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How to take into account End Users’ needs: the Psycho

Socio-Economic Dimensions of the Rouen-Paris
Commuter Population Experience

Jan-Cedric Hansen, Jean-Philippe Carpentier, Alain Caussieu,
Sebastien Modicom and Claude Hansen-Glize

Proceedings of the 37th ESReDA Seminar, Baden, Swiss, October 22-23, 2009

London. Jean-Philippe Carpentier. Paris. Swiss. avenue de la Republique 75543. Paris. Baden.Proceedings of the 37th ESReDA Seminar. October 22-23. Alain Caussieu. W1J 6BD. France Alain Caussieu ESCP Europe Business School 79. France Jan-Cedric HANSEN 2 . United Kingdom Jean-Philippe Carpentier Carpentier-avocats 10 rue Saint marc 75002. Paris. Sebastien Modicom and Claude Hansen-Glize StratAdviser Ltd 2 nd Floor. Berkeley Square House. France Sebatien Modicom StratAdviser France 8 rue Saint Marc 75002. France Claude Hansen Chaine de Vie 59 rue du General Faidherbe 76600. 2009 How to take into account End Users’ needs: the Psycho- Socio-Economic Dimensions of the Rouen-Paris Commuter Population Experience Jan-Cedric Hansen. Le Havre.

on a daily basis. with the remaining 75% travels 2nd class. crew. Swiss. We therefore studied the perception of Commuters’ (as End Users) needs by the Operator and tried to identify whether the Operator was willing to share this knowledge with the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM). global survey organisations such as the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS)2. Profusion of literature on this subject is available regarding International communication1. OEM. Introduction The commitment of the OEM to deliver and to generate customer confidence is a massive challenge. SAF 1. mainly due to a decreased Availability of equipment (a prime example is the constant shortage of 1st class coaches) and the increased problems in Maintainability for an aging fleet of rolling stock that is oftentimes more than 30 years old. One of the ways to answer this is to integrate the needs of the end customers from the earliest stages of the design phase. Roughly 25% of this commuter population travels 1st class. After surveying the situation. the Norwegian fishing industry 3 or even in the Health Informatics field4. twice per day. Keywords: End Users. The Rouen-Paris train commuter population is believed to cover 6. Jan-Cedric HANSEN 3 . as the OEM direct clients. End users integration maximises the design phase in the best possible manner. Baden. In order to evaluate how an operator collect. Commuters have experienced a loss in Reliability. Strategy. and support technicians and that the Operator doesn’t have the appropriate strategy to identify their needs and respond to them although numerous methodology are available. they are responsible for such data communication.Proceedings of the 37th ESReDA Seminar. It is therefore relevant to evaluate how operators scrutinize their End Users’ needs because. Both 1st and 2nd class Commuters have experienced a loss in Reliability. Commuters. the inescapable conclusion is that there are different kinds of End Users: commuters.000 individuals who travel 130 km. creating sustainable added value through a people-centric approach. mainly due to a decreased Availability of equipment and the increased problems in Maintainability for an aging fleet of rolling stock that is oftentimes more than 30 years old. October 22-23. analyse and understand End users’ needs we choose to focus on the 130 km long Rouen-Paris SNCF liaison and the relationship between Commuters and the French Railway Operator. By using embedded knowledge within the organization. optimal overall equipment effectiveness over a lifetime is achieved. 2009 Abstract The Rouen-Paris train commuter population travel 130 km.

Commuters are defined by End Users using the “Corail Intercités” (Intercity liaison) service between Rouen and Paris more than 3 times per Week. October 22-23. 3127 and 3131 from Paris to Rouen  Perception of this regularity from the Commuters point of view  Perception of the equipment adequacy of those trains regarding the ability to perform work while commuting  Perception of the equipment adequacy of those trains regarding Commuters expectations in terms of comfort  Mean number of technical incident onboard of those trains  Mean number of technical incident on the rail track. have varied requirements.Proceedings of the 37th ESReDA Seminar. end-users may also be referred to as “consumers”. The semi directive interview covered topics such as:  Management procedure of Service Affecting Failures (SAF)  RAMS policy at the Rouen-Paris  Importance of Commuters in terms of economic impact  Perception of Commuters’ needs and ways to integrate them  Interest to international meetings such as ESReDA  Knowledge sharing policy with OEM Following the Interview. End-users may range in expertise and awareness. In order to assess the question we interviewed the Director of both the Cherbourg- Paris and Le Havre-Paris liaison of the SNCF. 3102 and 3106 from Rouen to Paris as well as trains 3125. The Semi directive interview was focused on the Rouen-Paris section. Material & Method End-users are people. Required data were:  Number of subscribers (weekly or monthly subscriptions) on the Rouen-Paris segment  Percentage of these Commuters regarding the total number of passengers per month  Regularity (less than 10 min late) of trains 3104. whatever the age or gender. As such. including those with detailed technical knowledge as well as people whose focus is on human factors such as usability. the French Railway Operator. Baden. including people. They are a diverse group. This interview was made possible by the direct involvement of SNCF HQ which the authors would like to thank for their support. groups of people and organisations that use or consume Railway Operator products and services. whether they are organisations or people. faced by those trains  Mean number of information release due to traffic incident  Qualitative perception of information release in case of traffic incident Jan-Cedric HANSEN 4 . Swiss. End-users. level of income. 2009 2. geographic environment or work activities. the SNCF released some data extracted from their own data files and from a market study performed earlier in the year by the IPSOS institute.

2009 Authors made it clear that information from the IPSOS market study and the proprietary data base should be paired or at least cover the same time period in order to allow comparison. Additionally the Director of both the Cherbourg-Paris and Le Havre-Paris liaison was reluctant to deliver the appropriate authorization to perform Crew Members and Commuters interviews on board while commuting. Authors managed to perform face to face meetings with a small sample of Crew members and Commuters outside the trains and SNCF railway stations on a non formal basis.”  “Commuters have representatives thanks to their association therefore there is no communication issues with them”  “Commuters benefit from undue privileges such as a lower price as other travellers and it is impossible to change this because if we would do so they will block the rail track”  “There is no need to perform any elasticity market study regarding the Commuters travel fare”  “Other travellers are satisfied by our offer whereas commuters aren’t therefore it is more important to focus on the first category”  “First class commuters should be happy with the simple fact that they commute and stop complain about irrelevant topics”  “We pay much attention to Commuters from Vernon (a town between Rouen and Paris) because should they block the rail track it would have a bigger impact than others”  “Crew members do their duty to cope with Commuters”  “Commuters are always complaining about something” Jan-Cedric HANSEN 5 .com although designed to deliver reports of traffic incidents erase any data after 24 hours. In addition the ban on our study prevented us to select interviewees on a random basis. The official site http://www. Data provided by the SNCF weren’t backed up by any reference or datasheets or any other way to check relevance and robustness. Nevertheless. 3. Swiss. October 22-23. Unfortunately the number of interview (8 Crew Members & 8 Commuters) is insufficient to perform relevant statistical analysis of the content. You have no time to spend on those when you operate a complex business unit such as the Cherbourg-Paris and Le Havre-Paris liaison. Therefore results are purely of qualitative nature. Results The interview of the Director of both the Cherbourg-Paris and Le Havre-Paris liaison responsible for the Rouen-Paris segment allowed collecting the following verbatim:  “RAMS. The allegation being that “the IPSOS study gives all the response the SNCF need”. Baden. Therefore authors are unable to provide any graph or chart regarding those data.infolignes. SAF. and their related workshops are interesting but with low return on investment.Proceedings of the 37th ESReDA Seminar. Authors apologize for the limitations in their work imposed by the Operator and will include this fact in the discussion.

”  “The new TER 2N NG Alstom Coaches and engines seem to be reliable unlike the 30 year old Corail material. selected verbatim reveal the followings:  “There is more than just one type End Users.”  “The engines that operate on the Rouen-Paris segment are more than 15 years old and do not support very well the new optic fibre multiplex reversibility system that was recently adapted to allow the reversibility of trains. 2009  “The IPSOS study demonstrate that we are doing pretty well and that our clients are happy with what we deliver”  “Being ten minutes late is nothing and travellers should stop complain about this. 8. the engine driver.” Jan-Cedric HANSEN 6 . the maintenance team and certainly more. Ten minutes delay for a 80 minutes trip is not really a matter regarding the complexity of the segment”  “Those Rouen-Paris Commuters are people who deserted Paris to pay less rent. crew members.”  “We do not get support from our management. October 22-23. ** It is impossible for the SNCF to collect any data regarding the mean number of broadcasts information in case of Service Affecting Failures. Baden. From the Crew members’ point of view.1% of selected trains experienced less than 10 minutes delay on arrival (SNCF data)  25% of travellers are satisfied or very satisfied with the regularity of the Rouen-Paris segment (IPSOS data)  47% of travellers are satisfied or very satisfied with the dedicated work environment in trains with 76% satisfaction when it comes to the TER 2N NG Alstom Coaches* (IPSOS data)  69% of travellers are satisfied or very satisfied with the cosiness of trains with 80% satisfaction when it comes to the TER 2N NG Alstom Coaches* (IPSOS data)  29% of travellers are satisfied or very satisfied with the quality of information in case of Service Affecting Failures** (IPSOS data)  70% overall satisfaction of travellers on the Rouen-Paris segment (IPSOS data) * TER 2N NG Alstom Coaches are dedicated to interregional transportation. You have commuters. Swiss.Proceedings of the 37th ESReDA Seminar. Therefore they should pay more while commuting”  “Last year we gained more clients than we lost so there is no need to worry about Commuters’ dissatisfaction” SNCF data are supposed to cover the January-March 2009 (Q1) period while the IPSOS study was performed between the 29th of March and the 4th of April. Our daily reports of Service Affecting Failures seem to become lost in the management pipeline. Provided data are as follow5:  1400 Commuters on the Rouen-Paris segment. It would be nice to be on schedule but we are not in a perfect world.4% of 2009 Q1 travels (SNCF data)  84. Non formal face to face interviews of Crew members and Commuters stress the followings.

No room for legs. harsh seats. and so on. They do not understand the specificity of commuters’ relationship. It is outside the field of their own experience.”  “For the past two years there has been a rising concern about commuters but only during a couple of meetings.”  “What means on time nowadays?”  “I have negative comments from my boss about the fact that I commute. So far Commuters haven’t perceive a direct impact because the new TER 2N NG Alstom Coaches are clearly positioned for the interregional transport and not the Jan-Cedric HANSEN 7 . They look nice but are awful.”  “Most of our managers have a pure engineering background nowadays.”  “We expect to share the German experience regarding our new market rules”  “Our future is to work alone in the trains. They should put more pressure on the SNCF!” 4. We know that each train control will generate verbal assaults and insults from desperate commuters which generates anxiety that I need to manage with my team before we get on board. Too much chance that I’ll be late. I am sure that my professional stagnation in my company is linked to it. I cannot accept appointments before 10 am anymore. October 22-23.They cannot understand why the regional government seems to have little concern for the plight of the train commuter. If the relationship with commuters doesn’t improve it’s going to be a nightmare. 2009  “We are left helpless in front on angry commuters.”  “We have the feeling that the SNCF abandon us to concentrate on interregional trains and TGVs. Meanwhile the regional government invest on new TER 2N NG Alstom Coaches in order to respond to what they believe to be Commuters’ needs. Swiss.”  “The systematic shortage of 1st class coaches compels many of us to travel standing or in 2nd Class which prevents us from working while commuting. They used to work for the maintenance.”  “When you realize the amount of money we inject in the Normandy economy we should get more attention from our politics. It is highly frustrating. Mainly because of the coming end of our monopole in 2012. . selected verbatim reveal the followings:  “What surprises me is the more and more frequent association between delays and technical problems rather than network issues. It is more an intellectual question than a real issue to anticipate until now. And I cannot migrate my activity back in Normandy. Baden.”  “We suffer from daily delays! And we can’t do anything about this!”  “The new coaches are a joke! There is less 1st class seats and no cosiness at all”  “I simply boycott those new coaches! They are not design for us or for such travels.” From the Commuters’ point of view. Therefore they expect their local government to put pressure on the operator in order to improve their travel conditions because of their self perceived critical economic weight.”  “I am trapped. Discussion Many Commuters feel that Normandy's GDP benefits greatly from their earning in Paris and spending in Rouen.Proceedings of the 37th ESReDA Seminar.

Obviously the SNCF doesn’t pay attention to collect what can be relevant data in view of both End Users’ Needs analysis and Service Affecting Failures. and increase public confidence in standards. causing consequences to his client. crew members are currently ask to collect the number of 2nd class Commuters travelling 1st class due to overload of passengers but never the number of the 1st class Commuters who are compelled to travel 2nd class due to insufficient number of coaches. performance.  by giving examples of how products and services are actually used (or not used as intended) in practice. October 22-23. privacy. interoperability and backwards compatibility into consideration. It is now 80 minutes.3% longer with a 20% chance to be more than 90 minutes when it comes to the commuters’ trains.  by providing data on safety aspects to enable safety matters to be properly addressed. compatibility and interoperability while the Marketing side knows that End Users can contribute in many ways:  by ensuring processes are open and transparent. quality. Swiss. ease-of-use. As an example. which will lead to greater fairness and effectiveness in standards-setting. In other word the Operational side of the French Railway Operator neglect the key actor when it comes to assess End Users’ issues such as health. In other word one Commuters’ train out of five takes more than 90 minutes to travel 130 km. caused by a crew member unable to latch a door could cause great impact: A lawyer could arrive late in Court.  by being involved in product testing as well as feasibility and pilot studies.  by broadening potential markets for products and services and increasing global trade through the development of standards that take flexibility. security and end-user protection. This introduces a huge bias in Service Affecting Failures data analysis and End Users’ satisfaction evaluation. What if an OEM decides that 20% of its production shall not respect anymore the agreed specifications with its client Operator? From the Commuters’ point of view Crew Members are perceived to have little empathy for the impact that small and/or more important delays have on busy professionals.  by assisting in keeping design costs down through avoiding the need for costly revisions. Two years ago the official travel time from Rouen to Paris was 70 minutes. roughly 14. reliability. Baden. a delay in a reputedly on-time train network. usability. 2009 intercity they are using. Indeed some of this material connects Rouen to Paris while performing its duty but it is not the positioning therefore End Users do not perceive this as a response to their specific needs (one reason being the numerous stops between Rouen and Paris that impair the usefulness of this service from their point of view). The Operator satisfies itself with 90 % of its trains arriving on time plus 10 minutes6. As an example extracted from authors’ interviews. environmental protection. Surprisingly Crew Members seem not to complain about this increase of time in duty and remain silent on that matter. accessibility.Proceedings of the 37th ESReDA Seminar. a self-employed businessperson could have a drastic shortcut in his Jan-Cedric HANSEN 8 .  by contributing expertise about end user needs. safety.

children or people with disabilities. Other limitations rise when ascertaining the best interest of End Users.Proceedings of the 37th ESReDA Seminar. legal and technological factors8. some research teams are looking for improving existing computer-based inclusive design tools such as HADRIAN as does the Department of Design and Technology of the Loughborough University in the UK. A simple solution consists of implementing a procedure to convene regular meetings allowing direct exchanges between the development team and a sample of End Users. cultural. The main disadvantages include potential discrepancies between the decisions and conclusions of surrogates and End Users. the key advantage of surrogate involvement in decisions making process is their ability to represent End Users' needs. A combine team from Gif-Sur-Yvette and INSERM identified that it is necessary to involve specialists to analyze. The environment. The inability of the SNCF to involve itself in the analysis of its End Users and its propensity to share its own perception of their needs is similar to the situation of certain patients’ surrogates who advocate their own representation of End Users' perspectives while those patients are unable to present their views because they are elderly people. has created a breeding ground for hooliganism. Unfortunately. In order to overcome such issues. possible biased decisions which nurture the burden on surrogates. And it doesn’t help matters when crew members flippantly tell the stories of workers who lost their jobs as a result of recurrent tardiness. Swiss. This situation has led many Rouen-Paris Commuters to believe that they have been betrayed by the operator for the sake of the more “innovative” equipment such as the TGV or the newer TER 2N NG Alstom coaches. Baden. A systematic review of literature published in peer-reviewed journals from 1990 to 2005 revealed that critical issues in using surrogates include key ethical. the integration of users' representatives in the design process is a good point for End Users. namely data on users that is accessible. On the other end. Their current research addresses two common needs for designers and ergonomists working towards developing more inclusive products and environments. this methodology remains insufficient to resolve the complex usability problems of any system. potential conflict of interest. social. Those meetings aim at getting users' feedbacks on the existing material and at validating further developments. valid. values and wishes. Crew Members clearly perceive the stress of Commuters but feel desperate because they do not see any impact of their numerous warnings forwarded to their management. with its rising amount of disgruntled Commuters. and applicable and a means of utilising the data to Jan-Cedric HANSEN 9 . The plain and simple fact that a small group can block the entire system by a simple assault of a representative of the operator on a “power trip” demonstrates a great Safety risk for all parties involved7. 2009 income for upsetting a client. the failure of surrogates to predict End Users' preferences accurately and the lack of certainty that useful information will be obtained through the surrogacy process as highlighted by our own study. re-interpret and re-formulate End Users' expression of their needs and to properly formalize the requirements for design purposes9. On the contrary. October 22-23. On the other hand.

or worse11. and translation of research evidence into local policy and practice. By doing so. This includes data on an individual's ability to undertake a variety of transport-related tasks. and desired beliefs and behaviours from the operator and end user point of view on the other side. agreement is fair. but must contrarily concentrate on situational specifics. interpretation. coping with uneven surfaces. This data can be analysed and interpreted by OEM. These think tanks could bring together engineers. the safety and the reliability of the equipment is a key success factor from a legal point of view because they allow prevent most of the OEM legal risks. Such market research needs to avoid current standard questionnaire irrelevant to crisis communication. Knowledge-brokering can be carried out by individuals. lack of advice or security warnings within these communications. for example. beliefs and behaviours on one side. marketers and crisis communication specialists. access. These pitfalls could ultimately lead to unpredictable variations of performance. Another inspirational source can be the Knowledge Broker approach. In fact. Such studies are best completed with semi-directive interviews with representatives of all stakeholders. 5. The idea is to provide a link between research producers and End Users by developing a mutual understanding of goals and cultures. Currently their tool is being expanded to support transport design. This is a popular knowledge translation and exchange strategy emerging in Canada to promote interaction between researchers and End Users. as well as to develop capacity for evidence-informed decision making. When looking to achieve RAMS goals it is important to anticipate two potential pitfalls: lack of respect for RAMS by humans and unexpected interactions between humans and RAMS. Maintainability and Safety benefit from appropriate attention because Jan-Cedric HANSEN 10 . the absence of communication from the OEM to the End Users could cause exposure to increased legal liability OEM based on. Additionally. 2009 assess the accessibility of designs during the early stages of development10. requiring increased responsiveness and adaptability from the system to prevent incidents or crisis situations. again. assessment. and facilitates the identification. groups and/or organizations12. agreement between expert evaluators and End Users on the value of the output is usually moderate and that for the more subjective explicative components. poor. Limitation of such computer based tools is that. Tomorrow this tool will compare an individual's physical. street furniture and complex pedestrian environments. a prodigious amount of invaluable data is generated through the reporting of crew members. such as vehicle ingress/egress.Proceedings of the 37th ESReDA Seminar. steps. Baden. collaborates with End Users to identify issues and problems for which solutions are required. cognitive and emotional abilities with the demands placed upon that individual by the mode(s) of transport available and the route options selected. by think tanks. Swiss. Conclusion Appropriate mean to generate embedded knowledge is to rely on a well-designed market study targeted to identify the end user's current needs. However. October 22-23. Special attention should be paid to the End Users' satisfaction criteria in order to integrate them at the earliest stage of the design phase as well as later on in the process. in cooperation with operators. one must admit that although Reliability.

Safer work clothing for fishermen. Porter JM. Jan-Cedric HANSEN 11 . 2009 4. 2009. Acknowledgements Authors would like to thanks Jeffrey Taylor and John Bruton for their editorial support. Pelayo S.Proceedings of the 37th ESReDA Seminar. and support technicians – and this reality will not go away. From users involvement to users' needs understanding: A case study. 2009. Int Marit Health. Int J Med Inform. Doyle D.33(3):335-44. References 1 ITU-T Recommendation F. 4 Talmon J.4:23. October 22-23. Scand J Caring 3 Geving IH. The inadequacy between the original specifications provided by Operators and their clients’ real expectations is the key reason why OEM should investigate those by themselves as the key success factor of sustained market growth. Ammenwerth E.9(2):74-80. A description of a knowledge broker role implemented as part of a randomized controlled trial evaluating three knowledge translation strategies. Work. Ciliska D et al. Robeson P. The perception of this phenomenon is obscured because so far the gain of new clients is still outpaces the loss of clients at the operator level.unesco. crew. the inescapable conclusion is that there are different kinds of End Users: Commuters. Sandsund M et al. 2006. 7. After surveying the situation. 2009 they belong to the same mostly mechanical concepts. Swiss. The HADRIAN approach to accessible transport.790. McQuillen KK et al.57(1-4):94-102. Reitan J. 12 Dobbins M. 2008 May. West J Emerg Med. Baden. 2009 9 9 Niès J. 2009 Apr 27. STARE-HI--Statement on reporting of evaluation studies in Health Informatics. 5 Data provided by SNCF 6 Data provided by SNCF 7 Les Echos 13 january 2009. 11 Walsh P. The representation of healthcare End Users' perspectives by surrogates in healthcare decisions: a literature review. 8 Shah SG. Telecommunications accessibility guidelines for older persons and persons with disabilities 2 http://ioc. Farrow A. Robinson I. while Availability remains isolated and often neglected because it belongs to a different kind of conceptual group in which the human factor comes into play.78(1):1-9. Brender J et al. Implement Sci. 10 Marshall R. Sims R et al. 6. even if we focus on Commuters. Int J Med Inform. Comparison of the evaluations of a case-based reasoning decision support tool by specialist expert reviewers with those of End Users.