 8. b. 10. c [3) [3.9 10739 2096 0. 9712 3585 0.2 4.814 Theory 53. Rotordynamic modeling to correlate with test data on the direct damping coefficient C. 7. Resultant stiffness F lr for centered position and w .3 9662 655 0. critical speed.000) .113 r Table 2. 3) a nd October 1979 (Columns 4. 5. 2.000.09!! r S. R 11.06 a R = 10. Receptance magnitudes for centered position. e.000) [a. 4592 3046 0. 7. phase. 1.013 r 4. 8. Test Results for June 1979 (Rows I. Ref.6 1.06 a R = 10.1 S errs ted d a.079 Estimated 25. Rotordynamic modeling to correlate with synchronous test results. R = 18.000] [a.783 Estimated 18.9 2. b.2 14.5.000 [a.4 14.

Jl2 . Seal s in multistage centrifugal pumps .0 =: 0.. NSTANT i L-----+----r--�--cr 2 3 4 Figure 2.0 .5 � 1-10 ..0 111 O.1 �----4----r---+--�� cr 1 2 3 1.6 1. = 0. NECK lUNG NECK RING SEAL SEAL Figure 1.4 0.S ----+---�--� ��--r-cr 2 3 .OS r.50 I\ � == ::: ::= :::::: 0. .3 CONSTANT >.10 1.5 135 .5 0. Dimension less dynamic seal coefficients �O' � �2 versus 0 and 1' i3 for E.0 .

University of Louisville test section assembly 136 . proximity thermocouple p robe pressure tr ansducer hollow shaft roller seal bearing test seals outlet outlet Figure 3.



P.{ t I
• +' f + t
p{z,t} lLI LLl::::b

Figure 4. Instrumentation for the University of Louisville
dynamic-seal test program


0 0
0 0
c:i 0
::3' ::3'
in 0
0 0
. !: P2
0 .... 0
!: C\J C\J
.... =
= :::l
:::l ell
ell ell
ell ....
0 = 0
.... 0 0
= - a.
a. 0 0

CI or
.... 0 �
� 0 Z 0
or ....
... 0 :IE 0
:::l C'\I C'\I
I = I
� ....
or A.
u 0
0 .... 0

0 0
::l' ::l'
1 1
0.00 BO.OO 160.00 2l!0.00 320.00 0•00 BO.OO 160.00 2l!0.00 320.00

Fieure 5. Theoretical and experimental pressure distributions for case 1
of Table 2


0 en o
0 .... o
c:i i
'i::' U) ,;
ell 0
.... �
u u o
= .... o
0 >
"'" o�----�r---�---'�--�

z z
0 ....
t:: :IE o
u .... o
or u :::t
.... or I
= �
0 iCI o
0 Cl
1 2l!0.00 320.00 ID+-
0•00 80.00 160.00
' ---.--.'-----TI---
0.00 BO.OO 160.00 2l!0.00 320.00

Figure 6. Measured reaction force and displacement components



Takuzo Iwatsubo
Faculty of Engineering, Kobe University,
Rokko, Nada, Kobe, 657 Japan


This work investigates the effects of a force induced by the labyrinth
seal on the stability of rotor systems and the factors of the seal which affect
the stability. In the analysis, it is assumed that the fluid in the seal is
steady and that the rotor is set vertically in order to avoid the effects of
gravity force. The force induced by the seal is expressed in terms proportion­
al to the velocity and displacement of the rotor and is deduced to that expres­
sion for the oil-film force in journal bearings. That force is taken into ac­
count in the equations of motion; then the stability of the system is discussed
by energ y concept.

The force induced by the labyrinth seal always makes the rotor system un­
stable. and the tendency is remarkable when seal leakages are small. The reso­
nance point of the rotor system is also affected by the labyrinth seal; that is,
the resonance point of the rotor system is removed by the seal leakages. The
flow pattern in the labyrinth seal was investigated experimentally, and the
force induced by the labyrinth seal was measured by using a water-tunnel experi­
mental system which was designed to measure the labyrinth seal force by using
the similarity between gas and liquid flow theory.


After the oil shock, high-performance turbines and compressors are required
in order to save energy. For this purpose, designers would like to minimize leak­
age from labyrinth seals, so they design the clearances of the labyrinth seal
to be small. However, if the clearances are small, self-excited rotor vibra­
tions are caused by the flow forces of the working fluid. The origins of the
exciting forces are at present only partially known as a steam whirl excitation.
So it is not enough to evaluate these forces in order to design the labyrinth
seals for compressors and turbines. Thus the analysis of labyrinth seals and
the materials for design are strongly required by the designer of turbines and
compressors. This paper is devoted to a basic analysis of the fluid force due
to labyrinth seals.

First, the fundamental equation proposed by Kostyuk ( refs. 1,2) is extended
in order to consider the effect of the variation of gland cross section. For
the analysis, the fundamental equation is rewritten to ordinary differential
equations by using the finite difference method. Then spring and damping co­
efficients of the labyrinth seals are calculated for selected models from the
fundamental equation and perturbation from the steady state. The flow rate and
pressure, etc., in the steady state are also calculated. Then the stability of


the rotor system is discussed in terms of these coefficients by using the con­
cept of energy. Furthermore, experiments were executed to observe the flow pat­
tern in the gland and to study the characteristics of the flow-induced forces
in the labyrinth seals.


For the derivation of the equations, the following conditions are assumed;

(1) Fluid in the labyrinth seal is assumed to be gas, and its behavior is
assumed to be ideal.

(2) Temperature of the fluid in the labyrinth seal is assumed to be con­

(3) Cross-sectional area of the seal gland is assumed to be constant in
spite of the deflection of rotor, and only the time derivative of the cross­
sectional area is considered.

(4) Change of flow state in the gland is assumed to be isentropic.

Thus from the illustrations of figure 1 the fundamental equations with respect
to the flow rate and pressure are as follows;



I 1 I
C' Z (3)
't = 2" A.;� I.






Equations (1) to (7) are nonlinear partial differential equations; so for the
analysis they must be rewritten to linear partial differential equations by
using the perturbation terms from the steady state. Therefore, pressure, axial
flow rate, and peripheral velocity in the steady state should be obtained.


As the flow in the seal is steady. all state variables are constant; there­
fore time derivatives and space derivatives of the state variables are zero.
Thus the fundamental equations become as follows:



From these equations, state variables in the equilibrium condition are obtained
by using the iterative method as shown in figure 2. For this calculation, the
pressure recovery factor np is

'11' = 1 +A

A - -----

and H is the angle between the rotating axis and the flow direction passing
through the seal strip.

The steady-state flow rate is given as



For the linearization of the fundamental equation, the perturbations of
pressure, peripheral velocity, and flow rate from those of the steady state are
introduced as





where P*i, C* ' and q are pressure, peripheral velocity, and axial flow
i *i
rate of steady state in the ith gland and �i ' ni , and Si are the nondimen­
sional perturbation terms of pressure, peripheral velocity, and axial flow rate.

The cross-sectional area in the ith gland is represented as


where hi and 0i are the height of the gland and the radial labyrinth clear­

By denoting the displacement of the center of the rotor (x,y) as

.x = r1 C6d Qt
Ai:::: Yz AhvQ-v
the area of the i th chamber section is obtained as

Because the change of state in the gland is isentropic change, the following
relation is obtained:



From the above equations, the following linear equations are obtained:



� (-R;, + s�d .P.(l�:t.,) n�' 9�*T )s;
t, + i (i. + S�d �d +

+ 2 C*st 1\.1.
o. + . (' 9RT J'./�+f pi
o,e:l, ) 1j'J! _
Xl �� " f(l J.J+1
'='1,+1 +
C$ + S RT P�i,
" ( f.,
$-� Pt� �:4:.
+ S RT;e SA �1UC - Ct.t')�, 3
p$i. (u. J'*� P:i.�1 R T;.t�
_ _

�� 2 C, $-# P*�

+ ( �U(C. - :X'U� (C. - 3-Rp:�") 1L - Rp:.$* 1
u) + 3 ;'-1

x(y; �S2t �':! + r2�J2iJ�1)
+ .i ( - Y1 J2 AMv J2"ti � if + Yi Q U911 J2 V � zJ )



Equations (19) and (20) are rewritten in the matrix form as

T uJ. + 'V lLl' + IB QJ. = § (r,cos Qt cos� + ra5.nQt sin � )
+ ti ( r, si n Qt cosp .�. r2cos.Qt sin 'j ) (21)

where T, V, and B are (2k - 1) x (2k - 1) matrix and u, f and g are
(2k - 1) row vectors and u is represented as

u"= L �" Y1.I, 52.,Y1.:z., ---- 1 ��-J, t'l.i-l,lJ


Multiplying equation (21) by T-1 yields

11 uJ + [) Uj) + � UJ = $ ( r, CbS Qt eM) � T rZ Sin Qt 5 Ln \f )
+ 1r ( r, S l n Q t c. (9 S � - r2 c � s Qt S i. n ':f' ) (22)


10 = -r-'V Q = lr-118

$ =
If - f . I .It' = lr � -I

X =
un it matrix

By dividing the circumferential space of the rotor into n elements as shown
in figure 3, the following finite difference equation is obtained about the jth

J[ uJ J + r ( UlJ + I - Il1 J -I ) -t � UJ j - aA d C C9S Qt -t bi S Ln Qt
+ (.�si.nQt-dlJc('3sQt (23)



r = D/2.L1 I (UJ:::.$ r, (,<9-5 fci J lbJ = $ rz si.n Pci
([,J=.lrr,c�SfJ , dlJ=� 1


llJ d ::: UI� U2J, -- -- J U.�-lJ, 1
L - I , J

o.l� a :z.j, - - - J 0
q)...d = L I
0. i.J I
- - --�

, a �-1 J .J

bTd - L.. b,J 1 b2j,�----, biJ 1
, b�-lJJ 0 J

�J ----- i C�-l j, 0
CJ :=
1- CI� I ('
,. ;2'J' ----- I c I "J

d2JI -----, ct L� , o.�-l}1 0
dlJ d,� - -- - -
I .J

When the boundary conditions are set as Uj(�j, t) U (� + 2n, t), equation
j j

(23) is reduced for the overall system to

where x, a, b, c, d are n(2k - 1) row vectors and A is n(2k-1) x n(2k-1)

The solution of equation (24) is obtained in matrix form as

x = e -.#It e + J' e- (-t - S)A tR (,8d S2sds + Jot e-(t1 -5)"'lb � Q 5 ds

+ 1.1; e -(t -s)1I a: AMt Q sds - J: e -(1)-5) fA dl � Q 5 ds (25)

If the rotor is rotating at the steady state, the perturbation terms are equal
to zero; so the initial condition for analysis becomes

<e=O (26)

By using this condition, equation (25) becomes

x = IE r, Uk1 52 t -t- IF rz ..4in 52 t t G ( - Y, Q � 9 t )
+ IH rz J2 � J2 -t (27)



t = X .By using the nondimensiona1 variable of pressure. (29) -Yi£�R. to equation (28). X + -& �y 'f + C'iX X + C.8 � where 146 . By applying the relation YlC6dj2t= X . fluid forces acting on the rotor are given a s th where S ij is nondimensiona1 variable of" the i th gland and the j element. the flow-induced force due to the labyrinth seal is obtained as Fx = �x:r: X + !x� "'J -t Cxx. (30) F� = !�x. X + CX� � .

3164Re. In table 1. NUMERICAL EXAMPLE The labyrinth seal having three teeth is used as a numerical model. and the fluid are shown in tables 1 to 3. and models G and H investigate the effect of divergence and convergence seals. models D to F investigate the effect of precession.• for Re > 1200 147 . (31 ) (32) (33) (34) These coefficients are the spring constants and damping coefficients for the gas flow through the labyrinth seal when the rotor moves parallel to the cas­ ing axis. For the calculation. and the seal is divided into 24 elements for the finite difference method. Details of the labyrinth seal. the following values are used: Flow coefficient 0. models A to C investigate the effect of seal clearance.7 A 64/Re for Re < 1200 O 25 A 0. the rotor.

eigenvalue. Figure 6 shows the different effects of convergence and divergence seals. From these figures it becomes clear that the cross terms of the spring coefficients and the damp­ ing coefficients are quantitatively different. principal diagonal terms of the damping coefficients are constant for the variation of rotating speed. From figure 4 ( b ) . Kxy = -Kxy (35) Cxx Cyy. the energy. the cross terms of the damping coefficient vary with rotating speed. Be­ cause the rotor axis is coincident with the casing axis for the calculation. by neglecting the real part of the eigenvalue. Figure 5 shows the effect of precession. and C in order to investigate the effect of clearance. Cxy -Cyx Figure 4 shows the spring constants and damping constants for models A. Figures 4 to 6 show the spring constants and damping coefficients for each model.where Re is Reynolds number. and phase difference between two modes are derived for a two-degree-of-freedom system. we consider the energy for each mode by assuming the periodical vibrational mode. from which it is known that the diagonal terms of both the spring and damping coefficients are constant for the variation of rotating speed but that the cross terms of both the spring and damping coefficients are strongly dependent on rotating speed. lMi + IS ]( (36) where = [m II 0 ] lB o mU I As equation (36) has two eigenvalues. Decreasing the clearance makes the coefficients large. Then the vibrational energy for one cycle for each mode is written as E (37) 148 . that is. The general equa­ tion of motion is represented in matrix form as . B. ENERGETIC APPROACH TO STABILITY � In this section. the following relations are obtained: Kxx = Kyy. and the result is applied to the stability analysis of a rotor having a labyrinth seal. on the other hand. Table 4 shows the pressure and flow rate in the steady state.

�2) is the phase angle between the first and second modes.The first term of expression (37) is kinetic energy. the second is dissipative energy. the stability of the system may be stated from the energy point of view as follows: 149 . By using this result. The energies of each term for one cycle (one period = T ) are obtained as o (38) (39) where (40) where Therefore the total energy of the system for one cycle becomes (41) where (42) ui is the eigenvector and (�l . and the third is potential energy .

and mean clearance are 18.8 millimeters. the energy of the system is dissipative. where a continuous vortex in circumferential direction occurs. The left side shows a conventional mathematical model of the flow pattern in the gla nd. respectively. and the cross elements of the damping do not affect the stability in this case. and its sign is depen­ dent on the phase angle between �l and �2' Finally E3 is the energy ob­ tained by cross elements of (k12 . 30. and 1. and thus the sys­ tem is unstable. the energy of the system is absorbed. In expression (42). A two-stage labyrinth seal (straight type) is set up at the rotor. The rotor is driven by a variable-speed motor system. MOTION PICTURE SUPPLEMENT The 8-mm film was taken in order to observe the flow pattern in the gland of the labyrinth seal. this term always makes the system stable. (1) If E > 0. EXPERIMENTS The experimental apparatus sh own in figure 7 was used to observe the flow pattern in the labyrinth seal and to investigate the dynamic behavior of the labyrinth seal. cross elements of the stiffness and the diagonal elements of the damping make the system unstable. where a continuous vortex in the circumferential direction occurs in the fluid flow. Figure 8 shows the flow pat­ tern in the shroud. The casing is made from po1ymethy1-meta-acrylate in order to show the flow state. Pressure in the shroud is measured by the semiconductor pressure gage. Rotating speed of the rotor and shaft for whirling drive are 84 337 and 93 460 rpm. so if the damping coefficient is positive. Figure 11 shows the two different flow patterns. and its bearing (with eccentricity) is also driven by another variable-speed motor in order to obtain an arbitrary whirling speed and spinning speed. In the gland the flow is composed of vortex and expansion flow as shown by the right side of figure 11. Ei is the energy obtained by diagonal elements of the damping coefficient. It is always positive. This model is usually used to derive the fundamental equation. Fig�res 9 and 10 show the dynamic pressure (perturbation term) of the gland and the phase angle between deflection and the pressure for forward and backward precession. Also E2 is the energy obtained by cross elements of the damping coefficient. The real flow pattern is not similar to the model. and water is used for the working fluid.k2l) and the phase angle between ¢l and ¢ 2' From the above discussion. The vortex form is like a sinusoidal wave which is rotating in the same direction as the rotor. (2 ) If E < 0. whose depth of gland. pitch. and its signal is analyzed by a real-time analyzer. respectively. From these figures it is known that the dynamic pressure of the both cases is increased in propor­ tion to the increase of rotating speed but that the tendency of the phase angle of both cases is the reverse.2. 150 .0. and thus the system is stable. The form is like a sinusoidal wave which is rotating in the same direction as the rotor. respectively.

A. no. Then the effect of the coefficients of the induced force on the stability of the rotor system is discussed from the energy point of view. 8) was not very successful. Hendricks and T. l4(d»: The exhaust of one passage would "fan" the flow across the inlet of the subsequent Borda passage. l4(g» . Figure 12 is a sketch of what appears in the film to be a spiral vortex. These oscillations weakened when the separation distance was increased to 4 channel passage widths (fig. Teploenergetica. 29-33.: A Theoretical Analysis of the Aerodynamic Forces in the Labyrinth Glands of Turbomachines. Trent Stetz of the NASA Lewis Research Center. l4(e» . The flow pattern in the labyrinth seal was investigated experimentally. EDITORIAL SUPPLEMENT Reproduction of the film frame (fig. At this separation distance part of the flow entered the cavities and slight oscillations were ob­ served. 151 . The models were then placed with spacings of 3/2 of the channel passage (fig. l4(c» . At distances beyond 16 channel widths the flow through each Borda pas­ sage appeared nearly independent of the preceding flow (fig. The injected dye revealed that the flow through this configuration continued uninterrupted after passing the vena-contracta. 1972. A separation of 6 channel widths showed minor oscillations (fig. pp. The form is like a sinusoidal wave which is rotating in the same direction as the rotor. and reduced to the expression of oil-film force of journal bearings. The inlet water depth was similar to the passage width. 11. l4(b» . expressed in proportional terms to the velocity and displace­ ment of the rotor. One must also be aware of the possible disturbance caused by the air bubbles in the flow field. and the tendency is remarkable when leakage of the seal is small. These instabilities appear to be linked with those noted in unpublished work by Robert C. where a flow visualization study was carried out on a water table to determine some characteristics of flows through sequential Borda-type inlets (no rotation and no centerbody). The force induced by the labyrinth seal always makes the rotor system unstable. and it is known that a continuous vortex in the circumferential direction occurs in the fluid flow. vol. At a separation distance of 2-1/4 channel passage widths a very strong oscillation was observed (fig. Fig­ ure 13 represents a possible sequence of motions of the vortex center resulting from the periodic behavior of the flow interface. In figure l4(a) the four lucite Borda models were placed in such a way that they touched each other to form a continuous channel. so we introduce figures 12 and 13 in an attempt to demonstrate the film supplement. 19. The flow still continued in an uninterrupted manner after the vena-contracta. 14(f» . The models were then placed with spacings of 1/3 of the channel passage width (fig. REFERENCES (1) Kostyuk. Thus the next subject we should approach is the mathematical derivation of the fundamental equation considering the vortex in the gland. G. C ONC LUSIONS The force induced by the labyrinth seal is solved by using the finite dif­ ference method.

Eng.: Protecting Turbomachinery from Self-Excited Rotor Whirl. Spurk. H. 41-46. A. : Zur Laufstabi1itat einfacher Turborotoren. 152 . Thomas. Eng. pp.: Se1bsterregte Schwingungen bei Turbomachinen info1ge der Labyrinthstromung. D. 127-135. J. Wright. R. J. V. vol. pp. J. J. 1965. pp. ASME." Tep1oenergetica.(2) Kostyuk. Power. Trans. J. ASME. Trans. Power. 333-344. BIBLIOGRAPHY Alford. pp. 30. vol. G. Konstruktion. 1975. 533-543. Ingenieur-Archiv. 1978. no. besonders bei Spa1terregung. and Keiper.9. pp. Oct. K. S. 3. H. Oct. 339-344. 1978.: Circulation Forces over the Shrouding and Their Influence on the Threshold Capacity of Large Turbine Unit. 1974.: Air Model Tests of Labyrinth Seal Forces on a Whirling Rotor. 22. vol. 43.

3 BACKWARD Wfl F 40 10 0 0.C.3 FOR'!:ARD 2 Wn G 40 10 0 0.(}n 0.2 FORWARD (.5 W" E 40 10 0 0.6 FORWARD W� D 40 10 0 083 FORWARD 0.45 FORi'!ARD wn C 40 10 0 0.2 i--' U1 W . . A 40 10 0 0 . CALCULATION MODELS OF LABYRINTH SEAL FORCE HODEL Rs(mm) l(mm) e(rad) [(mm) WHIRL DIRF.3 FORWARD {J)n B 40 10 0 0.3 0.3 0.4 FORWARD (JJn 0.4 H 40 10 0 0 . WHIRL FREQ. TABLE 1.

I-' Ln "'" TABLE 3.23 Kg m/Kg K m 1. .45 rad/sec o Pz 10000 Kg/m . DATA OF ROTOR FOR CALCULATION FOR CALCULATION T 573 K Rs 0.98 Kg r:f.. 0.04 m R 29. 7 k 2503. DATA OF GAS TABLE 2. .6 Kg/m P 20000 Kg/m {Un 111-.

2 .7002 1.1 . . 7130 1.8'546 1._-_.500 4 xlO B 0 7592-10. p(4): outlet pressure f-1 Ln Ln ... 1.1. 2 0 .0 PCI): inlet pressure. 1..5004-10 2..0 1.7130 1 4377 ..STEADY-STATE VALUES -.. TABLE 4.0 G o "lj373-10·' 2 0 .1019 2.1 E 0. P(2): first gland pressure P(3): second gland pressure.'..__ .6000 1.3711 1.-377 1.0 1.0 ._.5004-10 2. 1. 0 1.0 1.0 -1 D 0 500lp. 4335 LO c 0.0 1. 7130 1..1130 1. 4391+ 1.1621 1._-- }iODEL Q(Kg sec/rna) PCl) (ata) P(2) (ata) p(3) (ata) P(I. _ . 10 ..0 0.:+ �)7'1 1..0 -I F 0.0 1. 7049 1.0 II 0.) (ata) A -1 2.4377 1.4375"10"' 2.

: POo' c .. cl B'B w Ji (lw C..� 3 p£. Cross section of labyrinth seal and definition - of coordinate. �t i-I q.. -q.. 156 . � c. : c'•• ..WllllttllttllUtllllt/1I ct � -u.'+ d C.. casing . I u: I I _________ J rotor (0) ( b) <.t P.. (C) (d) ( e ) Figure 1.

:.' NO Figure 2. . Calculation procedure for steady state.. set of pressure P..u. NO 1 NO set of peripheral velocity of gland c� shearing force of casing side r:.'u.t and pressure ratio Po.:. . . / � a t the first throat pressure recovery factor 'Ir inlet pressure "&-1. 157 . shearing force of rotor side -C.-r of the ith throat set of pressure after the i th throat Pt.-----0001 inlet dens i ty f. pressure ratio Prj P.

MODEL A ---.j -I--j+1 i - 1. --. Figure 3. 1-1 1 1+1 .- !A j 1.---. jt1 _.1·f0D:. Figure 4. Definition of mesh points for finite difference method..�L B -'-HOD��L C 2 3 4 5 ltJ / Wn UJ/Wn (a) Spring coefficients.OnE:L B -.-j-1 1 i ' j--1 -1---.}-:ODEL C A ----. . 1� . 158 . - -J-. 104 1 U2f ( -) E --. (b) Damping coefficients. .3. Coefficients of flow-induced force for models A to C.rl. - Cl � Kxx=Kyy � CD G1 Ol 1� � 10 -3 -. E � -2 10 .

- I- I- . �-:---MOD:EL D MODEL E --�--MODEL F lkf l-WDEL E o � E � -MODEL F r-�-... / '� 1--... ---... H�I � I 'j ". Figure 5. .. - I- . ! :: � .-� ---"-= ----"'�. --- 1� � "' .- t: � J" <� .� � � -""'� I � f.--. 159 .fr-""".. 1 2 4 5 o 1 2 3 4 5 {U ()) / Wn (a) Spring coefficients. l- I- I..Coefficients of flow-induced force for models D to F..... . \ \ / V: I I .I ../ �yx=-Cxy I. .�. i- K"xy=-Kyx 1 10 -- U 1 -1 � 0 � � . .. l- E Kxx:::Kyy " 10'3 rn F t: � � F � r- � -----MODEL D "I ..t:::�./ 1/ �\ / � /"JrS" . � (-1 CXX=Cyy � t-) j i. -. ---- /../' --. .. . (b) Damping coefficients... . �f 10-£.�/. \-} �r..- .

. . I . .. .- V-- 10 t: I i..... o 1 2 3 4 5 o 1 2 3 4 5 Ct) / Wn cv/w . c" r.Coefficients of flow-induced force for models G and H..---- ----. I '\ 1\'L -- � � .. ..-...- '" 'I ° ..-. L ' E 10 -2 I I t '6 -- ::'-. . I ____ _________ ____ I I I r.. . :- : . 160 . (a) Spring coefficients... - MODEL G 0') -----MODEL H 10-3 i 1� .. (b) Damping coefficients.. t .f{ODEL H r- 1ft u 10-" - ---- E Cxy=-Cyx . -. ---. ... . . 10 10-5 .� t: t: MODEL G I � ----.. F -.- V I F \ I /. Kxy=-Kyx I __ -5 \1 .-. Cxx:Cyy C-) E . I 0') � I J Q) I I � ___ COlo_ .. � . " 1/ . .. . . Figure 6.. .. . " .. 1----- �r.

Testing facility for labyrinth. 0 c::j J�I ���I� 6.1 II-r-��� 111'-11 III t'-- LO fj) N � � \ r CJ�- -� -. . -�Q GJ rotor @ ca sing @ shaft for whirling drive ® bearing with eccent ricit y G2 belt wheel for rot or spinning @belt wheel for whirling (2) t est seal ® diaphragm seal G} trans­ mis sion Q9 motor I-' Figure 7.::. IV 1111'.1 30 0 j --. II I I III II M 0' t' N --1 ":. 0'1 I-' .

162 . . Figure 8. Flow pattern in gland.

I-' 0"\ W . 2 Xl0- -- N 5 r��1 -=---- Model 0 i ------ 1a0r- E Model 2 X . 2 3 4 5 6 W Hz W Hz Figure 9. X � 0 os. 2 <l X 0 0 x X l( 0 0 X 1 � X 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0' 0 . Experimental results for forward precession. . X 0 a... Modell 0 " u Forward 0) Model 2 X x 0) 4 (I) "0 Forward � 3 � � 90 I ..

Experimental results for backward precession.. 0 180 Model 2 X • Model 0 N 01 X Backward 4� Model I< E 0 (lJ X "0 Backw " §l 3� 0 § X I 90 a. -s.!-' 0\ � xl0·2 5 Modell . . . I X <l 2� X 0 X I � 0 1 .. 0 0 I 0 0' 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 w Hz w Hz Figure 10.

o --------- . Sketch of flow patterns. . . ----� Conventional mathematical model Real flow pattern Figure 11. Spiral vortex. Rotation F low Labyrinth cavity Figur e 12. 165 .

- 2 Interface � motion 2 l� /1 ------ o Vortex center motion 1 Figure 13. 166 . ..Possible interface and vortex motions " leading to a "spiral vortex.

.Flow visualization of four sequential Borda-type inlets. I .::: ::� I ��----------- : :.' ----'1. _L._I _ -=-� I 1_-L. maximum-amplitude oscillation..ll...:' :::-..-.::::::.-1�- 6D -=='h I � .l6D � ---------------- . --. ------ --===g-' (g) 6 D ____ l Separation. .-== ....... _ �. --. ---. ==-I (f) 6D � __ ___ Separation. Cd) 9D/4 Separation. ( e ) 4D Separation..---- . Figure 14.. 167 ...... _ __ ---:m Z£4ii4 .:::::: . oscillation. �-- ---- � /� � .l _ . nearly independent of reservoir. minor oscillations.- -- .. . . -. ......--. ---.


influences seal and rotor behavior. Refer­ ence 6 presented damping data for tapered ring seals with incompressible fluids. for constant-clearance seals and incompress'ible fluids. Results show that damping in tapered ring seals (optimized for stiffness) is less than that in straight bore ring seals for the same minimum clearance. 1 to 3). Damping. Fleming National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lewis Research Center Cleveland. (refs. In a series of papers (refs. it was shown that stiffness could be considerably increased by tapering the seal bore so that clearance is greater at the inlet than at the exit. In references 4 and 5. 1 to 3) Black and coworkers calculated stiffness and damping in annular seals having constant clearance in the axial direction and sealing an incompressible fluid. Damping in ring seals can promote fractional frequency whirl and can. With a large pressure difference across the seal. most of the force generated is due to the high velocity throughflow of sealed fluid. damping coefficients were calculated by Black. although with larger clearances than usual bearing practice. The purpose of this work is to provide such data for both constant-clearance and tapered seals. thus. As pre­ viously mentioned. Heretofore no damping information has been available for seals passing compress­ ible fluids. The higher stiff­ ness can be beneficial in stabilizing rotors by shifting critical speeds. as well as stiffness. This is not surprising when one considers that such a seal has the appearance of a journal bearing. 169 . Such a tapered bore configuration solved a wear problem in the hot gas seal of the Space Shuttle high pressure oxygen turbopump. tapered seals can benefit rotor and seal stability by having lower damping as well as higher stiffness. be detrimental. Use of incom­ pressible results leads to large errors. INTRODUCTION Ring seals (annular seals) can have a considerable influence on the dynam­ ic behavior of rotors. Ohio 44135 SUMMARY An analysis is presented to calculate damping in ring seals for a compress­ ible fluid. DAMPING IN RING SEALS FOR COMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS David P. et al. floating-ring seals can also benefit from higher stiffness with resulting longer life. Thus.

BC RL � 2 B dimensionless damping. 2P C O 2 v'y� TO/�O gas constant T absolute temperature t time 170 . KC /P LD 2 O k entrance loss coefficient L seal length M Mach number. SYMBOLS B damping coefficient B 3 / 3 O dimensionless damping. p /p t s p pressure Q q heat flux R seal radius "sonic" Reynolds number. eq. BL/Re C O 2 c seal radial clearance c specific heat at constant volume v e seal eccentricity F seal force f Fanning friction factor g seal force per unit of circumference. u/�y�T p pressure ratio. C /C 1 2 h seal local film thickness K seal stiffness K dimensionless stiffness. (40) H clearance ratio.

p /p t s l cp altitude angle. u /u t s u axial velocity v dh/d t w Mach number ratio. (RD IK) r CD orbital frequency P CD shaft rotational speed r Subscripts: e entrance rad radial s steady state t perturbed tan tangential x seal exit o upstream stagnation condition 1 seal entrance 2 seal exit 3 downstream reservoir condition 171 . tan.u velocity ratio. e/c 2 1 + k e circumferential coordinate dynamic viscosity p fluid density a density ratio. M /M t s z axial coordinate seal taper angle y specific heat ratio € eccentricity ratio.

When the seal has a velocity relative to the shaft in the radial direc­ tion. momentum. (4) The friction factor is constant everywhere within the seal. For a channel. respectively. To determine this force. The analysis begins from the time-dependent equations of continuity.ex.z (2) 1 = The analysis is applicable to a straight seal by setting the taper angle ex. ANALYSIS The configuration to be analyzed is that of a tapered bore ring seal whose clearance decreases in the flow direction (fig. Around the circumference the clearance is given by h(z. the pressure dis­ tribution within the seal will be calculated and integrated over the seal area. that is. (3) Rotational effects on the flow field are neglected. € «1. and energy as presented by Shapiro (ref. 1). p ct p + cz p q (5) 172 . c c cz (puh) + ct (ph) = 0 (3) c ch 2 c c 2 .B) C(z) + C € cos B (1) 2 = where C is the clearance when the seal is concentric. to o. the flow field is (ph) + p f u ( uh) ( u h) (4) cz . Reference 6 examined this as­ sumption for an incompressible fluid and concluded that acceptable accuracy re­ sults. the flow is one­ dimensional in the axial direction. that is. a damping force is generated. The following assumptions are employed: (1) Eccentricity is small compared with the concentric clearance. The variation of C with axial coordinate z is C(z ) C . (2) The fluid behaves as a perfect gas. 7). these are. which the seal passage approximates. (5) Time derivatives of the fluid properties and velocity are neglected.

density.The momentum equation may be simplified by using the continuity equation. In turn. 1 The seal taper angle is eh (8) _ ex. s + s s s U o (14) __ s dz Ps dz h 2 dp fp u du s s s s + P u (15) dz h s s dz 173 . and energy equations to be written as. 2£ QY 2£ eu puex. respec­ tively. for a perfect gas . = ez Defining eh v _ = (9) et allows the continuity. Additionally. h - 2 � eu eu P pu (11) h + et + ez (12) The next step is to invoke the small perturbation assumptions and write the pressure.E. momentum. _ u p 0 (10) et + h + ez + ez . the energy equation may be simplified through use of the continuity and momentum equations. and velocity as the sum of a steady-state value plus a small perturbation (13) The steady-state equations are dp du P u ex. = m (6) p and fA c (7) v y .

and Pt' Pt Ut are neglected. and energy are. the Mach number is defined as u M u (21) = Vy. the time derivatives of . respectively. the Mach number may be considered as the sum of a steady-state quantity and a small perturbation.1lT = As with the other variables. o (17) 2 fp u t s (18) h + 3 2 fP u 3fp u u p v + t s + s t s + s_ q /h __ t h h h _ YPs ( dP t + u dP t + u : d s )] (19) Ps dt s dX t a z In accordance with the assumptions. momentum. and the heat flow is taken to be z ero. (16 ) The steady-state equations were solved (for q = 0) in reference 5 and will not be dealt with further. 174 . q Equations (17) to (19) then become ordinary differential equations which may conveniently be written in dimensionless variables Pt p Ps Pt 0" (20) Ps u t u u s Additionally. The perturbed equations of continuity.

and energy equations become. the perturbed continuity. and W. we have three simultaneous. (24) After some algebraic manipulation. U. (25 ) dp dp dU 2W s dz + yQ dz p dz (26 ) s dp dcr . Reference 8 derives a differential equation for the steady-state pressure Ps' which may be written as yQ ) [� + f + fey l)Q ] (30) Q _ - p dz h(l s With this. respectively. As for the steady-state variables (ref. M (22) Defining W (23) we find. cr. the equation for perturbed Mach number is 175 . from equation (21). (27) dz Y dz wherein (2 8 ) Thus. A fourth equation needed to obtain a solu­ tion may be obtained by differentiating equation (24) with respect to z: Equations (25) to (27) and (29) may now be solved simultaneously for the perturbed variables. making use of equations (14) to (16). momentum. 7). ordinary differential equations in four unknown variables P. the differen­ tial equations for the perturbed variables may be combined to yield a single differential equation in the perturbed Mach number W.

Q) {(y1 + .Q) s (31) From the steady-state solution (ref.dW W l)Q dz h (1 . h(l . + fQ y Q + f (1 + yQ . Q is a known function of z. Equation (31) becomes dW dQ ( � ) 2 1 + W Q (YfQ + 0. + f + f (y . (2» iQ _ 2Q 1 ( � )+ Q (yfQ + 0. 5. eq. the perturbed pressure P must be known.Q) ] (1 � ) + Q (YfQ + 0. Equations (25) to (27) may be combined to yield a differential equa­ tion for P.At the seal exit it is assumed that there is no change in the boundary conditions of the steady-state problem.Q 2 e where the subscript e denotes the steady-state value at z = O.Q )] (y + l)vM e (34) The perturbed Mach number W may now be found by solving equation (34). + yf (\ yg + _ + yQ + 1 .) 1 - vM � e� + ____________________ ________________ ___ (35 ) Boundary conditions. Us varies according to (ref.) (32) dz .Q [a. To determine the seal damping force.1)fQ (yQ + 1) } 2yu h(l .1 s s 1 + -'------=.Q) Also. for choked flow 176 . Thus. 8) u M 1 � Q e e + 2 (33) u M v .) [I � � a.l)Q] _ (y + l)v + (y . Equation (31) will be easier to solve if we make the substitution (ref. . Making use also of equations (32) and (33) yields dp dQ yW [a. 5).

To ascertain the validity of this approach.dQ s dQ (40) Q e where Qx is the value of Q at z = L.The results presented herein were obtained through a numerical solution of the differential equations for W and P (eqs. 1) 1 Q + 2 e Solution of equations. equa­ tions (34) and (35) may be rewritten. Calculation of seal forces. From reference 8 177 . the pressure and Mach number are related by (ref. However. The resulting equations may be solved analytically. W and P may be determined as accurately as desired by taking the solution close to Q = 1 without reaching the limit. The steady-state pressure Ps does not contribute to the total seal force because it is uniform around the circum­ ference. in simplified form.Q in the denominator of equations (34) and (35). For the case of choked flow. yielding solutions for W and P which remain finite as Q � 1. 5) ( y )Y/(l-Y) - _ 1 = �Q (38) � 1 + 2 PO The pressure and Mach number may be written as the sums of their steady-state and perturbed components and a binomial expansion performed on the right side of equation (38). it is not possible to integrate numerically to this limit because of the term 1 . .The seal force per unit of circumference due to the perturbed pressure P is given by t Q dz = j x Pp dz -. Q= 1 at the seal exit. . M= (36) W = �} } For flow which is not choked p = P3 (37) P = 0 At the seal entrance. Thus. (34) and (35» . After neglecting all powers of Q higher than unity and subtracting out the steady-state terms.Qlim)PQ = 1 which can be made as small as desired by taking Qlim arbi­ trarily close to 1. the error is of the order (1 . for the case when Q � 1. there remains y� Q w e P (39) T)(Y .

Since both W and P are directly proportional to vo. it will cancel out of the expressions for the proper choice of dimensionless variables..) The integral in equation (42) is easily evaluated numerically. g = g o cos e (45) where the subscript 0 now denotes the condition at e o..! (42) 2 e e e f + 2 + cx.) where it is understood that P is evaluated for v = vO.. yielding (46) A damping coefficient is now de fined: B (47) or B (48) + cx. 178 . hM e e (41) hM s Making use of this and equation (32) results in 1 g p h M . thus. With this the integral in equation (43) may be evaluated. The actual value of Vo is immaterial... The total seal damping force in the direction 9 = 0 is F _j21T gR cos e de (43) () For a seal velocity in the direction e = 0 v (44) and. / 1 L:.

A Reynolds number of 2300 is usually taken as the upper limit for laminar flow. Results are shown for straight seals and for tapered seals optimized for maximum stiffness­ to-leakage ratio (ref. 5). Overall. Results are presented in figures 2 and 3 for choked flow and in figures 4 and 5 for a sealed pressure ratio of 2. Figure 3 shows results for choked flow over the complete range of seal parameter for both laminar and turbulent flow. Figure 2 shows laminar flow results for small values of seal parameter ReOC2/L. for which the flow is not choked. equation (50) indicates that damping is approximately proportional to the square of seal length. The independent variable in all cases is ReOC2/L where ReO is the "sonic" Reynolds number 2C2PO Vy on TO/flO' This independent variable was chosen be­ cause laminar flow results are then independent of seal clearance-to-length ratio C2/L. In contrast. 179 . Damping is plotted in terms of the dimensionless variable B (49) 3 RL flO There is little variation for the range of seal parameter up to 10. damping depends on clearance-to-length ratio C2/L. for all other factors held constant. The left end of the curves for turbulent flow corresponds to a Reynolds number in the seal passage of 3000. however. The computer programs made use of the results of reference 5. Damping is higher in the � straight seal than in the tapered design because of the lower average clear­ ance (seals are compared on the basis of minimum clearance). RESULTS The analysis of the preceding section was implemented on a digital com­ puter. In this figure. The differential equations were solved using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta integrator with automatic error control. For turbulent flow. and r�s�ng for either higher or lower values. thus. this is generally considered the lowest value for which one can be assured of turbulent flow. variation is small even for the extreme values of C2/L considered. The specific heat ratio y was 1. turbulent flow damping shows a much smaller variation. Damping approaches a constant value as ReOC2/C O. appear­ ing to reach a minimum for the middle values of C2/L investigated. damping is shown in terms of the dimensionless quantity B (50) For this choice of variable.4 for all cases. laminar flow damping varies strongly with seal parameter. Points where Re = 2300 are shown for various C2/L values on the laminar flow curves.

damping data are taken from figure 3. For the tape�ed seal. the damping is expressed as B For the straight seal. This apparently anomalous be­ havior for laminar flow can be explained by observing that the optimum clear­ ance ratio is lower for PO/P3 2 than for choked flow. . In common with fig­ ure 2. Damping for a pressure ratio of 2 is shown in figure 4 for small values of ReOC2/L. damping for PO/P3 2 is higher than the choked case when the flow is laminar = and somewhat lower when the flow is turbulent. damping values are lower than for choked flow. l = Example of seal calculation. thus. = the average clearance is less than in the seal optimized for choked flow. as less mass passes through the seal when the flow is unchoked. For a straight seal yielding B 570 N sec/m 180 . it was calculated in reference 5 that 0. Optimum clear­ ance ratios H C /C2 appear in figures 6 and 7 (taken from ref. Pertinent seal data are L 10 mm D 50 mm C 0. For this pressure ratio the flow is not choked. Results for a pressure ratio of 2 are shown in figure 5 for the complete range of seal parameter. thus.Calculate damping for the example seal of reference 5.05 mm 2 PO 100 bar P3 4 bar TO 800 K Fluid: Hydrogen gas Thus. As in figure 3 . 5).005 ReO = 37 100 C 2 Re O :L 186 The flow is choked. damping does not vary greatly with seal parameter.

-- K rad e (53) F K tan . depends on the relative magnitudes of the spin and whirl speeds. In the usual case of seal motion. The expression for seal forces then becomes (51) In equation (51) wr is the shaft rotational speed. however. fluid tem­ poral derivatives were neglected. Similar to reference 6. -- tan e . 2). the inertia terms calculated in refer­ ence 6 do not appear in the present results.For the tapered seal B 0. it is easy to calculate the radial restoring force and the tangential (whirl direction) force. . conversely. The radial force depends only on the eccentricity e (the minus sign appears because Frad is defined as positive in the outward direction). we find F = -Ke rad (52) F tan = Be (1 2 W r where e is the eccentricity of the seal (fig. negative Ktan promotes positive whirl. As pointed out in reference 6. thus. We will consider the case of a centered circular orbit with orbital frequency rnp. this is remarkably similar to the behavior of a full circular journal bearing. For this condition. ltD r (L�) 2 W r A positive value of Ktan will inhibit positive whirl.The effect of rotation was examined in refer­ ence 6 for a seal passing incompressible fluid using an approximation derived by Black and Jenssen (ref. Equation (52) may be written in terms of radial and tangential " stiffnesses: F rad K . the seal journal describes some orbit within the seal clearance. The tangential force. Equation (53) for Ktan shows that a positive damping coefficient promotes forward whirl when �/Wr < 1/2 and inhibits whirl when rnp/wr > 1/2.47 and B = 300 N sec/m Effect of seal rotation. 8). The seal differs from a self-acting bearing (but is similar to an externally pressurized bearing) in 181 . For the analysis presented herein.

damping. the relative size of the radial and tangential stiffness of equation (53) can only be compared for specific exam­ ples. for rotor or seal 182 . as were stiffness and leakage in reference 6. .Before the availability of stiffness. Results show that damping in optimized tapered seals is considerably less than in straight seals for the same minimum clearance. Stiffness data are taken from reference 6. Table II compares results for the seal used in the example above. Incompressible data from references 4 and 6 are applied two ways: first using the upstream (stagnation) fluid density and second using fluid density as the mean of upstream and downstream densities. Thus. This means that for a tapered seal the force generated is more nearly in line with the displacement. (53)). One would not expect incompressible theory to yield accurate results be­ cause the nature of the flow is much different than with a compressible fluid. .Seal damping has been presented in dimension­ less form. Compressible fluid stiffness and leakage flow are taken from reference 5. Also. As table I shows. Leakage flow is overesti­ mated by incompressible theory. The seal example above is similar to one of the hot-gas seals in the Space Shuttle high-pressure oxygen turbopurnp. It was also pointed out that damping in rotating seals is not en­ tirely beneficial as it can sometimes promote whirl. For this speed. becomes infinite at the seal exit for choked flow. and leakage flow data for seals handling compressible fluids. There is little difference in using upstream or mean densitYD Damping is underestimated by the incompressible the­ ory more severely when the mean density is used. Difference between compressible and incompressible results. damping force varies with rotor speed (eq. Damping pro­ duces a tangential force which inhibits synchronous whirl but promotes whirl at half frequency or less." It is instructive to examine the difference in results using compress­ ible and incompressible analyses.that the radial stiffness is independent of whirl speed. Example of whirl forces. and the flow becomes choked for large pressure ratios. and damping lower. CONCLUDING REMARKS An analysis has been performed to calculate the damping in straight and tapered seals for a compressible fluid. Fluid compressibility results in decreasing density and increasing velocity in the flow direction. This pump has a nominal operat­ ing speed of 31 000 rpm at full-power level. The pressure gradient increases in the flow direction and. a situation that is considered to promote stability. The incompressible theory grossly overestimates seal stiffness. by an order of magnitude for the straight seal. table I compares the stiffness and damping for straight and tapered seals. some workers used incompressible data as the "best avail­ able. Thus. tapered seal stiffness is much high­ er than that for a straight seal. theoretically. Equation (53) also shows that damping in a rotating seal is not entirely beneficial. although not as much when a mean density is used.

H. D. Apr. Black. D. NASA TP-1646.. 6.: Dynamic Hybrid Bearing Characteristics of Annular Controlled Leakage Seals. Fleming. no. pp. and Jenssen..: Effects of High Pressure Ring Seals on Pump Rotor Vibrations. P. 1980. P. Technol. REFERENCES 1. and Smith. 206-213. N. 184. Inst. J. Mech. 3. 7.: Computer Program for Q uasi-One-Dimensional Com­ pressible Flow with Area Change and Friction . vol. 92-100.: Effects of Hydraulic Forces in Annular Pressure Seals on the Vibrations of Centrifugal Pump Rotors. 5. 2. 3.. D. D. part 3N. Fleming. Black.: High Stiffness Seals for Rotor Critical Speed Control. F. Fleming. ASME Paper 7l-WA / FE-38.stabilization. Mech. 349-355. Not only is tapered seal stiffness generally higher than that for straight seals. 2. Eng. Sep. Lubr. 1953. and Jenssen. ASME Paper 7l-DET-10. July 1979. 1977. 8.Application to Gas Film Seals.. J. 101. 1969-70. P. H. vol.. Ronald Press Co. 1969. pp. 4.: Stiffness of Straight and Tapered Annular Gas Path Seals. Zuk. 1974. J. Black. J. F. D. tapered seals may confer a double benefit. 183 . 1971. N. 11. H. no. Sci. F. Shapiro.. Vol. H. NASA TN D-748l. Proc. pp.: Damping in Tapered Annular Seals for an Incompressible Fluid. II. Eng. A. but damping is lower.. vol. P.: The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Compressible Fluid Flow.

5 570 300 17 22 Incompressible theory.1 308 245 32 42 stagnation density I ncompressible theory. MN / m 1. TABL E I.47 Damping. .89 0.6 223 176 22 29 mean density 184 . 15. B.5 9. MN / m 1.1 29. N sec / m 570 300 Jill . COMPARISON OF COMPRESSIBLE AND INCOMPRESSIBLE RESULTS FOR HPOTP STRAIGHT AND TAPERE D SEALS Stiffness. deg 51 6 TABLE II. K.9 1. K 0. Nsec / m Leakage flow.5 '" Dimensionless damping.6 28.0 r Attitude angle cp. K.015 0. B. . B 0. STIFFNESS AND DAMPING FOR HPOTP STRAIGHT AND TAPERE D SEALS Straight Tapered seal seal - Dimensionless stiffness. g lsec Straight Tapered Straight Tapered Straight Tapered seal seal seal seal seal seal Compressible theory 1. 14.5 9. MN / m Damping.095 Stiffness.

choked.--�4 ----�L----.�--� 0 6 SEAL PARAMETER. Tapered ring seal. small value of seal parameter. . 16 --.STRAIGHT SEAL - cY) --. . RedC /U 2 Figure 2. 185 . FLOW � - 6 f \ Figure 1.TAPERED SEAL - - - I N - - U - � N - en 12 - - -- - -- � 4 �----�-. laminar flow.Damping in ring seals.

005 <:>... a::: ------.. laminar and turbulent... small values of seal parameter...6 .....: . 186 . ---.0...002 1m . .. . / rLAMINAR \ � �� /\ /... 02 ... .0005 -.... ReO(C2/U Figure 4.... OPTIMUM TAPER --.. Damping in ring seals..0 .005 � =-....02 a::: N ----. ""'- .� \ C2/L \ .... .. ----....- --. ..TAPERED SEAL I '""UN '"" � 12 -- m -. /I LENGTH RATIO' ...STRAIGHT SEAL --. N FLOW ... 5 U m ALL C2/L� \ ' / -_ ::::-. -... --.:0<:: -.. ICLEARANC 1.... 1.. .. "... ---- - � . -.......Damping in ring seals.-----:-- 4�--�---�------'-____L____� 0 4 6 8 10 SEAL PARAMETER. '" --' 0..4 E-TO- \ . :.. 3 = laminar flow.-- --... unchoked...000 ..... PO/P 2..6 o Re = 2300 FOR GIVEN C 1 L 2 -. 14 --... ReO(C2/U Figure 3...002 �"OO5===--I---=�== . -....... \ ..002 /' .STRAIGHT 1.-.= c... . choked flow. 4L-___'�__J-_____L_______'�______�_____L____�______� 4 6 10 20 40 100 200 400 1000 SEAL PARAMETER. : -.........--- " 10 1m - � 8 c:: � 6 1--__. 0....8 <t: Cl .

�---- -- ".-:::...Damping in ring seals...:. N Cz/L /00 1. O = CLEARANCE-TO­ LENGTH RAT 10..0005 .. OOZ� / /7 // ..4 Z 4 10 20 40 100 200 400 1000 SEAL PARAMETER.OOZ /' ---_ Cl ....-y \ \ / / � l... 002 -- ...------.. _ -=--=.. P /P3 2..Optimum clearance ratio of tapered seals. .8 b .. --.J '" .. .0005 LAMINAR FLOW.<. .OPTIMUM TAPER --.2 C2/L 0...........-. laminar and turbulent flow..6 ./ --.. ALL C /L--... . Z \ I' 7 / I i .6 \ 0 Re = Z 300 FOR GIVEN C /L Z \ \ ---r LAMINAR FLOW.. ' 005 __ ._ 0...:::.....4 . 2. ALL C z/L 1... choked flow....OZ �/ 10 100 1000 SEAL PARAMETER. 187 ..STRAIGHT 1...005-' . -_-:..OZ 0005 .... ReOICZ/U Figure 6. U \ ....005 --=- /'--=--:::...Z \ .OOZ:--- � - ..02_- � \ /' ... . N 0. // � CCl CLEARANCE-TO- / N \ LENGTH RATIO • .?005 :2: <>: ... Red C2/U Figure 5...... // <...0 \ ..) \ -:. . ....

CLEARANCE-TO­ 2.8 z « 0:: 1..0005 u.. F .0 2 >.J u 1.: 1.: => "-. 02 u. 188 . t ��-- - wr. . GIVEN C2/L « 0:: 0.6 \.. ANGULAR � COORDINATE 9 .Whirling seal..2 � 0 1.--JOURNAL r CENTER Figure 8. unchoked (pO/P3 = 2) flow.Optimum clearance ratio of tapered seals..J u 1. \ « \: \ \ '\ \ � . ReO(C /U 2 Figure 7. b�� .4 \ '.-SEAL \ ENTER �. o Re 2300 FOR C /L = Q 2. • 002 ::.. .2 ::c LENGTH RATIO.J .005 ::.0 1 10 100 1000 SEAL PARAMETER.

Germany SUMMARY Self-excited rotor vibrations which are a function of output are being increa­ singly observed in high-performance turbo-machinery. In the case of thermal turbomachinery of high energy density . which are developped through experiments. Until today. The utilisation of the investigations is explained and Lesults of stability calculations. The investigations presented in this paper deal with the flow induced aerodynamic spring coefficients of labyrinth seals. the user of a turbomachinery is not only affected by the economic value of the labyrinths due to leakage losses. such as differential conversion in respect to rotor mass . forces due to shaft rotation and inlet swirl. INTRODUCTION Non-contacting labyrinth-type seals are conventional design elements in turbo­ machinery which have proved their value for a considerable period of time. inlet flow conditions and the geometry of the labyrinth seals. in particular high-pressure compressors. since the lateral force components of these forces acting 189 . These forces result from the ununiform pres­ sure distributions on the circumference of the contact free seals. The labyrinth lateral force components of the rotor loadings. but also has to consider the limitation of the operation range of the plant. Estimation formulas for the lateral. A comprehensive equation to determine mass flow through the labyrinth was published by "Stodola" (ref.Benckert and J. Labyrinth seals in these investigations have been considered as a series of throttling points controlling leakage flow. FLOW INDUCED SPRING COEFFICIENTS OF LABYRINTH SEALS FOR APPLICATION IN ROTOR DYNAMICS H. However. where the clearance differ on the circumference of the shaft with the shaft in a out-of­ centre position. are one possible reason for the self excitation. with the restoring force in the deflec­ tion plane of the rotor and the lateral force acting perpendicularly to it. 1).the forces resulting from non­ symmetrical aerodynamics in the labyrinth gaps cannot be neglect. The discussion includes the effects of operational conditions on the spring charac­ teristics of these components.Wachter Institut fUr Thermische Stromungsmaschinen Universitat Stuttgart stuttgart.ed in the rotor dynamic evaluation. investigations of labyrinth seals gave priority to the improvement of the sealing effect. are added. especially for high pressure centrifugal compressors.ed in labyrinth seals. because the rotor dynamics are influenced by forces creat. speed. Remarks about possibilities to avoid the exciting forces in labyrinths will finish this report. which are related to the unequal pressure patterns over the circumference of the contactless sealings by an eccentric shaft location. are presented.

According to him. According to this model the circumferential flows in the chambers are dependent from the friction ratio between stator and rotor. according to the positions of the sealing gaps. Another theoretical study (ref. Due to the action of the diffusors and the rotation of the rotor. The measurements are in respect to the dynamic behavior of a whirling rotor due to the instationary forces in the flow.3.6) also investigated the flow through a labyrinth with one chamber and its effects on the dynamics of t he rotor. the spiral flow effect dominates the 190 . The resulting lateral forces from Uie s e pressure distributions can have a destabilizing in­ fluence on the dynamic of the rotor. "Kostyuk. which move the shaft asynchronously and therefore may start instabilities.5). circumferential flows in the chamber are neglected.9) described the dominant effect of the spiral flow on the gap flow forces." (ref. Important for this theory is the difference in gap width between inlet and outlet labyrinth tip. it would be possible to practically neglect this phenomena as a potential cause acting on the rotor. This work yields that vibrations of the shaft induce lateral forces within the seal. when the rotor has a stationary eccentricity.o. Reference 2 is showing for the high pressure part of a steam turbine. 1972" (ref.vertical to the rotor eccentricity plane can be the source of self excited flexural vibrations of the shaft. Here the influence of the drag effect by the rotating shaft on the flow was not considered. The reason for both gaps excitations is based on the aerodynamics of the fluid (aerodynamic excitation) and tend to occur as a function of load at constant speed. It could be proved that the existence of a resulting lateral force from the pressure distribution in the labyrinth chambers is related to circumferential velocities of the fluid in the seal. It was assumed that a pressure difference in the individual laby­ rinth chambers would equalize itself rapidly.4). pressure distributions also appear in the sealing chambers. "Rosenberg a. how suddenly the lateral forces can change the vibra­ tion pattern of the turbomachinery. The self exciting mechanism of contact free seals is com­ parable to the gap excitation of impellers (ref. flow through the labyrinth seal is imparted a circumferential component in the direction of rotation whereby the maximum pressure in the spaces between the sealing strips is displaced in a direction opposite the direction of rotation at a point ahead of the narrowest clearance. The excitation of the rotor by aerodynamic forces from labyrinth seals was described in first time for a labyrinth seal with one sealing chamber by "Alford" (ref. Besides lateral forces in the labyrinths caused by the dynamic behaviour of the whirling rotor (Alford effect). Results of experiments of different labyrinths·with one sealing chamber are described in reference 7. Basing on this assum�tion.B) presented a theoretical approach to determine the aero­ dynamic forces in the labyrinth seal with a shaft not parallel to the centerline. The points of attack of the exciting lateral forces are distributed over the length of the rotor. Based on this friction ratio a constant mean circumferential velocity can be calculated for each chamber. DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM The importance of the aerodynamic forces due to eccentric seal gaps in thermal turbomachinery was underestimated until now. in respect to the effect on rotor dynamics.

have to be investigated independently due to their different in­ fluence an the vibration behavior of the rotor. Integrating the pressure over the circumference of the chambers results in a total force. the two components of which . 191 . 10 to calculate the labyrinth gap flow induced forces on the rotor. While the restoring force is of minor importance. This is done with the aim to point out the effects of operating parameters on the pressure distribution in the chambers.3) and the lateral forces due to the short impeller seals. because she does not induce self excitation.9. have not been generally available for the user. also the other labyrinth seals of a turbomachinery influence the dynamic behavior of the rotor.friction effect within the seal. a separate investigation was performed for multichamber labyrinths of different designs with static eccentricity of the rotor but without considering the rotor not to be parallel to the centerline. The pressent results of investigations (ref. as they are commonly used in thermal turbomachinery for impeller sealing. The investigations introduced in this paper result in labyrinth spring constants in relation to operational boundary conditions of the seal assemblies. Frankfurt am Main" and the "KSB-Foundation. Especially the multichamber designs of shaft end seals and balance piston seals earn attention in this respect. Gratitude is also due to "Mannesmann - DEMAG.12). In con­ trary to previous research work. This model was used in ref. The noted vibration problems at steam turbines (ref. are limited however to very short labyrinth seals with 1 to 3 chambers. for the support to establish this paper.13). Because of the high density and the swirl components in such machines the labyrinths are entered with a considerable inlet swirl. already in 1978 (ref. These problems were most pronounced in the case of high-pres­ sure centrifugal compressors (ref. radial to the shaft. in part. to give a more differentiated view of the flow in­ duced causes for self excitation in turbomachinery (ref. by investigating different non-contacting labyrinth seals. The research work for the investigations of labyrinths have been sponsered by the "Forschungsvereinigung Verbrennungskraftmaschinen e. give indication that besides the gap excitation due to ununiform energy conversion of blade cascade (ref. stuttgart".. first published.2. the latter being considerably larger than the former (ref. the lateral force components of the labyrinths may well be the cause for instabilities of turbo­ machines. shall contribute to a better understanding of the forces due to clearance flow in conventional labyrinth. the investigations at the "Institut fur Thermische Stromungsmaschinen at the Uni­ versity of stuttgart" are performed. often also with a high pressure difference and considerable compressibility effect. 7.14).the restoring force opposite to the shaft displacement and the lateral force acting vertical to the shaft deflec­ tion plane .16).10) f and also newer ones (ref. IS) .ll). Duisburg".v. Investigations of the dynamic behavior of such labyrinth assemblies with a large numbers of chambers. while in longer seals the shaft rotation induces circumferential flows. The achieved test results. To get better know-how about the forces due to gap flow in labyrinth seals.

the design and fabrication of which was jointly done together with the manufacturers of turbomachines. leakage flow through the seal and rotor speed.c o u . The centerline is parallel to the eccentric rotor. The circumference angle ¢ = 0 is the position of the widest gap. The normal forces (Q and R). Characteristic pres­ sure distributions for a labyrinth seal with two whirling chambers are shown in this diagram.entry state of the first seal strip Po. EVALUATION Based on the characteristic pressure distribution of figure 2. Shown is a straight through labyrinth seal (half labyrinth) with plain shaft and mortised sealing tips in the casing. The data output for test evaluation on the large capacity computer is selectable. The pressure measurement is done with range calibrated differential-pressure voltage-transformers. The rotor ec centricity can be arbitrarily selected within the mean gap width 6r. the interpretation method for the labyrinth investigation shall be explained. The working fluid is air. which are arranged every 30 degrees over the circumference. The shaft circumferential speed is continously adjustable (uw max= 150 m/s). engaged in these labyrinth studies.geometry 6r. h and number m of chambers . a test stand was needed. The mass flow throughput is additionally measured for every test point and was described in respect to the axial pressure distribution separably in reference 17. t. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP For the investigations. which act on the shaft. The measured values totalling 2 16. Around the circumference of the seal.rotor circumferential speed ± u w In this manner different labyrinth designs have been investigated. rotor excentricity E . temperature. of which 188 are pres­ sures. Since the pressure distributions in the chambers 192 . The seal flow enters the test labyrinth from the top.pressure difference ratio P /p a o . A non-parallel position of the rotor to the centerline can also be considered. A detailed description of the test bed concept as well as a explanation of the measuring techniques and the testing procedures is given in reference 18. the static pressures of the chambers are measured in a distance of 30 degrees. Several inlet elements are available to vary the entry swirl at the inlet. The test stand is shown in the cross section drawing of figure 1. Each chamber of the labyrinth insert is equipped with twelve holes for static pressure measurements. are collected by a data acquisition system. which is expanded to the ambient conditions. are the components of the force resulting from the pressure distribution. The influence of the following operation parameters on the pressure distribu­ tion in the chambers in circumferential and axial direction have been defined in the experimental investigations: . A central process computer controls the measuring system installed on the test stand and processes the digital measured values for pressure. The local pressure is related to the static pressure drop.

The sprinq constants with dimensions of both components have to be calc. K* = d Q* / dE (2) Q The assumption of a linear relation between the forces and the rotor deflection is a supposition for the definition of the related force sensitivities. since in this way also minimal changes of the basic vibrations have been graphed. The normal forces of a whirling chamber emerge as: 21T 21T Q = r·t J' P i (�) sin � d� R r· t· J Pi (�) cos ( 1) a a The utilized pressure integration method proved to be useful for the tests.3). The linearity of the restoring force deflection-curves is generally valid only for values E< 0.(Pi (�) are periodic phenomena around the rotor circumference. It could be proven that this is true for relative excentricity values of the lateral force component up to E = e/6r = 0. as defined in equation 2 for the related force spring constant. the preswirl components dominate in short labyrinths with only few whirling chambers (m < 5). The gradients of the "Labyrinth spring characteristic curves"result in the "labyrinth spring constants" for the application in rotor dynamics.6 to 0. In the labyrinths. The lateral force exitation constant emerges as (3) RESULTS The exciting lateral forces are induced by the circumferential velocity com­ ponents of the flow in the whirling chambers. two causes have to be considered responsible for this condition. 1. By an inlet condition with entry swirl at the first labyrinth tip a circumferential component is carried over into the laby­ rinth. For the systematic evaluation and presentation of the results however.4. The resulting normal forces emerge out of the summation of all chambers. 2. Whereas the speed related lateral forces exist primarily in longer labyrinths.7. the force displacements curves for both forces have been graphed by varying the rotor excentricity (lateral force in fig. By the drag effect of the shaft a circumferential flow is caused in the chambers. For different labyrinths.ulated by means of the related force and the mean gap width. 193 . as used commonly as impeller seals. the evaluation by means of a Fourier development seems to be useful. The separation of both effects could be achieved by separate investigations as part of this research. a related representation of forces(related force: FB r m t· (Po-Pa ))for the lateral force = (g*) and the restoring force (R�) is recommendable. Both causes coexist with each other in a turbomachine.

from starting up and the constant area of cu. The slopes of these curves give the lateral force spring constants in the magnitude of � = 5-50 N/mm.e. the number of chambers is therefore an important factor for the induction of lateral forces by rotation. This is further explained in the following. the conditions of the working fluid and the friction ratio in the seal. this cu-component is equal in each chamber and proportional to the circumferential speed of the shaft. The influence of speed is shown in figure 3 for a straight labyrinth without axial flow. The listed measuring symbols are the average values of the pressure measurements from 17 whirling chambers out of two in­ dependent tests. The lateral and restoring forces resul­ ting from the pressure distribution of the chambers are in a relationship of the square to the rotor velocity. when the seal had an axial flow due to an axial pressure difference (figure 4).e. i. The listed symbols and the equation for K w Q are for the shown in­ terlocking labyrinth design. The value k�r = �r/lmm includes the dif­ ferent gap width of the two labyrinth types. whereas the restoring force is independent from rotation. For the investigated comb-and-groove seal. multi­ chamber labyrinth seals. Similar results have been reached with investigations about the influence of shaft-rotation on the normal forces. For a labyrinth seal without axial pressure drop (� Pst=O). the circumferential flow will reach a constant velocity cu at a certain chamber of the seal. the constant area of the circumference flow in the chambers is dominant. Since the maximal number of chambers of the investigated labyrinths was 23. K W'VE w � (fi g. figure 5 shows the characteristic curves of the related lateral force spring constants due to shaft rotation for two types of labyrinths. Simultaneous this figure presents the influence of height of chamber.25 (p +p )u /�p (4 ) ges = ow 0 a w As a function of this value. 5) . The factor kA in the shown equation is the ratio between the propelling surfaces of the rotor and retarding surfaces of the stator. the short design (m=10 and 6) resulted in a low speed sensitivity. i. The direction of lateral force is dependent from rotation. the results comprise the summation of all forces of the c u-components . Following equality conditions a mean circumferencial velocity develops in the chamber. Dependent on the mass flow. in which the axial pressure drop entered with �Pges Po-P +0. For sufficient long. Lateral forces due to shaft rotation The effects of the lateral forces in a labyrinth seal induced by the drag effect of the shaft are dependent from the friction ratio between stator and rotor in the whirling chambers. so that the relation between the speed Uw and the exciting lateral forces approach the limiting value: KQW'VU.5·Po·c x· � = a * 2 E 0. For the analysis of the rotation dependent lateral forces a related speed-flow value � E w was defined (equation 4). The length of the seal. For the circumferential component of the flow in the chambers a constant value for c u along the whole length of the labyrinth cannot be assumed. Along the rotor displacement the lateral forces are plotted. 194 . (5) Following from equation 4 this relation is equal to .

This geometry parameter can be included for the relative lateral force excitation constant in the relationship plotted in fig. The proportionality factor is determined by the geometric parameters of the seal (h. the lateral forces tend to increase (fig. �he latter are covered by the relative admission energy E � of the flow.tJr. S'p 'c jtJp (6 ) o 0 u ges * Without entry swirl (Eo=O) no lateral forces occur in an eccentric labyrinth seal with the shaft stationary. The calculation of the flow coefficient for the individual seals was carried out by means of the equation 7. decentering. The dashed straight lines represent the scatter band of ± 8 % applying to the equation stated. 195 . the influence of the chamber circumferential flow by rotor rotation was confirmed. the following relation­ ship has been estabilished for this parameter on the strength of tests made to date: (8 ) Restoring forces of labyrinth seals Depending on the labyrinth configuration. i. since the negative restoring forces increase considerably due to inertia conditions (fig.7). the force provides decentering action in the direction of the shaft displacement (fig. in their related representation (equation 2) corresponding to the relationship "KQ'V�'" depended on the magnitude of the related entry energy (fig. they also tend to occur without entry swirl and shaft rotation (fig. The amount of negative restoring forces increases as the shaft circumferential velocity increases. 6). rest. In contrast with the lateral forces. since the mass flow was measured for each test point.oring forces are mainly negative. In the case of the interlocking labyrinth-type seal. Lateral forces due to entry swirl The lateral forces due to entry swirl (uw=O) are determined by the geometry and the flow boundary conditions at the seal entrance (figures 2 a. As the height of the spaces between the sealing strips becomes less. which relates the volume-related swirl energy ahead of the first labyrinth tip to the existing total pressure drop: * 2 E o . In­ dependent of the direction of rotor rotation.4). The lateral force spring constants resulting from the lateral force/displacement curves are. The symbols entered result in each case from a lateral force/ displacement characteristic with 5-7 test points versus rotor eccentricity. the relative restoring force spring constants were found to be similar to the lateral force spring constants as a function of the speed-flow index E�w' For multichamber labyrinths. In conjunction with further geometry variables.m. Taking into account the ( 7) flow coefficient. The mean height of the space between sealing strips covered by the equation is h = S-6 mm with the ktJr indicating the effect of the clearance width in respect of tJr=l factor rom .6).l0). With seals having a number of spaces m)6-8. the restoring forces are widely dif­ ferent.e.9. the lateral forces due to pre swirl can be calculated according to the equation in figure 8 for the different labyrinth designs.t) and the flow coefficient �.l0).

Figure 12 shows the influences of the most important values on the lateral force sensitivity for tests with shaft rotation and entry swirl. the chamber specific cu-component is responsible for the decentering parts of the restoring forces along the chambers.Therefore. No. With increasing shaft circumferential speed . The effect of the labyrinth forces on the vibration behaviour of centri­ fugal compressor is shown in figure 14. 11 by the example of an interlocking labyrinth. an addition of the swirl and speed related components can be done as an approximation. a coexistance of lateral forces from entry swirl flow and from shaft r otation has to be accounted for. are also neglected.the lateral force spring constants are growing. For a first evaluation of values.pressure ratio constant . the following statement can be made: the inducing influence of the rotor speed on the related lateral force is growing with smaller pressure difference and therefore with smaller leakage flow while the other conditions are constant. The influences of the different impeller seals.cmaly in turbomachinery. the preswirl related lateral forces dominate. For each rotor (1 and 2) two dif­ = ferent impeller arrangements A ("in line") and B ("back to back") have been· analysed in order to show the influence of the attack location (Pos.x) on the aerodynamic excitation. 196 . Compared with rotor 1. For simplification only at this location an aerodynamic lateral force has been taken into account whereby only the substantial Q-component was considered (R-component neglected). The operating speed is sup­ posed to be 12 000 rpm for both rotors resulting in critical speed ratios nB/nK1 1. where large entry swirl components arise. They basically differ by their shaft stiffness. The magnitudes of labyrinth excitation constants to be expected are widely dif­ ferent depending on the operational boundary conditions of the seal. 13.7 for Ro+:or 2. The utili­ zation of results from the investigations of this "research on similar labyrinth designs is shown in the calculation of fig. At version A the excitation acts close to the bearing.7 for Rotor 1 and 2. Stability calculations have been performed for rotors with different damping characteristics (damping reserves) to receive statements about the influence of the lateral forces in seals on the vibration behavior of centrifugal compres­ sors. APPLICATION A general impression of the effects of the fJow parameter referred to on the dynamic behaviour of labyrinths can be seen in fig. rotor 2 has two additional impellers. All further whirling chambers have been slightly decentering and therefore dominating in the summation of the total seal. Consequently the first "critical speed" of rotor 1 is considerably higher than of rotor 2. at version B in the middle of the rotor. Makers of turbo-machinery participating in the research project are applying the results of the labyrinth studies for the stability analysis of their maehines. The attack position x represents a long labyrinth taking a high differential pressure which is typical for a thrust balance drum. Restoring forces centering the rotor could only be detected in the first whirling chamber of the individual labyrinth designs investigated. For demonstration purpose two dif­ ferent rotors (Rotor 1 and Rotor 2) have been investigated by "Mannesmann-DEMAG". For the axial pressure drop. For short labyrinth designs with few whirling chambers. whereas the speed influence cannot be neglected with growing labyrinth length. a larger bearing span and slightly smaller shaft diameters underneath the impeller hubs.

Below the threshold point (u /w K = 0) the rotor runs strongly unstable. which has to be accounted for in rotor dynamics. The negative restoring forces tend to reduce the natural frequencies of the individual sections of the turbo generator. acting at a right angle to the rotor deflection plane.In fig. 14) which are not synchronous with the rotor speed. where the damping becomes "negative" before the operating speed range is reached. vibrating with large amplitudes and defined frequencies (not shown in fig.entry swirl and shaft rotation . An important conclusion can be drawn from the examples given: The analytical results indicate that also with multistage hp-centrifugal compressors having a very flexible rotor. 14 the attenuation factor of the rotor-bearing system is plotted against the rotor speed.3-4. 197 . a seal free of lateral forces can be achieved (figure 15. The diminution of the system damping increases with increasing labyrinth force coefficients Kg. This makes it possible for any critical oper­ ational conditions to be detected already during the design stage of the machine. Two possibilities to avoid the exciting lateral forces shall be indicated. The dotted curves show the effect resulting from labyrinth forces with various intensities. which is governed by the y-branches. Their aim has to be to eliminate the circumferential flow in the chambers of the seal. instability can be avoided if appropriate measures will be taken in order to minimize (or even eliminate) the trouble-some Q-forces in labyrinths. Seeing that look-through labyrinths with few sealing strips are frequently used for impeller seals. To reduce the lateral force sensitivity of labyrinth seals. several possibilities are at hand.induce circumferential components in the chambers and are therefore dangerous for the stability of the rotor. For this eigenvalue (which belongs to a motion dominantly directed in the x-plane) the damping factors become larger for increasing K -values. repre­ sents a vibration exciting force. force acting in the middle) . the reduction in natural frequency for the two directions amounted to about 3. whereas these effects were reduced for the IP sec­ tion to about 1-2%. Both effects . By a suitable change of the entry swirl of the flow ahead of the first seal tip in opposite direction of the sense of rotation of the shaft. The utilisation of the results shows the influences on the vibration behavior of high loaded turbomachines. Regarding the high-pressure section. but Q this has no effect on the stability. uw = -112 m/s). In particular this is the case for the very flexible rotor 2 (version B. CONCLUDING REMARKS The presented labyrinth investigations confirm that the lateral force component resulting out of an unsymmetrical pressure distribution in eccentric gaps of labyrinth seals.he speed-related com­ ponents of the dummy piston are responsible for a decrease in stability of the hp-rotor by about 3%. The calculations of a turbine maker for the high-pressure element of a 600 MW steam turbine plant ha5 shown that t. The solid lines represent the system damping without aero­ dynamic excitation. A knowledge of the labyrinth spring constants permits a more accurate stability analysis.4%. For rotor 1 the damping characteristics for a further eigenvalue (x-branch) of the rotor-bearing system have been plotted in addition to the determining y-branch. it is possible to assume comparable lateral force spring constants in the range of 1 to 10 N/ � � also in the interlocking labyrinths of a steam turbine.

Instn.: Dampf. Ingenieur-Archiv 43. Greathead.Engrs. H.: Protecting Turbomachinery from Self-Exited Rotor Whirl.. C 220/1976. 5. 198 .M. 1039-1063. and Bastow. Proc. 6.J. Spurk. J.: Selbsterregte Schwingungen bei Turbomaschinen infolge der Labyrinthstromung. 333-344. Bulletin Scientifique. 1924. 71. Alford. S. Thomas. Pollmann.16). 3. of Eng. 1969. 1974. Stodola. Reihe 1. LIST OF SYMBOLS .For short impeller seals. some swirl webs in front of the first fin at the periphery of the seal are sufficient to reduce the preswirl and therefore the lateral force sensitivity (fig. Nr. 2. A. Springer Verlag Berlin. is minor with a small nQ�er of ch ambers. J.und Gasturbinen. and Keiper. Power. pp. f.International System of Units (SI) - A mean clearance area � flow coefficient c flow velocity E relative eccentricity (E=e/ fir) E flow index p density e rotor eccentricity ¢ peripheral angle F reference force B h height of space between Subscript sealing strips o in front of labyrinth K spring constant a behind labyrinth k ratio factor ax axial direction m number of spaces between ges sum sealing strips i labyrinth mass flow Q lateral force p pressure R restoring force Q lateral force u peripheral direction R restoring force w shaft rotation r rotor radius fir mean clearance width Superscript t labyrinth pitch Uw peripheral velocity * related value v specific volume mean value z number of sealing strips REFERENCES 1.: Investigations into Load Depenqend Vibrations of the High Pressure Rotor on Large Turbo-Generators.H. A.H. J. which will develop themselves within the seal. Transactions ASME. 15.S. 279-285. Fortschrittsbericht VDI-Z. E.Mech. P. R.J. pp. pp. 1958.: Unstable Oscillations of Turbine Rotors Due to Steam Leakage in the Clearances of the Sealing Glands and the Buckets. 127-135. The influence of the speed related com­ ponents of the lateral force. 4. October 1965. pp.: Stabilitat einer in Gleitlagern rotierenden Welle mit Spa It­ erregung.

and Marshenko. J. C. 14. Rundschau Sulzer.: Investigations on the Mass Flow and the Flow Induced Forces in Contactless Seals of Turbomachines. 7. ASME Gas Turbine Div . 12.A.. Budapest 1979. 9.G. Rosenberg. E. W.: Durch Spaltstromungen hervorgerufene Querkrafte an den Lau­ fern thermischer Turbomaschinen. Konstruktion 30(9) 1978. H. Teploenergetika 25(9) 1978. ASME Gas Turbine Div. 13.. Jenny. Winter Annual Meeting 1977. pp. 9. H. 10. 1978. 396-401. and Termuhlen.J.11. besonders bei Spalt­ erregung. Urlichs. and Wettmann. 60. Forschungsberichte Forschungsvereinigung Verbrennungskraftmaschinen Frankfurt/Main.: Eigenschwingungen und Stabilitat von Turbinenlaufern in den Gleitlagern unter Berucksichtigung nichtkonser­ vativer dynamischer Krafte. Proceedings of the 6th Conference on Fluid Machinery. 8. Wright. 199 .: Untersuchung aero­ dynamischer Querkrafte in den Labyrinthdichtungen bei Wellenexzentrizi­ tat. Linnemann. and Wachter. H. A. 11. Forsch. H. 17. Kostyuk. Benckert. 1974. pp. Benckert. Energomashinostrojenie. Schaufelschwingungen. 61-73. pp.. pp.V. 339-344. Pollmann.: untersuchungen an Turbokompressoren: Rotorschwingungen. H. Kostyuk. S. and Kirjuchin. pp. 1973 . K. H. 253. pp. 14-19.V: Air Model Test of Labyrinth Seal Forces on a Whirling Rotor. 1978. 15. H.: Flow Excited Vibrations in High-Pressure Turbines (Steam Whirl). 19(11) 1972. A.S. Teploenergetika.G. and Roduner. 18.G.: Zur Laufstabilitat einfacher Rotoren. K. 16. pp. A. H. pp. Benckert. J. U. Winter Annual Meeting 1977.: A Theoretical Analysis of the Aerodynamic Forces in the Labyrinth Glands of Turbomachines. 15-17. No. 11-18. and Wachter. 1975..1-9.: Spaltstromungen.: Laufstabilitat thermischer Turbomaschinen. R. Thomas. BBC-Nachrichten. Dissertation TU of Munich. W. 12. 8. Heft 1978. 75-87. Vol. Aicher. Orlik. 29-33. Versuche mit schweren Gasen. Schwerdtfeger. H..: Studies on Vibrations Stimulated by Lateral Forces in Sealing Gaps. pp. D. Vol. AGARD-CP-237. Techn. 57-66.

The figures A1 . u =O) has been investigated separately for different look-through w labyrinth configurations (fig. The relationship for KQ and the dimensioned lateral force spring coefficient KQ are plotted in figure A2 (. 19). 1980. the factor � in equation 7 and 8 corresponds for a I look-through labyrinth to the product � (eq. Nr. The lateral forces result mostly from the eddy chambers m)6 . it is possible to estimate the lateral force spring coefficients for look-through labyrinths of usual design by using the following equation: KQ = kG r 2 / \ 2 0. 5 �o cuo . The given geometry-factor kG is related to the ' flow coefficient � . 159 pages. 82 figures.A9 are abridged from a publication of the institute (ref. A1 and A2).8. The stated function of the straight line in the figure A5 confirms equation 5. Universitat Stuttgart. In look-through labyrinths the "Spiral Flow Effect" is dominant for the exciting forces. In addition to the paper the influence of the labyrinth pitch could be proved also for this type of labyrinth. The effect of the radius of the shaft on the lateral forces differs nearly 30% from a quadratic relationship. Measured and calculated c -velocities u have been compared and the accuracy of the model could be proved.llPst i / h (10) The lateral forces in labyrinths due to the shaft rotation are a function of the peripheral flow in the spaces between the sealing strips. Figure A6 shows Reference 19: Benckert. The lateral forces due to the swirl-type entry flow of the labyrinth (rotor stationary. 19). In the first step of the computation the peripheral velocity of the flow is calculated in each eddy chamber of the seal. Mitteilung des Institutes fur Thermische Stromungs­ maschinen. Figure A5 was obtained evaluating the dimensionless force/displacement charac­ teristics of the constant area for different running conditions. 9) of the seal is not o a ges known.P �LlP )' If the factor � (in eq. : Stromungsbedingte Federkennwerte in Labyrinth­ dichtungen. which is defined especially for look-through labyrinths: ( 9) According to the paper. In addition to the experimental studies a theoretical model has been developed for the calculation of the speed induced forces in labyrinth seals (ref. In addition to the paper figure A3 shows in function of the entry swirl cuo two areas for the circumferential velocities of the flow in the eddy chambers. The factor ku describes the different behaviour of the mass flow for comparable look-through and inter­ locking labyrinths.Apst = P . 200 . APPENDIX The appendix will give some informations about the studies on labyrinth seals furthermore done after writing the paper. The dominant in­ fluence of the constant cum-area in long labyrinths can be demonstrated by figure A4. Figure A2 shows the results for the relative lateral force spring coefficients due to the entry swirl of the flow. Independend from the number of eddy chambers (m = 17 and 23) the product " �m c " is a � criterion for the lateral forces in multi-chamber labyrinth seals (subscript m: mean value in the constant area). 9). Based on these results the flow induced forces of each chamber are calculated. H.

k2 ) c 3m + k2 Cum �] / h (11) The factors kl . which are comparable with the experimental lateral spring constants shown in figure A4. the u following relationship can be stated (mn: number of eddy chambers in this area): 2 2 KQ = 1T m n r <? m [( kl . 2 correspond to the mean coefficients of friction of the stator (k ) and the rotor (k ) in the eddy chambers.computed results. Using the theoretical model for the constant area of the c -components of the flow in the labyrinth. 201 . The influence of the density of the fluid is demon­ strated in figure A7 for the same type of labyrinth. 1 2 Additionally to the figures 15 and 16 of the paper the figures AS and A9 should point out the problems in reducting speed-related lateral forces by using special constructions of labyrinth seals.

" Af>i----355�--.5 �=O �o r and Casing O..02 / :/. i_4'O 0 CII Gi 0 '---� -. 1 2. 0.01 --·7/ 1 '\.051 1 '7 .------r----.9.- 1 .: i e //- 1 i - . 1: Testing facility for labyrinths Fig.-.1 a. '\.0.5 0 .l Il: .5 12.. 3: Force characteristics due to height of chamber Fig.5 f---�-t-+---t\----t--i E! ! :J 0. a 75 1/ 0. 0. .�.7N 0. "- -. -0.2.! ". = 0 m =17 / • en / CII '13.4 p olpo=0.0 I ) 1 Lobyrinthlyp f� • K� = -0.7 � -L-4-+.40 -.0 / .ON Uwin m/s 51 .£ CII .> 1 c-< . I /- W I m=17 l.>!��� / 6 .� - ..25 mm Lobyr.011 tC �__ " '\.34 15. =0. 2: Pressure distributions and forces in a half-labyrinth with eccentric rotor 6. 0.£ I� --j.-.011 1 in Nlmm R" IIp'tot.0 • 75 / Ka Q" K.4 .----J 01 =14.----r-----.-h=2. 1 .O c.-.0 .:�.7�---+- �W��������r ' of the Test Labyrinth Type I a) r with 12 Peripheric -1 ./16.6 t =0. :.8 -.--.. 4: Forces of an eccentric labyrinth due and shaft rotation without mass flow t o reverse of shaft rotation 202 . . 0 --' / h= 6. - y/! -4. ..iT"'1 I in the Whirling Chambers B 0.5N Measuring Points R1=10.�. • 149 • Uwlm/si · 149 / • + 112 Po/Po= 0.6.s 0. / ../ R2 =1.4 �--!-+-+--r"'---+""2i�-t-----j � '\0208.--:--. / ..0 8.01 r----..75mm '\.6f------ Static Pressure.--+----.75 x -112 1 • 4.1 �---+---+---t----"--j a 60· 1200 180· 240· 300· 3600 Peripheral angle 'P Fig.03 h 0.-"'.- L:::ciI -0.60 Relative eccentricity £ Relative eccentricity € Fig.8 = a a 6.20 .66 .965 22.R II .6 -..0 N . K�=-0.�..7 0. . / .40 a 0.20 a . Flow Direction + 1.5 .0 I i .0 PI -Po Lobyri nthtyp E'0 a R lim Po -Po in N in N 0.""""'r-.4.9 I ---..nlhlyp .

II) 0.04 0. comb groove seal I I > :.2 -.0 2.2 Q) O. �/ �/ 5 ! . shaft rotation �/ /' K.. o I xx ..Ko = m' I � I 0 I v O f.2 0.0 � Uw= a Relative admission energy E.06 0.1 0.--.1 "" / � .:: � ' 5 mm u r::O.E � =/ I 4mmI .--' �<./ �/ ��l� �/ .1 L C 0 o"/ .l.--/. 13 r--..01 l 0.rnthtY. U Vo � '" c 0./ X /- c 0. 6 6 b I m= 60..2 O./ a. Q 0.Q1 / � 1- � .l------ 15-j---+--_7'---t1 � 20 C .x.49 00.6 I 1.. 0 4 5 L. K [kN/ml :> 1 - 0.004 /.02 X 1i Lab..A:""----::>.E .2 Q) /1/ ---1.5 I cuo= 0 V 2 .L.6 �: . I 0.10 a: 02 L I ____ 3 m Po' Po • 17 W j6Pges 4 u2 23 Eow= • ---.:J _ '-.. 0.s! "" V k/ 0l?0.06 �/ ·c .85 : c .04 .02 0.. 7: Lateral force spring constants as function of ----- lateral force due to entry swirl the relative admission energy of the flow 203� .5mm .E. V &! 0. 5: Lateral force spring coefficients as function of the relative rotation flow value 25N a 0.7'1Q-3'E.-' Jf � 1-0/ lxx m157 .. / �-tJ - �/ . I- 0 ..OL.L . II) 0.'2 m�/=po=17O. 6: Influence of height of chambers on the Fig..006 L I ..002 0.. I • a Fig. I·' / � // /.1 0.1 I I 0.0 Ow = kA'rz 11' kM E' Fa' KQW • .E � o U 01 C a. � �/ I 6r=O.0 Relative rotation flow value Fig. 3 Lateral force due to K�w.. . L­ 2.2 0.4 0.0117834 17095587 5 9 / x ?f ra U =0 W • c .05 0..' • 0.6 2. /� KQW i'I j' I � Eow 0.2 2 0.0 1.02 D.w= 3./1 rei eccentricity E x 23 � 0..w f-.

.04 0../ .0 1 1-< . .Q2 �..- I-m=2V V 0..=-O.004 0.0.00 8 I" • V ..04 0. y/ ... ..- T V .006 0.1 CII u 0. 8: Lateral force spring coefficients for different labyrinth patterns as function of the relative admission energy of the flow 0. .4 I 0.0 V... 0.0 Relative admission en ergy E"a Fig..Q1 �f� V Q" 1/ . .. . 9: Influence of height of chamber o n the Fig.0 8 > 0> 'E 0.3 0149 0. 10 "&n��- 0 d� J i_Q 0. - - R�=-O. A ..1 0.00 4 • A flo/flO 0.- QJ > / ..IIr = O.0 �O. -.0..... e:. 2 �j."" 2... .02 0.02 en "E ..019 � � - Uw = ° .� III CII � .06 0.75mm 0 Qj 1..79 • uwlmfsJ �� a I I )( 0 0 00 1 ..056 Q8 h -.0 2 ..&0... �� . 0 D 3 7 - eQJ o� .2f5mm . .079 " I-T�e!< .5' c K� "- QJ Q = Il' k�r t ' r .03 f---- � I· (($i 1R � _0 "- ' ....92 - en a: .. 6p 51' K� J....6 0.4 0..I- ... V1 QJ .6 Relative eccentricity £ Fig.E O.+ v. <r 0.. - / t=�� ... � M=O.66 '�H /:: 1 I-- 1 -0.. / �b .0 4 m =17 .(0 � = 3.-". ..- 11-.6..... K� YE3 .0 6 "0 h= 2.01 r... .04 0..l> .1 I 0..56 • 1� �.001 0.0 .5 0.Lateral forc e due to entry swirl / 4.05 o � I 0...../� .1 Relative admission energy E� 0..E 0...2Smm • 6 .. " K� o.�7 L _____ �_ '" 12 :§ 0.. o..-:... I I I I am 0.49 a 0. uW=O E"=Po C 2 /tJ � 9 'I 'I"' P.'6x ..79 1..2 0.08 0.00 2 0..... ��. R* y� K'h=6.. 0.06 0. 0.04 labynnlhtyp Po/Po =0.32 0.0 0 Ig u �+� "....25mm 1""'"......- 6r =0.01 0... -- IA J �.3 -0.. � 0..E O. 11/ . I'K. 0... en c r:1'� 0 j?/ '- -....Smm ��:f1"'�"'r.0 2.6 7 0 ""-: /... M=O.02 :g �.002 0.. 4 _/ 1--1 .00 6 0..- a.:' � 0 4 #.....4 - QJ "x 0:: .2 0... � I-I 1 1 l-- +-.- .39 0.KQ= IIr'I1'KQ • i<.. o u ....8 1. 11=1.B ��r.2 0.< Iv . Lcbyrinthtyp Kammer� zahl m_ � 1. -0.. 10: Relative forces of an eccentric lateral force spring coefficients labyrinth without entry swirl 204 ..t :: //x � D.Smm + 17 x 23 . (jj /"". en § 0. 1--< O.

1 0.qI---7'l�---t----i 0..w Fig.03+---.3 I� 12000 lIm in J coxo.15 0.6 0. 13: Estimation of lateral force constants for two labyrinths 205 . � 0.2 0.E en 10 c 0.4 0..7 Relative flow values E. short m =3 200 160 0.A----+---j-�..01 +-�:"'-+7fI''''---+---j---I---_i . 0 Eccentricity 01 the r o t or.13 Lateral l orce due to type A type B . . r =0.!m long version: 25 N/l:!m Fig..� 0. 7 kN Lateral lorce sllring coeffic'lents Ka: short version: 9 N/l..05 III > .3 0..'i< LabYrinthtyp i----+----I���� I� R" Labyrinthtyp f� R.shaft rotation -30 N 0. eccentricity e: 0.-c-+--+--_i 0.95 B long m = 30 200 20 0.entry swirl 0. E.98 uw = 188 m/s cuo= 150m/s 5 mm kA = 0. K� . 11: Flow induced spring coefficients for Fig...Oi. 12: Influence of rotor speed and pressure the lateral and restoring force of a ratio on the lateral forces with entry labyrinth as function of the relative swirl of the flow characteristic flow values .'f___.07 en C . .1 mm � E = 0..9 kN 1.0 ReI.06 m = 23 0 u '" C .'" (i* 0. e ..5 0..4 Running conditions P in bar a P o Inbcr E ' 0 Eo*w A.25mm h = 6mm r = 150 mm fJ = 0.8 kN .02 ¥--+---7. 1..0. � O...67 0.

=8kNlmm I -- = 739 lis 0... -u WK t l ��-�"J_.02 0 4-�-.75 1.08 x .0. :: -.04 y .-. .5.06 +- 4000 6000 8000 .06 A 0.. --..0 1.) . B/D=O. n=5..0..r--.-.n [rpm] 12000 14000 i I i i i t 0.5 2.---------__r-----__.--4---r---�--.02+---3 --+--+-----""--.06 +------. -. branch 0. ° / --"! 8 Ll E 4 Vl . 14: Influence of lateral labyrinth forces on the damping behaviour for two rotors with different shaft stiffness ' (Bearings: tilting pad.75 1.- -u WK l I Rotor 21 f = 465 lis 0.14-r------r---.n [ rpm ] 12000 14000 s i i i i i 0. Ko.0 1.�=1..branch B -.. calculated by Mannesmann-DEMAG - 206 .5..5 0.-.10 I Rotor 11 .---+---. m=2.---� 4000 60 00 8000 .---r---.5·10.�+- __�--=:.-----.:---/---"1"--=---+---1 ---- --- 6 .--1 8 .- -- -1---.5 1. 0.----�---.----1-+--.0 0. ----�____j � opemhng speed 0.25 1.7 2..10 ---.-- 0.:--r--�. 0.7 3.0 Fig. -.

. 15: Lateral force characteristics due to shaft 0.. .'-.160E-01 - .00 .10 . 240E · 01 LabYrinthtyp lri o I I a • In N . ..:O-- · ---". I I I I I I I I • I I : uw=Q I E. + I I : KQ:::O • o. .500E-01 I . --' - - I I ..OC-O-----'c.40 R"lativlO ecc@ntncity rotation with entry swirl of the flow . 160E'O : ._ _ I -N-u��:r-�I- swirl webs -1 ..60 Fig..32: Uw : 0 .. .20 JO . 16: Reduction of lateral forces by using swirl ReI.: wO..-.250E·01 Fig.1.... 1 m=17 .:O-­ . . ..L20�-----CO'c...2-.. I I I . eccentricity e webs in front of the labyrinth 207 .12 .� __ .r - Pc/Po= 0. �7-- I �_2?.. I I I I .800E-00 � 2 E ..

6 £ 'I ReI. 0. eccentricity .4 0. 0.49 8 10 -.39 17 5 I -5 -.2 0.-Q.39 8 10 Fig./po m t inmm t1t/ 'I ---0-. Q inN 12.-.04 -02 0.1/ / '1 -2.-l E�"" 0.5 Ko inN/mm 10 7. 0.E 0 '- - <lJ 5 0 . Ai: Influence of the labyrinth-pitch on the lateral forces due to flow with entry swirl. 0. 208 .5 J:?. -6.49 17 5 'I 'I ---0-. -.5 <1J u .

-=--c..58 6..-' ) 0. • 0.58 10 8 Geometry ..0 8 3 • Q .. h.s en 1 10 � h t m 8 Ar 5 (l) u '..Kit uw=O Ko= u.0 8 7 . Fig. �h· r V 2Po 0. f(r) 2 Ka . A3: Definition of two labyrinth areas for the circumferential velocity of the flow.... h·m·t . K V E 0� . 6 0 0. 5 6.5 <7 0..25 17 0 '+...---..58 5 17 uo t-"st L.58 6.. 4 Q+-+----+--- c Function (l) u � �=kGVE: .. 209 .75 5 17 a 0.Q (l) 6. Af ·11 + '- 4 .factor 0 2 10 �---.25 6.. 8 6 ..r .25 5 17 r= 75mm No. '+- 2 (l) 0 u . of ch a mbers m (l) ·c2 ·An ' .m.25 2.�----+-�--+-�----+-----+---r-+-�----+-��+---r-� 3 2 10 2 4 6 8 10 2 4 6 B 10-1 4 6 8 Relativ admission energy of the flow .. .t A 0. t Starting area Constant area � ""-Cuo Cum = o <Cuo<cum Number of eddy chamber -----:::=- Fig. • 0.0 8 12 r =1 50mm -.5 6.. A2: Lateral force spring coefficients of look-through labyrinths with swirl type entry flow.25 6. f(r x ..

i!! 6 0 -I 4 2 o 0.2 6 0 2 .037 150 o.4 0.---r�� _1f m Q = L Qj fmn 1=7 1 0 3 L--__L-1 __L---1__L-__..8 ReI.06 0.3 Rotor-eccentricity . 0.. 0.5 mm 2_ t 4mm 8-10 = CIJ h = 6 mm u 8 - . E""0 U.--.. = OJ c Ar = 0. 10 Area of evaluated eddy chambers CIJ u l- 8 .2 0.66 with constant peripheral m =23 40 flow components.04 0.2 e in mm 0.1 0.1 0.. 0. A4: Speed induced lateral D. 1CJ I 8 �E=n 6 Fig.02 0.05 75 hN forces of the total 'il 0 37 12 labyrinth and the area p" fpo =0.E 0 I- .015 112 Q Fig.6 0.L-__-L-_L--1--' 0.n m/s f J� o.!2 4 (jj 0:: 2 �----�---+---r--.01 0. rotation flow valu e 210 . AS: 4 f- -* :%' I Lateral force spring coef­ �-lJ Ko ficients without evaluation c 0 of the first six eddy cham­ - Ui 2 c bers (shaft rotation and 0 u r 0.15 m entry swirl).

A6: Calculated distributions of the circumferential velocity of the flow and the lateral forces due to shaft rotation and entry swirl in an inter­ locking labyrinth seal.. 211 ..2 o (]) 0 0 0 o 0 o 0 o 0 o 0 0 I L o 0 o 0 0. I • P = 8 bar Ko= 0.4 I --r...2 c o (]) > '+- � : : ! �... .71 N/I-Lm "· II I 0 �-----+------4_----��----_+------4_----� 0 I o 4 8 12 15 20 24 Number of eddy chamber Fig.I -. .5 Q III iii III in rnI s "AKQd8 Nlmm in N I III Q III III 80 f---II - I III III I 0. . 2 40 c I I 0 0 0 0..6r=0.I . ==' 2 0 -1---..5 lIr =0.... II • • ..5mm Cu Po/Po= 0 . II .. 15 m e: = 0. 1 00 Cu .. II . I • • .5 . A7: Influence of density of the fluid on the peripheral velocity of the flow and on the lateral forces in an interlocking labyrinth (Calculation)... .. .. .. II . 100 r-------.. II II I I I uw=150 m/s 0. 0 II II II Ko=1. 20 o 0.15m >- 50 f-.---�--_.. . . • i· II II 10 U • Po:: 40 ba r I '" • • . . CU II C c e o c c c e o 0 0 0 oBi 0 C II II i o c a 0 I r =0.. e::: 0..- c II II !I I 3 . - 0...2 Q t 4 mm = in miS Uw=150 m Is in N h = 6 mm 1 �1 80�------r_----��-----r------�------+_----__+40 Cu c o o c o o 0 C O D 0 >­ I D D DDD I I 0 D u (j) o Po =100 bar .66 h= 5 mm L = ..3 (]) u 0 mm t 4 U po/Po=0. .� N/mm o [..---=. � . 50 r = 0 . 1 Q uw= 75 m/s I Ko= 9.. .5mm 0.I (]) . I . /I ...� .2 . . L Co o I I -.260 ----+ 0 1:: ---+-3 o o I 20 bar � = -- c Po o II II III II I I a II j II L II ... 8 12 15 20 24 o Number of edd y chamber Fig.77 N/I-Lm (]) :40 1I 20-0 b�"!1 � -....

Pr---t---+--+--t-----l ficients as function of the c • • 1---1-- .55 2.9 Q Q 0 KQ inN � h = 2.75 0.--.95 3. Lateral force spring coef­ --t- 1 --t-<-O.--. 10 a __ . Rip =0.r = O.66 B .26 Fig.2 /:.39 J • Typ t h I I' --- 0.75mm N/I-lm �n in 30 T'. U5 Relative rotation flow value 212 .. A8: Speed induced lateral forces by using swirl webs in each eddy cham­ ber of the labyrinth.56 A 4. I�'O --t---+-----i J c\.03 2a O k-----��==�����--Q- .49 0. TypA TypB > T 0..7 5 0.1 Q2 0. 40 .04 Q06 0.25mm .. . 3.-0.---. I = 99 mm +-+---t­ + +--+---t-----j r = 150 mm Ka.----r--. 0.79 In mm -0'3 Q01 om Q.-0e--t----t--+_ .4 -0.03 --l -10 �----��--�- -20��--�----_r_ -30 L------L--J---�---L--� -0. Fig. [ en CI> � 102 � !l CI> PaiR. I! -'T �U 0.1.E x en relative rotation flow value § for two honeycomb seals. • "15' � )(0: A9: + .1.

Ltd. The results of the dynamic tests showed that the damping coefficient and the inertia coefficient of the fluid film in the seal were not affected much by the rotational speed or the eccentricity of the rotor. Hitachi. The measured inlet and exit loss coefficients of the flow through the seals were much smaller than the conventional values. 1 and 2 ). especially when the configuration of the seal is complicated. which will help the dynamic analysis. it is necessary to know the boundary conditions of pressure such as pressure at the both ends of the seal. Then the dynamic forces at the seals caused by a vibrating rotor are measured. the axial pressure difference and the speed of the rotor to investigate the inlet and the exit loss coefficients and the resistance coefficients. In this study two series of experiments. though the stiffness coefficient seemed to be influenced by the eccentricity. 213 . HYDRAULIC FORCES CAUSED BY ANNULAR PRESSURE SEALS IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS T. Tsuchiura. pressure distributions in the eccentric seals are measured under several conditions of the eccentricity. are carried out. INTRODUCTION It has been reported that annular pressure seals in centrifugal pumps have great influence on the lateral vibrations of the shaft systems ( ref. though the measured resistance coefficients agreed well with the values calculated by the equations proposed by Yamada and by Tao and Donovan. It is also important to evalu­ ate properly the resistance coefficient of the flow in the seal both in the axial and the circumferential directions. Japan SU}IT1ARY An experimental study was performed with static and dynamic test appa­ ratus to investigate the hydraulic forces caused by annular pressure seals.Iino and H. In order �o analyze the dynamic properties of the fluid films in the annular seals. Unfortunately there are few data available to evaluate those values.Kaneko Mechanical Engineering Research Laboratory. The dynamic properties of the fluid films in the seals are calcu­ lated from the test results. In the static tests. static tests and dynamic tests.

5p. YY used in the dynamic properties of the fluid film. rps P pressure.ff\"0 ) - (0 . N G seal clearance when concentric. m o eccentricity. N / m 1 seal width. / 2) ) -0.-w1 X component in the vertical direction Y component in the horizontal direction XX. m/s vm mean axial velocity ( =Q / (1T.d· G) ) . The second subscript denotes the direction of the displacement. )-A'X2 / (2G)-1 ) exit loss coefficient ( =1-(P6 .38- 2 resistance coefficient proposed by Yamada ( =0. N / m P non-dimensional pressure ( =(p-p ) / (p. m 8 co-ordinate in the circumferential direction ( 8=0 at the top of the seal ) resistance coefficient ( dp=.P4)/(O.(1-x4) /(2G) ) density.214 0 { } 0. m2 / s inlet loss coefficient ( =(p. XY. -p. rad / s Subscripts: o amplitude at the frequency given by the vibrator 1-6 value at the measuring position 1-6 1-3 value corresponding to the vibration angular velocity w.1((\x-x / (piI'V(:-p(II.)-A. Q leakage flow rate. m Y rotor displacement in the horizontal direction. m X rotor displacement in the vertical direction. m m inertia coefficient. G/v ) v axial velocity component of the flow in the seal.. m/ s x co-ordinate in the axial direction ( x=O at the inlet of the seal ).v.v� d"1) ) F dynamic force on the stator.. kg / m vibration angular velocity. ma/s IftlI( Ra axial Reynolds number ( =vmG/V ) Rr rotational Reynolds number ( =1T' d· N·. YX.) ) .26Ra 1+(7 /S)'(Rr /2Ra t ) kinematic viscosity. N T non-dimensional force on the rotor ( =f /(Oo5p. Nosl/m N rotational speed.5p. 214 . NOMENCLATURE The following nomenclature is used in the paper: c damping coefficient. m e eccentricity ratio ( =O / G ) f static force on an eccentric rotor. m k stiffness coefficient. Nos /m d seal diameter.\o (dx /2G) (po v. 3PlIl<IX non-dimensional maximum pressure difference in a section perpendicular to the axis ( =(p -p.v. The first subscript denotes the direction of the force. -p�)/(0. velocity or acceleration.

Figure 4 shows the maximum pressure difference �p�in the section perpen­ dicular to the axis. The eccentricity of the rotor was measured with displacement sensors of eddy current type at two axial positions and two circumferential positions. The radial load on the bearings in the both vertical and horizontal directions were also measured with load transducers of strain gauge type. TEST RESULTS Figure 3 shows a typical pressure distribution measured in the test seal I. considerable pressure difference in the circumferential direction still re­ mained. This result implies that it is not appropriate to the analysis of the flow to assume that the pressure at the exit of the seal is uniform and equal to the pressure in the low pressure chamber. In the case of the flat seal ( test seal li ) 6p de­ � creased linearly in the axial direction. TEST SEALS The configurations of test seals are shown in figure 2. The static pressure in the high and low pressure cham­ bers were measured as well as the flow rate through the seals. Figure 2 also shows the axial positions of the pressure holes 1 to 6 and the axial positions of the dis­ placement sensors A and B. 215 . The seals have relatively small ratio of width to diameter. in the case of the grooved seals ( test seals I and ill ) 6p had the minimum value and then � increased again. On the other hand. 90 degree apart from each other. provided that the ratio of the width to diameter of the seal was small and that the seal had grooves just like the seals I and � shown in figure 2. It is noted that the maximum pressue in a section perpendicular to the axis was measured near the circumferential position where the clearance was minimum throughout the whole width of the seal. STATIC TEST APPARATUS The static test apparatus is shown in figure 1. Tests were performed under conditions of the axial Reynolds number Ra between 1100 and 3500 and the rotational Reynolds number Rr between 0 and 4800. It should also be noted that even at the position 5 behind the seal exit. Static pressure was measured at the pressure holes distributed at six axial positions and eight circumferential positions with pressure transducers of strain gauge type. It was the same regardless of the pressure difference or the rotor speed.

�Jt. On the other hand in the case of the test sealE. 5 ) . though it had some influence on the exit loss coefficient.€l.r.!�_� ra��:. Vertical and horizontal relative vibrations ' 'b�tweeii�·tIie··rotor arid the stator of the test seal were measured at two axial positions with displacement sensors of eddy current type. Within the range of the Reynolds numbers of the experiments presented here. Figure 8 shows the resistance coefficient A calculated from the pressure distribution. inlet and exit loss coefficients are strongly affected by the axial and the rotational Reynolds numbers. Figure 10 shows the dynamic test apparatus. The effect of the inclination can not be neglected. especially when the eccentricity is large. 216 . Vertical and hori­ zontal forces acting on the stator were measured ·at two axial positions with load sensors of strain gauge type. which was calculated by the equation proposed by Yamada for concentric flat seals ( ref. 4 ) . 3 ). the radial forces did not depend much on the Reynolds numbers in these experiments. Figure 5 shows the influence of the inclination between the axes of the rotor and the stator on the pressure distributions in the seal. DYNAMIC TEST APPARATUS . 0. The inlet loss coefficient �in was much smaller than the conventional value. It is noted that the flow resistance in the circumferential direction is large in the flat seal and the rotor revolution has considerable effect on the flow in the eccentric flat seals. Figure 9 shows the non-dimensional radial forces calculated from the measured pressure distributions. Figures 6 and 7 show the inlet and the exit loss coefficients respective­ ly calculated from the pressure distributions. the rotational Reynolds number did not have much influence on the inlet loss coefficient.5. TEST DATA PROCESSING Test data were recorded on magnetic tapes and analyzed with a computer. Acording to the experimental results by Stampa ( ref. the ratio of the rotational Reynolds number to the axial one had considerable influence on the forces. It was normalized by Ao .0.�. The experimental resistance coefficient A for the flat seal agreed well with the coefficient calculated by Yamada's equation with consideration for the effect of eccen­ tricity analyzed by Tao and Donovan ( ref.!: :�. The exit loss coefficient �out was also considerably smaller than the conventional value. In the case of the test seals 1 and�. 1. ! cally by a hydraulic vibrato. Since the pressure at the exit is expressed by the equation (1) small �o�gives a reasonable explanation to the pressure distribution there. l'h�>.

(Xol) -wl.0 X C'(X X kyX X + kyy Y The vibrations of the rotor and the forces on the stator may be expressed in the complex number as follows.) -0J$'! Re (Y�) -u¥.wC Y Yc e { Re(Yo) + iIm(Yo) } e iwt (3) . X XI) e iw't { (Xo) + iIm (Xo) } illJt Re e . The amplitudes and the phases were transformed into the real and the imaginary parts of complex expressions. TEST SEAL AND TEST RESULTS A test seal similar to the test seal I in figure 2 was set in the appa­ ratus and tested. (YoJ -wtRe (Xa) -wlRe (Y"J kJ\Y Re ( Fxol. Re (�i) Re (YD1) -W.) -Wl I". .l. and kn for each vibration frequency.t Re (YCl) -w} 1m (�2) -wi 1m (YOl.) -Wj 1m (Yo.First the analogue signals were converted into digital signals with a high speed AD converter.) W2 Re (Xo�) W. ) :r. kxr. Vibration amplitudes at two axial positions were averaged to be used in the farther processing. three ( X experiments at different vibration frequencies are necessary to obtain full equations. Six vibration frequencies from 10 to 217 ...) -WI I� (YD.Re (Xcj) c)(>< Re ( F)(o� ) Wi Re (XoJ = (4) I". Re (Y01) kxx Re (FJ\o. k".. (��) IIlI (YOj) W" Re (Xo�) w. m 'X' myy. Figure 11 shows typical test data.) cx..z 11>'\ (Y01) -w?. Fxo e Iwt F r Fyo e f (Fyo ) + iIm (Fyo) } Re e . 1m (Xv... (Xci) Ln (YoI) Wi Re (Y01) -w. . The final equations are expressed in the matrix form as follows. (Xc.. F x F xo e { ( ) + iIlI1(F". ) Re (Xo�) Rc (Yc) -W3 11>'\ (Xc. Then the digital signals were processed by the digital filter method and the amplitudes and the phases at the frequency given by the vibrator were calculated.) m"'l( 1m ( FJiO.. I Since only four equations are obtained for twelve unknowns miO(' cJ(X'cx. 1m ( Fxo3 ) Only six equations for the equilibrium of the forces in the X direction are shown here. The relations between the dynamic properties of the fluid film and the hydraulic forces acting on the stator are expressed by the following equations. mX)( X + m X Y Y + cxx X + cxr Y + k xx X + k x y Y " F x (2) ffi-yX + myr Y + + cyy Y + Fy tJ J � ::> .I".<'u'C mxy. ' c( ' Cyy.!) 1m (Yo/. 1m ( F)(j). The acceleration of the casing was also measured and was taken into account to correct the load amplitudes. ) 1m (Xo. ) Re (�l) Re (Yo).-5 Re (Y�) -wf 11K (�) -wl' 1/1'1 (YOj) _mxy. Load amplitudes at two axial positions were added to each other to obtain the total values.!.. The equations in the Y direction are obtained by replacing the unknown vector and the vector in the right hand side.) -w�Re (XOI) -w.wt ...o )} Re.

The pressure at the exit of the seal had considerable variation in the circumferential direction. 5. 9 ) this change in kxx is considered to be the effect of the eccentricity rather than the effect of the speed. The results of the dynamic test showed that the damping coefficient c� and the inertia coefficient mxx were not affected much by the rotational speed or the eccentricity of the rotor. The exit loss coefficient was smaller than the conventional value.40 Hz were selected.r�{c:.'vl�16.0. Damping coefficient cxx and inertia coef f icient nlxx dicl not change much �e speed or the eccentricity within the experimental range of the param­ eters. From the results of the static test ( fig. 3. 218 . The time-averaged eccentricity of the rotor changed with the rotational speed. 1. 'Pure.5. 7. This result gives a reasonable explanation to the conclusion 1. 0. . The inclination between the axes of the rotor and the stator had much influence on the pressure distribution in the seal. though the stiffness coefficient kxx seemed to be influenced by the eccentricity. The hydraulic forces caused by the eccentricity of the rotor had strong non-linearity to the eccentricity.x d. w�mxx. 2. The pressure difference across the seal was maintained nearly con­ stant. 6. It was affected by the axial Reynolds number. The experimental resistance coefficient for the flat seal agreed well with the coefficient calculated by Yamada's equation with consideration for the effect of eccentricity analyzed by Tao and Donovan.Vl �! Re(Fxo)/Re(Xo) decreased parabolically with'the increase in the vibra­ tion frequency because in these experiments R e( F� o )/Re (X c ) � kxx . 4. The vibration amplitude Re(Xo) was set around 12 �m ( 7% of the seal clearance) and Im(Xo) and Yo were very small regardless of the vibration frequency. 1.. The following conclusions are deduced.+iQ1I\ :v. Y + !! CONCLUDING REMARKS An experimental study was performed with static and dynamic test appa­ ratus to investigate the hydraulic forces caused by annular pressure seals. On the other hand 1m (Fxo )/Re(Xo) increased linearly with the vibration fre­ quency because Im(Fxo)/Re(Xo) � wocxx• Figure 12 shows some results of dynamic properties of the fluid film in the seal. The inlet loss coefficient was much smaller than the conventional value. Stiffness coefficient kxx changed considerably with the speed. t}� \iVl' "' '0 . +r6.

"Eliminating Pump Stability Problems.77.. "Effects of Pressure Ring Seals on Pump Rotor Vibration. "Experimentelle Untersuchungen an axial durchstromten Ringspalten." ASME Paper." Bulletin of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. ASME. November 1955.71-WA/FE-3S.." Power. B. Braunschweig. May 1962. 219 . 2. "Resistance of a Flow through an Annulus with an Inner Rotating Cylinder. E. Yamada.. D. 1970.N.D. No. Technischen Universitat Carolo-Wilhelmina.F. No..F." Ph. L. 4.N. July 1970. Black. "Through-Flow in Concentric and Eccentric Annuli of Fine Clearance with and without Relative Motion of the Boundaries. W. Tao.. 3. Makay. REFERENCES 1. Vol. Stampa.lS. H. Vol. Thesis. 1971. and Jenssen." Trans.5. 5. Y. and Donovan.


86 Mpa w 0..8.3 rps . N 33.0 x « ::i: AXIAL POSITION x L Figure 4 .- w jJ .8 1. > VI -t. TEST SEAL I �o-o-o-o.6 V a:: 0 l: a....0 d� ::> ".3 (J) TEST SEAL I W 0:: TEST SEAL II a. O.P.6 0. .L-----+- -t--+-- o�"..p.'\7.. J pA __ 0 Ql � Ia. 6 = LL 0 PI-ps=O:O..f-O_ O'" z PI -Ps =0. p..63 <5-)(&O�. .2.05 rad : -O... _A/ (4�' 0. (J) 1'8.. . p.!..J « z 0... t. TEST SEAL III I � ::> �xl � o �____+_---�-----+__----�--� o o 2 0.4 0.4 0_ 0- o 0 .....3 rps """" 1'0 = U) �O '0." � [] 3' (J) w '8..4 +----t----+--l--'=--"t-'"--j ::> (J) e :::.8 a:: -�A ..86 MPa W 0:: 0..n) l=O () 0. o 0 z X/ I 0" v () =0.. -x-.."<r><-X-j--X �� Z v x-<> . :1. 8.2 � o ·1 ..--o 0- . Change In circumferential pressure difference in the axial direction 221 ..0.8 z w a:: w LL N 33. c<J'" e =0.. clearance position '2 '2 CIRCUMFERENTIAL POSITION () rad Figure 3.... ::. Pressure distribution i n an eccentric seal � w (Pmn-Pm... X /6) .+-v---- �9--0 /r at the minimum --' o 7C h �.

0·2''::- 0 --'-2 -.2 O W o 0 I- z Bo o o -' I- W 0 dO� '600 0 O (f) 0.4 0. 0 r-----r-----.6 0.6 o o(() (f) w -' il: LL �c '-- o -' 0 Z W 0 0 0 00 I- 1° 0 W 0. ---1 0 0.J c{ Z 0.. +. -+--. Inlet loss coefficient Figure 7.9X1O-· (f) 0. e Q' 10.4 Z I I 1 W � TEST SEAL III c TEST SEAL I � 0.P.6 Q.---...27 MPa � 5 I ex : inclination Z o o.IJ' I­ o TEST SEAL I 0.. Exit loss coefficient 222 ..8 1.. i..---.-- . N = 16.8 ::> -3.P6 =0.. Pressure distribution in the axial direction -Influence of inclination between rotor and stator axes . -..O .-----.-. ...0 'X AXIAL POSITION i Figure 5.64 (r.2 ::> o 0 2· 3 4 5X 102 Rr AXIAL REYNOLPS NUMBER Ra REYNOLDS NUMBER RATIO - Ra Figure 6. ::J o 1. z ..--.4 t---+-�"-� o p..7 rps (f) z ..= -- w 0.7X1O-' o 65 W (rOd) � 0.. i..4 t---+----+--!---f -' I- -0. 3.---r--r--.. I. TEST SEAL I .-----+-----1---+--1 � LL (f) (f) 0.d) (f) W � 0.8 1<.-.. 2 PI .

2 1----1--+--=0 : r '=.J I.---+- - [.8 _-" ---.8 1...8 1.--..-. 8 .O>=-. o OTEST SEAL I L-.2 0.4 0. TEST SEAL II . --t---� I O· L---�----�--� V5 Z W o CALULATED VALUE Z 0. 6 r..4.4 1---=---+­ � 0.2 r 0 !0+­ W o IfO I (j """'--""--"'""T-II-""T"'"-" I.61-----+- z o W � (3 CP � Y- 0:: r 2 I __ --=. -t.. Resistance coefficient TEST SEAL III o I I o 0. Radial force on the eccentric rotor 223 .6 q8�- � 8° �� 0...4 0.0 ECCENTRIC ITY RATIO e Figure 9.0 (j (j) z W 0.2 0.-.. 1..7 ---l----1 Z o /I TEST SEAL II W 1..6 0.L .�.0 ECCENTRICITY RATIO e 0.J � 0.4 f6� o 0.E a � I- 0 o 1:::.(I� 1:::..2 P8 Figure 8.Rr =0 (j) O. -t. ---t- -.---.6 0.:2 0 :.---r--.-.. 0.. __�_----�----�----�--� 0. Cb��� . ---t-----i OL.6 0:: FLAT SEAL $� 0.4 TEST SEAL I 0.8 l 0..----\-+---I----+-.. 0:: 0.0 I.6 I--.


..Oo. z- m 10 �..... If> � :> If> z PRESSURE rnFFERENCE (a) Vibration amplitude z x x x X x .2 (!) z � 4 t----i--+ :J � a. An example of experimental data N VI ..594 MPa 0. <C z 0 <C o 0 i= 0 ' I - W 4 U) 0 15 20 25 u 0:: 0 . 2 A-� I SPEED N rps 1L...... ::i!! <C Z 0 �..... I E ORe(Xo) ::t � 1m (Xo) 20 W Il ReO(yo) 0 :::> Vim (Yo) I. I­ 30 Z I­ z Z w W � u 10 E (3 Re(FXo)/Re(Xo) (3 �w 20 o� ::t o 8 .ll���VP-�� 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 E i= E E <C 0:: � FREQUENCY OF VIBRATION Hz E E E . 0 �-'-10 20 30 � 40 Figure 12... z 12 A 1m w u Re(FYo)/Re(Xo) 6 w 0 10 o 8 8 U) :::> V 1m (FYo)/Re(Xo) 10 I- 8 <C 0...--. 6 I � � 0...577----0 x U � E I.. 0 o 0 o 0 0 C) :J 10 a.. ...c � t--- (Fxo)/Re(Xo) .1 0:: � 2 ::i!! d'� w ::i!! 1L. Test results of dynamic properties <S 0 u Q) 0 �:8*2::�� :J 0:: -2 I FREQUENCY OF VIBRATION Hz :::> <C �I (b) Ratio of hydraulic force amplitude to vibration amplitude N Figure 11.


. . • . . . . • • • . . . Caughey. . • • • . 229 A Brief Note on the Interaction of an Actuator Cascade with a Singularity. Brennen. C. • • . . Turbo Research. California Institute of Technology . . J�rgen Colding-J�rgensen. . Thompson. . University of Tokyo. E. . J. Thomas. Leie and H. . . Cornell University. • . . California Institute of Technology • • . Technische Universitat Kunchen . . . Mengle.-J. 267 Vibration Exciting Mechanisms Induced by Flow in Turbomachine Stages. . J. • . . . . 303 Fluid Forces on Rotating Centrifugal Impeller with Whirling Motion. . Acosta. A. . . Caughey. . A. Acosta. Brennen. and T. J. . . Inc . . . . . SESSION IV WORK-FLUID DESTABILIZING FORCES Carl Gerhold. K. • . . E. . . . B. and T. • . . . William E. C. 317 227 . 249 Non-Synchronous Whirling Due to Fluid-Dynamic Forces in Axial Turbo-Machinery Rotors. . Hidenobu Shoji and Hideo Ohashi. . Technical University of Denmark. • . • . 237 Effect of Fluid Forces on Rotor Stability of Centrifugal Pumps and Compressors. . . Texas A&M University Chairman A Test Program to Measure Cross-Coupling Forces in Centrifugal Pumps and Compressors. • • 285 Self-Excited Rotor Whirl Due to Tip Seal Leakage Forces. . • . Shan Fu Shen and Vinod G. . . Dimitri Chamieh.


They derived magnitudes for this stationary lateral force based on a source vortex model for the impeller.2). In the second case the forces resulting from the imposed whirl motions with fre­ quencies ranging from zero to synchronous will be measured by means of a force balance upon which the impeller is mounted. But much less is known about the potential for destabilizing forces arising from the flows associated with the impeller and diffuser of a compressor or pump. However there exist very few measurements of these forces which would permit one to evaluate the merits of the existing fluid mechanical anal­ yses. INTRODUCTION In recent years it has been increasingly recognized that hydrodynamic cross-coupling forces can cause serious rotor dynamic problems in high speed turbomachines. In an actual impeller this lateral force may also contain 229 . Though other instability mechanisms such as internal damping or non-isotropic shaft stiffness rotor inertia can be fairly readily characteriz­ ed the same cannot be said of the hydrodynamic cross-coupling forces.l. Bearings and particularly seals can clearly play such a role as the papers in this volume attest. 3. Brennen. Various hydrodynamic flows have been identified as possible contributors to these de­ stabilizing forces.E. 6) has shown that this could give rise to a lateral force on the impeller even in the absence of an orbiting motion of the shaft. 5). In keeping with the informal nature of this workshop we will present details of a proposed test program for the measurement of the unsteady forces on centrifugal impellers caused by either (i) azimuthal asymmetry in the vol­ ute geometry or (ii) an externally imposed whirl motion of the impeller. A TEST PROGR&� TO MEASURE FLUID MECHANICAL WHIRL-EXCITATION FORCES IN CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS C. Acosta and T. The work of Domm and Hergt (Ref. A.K. Such problems have been experienced not only in steam turbines (Refs. This work is presently being car­ ried out under contract with the NASA George �3rshall Space Flight Center. Alabama (Contract NAS 8-33108). California 91125 ABSTRACT Much speculation has surrounded the possible unsteady hydrodynamic forces which could be responsible for the excitation of whirl instabilities in turbo­ machines. The flow associated with the impeller/diffuser is significantly differ­ ent from that in a seal or bearing in that the geometry of the volute can cause this flow to be significantly non-axisymmetric.4) and in high speed pumps (Ref. but also in large compressors (Refs.J. Caughey California Institute of Technology Pasadena. Huntsville. this brief paper will be con­ fined to this issue.

One useful intermediate model which is still fairly simple is the actuator disk which has been suggested by the work of Chamieh and Acosta (Ref. This would lead to a positive or whirl-exciting tangential force. The supposition is that a localized reduction in the tip clearance would cause a localized decrease in the torque shear stress with the reverse occurring on the other end of the diameter. More realistic impeller models would be required for this purpose. 8. The core of the experiment is shown in 230 . However the main question here is the validity of the simple source/vortex model used for the impeller. The primary purpose of this paper is to stress the fact that much remains to be done before the status of whirl- excitation forces on impellers can be put on a firm foundation. Assuming quasi-static performance for each blade passage he used a detailed flow analysis program to assess the distribution of forces on the blades of an impeller performing whirling motions. Positive excitation did indeed occur with some impeller designs. ROTOR FORCE TEST FACILITY The objective of the facility is to impose known orbiting motions of fre­ quency � on the basic rotary motion of a number of typical centrifugal pump impellers (rotating frequency. Alford (1965) suggested that the same mechanism would occur in the tip clear­ ance flows of steam turbines and others have further extrapolated this to the tip clearance flows in any unsteady component at the blade passage frequency though the magnitude of this unsteady force and the role it might play in the rotor dynamics has not yet been determined. further analyses with more realistic impeller models will be required in order to deter­ mine the limits of validity of such analyses. It is not however clear whether the quasi-static assumption is valid in these circumstances. In an addenda to his paper on whirl-excitation forces in seals. Other analyses have sought destabilizing tangential forces in the absence of volute asymmetries. Secondly. he analyzed the resulting radial and tangential forces on the "impeller" and found that positive or whirl excitation tangential forces did indeed result from such an analysis and that the magnitudes of these forces were sufficient to have played a significant role in the Space Shuttle high pressure hydrogen pump instability (Ref. 7. We are pre­ sently embarking on an experimental program whose intent is to measure these forces and the remainder of this paper is devoted to a brief description of this facility. 3) has posed the question of whether such a force would arise due to the perturbations imposed on the main flow through the impeller. Imposing an orbiting motion on the source/vortex model of the impeller. Recently Colding-Jorgensen (Ref.9). Thompson (Ref. Here we have two possible mechanisms which have been suggested. Ultimately any review of the existing state of knowledge such as we have given above reveals a singular lack of hard experimental data with which to assess the merits of the various analyses. w) and to measure the radial and tangential forces resulting from this motion. see also this volume) has extended the work of Domm and Hergt. 5).

. � �. rA. volute. The impeller. .� � Figure 1. internal balance and eccentric drive of the Rotor Force Test Facility N W I-' .

The present can� didate design consists of four posts parallel with the axis which are mono­ lithic with two solid end plates.11) designed so that rotation of the sprocket (9) causes the orbiting motion.) Figure 2 also shows the eccentric drive motor (2HP) which can generate orbit frequencies. they are contained in the pump housing (1) so that they may be of lightweight construction. this cross-correlation can cover up to 10. (N-M)w/N and (N+M)w/N where M and N are selected integers between 0 and 100 (M�N).000 cycles of the fundamental frequency. One must ensure high natural fre­ quencies (>500Hz. one attached to the shaft and the other at­ tached to the impeller. The signal at Mw/N is then used to drive the eccentric motor such that �= Mw/N. The hydraulic system into which this mechanical system is being installed was previously utilized for measurements of the unsteady hydraulic performance of cavitating (and non-cavitating) axial flow pumps (see. this signal is then used to produce digital signals with frequencies Mw/N.8. This will be capable of speeds up to 35000 rpm (w � 60Hz. In addition to the rotating internal balance a back-up force measuring system(12.l3)external to the eccentric drive system will also be used. for example Refs. In the present case the measurements may include (i) six-components of force measurement from the internal balance or several components of force from the external balance (ii) axial and radial displacement of the impeller from four fibre-optic displace­ ment probes (iii) pressure transducer measurements from locations both up­ stream and downstream of the impeller as well as within the impeller-volute flow (iv) unsteady flow rate measurement using existing laser doppler veloci­ meters or electro-magnetic flow meters. a feedback control system fitted to this motor ensures accurate phase� locking. A sixteen channel digital signal processor is used for cross-correlation of these measurements with any of the basic frequencies (w. These posts are strain-gaged in such a way as to extract all six force components with sensitivities of the order of mV/lb. Past experience has also indicated that the unsteady flow measurements can be quite noisy and that accurate results require cross-correlation of measurement and driving signal over many cycles. w. Figure 2. shows the main drive system comprised of a 20HP variable speed motor.l. Past experience with unsteady flow measurements has emphasized the need for rigorous dynamic control of the experiments. from 0 to 60 Hz. Volutes(2)of various geometries will be used in measure­ ments of lateral force due to volute asymmetry. an overall schematic of the mechanical system. wIN. In the present facility a proximity probe senses the rotating frequency. 232 . The main shaft (10) rotates in a double bearing system (7.w/N.(N-M)w/N and (N+M)w/N) in order to extract the components of force at any of these fundamental frequencies or higher harmonics thereof. In this way measurements can be made over a wide range of �/w from zero to unity. The impeller (5) is mounted directly on an internal force balance (6).Mw/N. �. The most critical component in the system is probably the internal bal­ ance and its design is as yet unproven. a gear box and a flexible shaft (necessary to accommodate the orbiting motion).) and yet maintain sufficient sensitivity.The flow enters the centrifugal impeller(6)from the inlet connection(3) and inlet bell(4). Fig.

PM (MAX. I (.. . N W W . Schematic planview of the mechanical layout of the Rotor Force Test Facility. NE..�"" I='HASE LOCK MOTOR FOR E.X..AN'-E..��N" i - - -------------.) EXIT FI.W COUPLIN& c-r --tl------->---l ---+ STRAIN GAGE. G:!�UND "TO (�PLCs) I-r�'" �.CCENTRIC DRIVE..---.XISTING! e. WAY E.-----. ---------- I I . 'N\Rf.XI�T1N� I I I <EoEAR BOX MOTOR I I I �:. r.W) 17�O R.l.ST L.-------- . BA. OF PUMP TO � e..W BASE MT :I I E.. PUMP �OUSING __ 1______________________ 1____ -> ------.-.ANCE.ISTINtiq TE. I I . rNE. I I . . FORCe. ! TIMING r- : � SEAR _ _____ l.OOP Figure 2. (NE..--l--l--I--.----l--- ECCEN"TRIC DRIVE.XTERNAl.

known as the Dynamic Pump Test Facility ( DPTF ) . 3. In the context of the present experiment these will again be uti­ lized at a later stage to investigate whether flow fluctuations are associated with impeller whirl or whether they can induce impeller whirl.0CI(. From a global dynamic point of view it is possible that the entire system of fluctuations (mechanical and hydraulic ) may have to be represented by a global transfer function. 10.IE. 234 .UTE PHOTO MULTtP\. The DPTF included two flow fluctuators ( siren valves ) with phase-lock drive systems similar to that described above for the new eccentric drive system as well as instrumenta­ tion for measurement of the small oscillatory perturbations in pressure and flow rate.11).-- DOWNSTREAM ELECTROMAGNETIC FLOW METER DOWNSTREAM L DV MEASUREMENT SECTION DOWNSTREAM FLOW SMOOTHING SECTION 15.'-"E PHASE. Schematic planview of the Dynamic Pump Test Facility place of the impeller / volute system depicted in the Fig.-1.6 KW llOOORPM - ORN£. is included as Fig. We hope that the experimental facility described above will be valuable in providing such evidence. DRIVE.R & UPSTREAM LDV MEASURING SECTION UPSTREAM ELECTRO­ MAGNETIC FLOW METER Figure 3..... CONCLUDING REMARKS Though bereft of results this paper is intended to highlight th� lack of experimental evidence for whirl-exciting fluid forces arising from the flow through turbomachines.. 3. VOI..I v. The mechanical system of the Rotor Force Test Facility ( RFTF ) described above is being installed in the lower left-hand corner in 51REt-.. Specifically this involved finding the relations between the unsteady pressures and flow rates at inlet and at discharge as a function of the fre­ quency of the unsteady components of the flow and of the mean flow conditions. A schematic of this system.

235 . E.. H. Experiments on the dynamic behavior of cavitating pumps. H. Elsevier. and Brennen... 219-228. 1. 100. Akademiai Kiado. 87A. P. and Hoffman. M. and Acosta. Domm. 6th Conf. Chamieh. Colding-Jorgensen. C. AIAA/SAE 14th Joint Propulsion Conference... Ph. Dynamic forces on a whirling centrif­ ugal rotor. Schwerdtfeger. Chicago. Fluid dynamic excitation of centrifugal compressor rotor vibrations. Ek. and Hergt. Unpublished manuscript. Chamieh. Vol... A. ed. May 1980. J. of Denmark. Thompson. G. and Caughey.J. Ng. To be presented at ASME Winter Annual Meeting. Meissner. Texas A & M Univ. Workshop on Rotordynamic Instability Problems in High Performance Turbomachinery. Radial forces on impeller of volute casing pumps. 1979. 305-321. Budapest. W. D. R. Solutions of the sub synchronous whirl problem in the high pressure hydrogen turbomachinery of the Sp ace Shuttle Main Engine. Eng. Pollman.. Las Vegas. J. 333-344. and Termuehlen.EFE'RENCES 1. pp. Flow excited vibrations in high pressure turbines (steam whirl). Vol. July 1978. 1965. Acosta.E. 7. Thesis. pp. Proc. D. 4..K. A. 3. The effect of fluid forces on rotor stabil­ ity of centrifugal compressors and pumps. 1970. on Fluid Machinery. Fluids Eng. 2. Dzung. Lo. No. Power.J. 11.. Brennen. 1980.S. 1978. Scale effects in the dynamic transfer functlons for cavitating inducers. Alford J. S. A brief note on the interaction of an actuator cascade with a singularity.. 1980. Vol.. 73-79. H. J.E. C. C. J.E. Power. E..Y. 1978.E. H. Protecting turbomachinery from self-excited rotor whirl. Fluids Engineering. 1980... Hungary. Flow Research on Blading (L.S.. Brennen. pp. Eng. 1978.C. 8. 1979. 5. Technical Univ. 9. 1980.D.).. Proc. 100. T. Doyle. pp. Problems with rotodynamic instabilities in high performance turbomachinery.L.W. Vol. 6. J. pp. 100. 1978. C. 10. 166-176..


237 .K. where v includes the disturbance velocity as * Not presented at workshop. The problem then is one o f constructing a velocity field that includes the d i s turb a nce ( but adds no more ) and satisfies the flow tangency condition leavin g the blade row. Caughey California Institute of Technology Pasadena. Our present interest i s with time averaged forces for estimation of shaft loads and flow as ymme try forces rather than with transient processes.E. In the present case this singularity causes pertur bations of the basic one-dimensional f low through the ac tuator cascade which lead to overall rotor forces and flow p e rt u rbations which are t he subject of i ntere st here. A BRIEF NOTE ON THE INTERACTION OF AN ¥- ACTUATOR CASCADE l<7ITH A SINGULARITY D imi t r i Ch am i eh . California 91125 I ntroduction We have recently become concerned with making estimates of s t eady forces that may be exerted between moving blade rows and s tationary blade rows or volutes. With ref erence to Fig. T. 1 this r equi res v = cos S u (1) at the row exit. A.J. Brennen. For th i s purpose we have adopted the well-known "actuator" model for the blade row in which the flow leaving the row or cascade is assumed to have a constant leaving angle. C. Acosta. The disturbances external to this row such as a volute may be represented by distributions of vortex elements as was done for exampl e by Domm and Hergt[l]. y = 0.

(1). 1) as this is equivalent to the Kutta condition.y) directions respective- ly. This is a partic - ularly simple problem when the flow field l eaving the actuator row is irrotational. the trailing edge is situated on the real Z axis . Let us consider the problem of the interaction of the cascade with a single disturbance located in the upper half plane at Z = z00 This is denoted by (2a) where (u. 1.well as added perturbations needed to satisfy Eq.v) are the velocity components in the (x. The effect of the disturbance gives rise to additional correction terms w. The Actuator Cascade Here we consider steady flow of constant total pressure through an actuator cascade. These disturbances may be due to the effect of downstream diffuser vanes or a volute structure for example . The ]. we may imagine that there are disturbances downstream of the cascade. The flow is assumed to be irrotational so that complex variable methods may be used.(z) which cannot have any singularities in the upper half plane. In the second. In the next paragraph we consider two such cases where this assumption is valid. a3 a particularly s imp l e example. We now consider two situations: in the first. (i) Downstream disturbances. we consider the effect of periodic changeR in the blade leaving angle 8 on the leaving flow without any downstream v disturbances. In the notation of Fig. The flow leaving this cascade has a given direction 8v (see Fig. 238 .

.. .. . d . DOIATNSTREAH DISTURBANCES .. U..'. UPSTREAM FIGURE 1..Al«. " ..... ..> ut a.. . . SKETCH OF CASCADE ACTUATOR ROW (z = x + iy) 239 . JP " � 1..... . -0- . -< ... .- ....' ... . . .... ...

is 1 w. Then on y = 0 v +v. The induced disturbance d d w.u ) are known.. This turns out to be neatly handled by the methods described by Cheng and Rott [2]. let H(z) (a-ib)w T Then Re{H(z)} au + bv is required to be zero on the real axis.)cot B = 0 (4a) d 1 d 1 V since V = U cot Bv.-(u +u.e. must result in the total velocity components satisfying (4a ) . d This is easy to s how . b = -tan S ) . i.sum (2b) must s atisfy the flow angle leav ing condition cot B (3) v where U. The induced disturbance w. Here (v . 1 o (4b) (wh er e here a = 1.V are mean flow velocity components in the absence of any disturb- ance. Th us has to satisfy a mixed bound- v ary condition on y O. (5) 1 which is s een merely to be an " image" of w in th e cascade exit plane. Now s et H(z) (6) 240 .

In the above it was assumed that the leaving angle B was constant. (ii) Leaving angle variation. tan B v. Suppose B = B (x) v v and th at w = O. l. Then Eq. The principal difference is that here the leaving angle of the cascade is fully modelled instead of being approximated in the mean.sence of a point source-vortex.O) is the difference of two complex conjugate func- tions and is therefore purely that o n y = O.H(x. consider the row of vortices of s t rength r and period d seen in Fig. v This is not essential as the following example shows.+u 1 or u. Then 00 if 1 w d 21T r z-z -nd (7) n=-ro 0 Then 2iB ro v 1 W. (3) becomes d v.+V 1 u. . cot + e (8) 2d d We should point out here that this imag� system is almost the same as that used by Domm and Hergt to set up the interference problem for a volute in the pre.CU-tan B V) 1 V 1 v 241 . As an example. . 1 I n=-oo z-z -nd o { and finally has the well-known sum _ r 1T(Z-ZO) 2iB v .

1. A solution of this equation is I ) (10) wi = a+ib c{z provided c(z) is chosen to have no singularities in the upper half plane. e 1. Again we note that Eq. + bv. Let's assume that s (x) "8v+t. v M3 (x) (9a) v v ___ 1. more complete formulations are given in the book by Carrier. As a practical example we may imagine c(x) is of the form c(x) const. approximately u. cos 2"8 v which is of the form au.} = c(x) (9c) 1. c{x) (9b) 1. Then w. on y = O. Disturbance flows of this type may again be tackled by the methods of [2]. 1. a+ib 242 .S and we have 1. is proportional to t.tan Sv.s (x) v = where �S is a small change. cos x and then it is easily seen that const iz W. . Krook and Pearson [3]. (9b) is equivalent to requiring that Re{(a+ib)w.

In general. B . Then it follows that the l leaving Bernoulli constant B is given by 2 where w is the relative velocity parallel to the blades and ds is an increment of blade arc. vanishes for y-+co. The relative flow is unsteady since the absolute flow is steady. is constant everywhere. Assume also that the Bernoulli constant upstream of the cascade. 1 Moving Cascades The above examples were for find (11) and here are tangential velocities immediately downstream of and upstream of corresponding points of the moving blade row. Thus -= 3t With this and c on t i n u i t y '. constant-energy flows. iffien the cascade moves in a tangential direction (parallel to the x axis) work is done on the fluid in accordance with the Euler formula. B 2 is not constant at every point along the exit from the row and we there- fore expect the leaving the required disturbance flow since w._ to be rotational through the relation 'VB V x � 243 . In what follows the absolute flow is assumed to be steady and the cascade moves at speed Ut parallel to the x axis.

O) (u (x.V).y) w(x-y cot a) and B(x.V) + ( u .v ) 2 d d � � r r (ii) upstream where CU..) + (u ..v) (U. -z U 2 t d v(x.v ) + (u.e. we linearize the vorticity equations. Progress is readily made now only if we assume the disturbances to the flow field are small compared to the mean velocity components (U.V). (U V) are mean components.from which we find the only component of w to be kw or simply .y) B(x-y cot a) We now separate the unknown downstream and upstream flow field into components as follows (i) downstream ( u. 244 . In that case it can be assumed that w and B are constant* on mean flow streamlines given by dy = � = tan a dx U thus w(x. (u . 0) 2 l {a'x dx2 From Fig.O) w(x. I the blade exit is at y 0.v ) is the downstream l d d * i.0)-u (xc'-a» + L} (lla) vex.v. the inlet is at y -a and L refers to the "length" fO d)7 L - 2 -a cos s / y) We see that the downstream flow is then rotational.

v ) a nd (ul.. Two more relations are needed. To sum up we have the in itial l y unknown six velocity components (u . (u . u. (12) (here (x .v).e. i. One of these is given by continuity across the cascade. i. (lla) (with the previous d e fini tion of w ) . The problem d then is to find the three sets of components (u . (u...D) are points corresponding to the same vane trace).vl) is irrotational. Thus a closed system is obtained from which solutions analogous to Eq.v ) is a rotational (shear) flow w hic h accounts for the vorticity r r dV dU r r w = --- ax dy It follows that u .potential disturbance.) r r 1 1 U and v are related to each other though the require- r r ment that far downstream the mean flow angle is undisturbed. ( lla) . c The other is by the flow tangency condition at y = 0.v ) upstream are c onj ugate ( p otentia l) f unc - i i l l tions so that u and v ar e related.v are constant along lines of x-y cot a = con s t ant r r and that v = tan a u • The upstream di s turb ance (ul. ( .v ).v ).vd) are g i ve n disturbances.v ) is a downstream irrotational flow u i i and (u . r r In this decomposition (u .+ud+u = (v·+vd+v ) tan Sv (13) 1 r 1 r This is apparently a complicated system of relations to solve.-a) and (x.v.v ) downstream and (u . r r i i l One relation between these is given by Eq.e. There are then only three un known functions left and we have the Eqns . Then in principle. 245 . B oth se t s (u . (8) can be found. (12) and (13) to relate them.

Discussion We have used the singularities of Eq. we intend subsequently to in� elude the rotational effects described in the previous section. With these.nt ones. Subsequently Katz [5] carried out a similar computation using the acceleration potential instead of the velocity components but with the inclusion of losses through the blade row. This support is gratefully acknowledged. The unknown vorticity distribution on the volute is expres­ sed in a Glauert series the coefficients of which are then determined in the usual way to make the volute surface a streamline. (8) to study the interaction between a rotating actuator impeller and a volute (assuming. The interaction flow fields in these works were determined by Fourier series expansion which is a suitable procedure when only a few terms are needed to represent the disturbance. Earlier Ehrich [4J studied the effect of inlet wakes passing through rotor and stator blade rows with a set of e quations essentially identical to the prese . This task is nearly complete. 246 .complete volute actuator impeller interactions can be worked out. irrotational volute flow).forces can be found. Again the matching problem across the blade row is essentially the same as the present one. Acknowledgment This work was supported in part under NASA Contract NAS8-33108 and the Byron Jackson Company. We should mention that the type of problem addressed in this section is not new except in its application to singular disturbances.

Jet Propulsion Center. Rott. J.K..). Vol. of Eng. P. Katz. Div..References 1. and Hergt.II... 5.. pp. (Ed. M. H. Inst. No. 4. N. and A nal ys i s . 24. of Rational Mech.. R. "Circumferential Inlet Distortions in Axial Flow Turbo­ machinery". 2. "Radial Forces on Impeller of Volute Casing Pumps. 3. L. & Appl. Ehrich. 6. May 1954. Dzung. p. J.. Carrier. Flow Research on Blading. Ch. F. Sci. Elsevier. Aero. 1966. of Tech. 3.. G. Chung. McGraw�Hill. Domm. 305-321. 413. H. Calif.. 195'3. 1957. 1970. Functions of a Complex Variable. Krook. C.S. "Generalizations of the Inversion Formula of Thin Airfoil Theory". 7. 247 . Sci. "Performance of Axial Compressors with Asymmetric Inlet Flows". Pearson. No. 3.


. the impeller force has a destablizing effect on the rotor. where more details of the calculation can be found. It appears that for certain operating conditions. stiffness coefficient 1J k. The paper is a brief review of the author's thesis (ref. The order of magnitude of this effect can be determined from the stiffness and damp­ ing coefficients calculated. dimensionless damping coefficient 1J b impeller width L b diffuser width at inlet O b diffuser width at outlet 2 c absolute velocity of fluid at impeller outlet c. induced velocity 1 D impeller diameter L e eccentricity of rotor center F. SYMBOLS A . induced velocity in normal direction in point i from singularity in 1J point j B Busemann factor B.. damping coefficient 1J b. It is based on potential flow theory with singularities. EFFECT OF FLUID FORCES ON ROTOR STABILITY OF CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS AND PUMPS J � rgen Colding-J � rgensen Technical University of Denmark SUMMARY In this paper a simple two-dimensional model for calculating the rotor­ dynamic effects of the impeller force in centrifugal compressors and pumps is presented.. impeller force -1 f dimensionless impeller force i K. dimensionless stiffness coefficient 1J N number of elements n normal vector Q total volume flow in impeller 249 ... 14). Equivalent stiffness and damping coefficients are calculated for a machine with a vaneless volute formed as a logarithmic spiral.

In this paper a method is presented for calculating the impeller force. As indicated by Domm and Hergt (ref. 8). this force depends on t he eccen­ tricity of the rotor. these matrices also depend on forces from bearings and seals. In the literature this force is often called the radial force. and � the stiffness matrix. but this term is a bit misleading in a rotordynamic sense since the force also has a tangential component. the system is unstable. 2) and Hergt and Krieger (ref. Apart from elastic forces and inertia forces due to the deflection of the rotor it­ self. its dependency on the rotor eccentricity. Further­ more in turbomachinery. Furthermore it is shown that the impeller force also depends on the velocity of the rotor center. The vector � represents the generalized coordinates of the system. M is the mass matrix. The stability of the system-is determined by the solu­ tion to the equation 2 det( � + �A + �) = 0 (2) At where A = a + is and � = Ae • If a > 0. 1 to 9). For simplicity the analysis is re­ stricted to centrifugal pumps with a vane1ess volute but can be extended to any 250 . and the force's associated stiffness co­ efficients. as shown experimentally and theoretically by different authors (refs. forces from the working fluid acting on the rotor may affect the matrices and consequently alter the stability of the rotor (ref. This gives rise to equivalent damping co­ efficients. � the damping matrix. 10). \ optimum volume flow total flow relative to optimum flow impeller radius smallest radius of spiral tip velocity of impeller velocity from vortex source angle between flow velocity and peripheral direction blade angle of impeller total circulation of impeller flow vortex strength per unit length density of fluid INTRODUCTION The linearized governing equation for self-sustained lateral vibration of a rotor can be written (1) in the absence of external forces. Therefore in this paper it will be cal!ed the impeller force. which are also calculated. In centrifugal pumps and compressors the working fluid exerts a force on the rotor caused by diffuser/impeller interaction.

and hence we can satisfy the condition in N points. that is. we have N vortex strengths. as long as neither losses associated with fr iction and three­ dimensional flow nor compressibility seriously affects the pressure­ distribution around the impeller. The vortex-source point coincides with the rotor center. that is. PHYSICAL MODEL This model of a centrifugal pump or compressor stage with a vaneless volute is founded on the concept of Csanady (ref. The method used was developed by Hess (ref. as shown in figure 1. The vortex strength var­ ies from segment to segment. Thus the kinematic conditions give 251 . The diffuser contour is considered as a series of small linear segments. The calculated stiffness and damping coeffi­ cients represent the contribution to the stiffness and damping matrices K and 9 from the impeller force and -thus permit one to determine the influence of the impeller force on rotor stability and synchronous response. a method based on the replacement of the diffuser contour by a distribution of vortices and/or sources. The source strength and vortex strength Q and f are related to parameters of the impeller as shown later. In a potential flow field with potential singularities the law of super­ position is valid. Figure 1 The flow is considered a potential flow field with the singularity Q. the velocity in any point is the sum of the veloci­ ties induced by all singularities in the field. If we have N linear segments. These points are chosen as the N midpoints of the segments. CALCULATION OF FLOW FIELD The flow field is calculated by a singularity method. 1). Each segment is covered by a vortex distribution of uniform strength. i kind of diffuser. The normal component of the flow field on the contour must be zero. and it may have any eccentricity and velocity in a coordinate system fixed to the diffuser.f. It is based on a two-dimensional representation of the diffuser and a representation of the impeller by an equiv­ alent vortex source concentrated in a single point. 11).

With Csanady's nomenclature (ref. After solution of equation (3).N. The coefficients Aij are evaluated as the normal velocity components induced in point i by a unit vor­ tex strength along line segment j. 12) for different impellers. and thus the velocity in any point in the plane can be calculated. all the singularities in the flow field are determined. depends on blade angle and number of blades B blade angle of impeller U tip velocity of rotor C absolute velocity of fluid at outlet The total volume flow is (4) where rL and bL are the radius and the width of the impeller.and the coefficients of the system are generally different from zero. Vooi is the velocity induced by the vortex source r. 1) the variables of this figure are defined as follows: B Busemann slip factor. The term Yj is the unknown vortex strength per unit length of line segment j. The solution of equation (3) gives the values of Yj for all j = 1. Equation (3) will normally contain a large num­ ber of linear equations . N L: AijYj = (3) j=l where Yooi is the velocity at the midpoint at section i produced by the im­ peller flow (through the vortex source r. It could be developed for any diffuser geometry as long as the pressure distribution around the impeller is satisfactorily calculated by means of potential theory. respectively.from 100 to several hundreds . The method presented is valid for a vaneless volute with the rotor center coinciding with the spiral center for zero eccentricity. DETERMINATION OF Q AND r FROM MACHINE DATA Figure 2 illustrates the velocity vectors of the flow at the exit of the impeller. From figure 2 C(cos aO + sin aO)cot B = UB (5) Combining equations (4) and (5) yields (6) 252 .Q respresentation) with the impeller assigned some given eccentricity and velocity. tabulated by Wislicenus (ref. The development of the coefficients A ij and Vooini is shown in appendix A for any rotor-center eccentricity and velocity.Q representing the impeller for a given eccentricity and velocity of the vortex source.

1). (8) reI .A = eto at the volume flow Qopt. ---:-------. (tan 8 + tan etO) CALCULATION OF IMPELLER FORCE The force per unit width on a body with circulation r in the presence of a source Q in a parallel stream with the velocity c is. the impeller force is obtained by in­ serting equations (6) and (7) into equation (9) to yield UB2'JTr b L L (c. according to the theorems of Joukowski and Lagally (in ref. If we consider the velocity induced by the singularity distribution on the diffuser contour to be a parallel stream in the calculation of the impeller force. according to Csanady (ref. + tan et"c. opt . From equation (6) we obtain tan et (tan 8 tan A + 1) O Q .--.Q/ Q .) (10) 1 + tan et / tan o 8 -l v-l 253 . 13) K = p ( �Q + en (9) where p is the density of the fluid. The optimum efficiency with a spiral-formed volute with spiral angle A is obtained when 900 . / c UB Figure 2 Furthermore Q = tan eto ·r (7) because eto is the angle between the flow and the peripheral direction at the outlet.

The force and stiffness and damp­ ing coefficients are presented in the following forms: 254 . and the index 2 corresponds to the y-direction. The procedure requires the vortex distribution solution Yj from equation (3). CALCULATION OF EQUIVALENT STIFFNESS AND DAMPING COEFFICIENTS The impeller force can be calculated for any eccentricity and velocity of the rotor center as shown on the previous pages. This could be done for any diffuser geometry.and y-directions of figure 3. whose center coincides with the rotor center for zero eccentricity. and the equivalent stiffness and damping coefficients are calculated as the follow­ ing numerical derivations: K� (11) where the index 1 corresponds to the x-direction. as determined from equation (3). The solution procedure for � for any rotor-center eccentricity and velocity is carried out in appendix B for a vaneless volute formed as a logarithmic spiral. Figure 3 The values of the force can then be tabulated or stored in the computer.In this equation. RESULTS On the following pages some calculation results are shown for a given im­ peller with different volute-spiral angles. � is the velocity induced in t he rotor center by the con­ tour singularity distribution. The force is now calculated for different combinations of eccentricity and velocity of the rotor center in the x.

� (3 22.=Furthermore bO/b2 0. The calcula­ o = tion is carried out for A = 83°. '\ with DL = 2rV The impeller has B O. = B . 1J . � / (U P b ) " /�'. 8. and 8S . 1J .9. Figure 4 255 . 5 �. 86°.-. I (Up/2bLDL) (12) 1J 1J 2 k . b .7 = = and rL/rO 0. where rO is the smallest�radius-'Of the spiral. = K . . . The relative flow Qrel is determined from equation (8).

=8 o ..0 1.2 .5 2 .0 -.2 . o k yx . Figure 6 256 .2 .1 Q r e1 6U ). -. 4 Figure 5 k xy 1.

. 1 1. Figure 7 k yy .=83 ° - ..0 1.2 Figure 8 257 . k xx - Qrel ° 1.=86 ° 1.=88 2 - .5 1.1 -..5 -.

0Qrei .0 1. b xy .5 1.0 Q rei Figure 10 258 .0 1.5 2 .5 1. 2 ° \=83 � -4 ° \=86 ° -6 \=88 Figure 9 b yx 2 .5 2.

5 rel Figure 12 259 .5 2.0 1.5 ° .0 1.5 l.5 .5 Figure 11 b 30 yy A==8 0 A=86 �O . A=830 b 0 xx A=86 .--- .0 Q -.A= 1.5 2.0 -.

As for the direction of the force there is a large scatter in the results reported in the literature. be cal­ culated by equation (8). 11 and 12). The interval where the destabiliz­ ing effects are absent is moved to the right on the Qrel -axis for increasing A as seen from figures 5. and BYX and BXY increase in magnitude. The spiral angle A is a significant design parameter. This effect could. This negative damping is highly destabiliz­ ing. There is qualitative agreement between the reported values of the magni­ tude of the impeller force and the present calculations. Experimental determination of stiffness and damping coefficients associated with the impeller force must be made before a compari­ sion of calculated and measured values is possible. This means that the rotor is subject to relatively large gyroscopic forces. BXX and BYY decrease in magni­ tude. For increasing A the impeller force decreases in magnitude. The effects of impeller design parame­ ters are not investigated in this paper. as seen in fig­ ures 4 to 12. This means that the impeller force has a destabilizing effect on the rotor. For the cross-coupling damping coefficients BXY and BYX. No direct measurem ents of stiffness and damping coefficients are re­ ported in the literature. and the results of this paper consequently only agree with some of these re­ sults. and these coefficients are 4 to 10 times larger than BXX and BYY. 6. 9. and 10. DISCUSSION From figures 5 and 6 we see that for certain relative flows the cross­ coupling stiffness coefficients KXY and KYX have opposite signs. we have almost exactly BXY = -BYX (figs. 260 . Furthermore the damping coefficients BXX and BYY become negative for certain values of the relative flows (figs. if wished. 9 and 10). 2 to 5 and 9). The only relevant measurements reported in the literature are those deter­ mining the impeller force as a function of the relative flow (refs. the stiffness coefficients increase in magnitude. These forces would tend to stabilize the rotor.

. FOR A 1J -<Xl 1-1 VANELESS VOLUTE FORMED AS LOGARITHMIC SPIRAL For this purpose we have to use some basic formulas from potential-flow theory. the corre­ sponding velocity is 4 (1 ) If we have a line segment placed as in figure 13. For a vortex line of strength r.0) is (13) where Q is the source strength.n. covered with a constant vor­ tex strength of unity. APPENDIX A CALCULATION OF INFLUENCE COEFFICIENTS A . 11): y ( x. The velocity induced in a point (x. y) x Ls/2 Ls 2 Figure 13 V x 1/2rr [ arctan ( x +/S/2 ) _ arctan ( x -/8/ 2 )] [<x (15) �2J 1/4rr 2 + 6S/2) + V -In y 2 2 (x . AND V .y) by an infinately long line source in (0.y) (ref. an integration over the segment gives the following velocity induced by the line segment in point (x.6s/2) + 261 .

• y. J J J O J These coordinate transformations are necessary for the calculation of the induced velocities from the vortex distribution. Consider the logarithmic spiral = of figure 14.where Vy + 0 and Vx + 1/2 for x 0. cos S. A� S A ) Sin s. Figure 14 Take S i and of the midpoint of th S. / tan . ASln. Sj J J J S. + 1 -cos(S. y + O. cos 1 (20) 262 . A) X ) in + + (17) (X:) r A)-COS(S.J f:� /jl ) = J J x y n n (19) ( xi'Yi) A�in Si ) If the point is the midpoint of line segment i. + + y . Sand for the position vector We have fr om figure 14 COS(Si A) [. A)-s n(S. A)J = + (16) lS (Sj A) cos(Si j Ad ( � sin (S. r e J cos s. ( + + r e A)-sln(S. A� (X - + + y. Furthermore we have for the induced velocities in the different coordinate systems j (: � ) �::::: x n ylnl : ::_:::::� : :. we have S. � as the values of the angle line segment ij. O J J J J (18) / tan = ( .

we obtain = -cosCe sinCe.vy). 2) use the correction [ factor bO/b 2 .cot " oti � with r./tan A .r (21) .e.J 1. by using the coordinate transformation (18). . 1. . c) � Hence. and (20). 1.x:.Yi) in reference system ( x . for i -f.J [ :J [(::) In addition./tan A y. (7). from equations (13)./tan A x. . o for i j { 1..) + e J sin 1. J 2 2 (x. This is the induced velocity in the normal direction in point i from the vortex source (Q. (14).. J 1.e.)1n . so the final result is -cosce. 0 e. we get Aij.J y. . 263 .y ) are j j :J a. the normal velocity induced in point i from line segment j [ � ) A. -1. From equations (16).J x: ./:'s / 2) + I y.e. 1.J J 1. -e 1. Domm and Hergt (ref..arctan )� 1.) + e J cos 1. n.J 1.)2 arctan 1.ey ) and veloc­ ity Cvx. .V . e . S1.. i + + + Q/2rr� / <�i . COSeA + e.r) in the impeller center with eccentricity Cex. + /:'S/2 A. 1.J + cos (e.n (A + e. . e.J . ij 2 2 + /:'s/2) + y: . = � -4 -Sin<a ..ltan . j (22) 1. For this geometry a correction is required because the volute does not have a constant width. b /b (23) -1.--<X>1. where bO is the width at inlet and b2 the width at outlet of the volute. -e 1. (21) and (15).e.J i J (c. 1. the coordinates of point (xi. . O 2 = sinCe.

so the induced velocity is (24) 264 . we can calculate the induced velocity contribution for each l ine segment in any point in the plane. (18). the total induced velocity in the rotor center is the following sum from all N l ine segments of the volute con­ tour: But the rotor center has the velocity ( vx. If we calculate these contributions in the rotor center. APPENDIX B CALCULATION OF INDUCED VELOCITY IN ROTOR CENTER From equations (15). and (19).vy ) .

: Fluid Mechanics of Turbomachinery. . Grotrian. McGraw-Hill Book Co. J. : Radial Forces in a Pump Impeller Caused by Volute Casing. . p. Grein. F. Semivolute. no. Power. pt. Eng. 6. : Lateral Stability and Vibration of High Speed Centrifugal Pumps. 107. Dept. 319. 10. VDI-Bericht. Univ. 3 7. Power. P. and Hergt. . p. Lecture Series 34. 9. Iversen. Univ. Dzung. April 1960. M. : Calculation of Forced Whirling and Stability of Centrifugal Pump Rotor Systems. and Krieger. H. Hess. : Radial Forces in Centrifugal Pumps with Guide Vanes. . Eng. Symp. 1973. J. G. Meir: Untersuchungen der Radialkraft auf das Laufrad einer Kreiselpumpe bei Verschiedenen Spiralgehause-formen. P. 2. : Radial Force on the Impeller of Centrifugal Pumps with Volute. ed. 8. Black. 337. Denmark. Nobles. E. Inc.. R. : Numerical Solution of Inviscid Subsonic Flows. p. 7. Prentice Hall. Domm. Hergt. p. . 5. . and Bachmann. April 1960. Denmark. 1974. . Part 1. 13. 11. J. New York. H. J. Csanady. J. for Fluid Dynamics. . Tech. 1947. H. F. : Radial Forces on Impeller of Volute Casing Pumps. REFERENCES 1. 1971. 136. W. and Carlson. 184. 1979. 4. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers 1969-70. 1962. S. July 1965. L. J. p. Elsevier. Rolling. Agnostelli. G. H. 305 . Flow Research on Blading. Aug. vol. : Fluidkr�fternes Indvirkning pg Stabiliteten af Centrifugalpumper og Kompressorer. D. U. Von Karman Inst. p. 1974. and Concentric Casings. C. P. 120. P. . and Mockridge. Power. J. 193. 3N. . Eng. 14. Dept. Black. Eng. : Radial Forces on Hydraulic Turbomachinery. J. Wislicenus. Oct. Tech. 265 . Robertson. F. 101. Radial Force on the Impeller. of Machine Design. A. on Dynamics of Rotors. : Volute Pressure Distri­ bution. Eng. and Volute Mixing Losses of a Radial Flow Centrifugal Pump. L. J. J. J. p. : An Experimental Investi­ gation of Radial Thrust in Centrifugal Pumps. R. p. IUTAM. March 1971. 12. Colding-J�rgensen. 3. 1975. 1965. J. Industry. Power. Biheller. of Solid Mech. Sulzer Technical Review 1. T. H. : Hydrodynamics in Theory and Application.


namely. An optimum overhang distance of the rotor from the bearing­ support can also be found. Alford (ref. Trent and Lull (ref.D. fluid density and an increase in stiffness and external damping are all inducive for improved stability. Ehrich (ref. Bousso (ref.s). A parametric study of the dynamic stability boundary reveals that a reduction in blade stagger angle. INTRODUCTION An increasing number of severe failures in high speed compressors and turbines in recent years are attributable to whirling instability. high-solidity and equivalent flat plate cascade. and analyti­ cal expressions of the aerodynamic contributions are found for the case of small mean stream deflection. For a typical case. 2) and many others have reviewed the de­ stabilizing mechanisms.D. Meng1e Cornell University Ithaca. The forcing terms are from the self-induced aerodynamic forces due to the motion. Finally. 3) dealt only with the periphery of the rotor. This concept can be useful in the preliminary design o stage or for later improvements. In this paper.S. only a few studies have be " en con­ ducted regarding the fluid-dynamic forces acting on the blades themselves. but did not account for other effects produced by the same fluid forces. we adopt the usual modelling of an overhung rotor in its 'coning mode' to set up the dynamic equations of motion. and the whirling is 267 . 7) noted the important analogy between turbo­ rotor whirl and propeller whirl. To our knowledge. Ehrich (ref. when two or more opposing whirling mecha­ nisms are present. only backward whirl is indicated if the phase-shifting of the rotor wake effect is ignored. (Torque-whirl and tip-clearance effects can also be included in the R. the tip­ clearance and labyrinth seal forces. The exciting forces due to the motion are defined through a set of "rotor stability derivatives" (R. 5) and later Vance (ref. mutual annihilation is possible by making a certain whirling group "b " very small. Shapiro and Colsher (ref. Reference 4 includes various other mecha­ nisms acting between the rotor-circumference and its casing.S. mass-flow rate. The dynamic equations are formulated for the coning mode of an overhung rotor. NON-SYNCRHONOUS WHIRLING DUE TO FLUID-DYNAMIC FORCES IN AXIAL TURBO-MACHINERY ROTORS Shan Fu Shen and Vinod G. 1). 8) considered the fluid react­ ions based on Euler's turbine equations but his dynamic equation was later found to be in error. 6) analyzed the consequences of the tilting of load­ torque. New York 14853 SUMMARY The role of fluid-forces acting on the blades of an axial turbo-rotor with regards to whirling is analyzed.'s).

) R rotor tip radius c chord length s gap between adjacent chords D = ZsKa (e/rZ ')Z T kinetic energy e equivalent overhang shaft length t time F real part of wake function C V potential energy G imaginary part of wake function V absolute velocity C W relative velocity H J/1. The analysis follows the basic idea of propeller whirl but the details are carefully reworked for the cascade configuration in turbo-rotor systems.j unit vectors in axial flow angle of attack direction and opposite to n = r/R rotational speed. ra d" " 1US 0 f gyrat10n C Rotor Stability Derivative rZ z of rotor about pivotal axis as CR. coefficient of lift . ratio of inertias S angle of velocity component with 1 diagonal inertia matrix with respect to axial direction elements 1 I Mr .D. (rZ + e Z)l/Z . elemental lift cr = cis. SYMBOLS a . Our emphasis is to lay down a proper framework and outline the methodology� so that only systematic refinements and extensions are needed to yield results of practical significance. K = TIR p(l . respectively n hub-to-tip radius ratio J polar moment of inertia of rotor o 8 amplitude of pitch angle K diagonal stiffness matrix with 0 elements K coning angle 81 equivalent torsional spring azimuthal location of i th blade 81" from horizontal axis cascade interference factor 5 Z)/1.S. solidity ratio 268 .b displacements of shaft-center in M mass of rotor l l y.and z-directions respectively Z Z n )' annular mass flow M' TIR pV(l o C � diagonal dam ing matrix with rate - elements c e d m elemental moment C complex wake function r radial location CQ.Z' moment 0f 1nert1a " " 0 f rotor Y blade stagger angle Z about pivotal axis 11 change <5 A A i. reduced structural O 8 a of inertia of annular cylinder of frequency air to that of rotor k reduced aerodynamic frequency p fluid density Q.n ratio of moment w R/V .thus reduced to an eigenvalue problem much like flutter.

i. The angular tilt of the rotor axis essential for the coning mode is coupled to the radial deflection of the center of the rotor. the yaw. The shaft elastica remains in one plane due to infinite stiffness in torsion. 3. .� (1) x y z The dynamic equations are derived by using Lagrange's equations: 269 . The bearings are rigid and frictionless.y. 5. . etc. This simplest model focuses on the 'coning mode' and has all the characteristics necessary to produce the phenomenon under study. we have . . k and an equivalent.e. e and constant rotational speed �. 2. respectively. Figure 1 shows the real rotor shaft system and the idealized model considered in this paper.z in the direction of x. massless shaft of length. The center of mass of the rigid rotor is at its geometric center. prefixes. e and w . rigid. torsional spring. For small angular deflections �.: Re real part o steady value s inertial reference frame 1. w == � + �e . V/�R.2 inlet and exit stations x. w .y.z axes 1. 11' The notation l K = kl and e 11 is used in the main text. LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS OF MOTION The motion and instantaneous position of the rotor can be completely specified by the Euler angles �. (See reference 9 for = inadequacies in this model.2 refers to (�± w) in context 8 tangential direction with reduced frequencies for whirl reference value C) average value a axial direction (' ) perturbed value a () aerodynamic contribution C) matrix notation THE ROTOR MODEL A rotor on a flexible shaft is equivalent to a gyroscope tied to a rotat­ ing spring. tip mass-flow coefficient comp compressible amplitude of yaw angle eff effective w angular velocity vector inc incompressible IK/r 1m imaginary part Subscripts. The cantilevered shaft is approximated by an equivalent.2 forward and backward whirl w wake contribution 1.) 4. Some of the implications and further assumptions are: 1. pitch and azimuth angle as shown in figure 2. there is no imbalance or eccentricity. 8 and �t which are.

The quasi-steady lift for an airfoil in cascade depends on the instantan­ eous angle of attack and is given by (4) 270 . According to the principle of virtual work.f. we consider here only the quasi­ steady effect of inviscid. potential fluid flow on an axial turbo-compressor. the results may be written as: (3) In particular. (q i 1 = After simplifications. V = t � T • I • w - 1 T -q 2 _ D = Dissipation function = t qT. can produce unstable response. It fol­ z = lows that Q M and Q2 �.f. where. we have to make judicial adjustments for the cascade configurations.'s. as is well known. oW M o� + �T 06.D. Thus.o. in this paper. For a systematic treatment of the aerodynamic terms.e. Such external couplings. THE ROTOR STABILITY DERIVATIVES (R. These moments are found in the next section to be functions of both the gener­ alized d.f. L = Lagrange function = T . i i 1. note that I is the moment of inertia of the rotor about the "pivotal axis" and c is the "equivalent viscous damping coefficient" to ac­ d count for the damping effects assumed to be representable by an effective force applied at the tip of the shaft. abbreviated as R.S. oW = Virtual work and q Generalized degree of freedom (d. d<L1. �+�=Q (2) dt dq. the generalized forces are the pivotal 1 z = = moments Mz and My produced due to the fluid-dynamic forces acting on the rotor.. if anti-symmetric in nature. However.). 1.o. besides the anti-symmetric gyroscopic coupling due to ± JQ there also exists coupling due to the fluid­ dynamic forces. C • q Generalized force oW/ o q Qi = .S. As a first approximation. qi' and their derivatives.o. will be expressed as a set of 'rotor stability derivatives'. i.'s) The generalized forces caused by small perturbations of the d.D. ( �� ) d . the anal­ ogy of the present problem to propeller whirl treated in References 10 and 11 is obvious.

W 00 where component of /:"Woo parallel to Woo -+ -+ 271 . V�2 V a2 V ' The velocity triangles in figure 3c are a = = shown using these assumptions. W2' and R2' are approximately parallel to each other. M <\ + °2 (8) where. From kinematical relationships. the perturbed and steady relative outlet velocities. °1 tfJ sin �t . . the angle of the relative outlet velocity with respect to the blade is independent of the relative inlet flow angle and is equal to the equivalent flat plate stagger angle. small gap-to-chord ratio (sic f 0. 12). i. A circum­ ferential cut AA at any radial location unfolds a cascade of airfoils which can be represented simply by equivalent flat plates as shown in figure 3b (see ref. It is well known that. i. y. assuming constant radius cylindrical stream surfaces.7). "2 (WI + 2 (5) we get /:"W (6) -+ -+ 00 - W00' where.V el )/2W : Using the coefficient of lift for a flat-plate cascade (ref.D. (e� + �) r cos rlt (7) The angular tilt of the rotor axis and the compon