Rotordynamlc
Instability
Problems In
HighPerformance
·
Turbomachinery 1982 
Proceedings of a workshop
held at Texas A&M University
College Station, Texas
May 1012, 1982
NI\S/\
NASA Conference Publication 2250
Rofordynami
Insfa iii
Problems in
HighPerforman
Turbomachinery 1 
Proceedings of a workshop sponsored
by Texas A&M University, College Station,
Texas, and the U.S. Army Research Office,
Durham, North Carolina, and held at
Texas A&M University
College Station, Texas
May 1012, 1982
National Aeronautics
and Space Administration
Scientific and Technical
Information Branch
1982
PREFACE
An appreciation of this workshop's proceedings is enhanced by a look
b ackward at the proceedings of the first workshop, which was held at Texas A&M
University on May 1214, 1980. The initial workshop was organized in response
to severe instability problems that had been encountered in the development of
space shuttle main engine turbopumps and various commercial multistage com
p ressors. The first workshop proceedings emphasized a feeling of uncertainty
in predicting the stability characteristics of turbomachinery based on per
plexing and, in many cases, unexplainable results obtained in field experien
ces with unstable turbomachinery. Further, many proposed analyses and models
for forces, particularly fluid forces, developed in turbomachinery were
clearly speculative and were largely unsupported by test data.
The present workshop proceedings demonstrates that many of the uncertain
ties that were present two years ago have been substantially reduced. To a
considerable extent, papers presented herein report the results of programs
that have been established to systematically resolve the problems of predic
ting stability characteristics of highperformance turbomachinery. The em
phasis on experimental validation of the forces that influence rotordynamics
1S particularly. encouraging.
This second workshop was organized to address the general problem of
rotordynamic instability by gathering those persons with immediate interest,
experience, and knowledge for a discussion and review of both past stability
problems and present research and development efforts. The intent of the
workshop organizers and sponsors is that the workshop and these proceedings
provide a continuing impetus for an understanding and resolution of these
problems.
Chairmen:
Dara W. Childs and
John M. Vance
Texas A&M University
Robert C. Hendricks
NASA Lewis Research Center
111
DEDICATION
The proceedings of this workshop is
respectfully dedicated to the memory of
Lawrence P. Ludwig, Chief of the
Mechanical Components Branch, NASA Lewis
Research Center. Mr. Ludwig died on
September 11, 1981, after an extended
illness. He is survived by his widow,
two daughters, and a son.
Larry's research on seals over a
period of two decades resulted 1n
advances in sealing technology that
significantly affected the design of a
broad range of machines from aircraft
t urbine engines,
_ rocket engine turbo
pumps, and rdtorcraft transmissions to commercial pumps and com
pressors. He was an internationally recognized expert on sealing
technology and the holder of numerous patents on seals. He was
coinventor of the lift pad or selfacting seal, which has advanced
the speed and pressure ratio capability of face seals in advanced
turbine engines, turbopumps, and compressors, significantly im
proving their efficiency. He is the inventor of two new shaft
riding seals that extend both the speed capability and life of
transmissions. One of these seals, now standard F1uipment on both
a commercial and a military helicopter, has great._ reduced main
tenance costs and downtime.
With the evolution of selfacting seals into the applications
stage he concentrated his efforts on leading research on gas path
sealing for turbine engines. The first of several promising con
cepts was engine tested and should significantly reduce turbine
engine fuel consumption.
Without the multiplicity of improvements in seal technology
for which Larry was responsible, highspeed turbomachines would be
far less advanced than they are today. He was awarded the NASA
Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal.
v
CONTENTS
Page
FIELD EXPERIENCES WITH UNSTABLE TURBOMACHINERY
ROTORDYNAMIC INSTABILITY FIELD PROBLEMS
J. C. Wachel . . • . 1
FIELD EXPERIENCES WITH RUB INDUCED INSTABILITIES IN TURBOMACHINERY
David G. Goggin. • . 20
ANALYSIS OF A TURBINE ROTOR CONTAINING A TRANSVERSE
CRACK AT OAK CREEK UNIT 17
G. W. Rogers, C. A. Rau, Jr., J. J. Kottke, and R. H. Menning. • • • • • • • • 33
ASPECTS OF COULOMB DAMPING IN ROTORS SUPPORTED
ON HYDRODYNAMIC BEARINGS
P. G. Morton • • • . • • 45
MECHANICAL INSTABILITY MECHANISMS AND MODELS
INSTABILITIES OF GEARED COUPLINGS  THEORY AND PRACTICE
R. Gordon Kirk, Roy E. Mondy, and Richard C. Murphy • • 58
SHAFT VIBRATIONS IN TURBOMACHINERY EXCITED BY CRACKS
Burkhard Grabowski • • • • • • • 81
DETERMINATION OF BALL BEARING DYNAMIC STIFFNESS
R. F. Beatty and B. F. Rowan • . 98
ROTOR VIBRATION CAUSED B Y EXTERNAL EXCITATION AND RUB
Osami Matsushita, Michiyuki Takagi,
Katsuaki Kikuchi, and Makio Kaga . . . • • . . • • . • • • • • • . • • • • • • 105
SEAL FORCES IN TURBOMACHINERY
LINEAR FORCE AND MOMENT EQUATIONS FOR AN ANNULAR SMOOTH SHAFT SEAL
PERTURBED BOTH ANGULARLY AND LATERALLY
J. Fenwick, R. DiJulio, M. C. Ek, R. Ehrgott, H. Green,
and S. Shaolian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • • . • • • • . . • • • . . • . • 130
MEASUREMENT OF INTERSTAGE FLUIDANNULUS DYNAMICAL PROPERTIES
M. L. Adams, E. Makay, and I. A. DiazTous • . . • . • . . . • . . • . • • 147
TESTING OF TURBULENT SEALS FOR ROTORDYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS
Dara W. Childs and John B. Dressman . • . . . . • • . . • . . • 157
vii
A HIGHREYNOLDSNUMBER SEAL TEST FACILITY: FACILITY DESCRIPTION
AND PRELIMINARY TEST DATA
Dara W. Childs, Clayton Nelson, Ted Noyes, and John B. Dressman. 172
VIBRATION ANDDESTABILIZING EFFECTS OF FLOATING
RING SEALS IN COMPRESSORS
Mark F. Emerick. • • • • • • • • • 187
FLOW INDUCED FORCE OF LABYRINTH SEAL
Takuzo Iwatsubo, Naoto Motooka, and Roji Kawai 205
CIRCUMFERENTIAL PRESSURE DISTRIBUTIONS IN A MODEL LABYRINTH SEAL
Y: M. M. S. Leong and R. D. Brown • • 223
MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION OF SWIRLTYPE FLOW IN LABYRINTH
SEALS OF CONVENTIONAL TURBINE STAGES
L. Hauck • • . • • . • • • • • • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF ALFORD'S FORCE
IN AXIAL FLOW TURBOMACHINERY
John M. Vance and Frank J. Laudadio • • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
GENERAL THEORY OF STABILITY
HEURISTIC EXPLANATION OF JOURNAL BEARING INSTABILITY
Stephen H. Cranda ll. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 274
INFLUENCE OF PARAMETER CHANGES TO INSTABILITY BEHAVIOR OF ROTORS
Claus P. Fritzen and Rainer Nordmann • • • • • • • • • • • 0 • • 284
STABILITY EVALUATION OF ROTOR/BEARING SYSTEM BY PERTURBATION TESTS
Donald E. Bently and Agnieszka Muszynska • • • • • • • • • • . . . . . . . 307
WORKING FLUID FORCES IN TURBOMACHINERY
AERODYNAMIC STIFFNESS OF AN UNBOUND ECCENTRIC WHIRLING
CENTRIFUGAL IMPELLER WITH AN INFINITE NUMBER OF BLADES
Paul E. Allaire, Lyle A. Branagan, and John A. Kocur . , . . . . • • • • • . . . 323
UNSTEADY FLOW PHENOMENA IN INDUSTRIAL CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR STAGE
L.IBonciani, L. Terrinoni, and A. Tesei • • • • • • • • • . . . . . . . . . . . 344
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SUBSYNCHRONOUS ROTATING FLOW PATTERNS
IN CENTRIFUGALCOMPRESSORS WITH VANELlSS DIFFUSERS
P. Frigne and R. Van Den Braembussche • • • • • • • . . . . . . . . . . . 365
EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS OF HYDRODYNAMIC STIFFNESS
MATRICES FOR A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP IMPELLER
D. S. Chamieh, A. J. Acosta, C. E. Brennen,
T. K. Caughey, and R. Franz. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 382
viii
GAS TURBINE ROTOR/CASE STRUCTURAL RESPONSE TO ROTATING STALL:
EXPERIMENTAL DOCUMENTATION AND ANALYTICAL APPROACH
Philip J. Haley • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . . . . . . . . . . 399
CONTROL OF ROTOR INSTABILITIES
INVESTIGATION OF SQUEEZEFILM DAMPERS IN FLEXIBLE SUPPORT STRUCTURES
R. Holmes and M. Dogan. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 415
VIBRATION LIMITING OF ROTORS BY FEEDBACK CONTROL
David W. Lewis, JamesW. Moore,
Philip L. Bradle,
y and Paul E. Allaire • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 434
EVALUATION OF SHEAR MOUNTED ELASTOMERIC DAMPER
E. ZorziandJ. Walton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
l.X
ROIDRDYNAMIC INSTABILITI FIELD PROBLBVIS
J. C. Wachel
Southwest Research Institute
San Antonio, Texas 78284
SUMMARY
Vibration data obtained during several rotor instability investigations is
presented to illustrate the effect of changes in system parameters on overall rotor
stability. The data includes the effects of bearing and seal changes as well as
those due to variations in speed and pressure ratio. Field problems indicate that
the stability of rotors is often highly sensitive to fairly minor variations in
bearing and seal parameters. Measured field data is valuable in normalizing analyt
ical computer models so that effective solutions can be obtained.
INTRODUCTION
Rotor instability vibrations in compressors and turbines have occurred more
frequently in recent years and have caused severe failures and costly downtime for
several large projects. Rotor instabilities can occur in flexible shaft units which
operate above their first critical speed. The whirling instability frequency is
usually near one of the shaft critical speeds and can be caused by many factors,
including hydrodynamic cross coupling of bearings and seals, internal friction, aero
dynamic cross coupling, and torsional coupling. The whirling motion can be subsyn
chronous or supersynchronous, and may be forward or backward precession; however, in
general most problems are subsynchronous and have forward whirl.
During the past few years, vibration data has been collected on several compres
sors that have experienced severe shaft instabilities. These compressors differed
in manufacture, shaft diameter, weight, bearing span, critical speeds, and running
speed. The spectral characteristics of shaft vibrations were observed as the
compressors/turbines approached the ons�t of instability; i.e., before the machine
experienced the high level vibrations normally associated with unbounded instabil
ities. On most units that have instability problems, a trace of vibration at some
instability frequency normally exists at all times; however, it is not possible to
verify the severity of the instability from vibration measurements at one operating
condition. The threshold of instability can be fully defined only from testing over
the full performance range of the machine, and even this approach is not always com
pletely adequate. Some units have run satisfactorily for several years before
serious instability tripouts occurred. After one year of satisfactory operation,
one compressor failed eight times in the next three years from instabilities.
Because the stability margin on some units is so delicately balanced, its character
istics can be drastically changed whenever small changes are made in factors such as
pressure ratio, flow, bearing clearance, oil temperature, unbalance, alignment, etc.,
or upsets in the process such as liquid slugs, surge transients, or electrical
tripouts.
It follows, therefore, that the threshold of stability can likewise be improved
by small changes in these same parameters, but the exact improvement required to make
an unstable system stable is sometimes difficult to predict.
The most sensitive elements which influence rotor stability include the fol
lowing: (1) hydrodynamic cross coupling in fluid film bearings, seals, and laby
rinths, (2) aerodynamic cross coupling forces, (3) hysteretic or internal friction
damping, (4) pulsations, (5) pulsating torque and axial loads, (6) asymmetric
shafting, (7) fluid trapped in rotor, (8) stickslip rubs and chatter, (9) dry fric
tion whip.
To properly calculate the stability margin of a rotor, the mathematical model
must be able to simulate all possible destabilizing components. The logarithmic dec
rement evaluation of rotor system damping is useful for predicting rotor stability.
Field experience shows that while this technique provides proper direction in
designing for stability, uncertainty still exists in quantitatively predicting the
onset of instability and defining the contribution of individual influencing
parameters.
When instability vibrations occur in installed machinery, better estimates of
t he possible effects of system changes can be made if measured field data is avail
able for normalization of the mathematical model. The normalization procedures com
pensate for unknown dimensional variations which affect bearing and seal properties
and adjust for actual aerodynamic loading. This paper will present measured field
data gathered over the past nine years on several machines which exhibited instabil
ities (ref. 1). The data analysis techniques presented were used to define rotor
stability thresholds and the effects of modifications to seals, bearings, shafts, and
process variations.
CASE 1. INSTABILITY OF A STEAM TURBINE
On startup of a steam turbine after a complete turnaround in which new pressure
pad bearings were installed, the measured shaft vibrations indicated the turbine
first critical speed was at 1800 rpm as shown in figure 1 which gives the amplitude
and phase angle response versus speed. When the unit speed approached 4800 rpm, a
s ubsynchronous instability at 1800 cpm suddenly appeared (fig. 2).
A stability analysis revealed that the calculated logarithmic decrement for this
rotor with tight bearing clearances was only 0.04. Investigations were made into
possible field modifications to improve the stability that could be implemented in a
short time. Calculations showed that if the pressure pad bearing clearance was
increased and the bearing length reduced, then the logarithmic decrement increased to
0.2 with the critical frequency remaining near 1800 cpm.
The bearings were then modified and installed. Vibration data with the new
bearings is shown in figure 3. The turbine speed could be increased to 5100 rpm
without any instability occurring and the unit has continued to operate without
instabilities. This case illustrates that some instability problems can be solved by
fairly simple modifications.
CASE 2. STEAM TURBINE INSTABILITY IN A METHANOL PLANT (ref. 2)
This case deals with a 13,000 hp, 10,600 rpm, three stage steam turbine. The
rotor had pressure pad bearings at a bearing span of 236 cm (60 inches). The bear
ings were later changed to 5 shoe tilted pad bearings in an attempt to eliminate the
half speed problems which occurred at maximum speed. Data taken during the t urbine
startup with the new bearings (fig. 4) revealed a vibration component at onehalf
speed when the speed reached 7200 rpm, thus showing that the change to tilted pad
bearings was not sufficient to eliminate the half speed vibrations. During subse
2
eight stage compressor with backtoback impellers (fig. The 22. These included changing the seal design. 5).3 times the running speed. The turbine running speed suddenly dropped 200 rpm. very little experimental data is available in the open tech nical literature.quent runs. the instability component at 10.08 compared to 0. INSTABILITY OF GAS REINJECTION COMPRESSOR (ref. two circumferential grooves w ere cut into the sealing surface of the seals. The frequency of the non synchronous instability was 4400 cpm which was higher than the calculated rigid bearing critical speed of 4200 cpm. This case illustrates that changing to tilted pad bearings may improve the stability characteristics of a rotor but does not neces sarily eliminate instabilities. To improve the rotor instability. The compressor was still unstable. In the computer simulation of this shaft. 9). only slight changes were required to control the instabilities. neglecting the effect of the seals.5 mils). Frequency analyses made later showed that the subsynchronous vibration compo nents were also different on the horizontal and vertical probes of the turbine (fig. The units were monitored by shaft vibration probes which automatically shut down the unit whenever the vibrations exceeded 64 �m (2.000 cpm 3 . Several modifications were implemented that reduced the magnitude of the insta bility.000 horsepower. During another run a subsynchronous frequency occurred at approximately 0. two subharmonic criticals at 4500 and 7000 cpm were excited as well as the half speed component (fig. CASE "3. how ever. Floating oil seals were located a few inches inboard of the bearings. These areas are of major concern to rotordynamists. Using this stiffness for the oil seals the calculated log decrement reduced to 0. 7). however. and strengthening the bearing housing. Figure 6 shows that a large amplitude component occurred at 2500 cpm when the running speed was 9000 rpm.3 calculated for the original rotor. however. A nonsynchronous instability occurred at 4700 cpm. The calculated first critical speed of the rotor was 3800 cpm for a bearing span of 206 cm (81 inches). These two instability frequencies were near calculated damped instability frequencies. as can be seen in figure 10. 8) was rated at 8500 rpm.1 MPa (3500 psi). As the unit speed reduced.500 cpm were also excited. 3) This case deals with a much discussed reinjection compressor which experienced excessive nonsynchronous vibrations on startup.000 N /cm (500. vibration amplitudes equaling total bearing clearance were experienced. Field vibration data will be pre sented which shows the influence of oil ring seals. and speed on instability frequencies and amplitudes. The instantaneous frequency analysis shown in the upper trace of figure 6 shows that this upset moved the subs ynchronous component from 2500 to 4400 cpm. instabilities above running speed at 9500 and 10. the calculations indicated that the seals significantly reduced the stability of the unit. due to the monitor's finite response time and suddenness of the instability tripouts. and discharge pressure of 63. The compressor originally could not be brought to design speed and pressure without tripping out on high vibrations (fig. thereby effectively reducing the bearing span. Therefore. however. and the coefficient of friction of the sliding surfaces was reduced.4 MPa (9200 psi).000 lb/in) was required to calculate an instability frequency of 4400 cpm. This can occur if the floating oil seals lock up and carry some load. an effective oil seal stiff ness of 286. had a design suction pressure of 24. With the tilted pad bearings for this rotor. Both oil pumps were running during this test and one tripped out for a few seconds. the pressure balance of the rings was improved. increasing the bearing clearances. aerodynamic cross coupling.
showing that a ratio of running speed to first critical of less than 2:1 does not necessarily ensure that a rotor will be stable. nonpreloaded tilted pad bearings. data was obtained throughout the entire performance map. by slowing down the startup procedure. Figure 15 shows that an instability component at 0. the amplitude of the instability increased but remained within bounds until a limiting pressure was reached. several seal designs were tested (fig. The test was primarily to study the effect on the instability frequency since the seal oil leakage was excessive. The type of seal design greatly affected the frequency of the nonsynchronous instability and the threshold speed. To show the effect of speed on the instability the suction pressure was held constant at 10. Some specifications require that the first critical speed be greater than 0. Even after these modifications were installed. no change in seal design made this system stable. instabilities still occurred.6 times the running speed to help prevent instabilities. Log decrement calculations indicated that these changes repre sented a significant improvement in the rotor stability.5 mil) at running speed and 25 �m (1.500 cpm and a trace at 4500 cpm.000 and 11.0 mil) at 10.remained. The rotor was found to be sensitive to the rate of acceleration. The frequency of the instability component moved from 4400 to 5160 cpm as pressure was increased. One seal design studied had large radial clearances and only one land. The data presented shows that the stability frequency characteristics were dram atically changed by changing only the oil seals. there fore. Another test using a different seal design also showed instabilities above run ning speed.8 times running speed occurred when the running speed was 4000 rpm or slightly above the first critical speed. However. These instability frequencies appeared to be a function of suction pres sure as shown in figure 14. Shortening the seal length should reduce its loadcarrying effect. thus reducing the instability frequency. it was possible to operate in the normal speed range. This indicates that the seals were not the predominant destabilizing factor. figure 11 shows how the aerodynamic loading affects the amplitude of the instability component at 5160 cpm (a forward precessional mode).28 MPa (1200 psi). Figure 14 gives the frequency analysis showing 13 �m (0. As the suction pressure increased. shortening the bearing span.25. how ever. On startup. The instability amplitude increased almost linearly with speed (fig. less than 5 mm (0. test results showed that nonsynchronous instabilities occurred at frequencies above running speed (10. and changing the bearings to 5 shoe.3 MPa (1500 psi) and the speed increased. however. During this test the compressor speed was 7523 rpm and suction pressure 8. As the suction pressure was reduced. The majority of the instability tripouts were at s peeds where the ratio of running speed to first critical speed was less than 2:1. there was little improvement in the overall rotor stability. For a constant speed of 7600 rpm. In this data. These changes included aerodynamic changes to the impellers and diffusers. the instability occurred when the ratio of running speed to first critical was 1. To more fully define the stability limits. After these tests were made.2 inch) long. 12). 13). 8900 and 9300 cpm. an instability component (5200 cpm) was present with a fluctuating ampli 4 .000 cpm) similar to the data pre sented in figure 10. Major efforts were then expended to reduce other destabilizing factors. the higher frequency component low ered to 8900 cpm and then separated into two components. seal modifica tions.
but the added damping from the damper bearing prevented the amplitudes from becoming unbounded.25 mil) component at 2800 cpm disappeared (fig. In the design stage the designer needs to estimate the level of equivalent aerodynamic loading so that the rotor will have an adequate sta bility margin. the frequency analysis of shaft vibrations showed instability components at 2800 and 4800 cpm along with the running speed component. At the time of this study . the mathematical techniques for predicting instabili ties were not as developed as today's procedures and the application of a damper to an industrial compressor involved some tuning to obtain the optimum stiffness and damping for an individual rotor.1 MPa (3350 psi) and a discharge pressure of 56. welded rod support. Some sur prising results were noted as the temperature was lowered. which con firmed that the aerodynamic destabilizing effects were of major importance and over s hadowed other improvements that were made. 4). The improvement in the stability characteristics of this rotor illustrates the potential of damper bear ings in high pressure applications. 16 gives the frequency analysis of the Figure s haft vibrations and two probes monitoring the damper bearing for 8450 rpm with a suction pressure of 23. and the amplitude jumped to greater than 152 � (6 mils) in approximately one second. In the process of evaluating the performance of the damper bearing. Again this points out that very small changes can be significant to the stability of a rotor. the sta bility was significantly improved. corrugated metal ring. B(hp)(Mol Wt) PD K xy Dhf Ps 5 . Stiffness of the damper bearing is usually supplied by a mechanical support such as a s quirrel cage cylinder with ribs. to which oil is continuously supplied. This instability problem was controlled primarily by increasing the shaft diam eter to raise the first critical speed. At an oil tempera ture of 510 C (1240 F). After some tuning of the damper bearing. frequency and amplitude of instability vibrations. 18). 17). thus significantly increasing the ability of the shaft to withstand the large aerodynamic loading effects. Instability frequencies were still present. the oil tem perature was varied to determine if it had a significant effect. and that sophisticated mathematical models are required to simulate the instability phenomena measured in these machines. The instability frequency then shifted up to5800 cpm.90 C (1200 F). Aerodynamic loading effects are the most predominant destabilizing components in many high pressure systems. The author has consulted on several instability problems and has developed an empirical formula for estimating the level of aerodynamic loading (ref. This can be amply illustrated by the fact that a damper bearing installed in a second identical unit was not successful in eliminating instability tripouts (fig. The stability of the unit was markedly improved when a damper bearing was installed in series with the inboard bearing. or orings. Squeeze film damper bearings employ an oil film in the space between the outside of the bearing and the case. This case history illustrates that many factors influence the onset. The instability component was particularly sensitive to pressure ratio across the machine.9 MPa (8250 psi). At a temperature of approximately 48.tude. the 6 �m (0.
kW (hp) Mol Wt molecular weight D impeller diameter. running with heater only at a low feed rate. The sensitivity of 6 . The vibrations at the forward whirl mode occurred first and built up until the shaft touched the carbon bushing which caused a backward whirl mode to be excited at 12 Hz.000 and 13. A slurry was p umped by positive displacement pumps to the atomizer which wa s mounted on top of a large coneshaped tank. m (in) f speed. and shock excitation runs to determine natural frequencies. two instability frequencies at 12 and 26 Hz were indicated in the real time spectral analysis of the proximity probe measurements of the carbon. Upon startup. aerodynamic loading. 3600 rpm. The slurry was then sprayed into the tank and was instantly dried by hot air which was blown directly at the atomizer wheel. Torsional vibrations were measured with a CEC torsiograph mounted on a special stub shaft attached to the motor shaft. Measured pulsations at the slurry input showed pulsations at 26 Hz which could excite the forward mode at 26 Hz. This equation is presented so that it may be further evaluated. Hz 3 density of fluid at discharge conditions. Several tests were made. high vibrations were experienced on the atomizer s haft. The heated air was forced through the heater and into the tank by a forced draft fan. 19). electric motor through a variable s peed transmission over a speed range between 10. resulting in several shaft failures near a carbon bushing. the amplitudes at the instabilities increased (fig. When the shaft was run dry. A field investiga t ion was made to determine the causes of the high vibration and failures and to develop a solution. CASE 4. running with fans on but atomizer off. including running the unit without condensate or slurry. The dried powder was then drawn out of the tank by an induced draft fan into a bag house where the pow der was collected. 16 (105) hp power. 20). m (in) h restrictive dimension in flow path. During the tests the atomizer shaft vibrations were measured with a proximity probe mounted inside the atomizer housing approximately 15. gearbox. and motor were measured with accelerometers. kg/m (lb/cu ft) PD 3 density of fluid at suction conditions. N/m (lb/in) xy K B cross coupling constant. r unning with water alone.2 cm (6 inches) above the carbon bushing (fig. When the unit was run with condensate water. Vibrations on the atomizer. INSTABILITY OF ATOMIZER SHAFT An atomizer was driven by a 250 hp. it appeared to give overall levels of aerodynamic loading near that required to cause t he logarithmic decrement to be negative.500 rpm. kg/m (lb/cu ft) Ps = When this formula was applied to several rotors that had instabilities. Pulsations in the liquid feed line and the tank near the atomizer wheel were measured with pressure transducers.
W. Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME. von Nimitz. ASME Paper 7 5Pet22. Several modifications were implemented to improve the inlet flow characteris tics. Texas. 23) and t he shaft no longer rubbed against the carbon bushing. Wachel. vol. the vibrations were low ( fig. The atomizers have run suc c essfully without failures since 1977. Ensuring the Reliability of Offshore Gas Compressor Systems. t he shaft continued to rub against the carbon bushing under all flow conditions.. 4. J. and W.the instability modes can be seen in figure 21. pp. C. Journal of Petroleum Technology. however. 3. Turbine and Compressor Vibration. however. Short Course on Rotordynamics of Turbomachinery . P lu gs were then installed in 12 of the 24 discharge holes in the atomizer wheel to f urther restrict the flow rate. 15. These modifications on the inlet flow lines and the new distributor improved the inlet flow characteristics and reduced the instability vibration amplitudes. The distributor flow area was reduced approximately 70% by an orifice r estrictor and the inlet feed tube diameters were reduced and connected together through a " Y " connection. J. Wachel.. Nov. This caused the liquid to enter the atomizer in slugs rather than a s mooth flow. After these modifications were installed. the instability can be controlled without shaft modifications. REFERENCES 1. the vibrations became severe as shown in figure 22. C. 1981. it was determined that the excitation for the instability was the pulsative fluid flow. Ammonia Plant Safety. 6976. 2. 7 . 1981. 1973. 22522260. The atomizer was creating a vacuum in the feed header line even at f ull flow rates. Case Histories of Rotordynamic Installations in the Field.. May 1820. Wachel. American Institute of Mechanical Engineers. This case history illustrates that if the excitation source for an instability can be identified and reduced. C. The atomizer was designed for a feed r ate of 50 cubic meters per hour. J. Texas A&M University. Based upon the analysis of the data. C. College Station. When the vibrations were measured over the range of flow rates. The liquid slugs entering the atomizer wheel acted as destabilizing forces which caused the forward whirl. Wachel. J. Nonsynchronous Instability of Centrifugal Compressors. the maximum flow rate was only 19 cubic meters per hour. pp.
. ' " Figure 2. . I" ·11 II I " " . I ' . . . " " . I " " .' . . 8 . . '++ I:R: . . . . ' 1 " 1 .! dP . '.. . Vibration and phase angle measured during shutdown. . " . I. . '" Figure 1.. Subsynchronous instability excited on turbine. II" I 111 I "H I' i . ' . • • I I I . " .
... Figure 3. Spectral time history of half speed vibrations on turbine with tilted pad bearings. Elimination of instability by bearing modification. o 3 6 9 12 15 CPM x 103 F igure 4. 9 . Q) E b .. . .
__ . ._.. A. Test Poml Tl�.3��.  .:i ""'t.'i�[f�L. . Scale 0. !� \ . . _ ! . . . . . . .�IP. _. . . .. .� a.. 15 CPM x 103 Figure 5. . i I I � j . ." Unit t:iJoAM. . t r o zooo 4000 6000 8000 10000 IZOOO 14000 16000 18000 Z1IOOO RPM Figure 6. . . Time I i HortZ. i A . T D STRAIN DATA D NOISE OATA p·in f. Subharmonic vibrations of turbine. I \ I .1 1 �:.� Note Change in Sub : 1'1 .� Unit Speed �87f!JO 'pm l)HJ:A. . i ! harmonic FrequencY. ! .4 11m E i � � '" � ! !  .ldi.N. .n. . . 04 62.. . . Spectral time history of turbine showing subharmonic vibrations in normal speed range • • VIBRATION DATA D PULSATION DATA mi'''di. _ . .• 11. . p"fd. 1 o 3 ..' Scale �LI/Zz. "  � � K � \ 4:�1. 6 9 12. . . . . ! Ve. I 1 mil  25. . 10 .M!. o 1\  Runninl  Speed . .2()OtJO UIII Date . dBfdi..
V6. .... r..ZZ�L r� .Z9�'" Cod. Note Difference in Frequency ....�.. 11 . J�\ lPI'>H.. o zooo 4000 6000 8000 10000 IZOOO RPM Figure 7. Vertical. IIIIIr!!:': 1 I I 'I . on Vertical and Horizontal �I. .r 1 mil = 25. t .. . . Axiall � Coupling t '. rpm Unit 5Y...P < __ .Zle. ..  \... 14. 77LlH Probe./di.lg� 04. I • Test COl.� 'pm Date 2..!l��_�. ./ . Typical high pressure compressor design. I HOfll. ".ildi. \ I I • o VIBRATION DATA PULSATION DATA "_.5 _���L�_ Time 12 40 � .�./t>. .4 lJm �V . Subharmonic turbine vibrations measured at 10400 RPM. I Test Poml +r ____ Unit Speed _. SciJle 1l:. _7JLg�A/1? ma. . Scale 0. Vibration Proximity Probes (Horizontal. .. )\ �� h . ter Labyrinth Gas Labyrinth Impeller Figure 8.S VerI. ) l. .
.. . 1(j) S . E! o 1 00 20000 cpm F igure 10.. Compressor instability with improved seal design. 12 . o 50 10000 eque cprn Fi gure 9. Tripout of compressor as speed is increased....
pslg Figure 11.00 0.30 � <t 0.20 1 mil .895 kPa suction Pressure.20 0.4 lJlll 0.. Instability amplitude versus suction pressure. 0.50 0.70 0. 6. 13 .. Instability amplitude versus compressor speed. . .J 0. 1. Q.60 0..40 if W 0 '" f ::.60 0:: I � tJ) .80 0. 0.00 0.1l I pd . RPM F igure 12. 25.0 '''' o 8000 8100 8200 8300 8400 COMPRESSOR SPEED.
cpm Figure 13.> Mod. 1 seal with two downstream lands removed Mod. ..Mod. S . Variation of instability frequency with suction pressure. E< o 6000 12000 Frequency. 1 seal with axial grooves replacing circum £oronti. 1 (1) Teflon Orings (2) Teflon eoating on sealing surfaces (3) Two circumferential grooves (4) Machine shoulder to balance pressure D Mod. 5 (1) No Orings (2) Circumferential groove (3) Reduced unbalanced pressures using peripheral lugs (4) Teflon coating of sealing surfaces l Mod. 2 (1) Original seals (2) No Orings (3) Teflon coating on sealing surfaces (4) Three 011 dams at 1200 intervals Mod. Fig ure 14. 3 Basic Mod. 14 . Oil seal designs tested. 6 Identical to Mod. 5 except that only two seals were used per end t:=::: fI:J a..1 groove. 7 Basic Mod. 4 (1) Original seals (2) Three per Bea1 assembly (3) Upstream edge beveled (4) Teflon Orings Mod.
J c :::> !:: ' 0 :E j Outboard Vertical  Outboard Horizonta I co:: � � � I co:: IX <0 J " Inboard Vertical > O .. . =! .9 MPa). Instability excited as compressor goes through first critical.�.t Damper Bearing Horizontal � o. Frequency analysis of shaft and damper bearing vibration with diSCharge pressure of 8250 PSI (56.!:: _ Inboard Horizontal � ��� i �� O C===��� )\j � o 2000 400G 6000 8000 10000 Frequency. cpm Figure 16. o 10000 20000 Frequency. . cprn Figure 15. 15 . .
1 o 5000 10000 Frequency. . Instability tripout of rotor with damper bearing installed. tC1) S . cpm Figure 17. . 16 . Elimination of instability component as oil temperature reduced. cpm Figure 18.� Ei a 5000 10000 Frequency.
... . 2 ... Hz Figure 20. ] ..0 1 . .__. Whirl Atomizer . '" Forward " .j Added. _.______ 0... \... 1.. Instabilities excited on atomizer... ... .. Figure 19.. . .. 13 Sub synchronous Vibrations Speed Increased when Condensate . .... '"' Speed '" ._. Backward Whirl '" . :> \   a a 50 100 150 200 250 300 Frequency... '" � " 0 Motor .. 17 . V\. . Cutaway view of atomizer... � I I· � 3 .... .
60 Jb MDEor 'peed (. After Water Off 100..  When Cooling Water Entered Wheel......>! � � SSV at 26 and 12 Hz Immediately '" Forward Increased Whirl i'l ..0 Figure 22. Hz Fi gure 21. / 1.... 0 V }.. 0 I \/ IJ I \J V 3..0 t � A With Cooling Water Flow � '" � � II \. 6 2.laebard Vhirl 7.� 1. J ) \ . " I  Cooling 1.0 I. �' l J\ : � 0 1. .{ 2..) 210 liz �am r .0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Frequency... 6. 0 . ... I I I ... A 26 EI 'orrll Whirl . Plot of atomizer shaft vibrations versus feed rate.0 AI� ssv Immediately Decreased �H"" .. .: Backward Whirl I I j. Effect of fluid flow on instabilities. 18 .. 12 ..0 /).0 r i\ A II V \ s. '" ..0 .
. Q.. 'g 2..0 I I S 60 Hz Motor Speed Q. Atomizer shaft vibrations after modifications.... 19 .. 1.. ... .. IS .. . � > � 0 ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Feed Rate Figure 23.. .... 0 230 Hz Atomizer Speed ... � ... ...... ...D ......0 . � c: 0 ....0 . '"  .. • j j I 12 Hz Backward Whirl A 26 Hz Forward Whirl '" 3..
4 and 5). The s ub s y nchronous v ibration was stated to occur most often at exactly 1/2 the run ning speed when operating at or s light ly above twice the first c ritical speed. Den Hartog ( ref. The rub model used included the effects of both Coulomb friction and the * This work was funded by The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company. It was also stated that it was possible. 3/5 • • • • of running speed. Both analyses conclude that the instab ility should produce a backward whirl at the rotor natural frequenc y . Texas 78766 SmIMARY Rotord y nam ic instability problems are not uncommon in high speed industrial turb omac hinery. Descriptions are given of several cases of rub induced instab ilities. including a partial rotorstator rub. The whirl direction could be forward. Included in the descriptions are the conditions at onset. Actually. Box 9948 Austin. Goggin Radian COrporation P. a large percentage of industrial machines operating at hig h s peed will sustain some low level subharmonic vibrations even during normal operation. 2/ 5. 3) proposed a n d experimentally demonstrated that several mecha nisms. INTRODUCTION Rot ordy namic instab ility problems are not uncommon in high speed industrial turbom achinery. for the s ubharmonic to occur at 1/ 5. 3/4.O. Ehric h ( ref. Some of these units have been observed to develop instability problems. One type of the many destabilizing forces that can occur is caused by a rub between the stationary and rotating parts. the whirl frequency was noted to also have occurred at 1/3 and 1/4 running speed. 2) added stat or flexib ility to this m odel in an attempt to def ine the conditions necessary for a rub to be unstable since not all rubs pro duce instab ilities. 1) describes rubs from the standpoint of d ry friction w hip wit h Coulomb friction between the rotating and stationary parts prov iding t h e destabi lizing force.CED INSTABILITIES IN TURIDV1AGUNERY* David G. 1/6 • • • • and 2/3. This parametric exc itation mechanism was further ana ly zed by Childs ( ref. and the steps taken to eliminate the problem. 20 . but not likely . The mechanics invol ved during a rub have been described by several authors. the w hirl frequency and direction. One mechanism that has been respon sible for some of these instab ilities is a rub between the rotating and stationary parts. FIElD EXPERIEl\CES WITH RUB INIJl. Although less common. could produce a subsy nchronous vibration due to the periodic variation it causes in the rot or's support stiffness. backward. Bentley ( ref. or even in a single plane.
drive through turbine using 10.5 mils ) in a few seconds. and a parameter q which represents several param e ters that essentially indicate the severi ty of the rub. a vibration instability problem developed at the discharge end of the topping turbine.34 MPa (1500 p s i ) inlet and 3. it was observed that the vibration was dominated by a large fluctuating component at 5150 rpm (85. a high friction coefficient.7 em (5 in ) diameter bea ring at the inlet end and a 7.8 Hz ) or exactly 1/2 running speed. incr eased from 25 . and the fact that the subharmo nic was at exactly 50% of running speed. The problem was almost completely isolated to the topping turbine discharge end bearing. The first and second critical speeds are 6750 rp m and 13. like many others. No explanation could be made for the fact that the whi rl frequency was 5150 rpm (85 . it is us ually the unstable rubs that have the most potential for damage and so are of deep concern t o the in dustry.6 cm (3 in ) diameter bearing at the discharge end.5 mils ) to 76 . These are usually characterized by increases in the higher order harmonics as well as a general increase in the low level broad band vibration. • • of running speed. or topping turbine as it is referred to. The suddenness with which the instability developed. a low pr es s ure and a high pressure compressor.5 Hz ) . Since a real time analyzer was pre sent to monitor the startup. 1/3. a bac k pressure turbine. The vibration levels. the whirl frequenc y. BACK PRESSURE lURBINE ON SYNTIIESIS GAS COMPRESSORS Figure 2 shows a schematic of a 20. During the startup of one of the many units like this.000 H. tends to show some low level (2.000 rpm respect ively as determined f rom proxi mity probe data during startups and overspeed trip tests. An un stable rub was found to be promoted by low damping. is a two stage 12. the pressure to resume production often prevented a more detailed investigation.periodic variation in support sti ffness. such as the one shown in figure 1 from a 5000kw turbine generator. This m achine. The frequenc y of the whirl would occur at slightly more than the first critical speed causing a vibration at exactly 1/2. Both are 5 s hoe tilting pad bear ings with a load on pad ori entation. In this paper some f ield experiences with rub induced in stabilities are re viewed. as indicated by proximity probes. of course. but only low levels «5 �m or 0. While these types of rubs can be serious.1 m i l ) subharmonic vibration over a broad band of about 30150 Hz during normal operation.000 H. As with most industri al problems. 11.8 H z) when the first critic al was 6750 rpm (112. the di rection of whi rl.2 mil ) of this component were ob served on other rotors in the train.3 8 �m (1. or a high q factor. But most of the essential characteristics involved are presented including the condition s at onset.89 �m (3.03.e • • a severe rub. have occurred that were not unstable. the magnitude of the Coulomb friction factor.000 rpm Synthesis Gas Com p ressor train compo sed of a condensing turbine. Some 1/2 running s peed vibration was observed at the inlet end bearing.. The analysis indica ted that zones of instability exist around i nteger multiples of the first critical speed within which a rub could cause an instability to occur. 21 . Some rubs. The 5800 kg (913 lb ) rotor is supported in a 12. the rapid fluctuations in the sub harmonic component. i.P.01. The possibility that the rub would be unstable was found to be primarily dependent on the amount of damping of the first mode.P. The bac k pressure turbine. led to the suspicion that a rub was involved.54 � or 0. and the steps taken to correct the problem.79 MPa (550 psi ) exhaust steam.
taken at 3 :35 p. the vibra tion levels at the topping discharge end s uddenly increased from about 50 �m (2 mils ) to in excess of 1 2 7 �m (5 mils > .5 83 rpm. This unit had developed a history of vibration problems during its eleven years of opera tion. It had been found that using water on the bearing pedestals .5 mils ) . alignment. with water being used on one pedestal. clearance. Table 1 details the vibration l evels during the excursion. as shown in figure 7. However. The bearing's inboard oi l guard. was found to be heavily rubbed and was replaced with one that was checked to insure it had the proper clearances. an analysis had revealed ( fig. the subharmonic tracked the increase in running s peed so as to remain at exactl y 1/2 running speed.6 mils ) and a fluctuating 1/2 running speed component of 114 �m (4. A check of the gap voltages showed an increase of 0.3 mils ) . 120 Hz.5 mils ) at 10.1 volts had taken place. But when water was quickly placed on the other pedestal as well. etc.5 mils ) . One problem was occasional bouts of fluctuating hig h vibration at the topping turbine discharge end bearing.ing r elative to the shaft and hopefully clear the rub. etc. On a later occasion. The machine was warmed up and brought up to minimum governor speed (9000 rpm ) one evening and the load was to be progressively increased o ver the next 24 hours. was used on the turbine casing supports in an attempt to lower the bear. This was the only change made befor e the machine was restarted.m • • shows the resulting increase in the subharmonic. Another identical unit exhibited the same instability characteristics. crush fit.5 mils ) to 38 �m (1. The water was then p ut on the other pedestal and the results are shown in figure 5. Figure 3 shows a spectra taken at 3:29 p. taken at 3:47 p . There was a running speed vibr ation of 64 �m (2. During a subsequent outage.m. the gap voltages had returned to normal and. at 11:00 the next morning while operating at 10. It was concluded that this was another rub which had produced both a large subsynchronous component as well as an increase in the unbalance from non uni form heat input to the shaft. The 1/2 running speed peak was superimposed over the normal band of low level subharmonic noise and ther e was some electrical interference at 60 Hz. By 12:00. however. Water. The instability had ceased suddenly and the running s peed vibration slowly decreased from 64 �m (2.200 rpm (170 Hz ) and a 1/2 running speed peak of 38 �m (1. During the increase.672 rpm failed to reduce the vibration level as it had with other rub induced instabil ities. 6) vibration levels in excess of 152 �m (6 m ils ) with a running speed component of approximately 91 �m (3.to change the alignment would sometimes reduce or eliminate the vibrations. The di rection of whirl during the enti re episode was forward. the vibrations began to decrease. the subharmonic component ceased suddenly and the running speed vibration returned to normal slowly. Once the rub was removed by ch anging the align ment.91. this same turbine experienced high vibr ations during a startup. A shutdown and inspection of the bearing revealed that everything was normal including proper orientation. The water was taken off the pedestal and figure 4.m. While some of this may have been due to the increase in the rotor orbit shifting the rotor's mean position. An analysis was made during one vibration excursion to determine w hat effect the water was having. A slight increase in speed to 10. 180 Hz •. the vibration levels were al most normal. the limit of the vibration monitors. Within an hour. it still indi cated that the rotor was located significantly lower in the bearing than normal. Since no subharmonic vibrations occurred during startup and subsequent operation. the bottom part of 22 . the bearings and seals at this point were inspected and found to be severely rubbed over a bottom quarter of thei r d iameter. the vibra tions increased to about 229 �m (9 mils ) . During a subsequent inspection of the turbine. it was concluded that the rubbing oil guard had been the source of the instability. When water was placed on one support pedestal.
The problem subsided when the speed was increased fr om ap proximately 9300 rpm to 9500 rpm. condensing turbine. During a brief outage in the summer. The turbine had reached minimum governor s peed and the s peed was being increased slow ly as needed. The f irst and second critical speed were approx imately 4900 rpm and 10.P. Local thunderstorms resulted in three vibration excursions in the next 24 hours. the vibration levels suddenly increased from about 2538 � m (1. z 9300 rpm. These seals were noted to be tighter than normal with 5075 � (23 mils) d iametral clearance. the instab ility was thought to be caused by a rub brought about by a severe misal ignment during a thermally transient condition. This unit had been in operation over nine years with no reported vibration problems except for occasional temporary bows during startups.5 Hz) when the first critical speed was 6750 rpm (112. TURBINE ON COz COMPRESSOR Figure 8 shows a schematic of a CO compressor train driven by a 8200 H. The train was located out �oors with a protective roof over it. Again. single extraction. the bearings were inspected and found to be acceptable. The 19. There was still no explanation for the w hi rl frequency to be at 5250 rp m (87. But the bearing's oil seals were replaced a t the governor end due to excess ive leakage. The condition lasted two to three minutes and it was found that a slight increase in speed caused the v ibrations to return to normal.2 cm (6 in) journals with sleeve type bearings.150 rpm res pectively as determ ined from proximity probe data during startups and overspeed trip tests.240 kg (3030 lb) rotor was supported on 15. The condition lasted for about one minute and subsided as quickly as it started. another vibration excursion occurred lasting less than a minute with symptoms very similar to the previous excursion. it had only been overhauled once five years after installation.5 Hz). Future changes in wind direction caused the problem to recur with enough regularity that a portable blower was used to keep a con stant ai r flow directed at the thrust bearing housing. During the startup. another vibration excursion occurred. At 9 250 rpm. The thrust monitor showed an alert condition also.the bearings and seals at the discharge end showed severe rub damage and some break age.5 m ils) to about 76 �m (3 mils ) and fluctuated rapid ly between 2538 �m (3 and 4 mils). During a rainstorm several d ays later. Due to the transient nature of the problem. This worked until March.. Due to the trouble free operation of the unit. when a rainstorm occurred which resulted in al l the turbine vibration alarms going off as well as a thrust alert condition. the plant connected thei r tape rec order to the proximity probe monitors and the operators were instructed to turn the recorder on during any sudden changes in weather that might precipitate another vibration excursion. A problem was first noted one February when the turbine thrust position monitor showed a temporary alert condition after a sudden change in wind direction. 23 .01. The machine's susceptibility to thermal bows was due to short warmup and startup periods that were necessitated by plant design. Several more vibration excursions occurred during rapid changes in wea ther conditions over the next few weeks.
62 mils) at running speed and approximately 5 � (0. the fact that slight increases in speed were sufficient to eliminate the instability was not at all a characteristic of oil whi rl. they have not previous ly been observed to fluctuate so rapid ly and over so wide a range. the governor end of the rotor was misal igned 510 � ( 20 mils) low and 254 �m (10 mils ) to the right and the coupling end was 10 1 �m (4 mils) to the right. all of which wa's routed through the roof and exposed to the weather. due to the violence of the instability and the fact that these seals had probably rubbed at other times in the unit's nine year hist ory. Fi rst. 3) that slight increases in speed caused the instability to cease.5 to 2. These are shown in more detail in figure 11.3 mils) with 15. The fact that the 62 Hz component was present a t a very low level prior to the excursion was not thought to be very significant since a review of the vibration records showed that it was almost always present wit h levels between about 1 to 5 � (0.5 mils) but typi cally from 38 to 64 �m (1.5 to 3.2 mils) at 62 Hz or 2/5 of running speed. 1 Hz. it was decided that a ful l dismantle inspection was i n order. A very na rrow band analysis verified that the subsynchronous component was 2/5 of running speed to within 0. but was fluctuating wildly over a range as wide as 13 to 89 � (0. the vibration level increased to approx imately 76 �m (3 mils) with the majority of this increase due to the 62 Hz component. The overall vibration level had been 33 � m (1.2 mils). However. without causing an instability. The orbit developed into a "double orbit" from a relatively ci rcular one and the whirl di rection was noted to be forward. During the excursion.7 Hz (4900 rpm) remains unexp lained. The uni t had a gr eat deal of hot p1p1ng a ttached.1 second.0 5 to 0. Significant piping strains associated with transients was thought to have contributed to the units sensitivity to changes in weather. The reason the whirl occurred at 62 Hz (3720 rpm) when the first critical was known to be at approx imately 81. Various other frequencies noted during the excursion were found to be sum and dif ference frequencies of the two dominant frequencies of 62 Hz (subsynchronous vibra tion) and 156 Hz (running speed). changes in alignment would probably not cause the almost instantaneous change in subharmonic vibration level.7 � (0. TYpical frequency spectra from just prior to and just after the start of a vibration excursion are shown in figures 9 and 10 respectively while operating at 93 60 rpm (156 Hz). The possibility that the instability was an oil whirl condition precipitated by a change in alignment.5 mils). 24 . The amplitude of the sub synchronous component averaged about 53 � m (2. The problem was thought to be due to a transi ent rub condition since: 1) the condition was closely related to weather conditions. 2) the w ide fluctuations in the subharmonic component. as stated earlier. was considered but discarded for several reasons. as has been known to occur. it is not uncommon for high speed units to display a low level subharmonic even during norm al operation. And finally. Also. Also. The newly installed oil seals were obviously suspected as the source of the rub. This dismantle inspection revealed that: 1) S tanding at the t urbine governor end.1 mils). The transition time between figure 9 and figure 10 was less than 0. w hile subsynchronous components due to oil whirl instabilities can fluctuate.
I. 5.: The Dynamic Stability of Rotor / Stator Radial Rubs in Rotating Machinery. • • 3. 292293. Ehrich. whirl frequenc ies have been observed at other fractions of run ning speed. W FractionalFrequency Rotor Motion Due to Nonsymmetric Clearance Effects. 81GT14S. Den Hartog. there had been none this severe as indicated by the depth of sco r ing on the rotor. 2. D. The case was apparently bowing in the center quite severely during sharp thermal transients as it tried to acco m modate the change in casing growth and pipe strain.M. This explained why this problem had not occurred before. 4) The rotor was heavily rubbed a t the center by the interstage labyrin ths. : RubInduced Parametric Exc itation in Rotors.: Forced Subrotative Speed Dynam ic Action of Rotating Mac hinery. Although other rubs had probab ly occ urred at s ome time in the mac hine's history. It was concluded that the frozen footing was primarily responsible for the rubs. 1969. This als o was thought to be the reason for the rub during startup since the case again co uld n ot shift to acco mmodate thermal growth. The whirl frequencies are usually at 50 percent of running speed and the whirl direction has often been forward. pp. I. pp. 2) A s l id ing key at the turbine go vernor end meant to maintain axial alignment while sliding to accommo date thermal growth. and have sometimes been eliminated with minor in creases in speed. 10251028.: Mechanical Vibrations. 1956. S ome rubs have produced sum and difference frequencies based on the whirl frequency and the running speed frequency. A. The rotor was realigned and the frozen footing was freed.E. Paper No. Pape r No. had f rozen preventing the case f rom mov ing axially. Bentley. 3) The bearing oil seals were light ly rubbed. 4. A. Indus No v. D.S. F. of Eng. ca n sometimes be controlled during opera tion by changing the alignment. On one occasion the whirl frequency was noted to track an in crease in rotor speed so as to remain at 1/2 running speed. Also. However. These have been noted to appear and cease very s uddenly.S.E.M. whirl frequencies have been observed at speeds Significantly lower than their first c ritical speed. 7 8WA/DE14.S. REFERENCES 1. Childs. F. D. E.M. W. P. Chil ds. A.E. New York. 25 . Paper No. McGraw Hill Book Company. The machine has s ince operated for a year and a hal f with n o further problems except for the usual prob lem of thermal bo ws during startups. CONCLUSION Some cases of rub induced instab ilities have been des c ribed. 7 4PET16. Fo urth Edition.
5 12:19pa 8.5 0.3 3.2 1:45pa 0.1 0. I .79 0. 2 1.4  0.8 5.0 12:13pa 4.8 0. TABLE.5 5.6 1.5 8.6 8.3 75 4.6 6.6  0.0 9.95  0.0 12:10pa 2.25 0.6 0.6 26 .48 0.45 0.8 4.3 2.8 1.SUMMARY OF VIBRATION LEVELS (milsp_p) Point #3 Point #4 TllfE VERTleAL HORIZONTAL VERTICAL HORIZONTAL IsX 1X Total IsX 1X Total IsX 1X Total IsX 1X Total 10:45pa  0.75 11:43_ 0.3 8.7 1.8 3.5 3.0 12:17pa 3.17 0.0 5.3 4.7 0.6 1.5 3.8 0.5 0.8 4.35 0.05 0.5 8.5 3.6 75 12:02pa 2.4 0.5 6.5 4.
10 Light Rubbing 0.10 � X 11.. II) > lID ..1 111· U Normal Operation 0. 111 II) c:a...0 o 200 400 600 800 Hz Figure 1.. 27 . .0 II) 11.9 0.J > � or4 U 0 .II'.05 2 X .05 2 X 0.Turbine case vibration on a 5000 kw turbinegenerator. 1 X 0. ..1 0 200 400 600 800  r:: Hz or4 >.. u 0.
EXHAUST Figure 2. D LOCAliON OF OATA POJNT pRAWING • ! gCAJJQH Of pATA POIHTS Cg"Q£H!t!HG TURBINe lope I KG 111881 HE CPMPRf5CPR CgMPpESSQR 1500 • INLET '550 . Topping turbine discharge end vibration  with water on west pedestal.5 .5 IOU. ��____��______����____�__��____u____���______� __ o 300 liDO 50 Hz Figure 3.. bouncing 0. 2. U.S. 320 Hz 440 Hz O+. 28 . 2 X R.51.5 .u.. Water on WIst pedestal 60 Hz Electrical Interferenc..S. 2 85 Hz li X II. 1. Schematic of the Syn Gas Compressor... 3 170 Hz 1 X II. aVB.S. 3:29 p .
60 Hz ). 2. 170 Hz 1 X R.S. 3. 2 X R. Topping turbine discharge end vibration  with water on east pedestal. 85 Hz \ x R. Topping turbine discharge end vibration  water taken off pedestal.47 p. . 300 �oo �oo Hz. Just after water wa. 2. .5 mils S.5 U.S. 5 mUs.S.S.25 mils 170 Hz 60 Hz 1 X R.m.35 p.S. Few minutes after water was put on east pedestal.5 X R. o to����:L���:3jO�O���40�Oe'5 0 Hz Figure 5.5 mils 3. Fi gure 4. 0. Amplitude at R. slowly decreased for next hour to 1.m. 29 . S. taken off pedes cal. 1.
. Figure 7. During vibration excursion.. "" 3 a 2 60 Hz 1 0 0 800 Figure 6.S..6 mils p.S. At conclusion of vibration excursion. 5 \ x R. . 3. 30 . 4. . I p. <II .3 mils fluctuating 4 1 X R.
1.. == . 3 .ll pp 0. SIHGU EXTWACTlOII COMP'USOII COJIIIR[SSOI CCMI'IESSOIt CQllltR[SSoa II •• H. .. ..11....... ... P. A o 100 200 100 400 �OO Hz Figure 9. . .. Turbine outboard bearing .just prior to excursion .i� ci M'" ". � == .5 . '1 0.. . Prior to Ixc::ur.. 31 . o. 9310 RPM Figure 8.. Over.ci . :!l '" N . Discharge Suction CPHQ'HSUM lUI". Pt.a ..lon... .A A f\.75 .. l • � '" .. Schematic of the CO2 Compressor.. :." == . '" .
. + . Excuralost Pt. 11 3. :II .:I + :lI '" ..:I.3� .. o l.. . � t: f � .. 3.. . .1 ... .:: A A 100 200 300 400 500 a. . >e . . • Figure 11.. . . Turbine vibration . :lI N >eN . . '" .. .. .5 mUa 2. :II .1 !i j !i 3 II .. 8 . �i M� NO . s::1 .. .during vibration excursion. Durin.53..during excursion: Sum and difference frequencies...:I . Figure 10. .0 .04... . � !...()o . :lI .:I 3 '" '" .. '" N i.. .. N ... . !.. 0 .. . 3 � :II . " :lI " �A ... .. :lI 3 ! �j .... . � ... 3 • 1 :lI 1 . 32 .Turbine outboard bearing .0 mll" _ Overall p p Fluctuations a8 wide 411 0. .
Horiz ontal. shaft rider sensors monitored vibration at an angle of approximately 250 from vertical. A. The vibration response is pre dicted to increase with increasing crack depths in excess of 10% of the shaft diameter. J.and axial vibrations were recorded for each bearing cap. fatigue crack growth during steady operation. two and three per revolution vibration characteristics of a low pressure steam turbine were observed during steam temperature reduction oper ations. Of particular interest were the vibration levels recorded on main bearing caps of the low pressure. In addition. Signature analyses of vibration data recorded over a twoyear period prior to crack identification are correlated with fatigue crack growth. California 94303 J. 1800 rpm turbine/generator set. which occurred intermittently during transient temperature decreases. when high surface tensile stresses are present. The '. Jr. Subsequent thermal contraction effectively dislodges mineral deposits. confirmed by destructive sectioning. The vibration characteristics of the bear ing caps monitored when the turbine/generator was at a fully loaded condition were essentially the same as those recorded during early stages of unit operation. Failure Analysis Associates Palo Alto. vertical. The apparent increased response of the rotor to vibration is due to asymmetric stiffness changes introduced by the growing transverse crack. The procedure calls for reduction in fur nace firing rates which causes cooling in particular tube regions. ANALYSIS OF A TURBINE ROTOR CXNrAINIl'G A TRANSVERSE CR. W.subject turbine/generator utilizes four journal bearings. 33 . Vibration and fracture mechanics analyses suggested the presence of a trans verse shaft crack which was eventually identified by ultrasonic inspection and . H. INTRODUCTION Failure Analysis Associates (FAA) was retained by Wisconsin Electric Power Company (WEPCO) to analyze abnormal transient vibration levels observed during boiler deslag ging operations of their Oak Creek Unit 7 3 20 MW General Electric turbine generator. Hau. These same transient thermal stresses are shown to have retarded and prevented subsequent. Menning Wisconsin Electric Power COmpany Milwaukee.AQ( AT OAK CREEK UNIT 17 G. one pair supporting each of the turbine and generator rotors. Fracture mechanics analyses predict that fatigue crack growth occurred during periods of steam temperature decrease. Kottke and R. Rogers and C. Boiler deslagging was performed on this unit to dislodge slag that accumulated on the outside wall of water and steam tubes. Wisconsin 53201 SUMMARY Transient increases in one.
As expected with thermall y induced phenomena. and the specific crack and part geometry. which is proportional to nominal stress range �o. it was not neces sary to compute their magnI tude in order to quantify K and � K for the deeper crack g depths between four and seven inches where vibration c anges were introduced. Such a crack was subse quently identified near the mid span of the doubleflow rotor under the inlet edge of the first shrunkon. It was observed that a decrease in steam temperature resulted in a delayed vibration level increase. The crack driving force is conveniently characterized by the crack tip stress intensity factor �K. To compute the specific magnitude of the steady (K ) and cyclic (�K) crack driving force for the s crack shape modelled in Figure 3. Fracture mechanics calculations of fatigue crack growth were performed by integration of the material's crack growth rate law over the range of crack driving forces to obtain the crack progression between some initial size and the final size. This dist� ibution is affected by the stress. The crack growth rate per cycle. FATIGUE CRACK PROPAGATION ANALYSIS Fractography of the cracked rotor shaft after removal from service showed the presence of a fatigue crack of size and shape illustrated by Figure 3. An example of the vibrational response associated with steam temperature variation is shown in Figure 2 . fillet radius. either did not affect the vibration or reversed a vib ration increase associated with a previous temperature decrease. on the other hand. and three per revolution amplitudes.concentration associated with the diameter change. The rate of fatigue crack growth in rotors made from NiCrMoV low alloy steels has been studied by various investigators. turbine wheel of the governor end. The vibration characteristics of turbine bearings number 1 and 2 were similar. da/dN 34 . However. Figure lb. shows the signature at peak vibration levels subsequent to a thermal down ramp of 1400F (770C). This condition produces tensile hoop stresses and tensile axial stresses of sufficient magnitude that a transverse crack in the shaft near the surface would open. Both bearings exhibited a significant increase in synchronous and twicesynchronous signals during the transient temperature decrease. and shrunkon disk contact stress. two. Reduction in steam temperature cools the surface of the shaft relative to the shaft bore. A strong synchronous 1800 rpm signal and very slight two and three per revolution signals are present. Increases in steam tem perature. A comparison of vibration data and other parameters indicated a correlation between steam temperature and vibration amplitude. BIGIF was used to accuratel y compute K and �K for the more complex stress distribution near the shaft surface. we have utilized a general purpose fracture mechanics computer program BIGIF [lJ. because these localized surface stresses affect the magnitudes of K and �K only for cracks near a surface. on the other hand. (�K and K ) for shaft bending are The crack driving forces S summarized in Table I. VIBRATION ANALYSIS Figure 1a is the normal steady state vibration signature obtained with a shaft rider probe at the number 1 turbine bearing. the s quare root of the crack size a. there was a definite time lag between steam temperature change and the observed change in vibration. Note the increase in the one.
the crack driving force. D where E = elastic modulus in ksi. Specifically. the cyclic nominal stress at which a 6. the crack growth rate falls below � hat predic ted by equation (1). At low valu€:s oftiK. fatigue crack growth did not occur under steady state operation in this case because the high steady stress which caused fatigue crack 35 . n is ap proximately 2. during the deslagging operation.6 million cycles per day) . setting up a radial temperature gradient which introduces sur face tensile stresses up to Os = E a liT (30xl03 ) x (6. The results are shown in Figure 4 for the case where C. and the shaft surface is cooled relative to the bore. the the steam temperature is quickly reduced by 100150oF.6. BIGIF was also used to numerically integrate equation (1) to obtain the increase in crack depth. was cal� culated for a range of crack depths. in equation (I).99 x 10. and eventually a threshold value of lIK !. is elevated by the high mean stress during the deslag cycle to 5. R =0 min 10max = 1<L'11l 1n I 1<1nax'· can be estimated as • AR ( R) = 8. The fatigue threshold.lIK ( R=O) (2) lIKth th where A and B are material constants and generally A � B � 1..7 times the value at �in /�ax = O. or t te ratio of K to lIK. Otherwise the crack would have grown to a size where the rotor would have failed. = Utilizing BIGIF. lIK.2 ksi). The steady stress from centri = fugal force and the small steadystate axial and radial thermal gradients should be near zero and probably less than 5 ksi.reached below = which fatigue crack growth does not occur. the threshold of these rotor steels is typically between 6 and 10 ksi/in. fising a 6 ksi/in threshold value.050 = inch. The reason that cracking does not occur during normal operating conditions is that the II K produced is below the material's apparent threshold considering prior loading history.8. Kth' is .2. corresponding to lIo = 3. In the absence of any steady stress (0 = 0). and liT change in temperature in of. Therefore. The nominal cyclic stresses during steady state operation are estimated by the manufacturer to be ±1. CRACK GROWTH THRESHOLD CONDITIONS Because the 1800 rpm turbine speed introduces fatigue cycles very quickly (1800 x 60 min/hr x 24 hr/day 2.0 = ksi. crack growth could not have been = occurring continuously during normal operation. caused by rotating bending during the periods of the high steady stresses produced during deslagging.6xlO6) x l300F = 26 ksi. However.6 ksi (or lIo 3.can be represented over a wide range of growth rates by a power law of the form (1) 10 where C is 5. for Kmin/Kmax = 0 and increases with increasing K . With a bearing misalignment of 0.2 ksi with perfect bearing alignment is greater than this value. the nominal cyclic stresses will be lIo 4 ksi. Hopkins and Rau [2] have shown that the specific effect of t �e stress ratio. a = coefficient of thermal expansion in inches per inchoF. a. since the nominal cyclic stress of lIo = 3. lIK ' is also de h pendent on the ratio of steady stress (0) to cyclic stress (1I0) .7 inch deep crack would grow is obtained from Table I and equation (2) to be lIo 3.
6 x 3 = 4. 6 1100 cycles 3 hours 356 10 cycles x x x mi n. asymmetrical stiffness analogous to an elliptical shaft geometry.2 and perhaps as high as 26 + 1. four. two.tat ing.8J that a continuously open crack produces a twice per revolution rotor response due to a r@. It was estimated that the crack is fully open for this period of time due to the state of transient thermal stress. the amplitude of the second harmonic vibration is near a maximum for a period of approximately three (3) hours. Using the three (3) hour time estimate for each. in particular.8 ksi and 5 x 3 = 15 ksi. The th larger the relative overload. The total number of des1ag operations performed on the OC7 unit between in stallation and the time such procedures were eliminated was approximately 1100.6. The nature of the crack and the state of stress associated with the thermal tran sients previously described suggest the the crack was. the apparent threshold will be reduced by the factor computed by equation (2). continuously open during the periods of high vibrational response. Specifically. the higher the apparent threshold for subsequent crack growth. First it has been recognized [4. in fact. �K ' when preceded by an overload. = The data of Figure 5 show that the corresponding apparent threshold for fatigue crack growth during turbine operation after a des1ag cycle will be at least 1. Grabowski.6 = 4. Rau. may produce synchronous. An opening and closing crack. the total number of high thermal stress state cycles can thus be calculated as 1800 cycles x 60 min. 6 times higher and may be more than five times higher than the threshold would have been without the deslag overload cycle. Leverant and Yuen [3 ] . These results indicate a major increase in the apparent threshold stress intensity factor.6 17. Neverthe less. and even higher multiples of synchronous responses due to the form of rotor orbit. U. 6 5 + 1. VIBRATION INCREASE The correlation of crack growth to changes in the vibration characteristics of the turbine rotor involves many factors.7. (3) Hr. the �gnitude of the overload produced by the deslag was sufficient to prevent continued propagation during subsequent steady operation. three. is between 1. on the other hand.5. In the case of the OC7 rotor. Figure 5 shows published results of Hopkins. If steadystate operation p� oduces some small tensile steady stress. CRACK GROWTH VS. As shown in Figure 2. = The calendar period over which these cycles occurred was reviewed and correlated to 36 . [9] has shown analytically that the change in shaft compliance and hence the dynamic response due to the asymmetry is relatively insensitive to crack size until the crack depth is approximately 10% of the shaft diameter. the ratio of maximum overload stress to maxi mum steady state stress is at least 26 + 1.growth during des1ag also served as an overload. the cyclic nominal stress above which the 6.7 inch crack can continue to grow when cr = 0. increasing the effective threshold above which fatigue crack growth can occur.
The procedure for taking the unit off line was also revised since it was believed desirable to have crack closure while coasting down through critical speeds. but prior to actual determination of that fact by inspection. how ever. Vibration data for certain rotor coast downs were also recorded on magnetic tape. the boiler slagging is minimized. shows an example of expected differences between the first and second harmonics. and third harmonics OD rotor speed were generated as shown in Figure B.recorded maximum increase in vibration during selected des1ag operations. Bode plots of amplitude vs. This was accomplished by limit ing the unit to a constant 200 MW output. The form of the recorded data is unfiltered peak to peak displacement. no increase in steadystate vibration 37 . Figure 2. At the 200 MW load. The second and third harmonics responded at 1050 and lOBO cpm. The graph shows that the point at which the change in vibration becomes recognizable corresponds to a crack depth between 3 and 4 inches: or between B% and 10% of the shaft diameter. Whereas the absolute magnitude of change in velocity for the two harmonics is of the same order. sufficient data reduction to establish similar time history amplitude curves for individual synchronous and twicesynchronous components of the unfiltered bearing cap vibration data has not been completed. the percentage change in the second harmonic is much greater than in the first harmonic. frequency for first. second. in mils. fullload operation showed no trend tlowards vibration increase and the conclusion that the crack was propagating only during the des1ag cycles as previously discussed. A curv� fit of these data as a function of cycles under the thermal transient conditions as calculated in equation ( 3 ) is shown in Figure 6. as sensed on the number 1 bearing cap in the vertical direction. respectively. Also. The operating procedures were therefore modified to minimize high vibrations and hence to minimize the magnitude of thermal down ramps. most probably due to the increase in stiffness in the bearing oil film with reduced rotor speed. The method employed brought the unit to a minimum load until vibration returned to normal after which the load was dropped rapidly while maintaining high steam temperatures. This correlates very well with the crack depth ( 10% of rotor diameter ) predicted analytically by Grabowski [9J as necessary for significant increase in rotor vibration response. This was accomplished by keeping the shaft at approximately constant temperature. Figure 7 shows the correlation of the maximum change in 10w pressure turbine bearing cap vibration during des lag with predicted rotor crack growth. At the time of this writing. This decision was based primarily on the fact that steadystate. Note that the ordinate is a 10grithmic scale of velocity. regardless of system demand. The first critical speed was observed to be approximately 1035 cpm. MODIFIED UNIT OPERATION Acting upon an initial belief that the rotor contained a transverse crack. thereby eliminating the need for continual des1agging cycles. The result of these procedures was that the trend of continually increased vibration level with age or des1ag cycles ceased. WEPCO decided to continue operation with revised procedures.
7.W. These operating restrictions continued until the unit was shut down. G.. "The Vibrational Behavior of a Turbine Rotor Containing a Transverse Crack. It was determined that the measured vibration sig natures during thermal transient des1ag operations correspond to analytically predicted responses for a continuously open crack. B. Jr." Fatigue Crack Growth Measurements and Data Analysis. Simulation.A. The Vibrational Behavior of a Rotating Shaft System Containing a Transverse Crack. Grabowski. Although there are many factors which affect rotor vibration response to cracking (such as axial position of the crack or the phase relationship of the crack to rotor eccentricity). 2. predict and understand the presence and growth of transverse cracks in large steam turbine rotors. Besuner. Crack Propagation in Rotating Shafts. I. S..C. and Rau. C. 4.W. Dec. J. P. B.S. C. "Effect of Various Programmed Overi1oads on the Threshold for HighFrequency Fatigue Crack Growth. I. S UMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Some vibrational characteristics of a large steam turbine rotor containing a trans verse crack have been identified. "Prediction of Structural Growth Behavior Under Fatigue Loading. 102. Davis.R.G.L. it has been shown that vibration monitoring. I. Rau.. 5. Rau." EPRI NP1830.. 1976. Rogers. This trend compared very well with the analytically predicted onset of rotor response to stiffness asym metry caused by a growing transverse crack near the mid span of a rotor. April 1981. Mech.was observed. Vol. and fracture mechanics analysis can be used to identify.. Hopkins. A.A.. and Davies. E." Transactions of the ASME. D. The vibration signatures also showed signi ficant increase in the twice per revolution response of the rotor and an overall vi bration amplitude increase with increasing crack depth. S. Fracture machanics analysis. It was shown that a crack depth corresponding to approximately ten percent of the shaft diameter is necessary to produce a significant change in the rotor vibration response. ASTM STP 783.. 3. ultrasonically inspected. Analogue Computer Simulation of a Rotor System Containing a Trans verse Crack. 6.." Fatigue Crack Growth Under Spectrum Loads. rotor dynamics analysis.. C168/76. including the effects of prior "overloads" on subse quent fatigue crack growth. 1978. Mayes. S. and Yuen. 1981. ASTM STP 595. Jr. and the rotor removed for repair. The increase in bearing cap vibration was correlated with the predicted crack growth. OkahAvae. Hopkins. and Peters.. G. Leverant....M. "BIGIF: Fracture Mechanics Code for StructuresIntroduction and Theoretical Background .Manual 1.. Grover. C.E. ASME 77DET164. January 1980. REFERENCES 1.W.R.W. was used to predict crack growth.. Mayes. 38 .... W.W.A..
." (to be published) 1982. B. Early Detection of CrossSectional Rotor Cracks by Turbine Shaft Vibration Monitoring Techniques.J.. on a Massless Shaft Containing a Transverse Crack. and Baumgartner. Grabowski. 39 .Part 1 . 81JPGCPwr20. H. 9. Zrebarth..8.Crack Models and the Vibration of a Rotor with Single Disk. "The Vibrational Behavior of a Rotating Shaft Containing a Trans verse Crack . B.
235 8..25 ksi) s (inches) (ksi ITiiT (ksi Ilri) 0.  � III ( 5.2  (5..Cycles per Minute x 1.43 81.58 136.1  en I � (2.99 1.7 5 5.440 19.000 Figure 1.load operation.630 8.50 7.  (2.395 5.NORMALIZED CRACK DRIVING FORCE FOR CHORD CRACK IN CIRCULAR SHA FT UNDER LINEAR STRESS VARIATION (BENDING) Crack Depth K/a (AK/Aa) AK (for K s (for Aa " 3.510 12.L .05 55.88 4.02 34.54) I.940 6.50 2.' J ' 1 .50 15.62) � 0. .8 0 2. frequency in a radial direction.1 .2 ks i) a .3 . ' a) d u ring normal full.  I (7. TABLE 1. .57 74.54) a = � u 0 III en .75 6.62 101.00 I I I I I 0.98 48.92 3.70 3.00 2.42 65. vibration subsequent to a thermal down ramp.80 5.98 1. b) during peak.. .990 9.08 ) > 0. 40 ..75 11.2 b u 0 .64 87.L o o 2 4 6 8 10 12 Frequency .260 10.Vibration signatures of amplitude vs.88 1. c: 0.20 4.060 14.08) I u III 0..60 2.
of Oak Creek #7 LP turbine shaft transverse cracking including BIGIF model.. time..� .4 r.r��r__r__. ..� � :: 13.75" ::::: Oak Creek #7 Shaft Diameter = 39. 0 U QJ QJ � C/l :::l ... u .62) u C/l 0 .569" ..5" � 13.08) � QJ Steam Temperature 0 E QJ b' I U 500 E 0 It! (260) QJ QJ :> .72" 21..1 +' Vl (2.3 QJ (7.. . \ ��� From UT �� From Surface 20....BIGIF r'1odel of Crack Shape Figure 3.2 +' c It! (5.. 41 . . Vibration amplitude of first and second harmonic and inlet steam temperature vs.. Representation. . 600 � (315) u.54) 400 14 (204) o 2 4 6 8 10 12 Elapsed Time (hrs) Figure 2.
785 o· R:O. 8 20 ".... '" u u '" ' u o L__L�L�L�__�__�__i__L__L__L__L__�__�__� �__� __ __ �J  6 o 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 x10 Cycles Figure 4. 0 . .5 tR:O_887 o· R:O...... ..3 ··R:O..d 4 10 ... 0 .c Q) U E '" 5 c CI '" .. 7 6 5 / 4 UTHB o 3 . v> Q) ill .': 6 .7 0..R:O.c CI ... 0 '"' 3 Q) U CI '" '.... " ill . � CJ :0:: c:I !'2 • 0 • :0:: • Ti§ AL4V D_S.. .9 3 5 7 9 11 K OL /KB Figure 5.l AR:O. Nickel Alloy CI 294 K 866 K 0 x· R:O. . Relative change in fatigue threshold after single cycle overloads as a function of the relative overload for the alloys an d R ratios shown. Transverse crack growth rate due to deslag thermal transients predicted using BIGIF transverse crack model.. 42 .694 x o· R:O.. '" 0....
..0 .0 0 ry I   0/ 0.r..<: u / E " / E / "x � ..I'".5 I I I I I I  0 3... turbine bearing cap vibration 43 . � 1 0 I I 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 6 Cycles x 10 Figure 6.r. Removed From Service 8 r�r�r... "� '" < '" 4 2.. 60 � /" 0 ... 0 0 1.n ::> "� )  c I 1.....  o 0 o 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 6 Cycles (x10.�r�1 4"0 3.0 .. 0 o Moni tared I Level 01 I c 2.... ...51. Correlation of maximum change in LP during deslag with predicted rotor crack growth...0 .5 /  o I /o � '" <..) Figure 7. . 2. 3.... Maximum changes in LP turbine bearing cap vibration during deslag as a function of total number of cycles at thermal transient stress state.5 q.a :> c C1I I 0> c '" / 1../ .0 i . "iii c 0 . ..
4) QJ III ' E E 0.5 FrequencyCycles per Minute x 1.0 2.� I 0. 44 .001 en a (0.0 1.01 1'S (0. 1.J 0.5 1. second.54) III ' c: .1 u QJ (2. frequency for first.000 Fi gure 8.5 2.0 u (25. Bode plot of amplitude vs. and third harmonics of running speed. .025) .254) u a Qj > 0.
Published work seems mainly to be concentrated on a viscous or hysteretic damping model for the rotor. however. It is concluded that provided these misalignments are large enough. The paper examines the nature of the subsynchronous limit cycles resulting from interplay between the Coulomb damping within the rotor and viscous damping in the bearings. Viscous and hysteretic damping is easily incorporated in a linear mathematical model. 45 . Lichfield Road. In many practical cases. A good summary has been given by Crandall ( Ref. the damping arises from relative motions within the rotating structure. E. although to accurately incorporate such a model in a rotor/bearing system presents some problems in analysis. The rotating damping in the present model is assumed to arise from rubbing within gear type couplings at both ends of the rotor. Power Engineering Ltd. C. A Coulomb damping model gives a reasonable representation of the energy exchanges resulting from slipping mechanisms. Stafford. with simple dissipative bearings. INTRODUCTION Rotating damping has long been recognised as a source of instability in shaft systems. England ST17 4LN ABSTRACT The paper is concerned with the effect of friction in drive couplings on the nonsychronous whirling of a shaft. I). It is also shown that as the couplings are misaligned in any plane. ASPECTS OF CDULOVJB DAlVP lID IN ROfOOS SUP:roRTED ON IlYIECUYNAMIC BFARIIDS P. characterized by 4 stiffness and 4 damping coefficients. A simplified model is used to demonstrate the effect of large coupling misalignments on the stability of the system. the system becomes totally stable provided the shaft is supported on bearings exhibiting a viscous damping capacity. SUMMARY Rotating damping is well known to be a source of instability in shaft systems and many physical and mathematical explanations of the phenomenon exist. A map of these limiting misalignments is compared with the shaft orbit under conditions of perfect alignment. M>rton G. The qualitafive findings are however applicable to any mechanism producing friction forces depending on rotor flexure. a level is reached above which the subsynchronous oscillations collapse. The present paper considers nonlinear damping of the Coulomb type in a simple rotor supported on 'realistic' linearized bearings. G. the forcemotion relationships obeying nonlinear laws. Both physical and mathematical explanations of the reasons for this instability have been advanced.
7) Bxx etc. one might suppose that instability due to any saturable type of rotating damping would be subject to limit cycles. Non dimensional oil film damping BIXX etc. Intuitively. The shaft is supported on two linearized hydrodynamic bearings.  EXXll etc. this being the minimum necessa4Y to give a qualitatively adequate solution. THE MODEL The paper deals with an idealised model (Fig.12) f N Coulomb damping force of all coupling teeth moving axially g msZ Acceleration due to gravity L m Half span of shaft 46 . albeit linearized. The laws governing the forcevelocity relationship within the couplings can be either of the viscous or Coulomb type. The rotating damping arises from movements between mating teeth of the coupling. The system comprises an isotropic nondamped shaft symmetric about its centre of span and characterised by a single flexural mode. Each end of the shaft moves within a coupling which has a fixed slope but is free to move in translation. Very little published work exists on this very commonly occurring system and the present paper deals with a particular phenomenon of considerable practical significance. Dimensional oil film stiffness ex. The degrees of freedom have been limited to 4. each varying with running speed. Planes x. y F N Coulomb damping force generalised (Eqn. ey rad Angular misalignment of couplings. kg Elements of Inertia Matrix . notionally represented as 8 stiffness and damping coefficients. Subscripts denote BXXll etc. SYMBOLS AxXll etc. This is only so if the system also contains positive damping elements with a more powerful energyamplitude ratio. Nm 1 Elements of Stiffness Matrix B Parameter concerned with viscous rotating damping (Eqn. Dimensional oil film damping b Dimensional viscous damping of all coupling teeth moving axially C m Radial clearance of bearings Exx etc. hydrodynamic bearings. Nsm 1 Elements of Damping Matrix position in matrices. Provision is made for altering the coupling slope in both vertical and horizontal planes. Such a system is a shaft with rotating Coulomb type damping supported on realistic. I). The system dealt with is a rotor supported on two hydrodynamic bearings and driven by a gear type coupling. Non dimensional oil film stiffness l E xx etc.
y Horizontal and vertical planes y Viscous rotating damping factor (Eqn.I .2) \Ii Modal parameter (Eqn. .6)  A rad.AXYI2 . 2) relate to movements in the horizontal and vertical planes. Shaft centre x plane r m Radius of coupling teeth t s Time  Vx.4) OX. y determine the plane and . The coefficients of the equations of motion are expressed as elements of square matrices using a subscript code where x.7) b.s 1 Natural frequency of pinnedpinned shaft  w rad. Vy ms 1 Generalised velocity of rubbing of gear teeth Wc (Nm) Work due to Coulomb damping/cycle Wv (Nm) Work due to viscous damping/cycle x. Thus AXY12 would appear in 1 a matrix as follows: I �] 1.s 1 Running speed EQUATIONS OF MOTION The system coordinates (Fig.4 I ( 1) _1 I 1.s 1 Lowest natural frequency  rad. 2 relate to the shaft and bearing respectively.M kg Half mass of shaft  m kg/m 1 Mass of increment of shaft qlX etc. Modal parameter (Eqn. oy Misalignment parameters (Eqn. Y In the systems with viscous rotating damping the equations of motion are: •• • AX + BX + EX = 0 (2) 47 .9) <p Mode shape of shaft <Po m Modal coordinate at shaft centre <pal e (rad) Modal slope at shaft end X Coordinate vector (Eqn. Generalised coordinate.
48 .2 " _ ( (3) <1>0 ) (<1>0 ) = 2 =  /). Dimens ional Non Dimensional Inertia 2 2 I: nt<b AxXll AYYll I:m( 1 ) <1>0 �=/). The viscous rotating damping factor is conveniently expressed as: (7) y being given as a proportion of critical damping of the shaft vibrating in flexure. since the equations of motion are set up in terms of the pinnedpinned shaft modes <1>. If the system damping factor is plotted against the rotating damping (Fig.5 (4) \II = I:m¢/M<I>o = 2/rr (5) 1 1! rr/2L (6) <1>0 Roots of equation 2 give both system frequencies and dampings. 2 2 EYYll = AYYIIA A I EXX22 = E xX g Exx/C I EXY22 = E xy g Exy/C l EYX22 = E yx g Eyx/C EYY22 g Eyy/C br2 1!1 2 ( ) st 2M <1>0 Regarding the shaft geometry. = = AXX22 = AYY22 = M Axx12 = AYY21 = Axx21 = AYY21 = I:m( t o ) I BXX22 = B xx l BX Y22 = B xy g Bxy/stC l B YX22 = B yx g Byx/stC I BYY22 = B yy g Byy/stC br 2 1!1 2 br 2 1!1 2 BXXII BYYll B . then it is convenient to assume a simple shaft geometry. The choices are a disc/weightless shaft combination or a uniform shaft. 3) it is possible to find the reserve of viscous damping possessed by the system. = I:m¢2 /M<I>o = 0. M 2 2 EXXII = AxXIIA A /). The latter model has been chosen and this results in a sinusoidal modal shape for which: 2 /).
It is possible to generalise these velocities in terms of the shaft coordinates as follows: (8) where ox. The value b relates to the total viscous force/unit velocity obtained from sliding the coupling axially. The orbit size which refers to the length of the major axis of the ellipse at the shaft centre is proportional to f/M. . the size being. The bearing coefficients relate to a specific noncircular bearing profile of the fixed arc type. Vy are not the same in the Coulomb case as in the viscous case. 4) yields the magnitude of a limit cycle at the crossover point. The fact that the crossover slope is negative indicates that this is a stable cycle. Plotting the work function (Wc . oy relate to the angular misalignments of the coupling ex. The damping B arises from the axial rubbing of the gear teeth in the coupling. These teeth are assumed to be continuously distributed on a pitch circle of radius r. The coupling damping operates on the relative velocities of teeth arising from small vibrations in the system. ey thus: oy = ey (til) (9) The energy reserve/cycle in viscous damping at the coupling is given by: (10) Coulomb Damping Suppose now that the damping mechanism in the coupling is of the Coulomb type and that f is the force resisting axial movement of the teeth. arbitrary. the error involved in assuming both orbits to be identical ellipses is very small. The values of all parameters used in plotting the curve of Figure 3 are shown on that sheet and will be used for all further work in the paper.Wv) against orbit size for zero misalignment (Fig. Solutions of the linear equation of motion yield not only the system frequencies and dampings but the orbit shape. but for reasons which will be discussed later. •  'IT <Po L M Note that strictly speaking Vx. 49 . of course. The Coulomb energy/ cycle is: Wc (I J) 2r thal f r f where F = (� ) = (12) M .
affect the qualitative behaviour of the system. but to obtain a more accurate model it is only necessary to incorporate more shaft freedoms. the values ex. Thus the assumptions used in deriving the energy expression (Wc . The energy supplied by the Coulomb damping is a small proportion of the inertial and strain energy in the system so that the orbits are largely controlled by these latter energy exchanges. hysteretic or Coulomb. Certain combinations of the misalignments give a totally stable system. ey are now systematically varied. then extractions of the oil film coefficients from rotor/bearing systems may well be subject to inaccuracies. It does. The author has found that reasonably accurate results can occur when this viscous damping margin is well over 15%. limit cycles exist which are smaller than the limit cycle of the zero misaligned case. This means that nonsychronous whirling will start at a lower speed than that dictated solely by consideration of the oil film. there being a threshold at which a collapse from a finite orbit to zero takes place. Either a finite element or a modal representation could be used. All of these techniques have been used by the author on the particular problem presented in the present paper and for this case it can be shown that the orbits are very nearly elliptical with little harmonic content. It is reasonably easy.Wv) are valid. so does the stability margin. if tedious. The question arises as to what happens if the shaft is stiffer. It is possible to plot a map of constant orbit combinations as in Figure 6. to arrive at limit cycles by time marching methods or other slightly more elegant algorithms. for the model assumed. however. 50 . Within the boundary. Alternatively. Misalignments Having fixed the orbit size for the system under consideration. As shaft stiffness increases. The semirigid modelling of the shaft implies certain constraints. Under some circum stances the function shows 2 crossover points. however. whether viscous. Here it will be seen that there exists a boundary in the ex/ey plane beyond which. This does not. instability cannot exist. Figure 5 shows that depending on the values of these parameters the character of the work function changes. The smaller orbit is unstable and the larger one is stable. a carefully constructed analogue computer circuit can solve the problem. This circumstance results from the fact that the shaft is very flexible. Any rotating damping. The reasons for this are fairly obvious. This margin is expressed in the present context as the viscous rotating damping necessary to reduce the system damping to zero. The present mathematical treatment of Coulomb damping also requires justifi cation. reduces the stability margin of a rotating system. mean that the system frequency and the orbit size will be incorrect. as evidenced by the small ratio of frequency: running speed (w/n Figure 3). particularly that relating to the stabilizing effects of large misalignments. DISCUSSION It is first necessary to examine the validity of the model with regard to its general applicability. Since most rotors contain some rotating damping mechanism.
however. The pressure between the fingers and the main shaft was introduced by elastic bands. According to our simple model the orbits should increase with running speed and at the 'resonant oil whirl' threshold. This very small amount of damping produced from the dynamic slope of the shaft was quite sufficient to lower the instability threshold and produce stable limit cycles.: Physical Explanations of the Destabilizing Effect of Damping in Rotating Parts. The nearer the running speed approaches the 'true' oil film instability threshold. REFERENCES I. i. In many practical situations such a biasing would be impossible in that very heavy fretting wear would be brought about by the gross misalignments necessary to achieve stability. would apply whenever friction was caused by shaft flexure. Figure 8 shows a shaft weighing 700 kgs supported on 2. Obviously as this running speed rises and its associated oil film co efficients change. is what. In any case the present theory deals with small vibrations and above a certain level the force/ spatial relationships within the coupling may become much more complex than those assumed here. in the authors view. NASA Conference publication 2133. Under these circumstances.e. Nevertheless.H. that oil film nonlinearities are responsible for the small limit cycles often experienced prior to large non sychronous orbits. 51 . The probability is that these limit cycles arise from the existance of friction in the drive mechanism. The point brought out in the present paper is that the destabilizing effect of Coulomb damping can be 'biased out' by friction arising in a fixed plane and resulting from the rotation. CONCLUDING REMARKS The author has dealt with the subject of limit cycles in a shaft/hydrodynamic bearing system with rotating damping present in the drive coupling. 100 mm dia hydrodynamic bearings. 1980. however. the stability margin reduces. but to other sources of rubbing in rotating elements. Crandall. In the present mathematical example. will take over so that the increase in orbit size may not be as dramatic as Figure 7 predicts. but this is a gross condition in which the oil film becomes effective around the complete bearing circumference. a single running speed has been considered so far. S. Figure 9 shows friction being introduced by 3 small steel 'fingers' supported on a freely rotating layshaft. The same conclusions. it is obvious that constraints associated with bearing clearances etc. is the erroneous deduction from many tests and case histories. The stabilizing effect of large misalignments was also demonstrated by varying the angle of the layshaft. Pages 369382. I More important. the easier it is to supply the small amount of friction damping necessary to promote limit cycles. should grow without limit. May 1214. that limit cycles exist when saturable damping mechanisms are present. the mechanism is of some interest and may not only apply to couplings. To be sure oil film nonlinearities operate to limit journal orbits which are large compared with the bearing clearance.
Coordinate system. . . 52 . Diagrammatic arrangement of shaft and couplings.Fi gure 1. Figure 2.
2. __ .t' �'..3&t..'2 2... I·e _ .lll c!H1... 53 ...... 300 DID L . / �O·l"'l System Damping % / !.. 3 __ .. .. Net work N orbit size.0 m 0·1 0·5 Figure 3... . Relationship between system damping and rotating viscous damping. 0·2.0 Figure 4.... Net Work Per Cycle! F2 M).35 Jf 0·1 . = C!)... 17000 kg C ..  A • 80 r ad!sec M . ..... 300 1Jm r .
. 54 . F Curve ' MV MV \J 1 10 0 \ 2 0 5 7 3 20 0 Figure 5.��r' .§:L F. 10/ 20 r. ..30 I \ I 2 t\ ' I 3 \ \ I \ 5 \ ox ... Effect of misalignment on work function. o ���r...
55 . oy Stable ox Critical Misalignment Figure 6. Growth of orbit size with running speed. Critical misalignment boundary compared with orbit of fully aligned system. . Orbit Ratio 30 Ret 50 Hz Resonant Whirl 20 10 Running Speed Hz O �'r''�� 50 '0 70 80 Figure 7. .
Model rotor supported on 100mm dia.Figure 8. 56 . hydrodynamic bearings.
57 .Figure 9. Method of introducing friction damping into model rotor. .
An additional test case discussed shows the importance of proper material selection and processing and what can happen to an otherwise good design. INTRODUCTION In many instances of preorder coupling selection. As the torque level being transmitted through the spacer in creases. MUrphy IngersollRand COmpany Phillipsburg. light journal loads. 1HBJRY AND PRACTICE R. and (2) gear mesh instability resulting in spacer throwout onset. and Richard C. Roy E. The general technique for studying spacer tube dynamics is to consider it as a uniform beam with simple supports at each gear mesh as a worst case in the un torqued condition. on units with flexible shaft ends. Typical couplings are either of the lubricated gear or dry diaphragm type design. It is this minimal influence on adjoining shaft ends and lack of response crosscoupling across the spacer which enables a single body analysis to accurately represent the individual unit's characteristics in the field. Some efforts may be made to minimize weight but typically standard couplings are selected from a horse powerspeed aspect. However. the theory allows the coulombic gear mesh forces to restrain the spacer tube ends from rotating and effectively raise the spacer's critical speed. INSTABILITIES OF GFARED COUPLIN3S . The amount of torque which a gear coupling is transmitting at a particular speed not only affects the amount of moment restraint which the adjoining shaft ends may induce upon the spacer but also greatly influences a mesh instability phenomena known as spacer throwout. Two types of mechanical instabil ities are reviewed in this paper: (1) entrapped fluid. and large shaft end separation. For some equipment strings the gear coupling's spacer tends toward this behavior. Recent test stand and field data on contin uous lube gear type couplings have forced a closer examination of design tolerances and concepts to avoid operational instabilities. Mbndy. little consideration is given to either the dynamics of the coupling spacer as an individual body or its half weight effects on the shaft ends of the coupled units. the spacer cannot necessarily be considered to adhere to this proposed theory. This method is adequate in most cases because the spacer be haves as a rigid body with minimal influence on the connected shaft ends. Spacer throwout occurs when the mass unbalance 58 . Test stand results of these types of instabilities and other directly related problems are presented together with criteria for proper coupling design to avoid these conditions. Gordon Kirk. New Jersey 08865 SUMMARY The use of couplings for high speed turbocompressors or pumps is essential to transmit power from the driver. Gear couplings have been the standard design for many years and recent advances in power and speed requirements have pushed the standard design criteria to the limit.
the tendency is to specify a coupling with the lightest spacer possible which is capable of trans mitting the required torque. if the coupling is not properly specified.shaft end con figuration. If the spacer tube critical is at least 120% of design speed. One major problem which may exist in this increased diameter spacer design is that of entrapped coupling lubricant within the spacer tube. standard coupling would be. then satisfactory operation should result according to Staedeli and Vance ( ref. Although this type of phenomena is documented in the literature ( ref. lateral dynamics. Since all corrective actions were made on the coupling itself and none were made on either the test driver or driven unit. The result is a special design of coupling which may be significantly more expensive than the orig inal. one set of dynamics problems may be simply traded for another set of problems. Design standards are given and recommendations are made to assure the best possible dynamic response characteristics for high speed couplings. Each case history spotlights a particular problem encountered and what actions were required to correct the problem. In order to alleviate this potentially problematic coupling . Although this coupling design would eliminate the amplification effects associated with operating near the spacer tube critical and reduce the maximum displacement possible due to throwout. Employing this philosophy may result in a spacer tube calculated critical falling near design speed. On large center hung machines with short. all problems were considered to be initiated by the coup1ing1s dynamic characteristics and its interaction with the adjoining units. Therefore. However. In attempts to minimize the potential for throwout problems. 1 and 2).forces on the spacer become sufficiently great as to cause the spacer to move off of the gear mesh pitch line creating a step function increase in the unbalance forces being exerted on the adjoining shaft ends. 59 . on machines where the shaft ends are flexible and the coupling half weight is a substantial percentage of the total journal loading.5) it can be difficult to diagnose during field operation due to limited vibration data acquisition capability. Another more important fact is that the vibration characteristics may not match the reported theories in all regards as this paper will illustrate. efforts to preclude oil from entering the spacer should be included as part of the coupling design. stiff shaft ends. the increase in spacer tube weight may nearly offset the gains of the coupling design change. 3. REVIEW OF TEST STAND DATA RELATING TO GEAR COUPLINGS The following case histories exemplify the basic problems described above. The remainder of this paper documents several case histories of turbomachinery vibration problems wherein the source of the problem was concluded to be inherent in the coupling design selected for each particular application. this criteria may be acceptable. Therefore. the tendency is to increase both inside and outside spacer tube diameters while decreasing concentricity tolerances and gear mesh clearances. then the 120% criteria can result in unacceptable system. Further discussion on the theories and methods of calculations for coupling selection and analysis follows the review of the test results.4.
038 mm (1. The shaft end sep aration is 1727.25 mils) being achieved at 100 Hz (6000 RPM).3 Hz (5000 RPM) approaching 0. Figure 2.4 mil).076 mm (3. The calculated spacer critical speed is 131 Hz (7860 RPM) or 1. the indication was that a system critical existed which was primarily con trolled by the coupling. This rapid increase in synchronous response amplitude is usually indicative of a critical speed. showing 0. Gear Tooth Damping Several proposals were considered to resolve the vibration problems of Case 1.3 Hz (5000 RPM).0 mils) at 91.0.5 mm (53/8 inches) 1. One proposal was to coat the coupling gear teeth with a product which the coupling manufacturer recommends for the running in of new couplings.7 Hz (5500 RPM). It was necessary to field balance this coupling placing balance weights at the spacer midspan to enable a satisfactory vibration level to be achieved. This cou pling is rated for 11.010 mm (0.1 kg (174 pounds).025 mm (1. Case 2 ..Spacer Critical Speed and Balance The first coupling to be considered is shown in Figure 1. this coating was applied to the coupling teeth. approximately 0. This coating is a polyphenylene sulfide resin placed on the flanks of the teeth to help the teeth share the load. Case 1 . The coating was removed by a light sandblasting. The spacer is 149. it was concluded that the difference in response was due to an increase in the coulombic damping in the gear meshes which resulted from the removal of the slippery coating that had been applied to the teeth flanks. In the field this coupling transmits power from an overhung design expander to a center slung design axial flow compressor. Curve 2. including the coupling half weight. This same coupling was then used to drive the expander for its mechanical run test.2 mm (57/8 inches) 0. reflects the results upon rerunning the coupling on the test stand.7 Hz (5500 RPM).500 horsepower) at 95 Hz (5700 RPM) with a maximum continuous operating speed (MCOS) of 100 Hz (6000 RPM). 60 . vibration levels are acceptable at 83. The existence of the critical speed is indicated by the sUbstantial shift in phase angle above 91.6 MW (15.7 Hz (5500 RPM).0 mils) at 91.0. 136. The field balance required numerous trials due to the sensitive nature of the coupling spacer critical. The setup for the expander test is shown schematically in Figure 3 where the variable speed motor drives the expander through a 5:1 speed increasing gearbox.0 mil) at 91. With the coating on the coupling. A review of the rotor dynamics analysis of the expander. but the amplitude rises sharply above 83. the vibration as measured by the expander1s coupling end vibration probe reached . As can be seen. The am plitude was nearly all at synchronous frequency. Upon running an analysis of the test system.051 mm (2.7 Hz (5500 RPM) as seen on Curve 1. did not indi cate a critical speed in this speed range.025 mm (1 mil). The initial results of this test are depicted in Figure 4 which represents the ini tial run up to speed. After a reasonably acceptable level of balance was achieved by field balancing. Figure 6 depicts the results. Since the only change between these two runs was the removal of the coating. Figure 5 shows the final balance condition with an acceptable level of 0.31 times MeOS. The compressor was tested using this coupling and at 100 Hz (6000 RPM)� the compressor1s bearing vibration adjacent to the coupling was approximately 0. the balance of the coupling was considered to be unchanged.2 mm (68 inches) and the coupling wei9ht is 79.
813 inches). The coupling of Figure 7 has a floating member weight of 84. One result of this investigation was the discov ery that on other jobs the ratio of calculated lateral critical speed of the cou pling floating member to maximum continuous operating speed was substantially greater than on this application. it was run on the next similar unit to go on the test stand.5 mils) at 84.2 mm (68 inches).6 mil).48 ounce inches) for each 0.0. The coupling design resulting from this study is shown in Figure 7. The oil drain holes are retained.Entrapped Oil Since test stand field balancing of the coupling was not considered as an acceptable permanent fix. four at each end and four in the middle. an investigation of prior experience with similar con figured machinery was undertaken. An extremely high level of vibration would suddenly occur with a very small increase in speed.015 mm (0. This ratio was found to vary from about 1. Case 3 . of 235 mm (9.35 mm (0. the subsynchronous component reached levels approximating 0. the speed at which this phenomenon would occur was lower with each successive start and the source of the high amplitude was a subsynchronous component varying from . of 223. It was concluded from this data that for a permanent fix. a substantial quantity of oil was observed to have been entrapped in the spacer tube. rabbet fits are used to maintain consistency in reassembly. However.250 inches) and an 1.250 inch) holes were drilled in the spacer. on the fourth start. twelve 6.6 Hz (12.83/rev. Upon breaking the flanges.241 mm (9. a coupling was required wherein the spacer critical to MCOS ratio would have a minimum value of 2.025 mm 61 . Although the amplitude at synchronous frequency was never higher than 0. Figures 9 and 10 show the results of the retest run.08 times an MCOS of 100 Hz (6000 RPM).3. Case 4 . Figure 9 shows that the subsynchronous component. As can be seen from a chronological review of the figures.7 Hz (5800 RPM) has been eliminated. couplings similar to that of Figure 7 consist of a number of pieces which must be assembled. previously seen at about 96.94/rev. The shaft end separation is still 1727. The unit was reassembled.0. Figures 8a through 8d depict the initial results.7 kg (215 pounds). In order to permit the oil to escape from the spacer. The calculated critical speed is 207.9 to 6. but the weight has been increased to 97. This same problem can also exist for the fits and pilot diameter of the gear meshes. Where possible.9 mm (8. This modification consists of interference fitting dam plates in the ends of the spacer. has been completely eliminated and Figure 10 indicates that the critical speed. The first step in disassembly of the unit was the removal of the coupling. The spacer assembly was check balanced and found to be accept able. The main spacer has an 0. on the first start to .0. In order to confirm the acceptability of this coupling.7 gmcm (1.1 kg (185 pounds) which results in an unbalance of 106. fits may have clearance and may not be con centric with each other which can result in either constant or variable unbalance being manufactured into the coupling.Manufacturing Tolerances Of necessity. due to the entrapped oil. An additional modification has since been incorporated into this coupling design to preclude oil from entering the spacer from the gear mesh area.457 RPM) or 2.8 Hz (5090 RPM) on the first start.
As can be seen.3 Hz (12680 RPM). The test results for this configuration are shown in Figure 12 where the overall vibration level at 96. and rotating components relative to each other.013 mm (0. Both acce1 and decel signatures clearly show the response step increase associated with coupling spacer throwout. The driven gear box showed no distress and the coupling was not transmitting load as the load compressor was not coupled for this start nor had it been coupled.0.037 mm (1. Case 5 .152 mm (56 mils).(1 mil) of floating member eccentricity. the coupling guard was disassembled. the run out was reduced to under 0. the vibration quickly increases to 0. 62 . Figure 11 indicates an overall amplitude of 0. The assembled coupling was indicated with mechanical dial indicators and depending upon axial location.5 mil) at 209.081 mm (3.7 mil) at 211.2 Hz (12550 RPM). When ignoring the manufacturer1s match marks.051 mm (2 mils). In the absence of this minimum torque.009 mm (0. Three large cracks were evident. Since the accel erating torque decreases as the unit approaches idle speed. the vibration amplitude gradually in creases to a level of 0. the amplitude starts rising rapidly above 120 Hz (7200 RPM) and peaks at about 0. gear type couplings require a minimim torque transmission in order to center the floating member. This phenomena is graphically displayed in Figure 13a. When torque is reapplied through the coupling during acceleration to MCOS. The speedamplitude drift signature is included as addi tional information to show the absence of a response critical of any kind in this speed range.36 mil) and gradually increases again as the driving torque de creases while the unit comes up to speed.330 mm (13 mils) at 160 Hz (9600 RPM). Figure 13b shows a separate test run for the subject equipment string. The unit was tripped and after coast down. Metallurgical investigation later determined that the cracks had been formed during the heat treatment cycle of the spacer. Figures 11 and 12 graphically depict what can happen as a result of manufacturing tolerances and eccentricities. Figure 15 shows the condition of the coupling spacer.018 mm (0. For this test run the coupling was assembled using the manufacturer1s match marks. ran out as much as 0. where a speed reducing gear box is being driven by a gas turbine with the load compressor uncoupled.7 Hz (5800 RPM). the residual unbalance in the floating member may cause it to move eccentric until the tooth tip clearance is reduced to zero in the heavy spot1s radial direction.Coupling Failure Figure 14 depicts a peak hold plot of overall vibration during the startup of a unit similar to the one just described above. Case 6 . This situation creates an additional unbalance in the coupling.Throwout of Mesh As discussed in the introduction. As long as the accelerating torque is applied. the vibration amplitude immediately drops to .127 .2 mils) at a speed of 96.45 mils). The darkened area above the center balancing band was caused by the coupling rubbing the guard.7 Hz (5800 RPM) is approximately 0.
THEORY AND GUIDELINES TO PROPER COUPLING DESIGN FOR ROTOR DYNAMICS CONSIDERATIONS Entrapped Fluids The analysis for the dynamics of a rotor partially filled with liquid was published by Wolfe (3. When consideration is given to the potential imbalance from spacer 1. The difficulty in applying the simple theory to a real machinery situation is the identification of the critical of concern and the effec tive mass of the rotor.4) and Ehrich (5) in the midsixties in the U. the exact ratios not reported . to provide ample discharge outlets along the spacer length. . non uniformatives that can produce a nonuniform oil film in the spacer. The equivalent rotor mass is found by adding the mass of the entrapped fluid required to fill the rotor full of liquid to the dry rotor mass. turbines. This indeed is logical if one does not consider axial pumping action or gear mesh oil ring instabilities that could increase the oil ring thickness. A minimum dam height at the spacer ends of double the normal gear mesh oil ring thickness is considered essential and preferably a solid blockage plate should be used on all coupling spacers that can entrap oil.50 x synchronous for small volumes of entrapped fluid with whirl ratios increasing as the rotor is filled with more fluid. The oil flow in gear couplings should not be oversimplified since the current design problem was considered by the manufacturer with the conclusion that it was impossible to get oil into the spacer.0. Other authors have more recently written on the subject of entrapped fluids (6.S. the theory indicates a nonsynchronous compo nent at 0. The severity of the problem is amplified when lightly loaded coupling end bearings are present such as in the case of overhung expanders. 63 . No attempt is made in this paper to apply the published criteria for insta bility onset since the nature of the observed instability differs from the theory as published to date. Additionally. compressors. The results of the more extensive test runs with increasing volumes presented in this paper indicate that a mechanism of instability exists that produces a lowered threshold of instability as the volume of entrapped fluid increases �nd further that the whirl rate varies from almost synchronous for small volumes to 0. Wolfe references earlier work from Europe dating to the late fifties. or lightly loaded gear boxes. The test stand data presented by Ehrich indicated the presence of a 0.87 x synchronous speed component that presented a speed zone of large response that the jet engine was able to pass through. The practical solution is to prevent the admission of oil into a long spacer and further. the admission of oil into a spacer is quickly concluded to be highly undesirable.84 x synchronous as the volume increases. This theory indicates that higher and higher speeds may be reached as the rotor is filled with liquid before the instability on set occurs. Wolfe noted that when his exper imental rotor was unstable it whirled for the most part at frequencies below the reduced critical speed. The published theory of en trapped fluids has been proven by experimental tests on vertical rotors wherein the system undergoes a zone of instability after passing a "reduced critical speedll• This reduced critical is not a function of the fill ratio but is determined by cal culating the system critical with an equivalent rotor mass. The results of his analysis seemed to satisfy the test stand results of the jet engine for the one run he reported.7) which refine the fluid dynamics and mathematics of the work by Ehrich.
0 in.0307 lb/in3 x (2. For Ncr/N = 1. of 223. This type of constraint is not present in a dry diaphragm type coupling. The justification for this is supported by the result ing amplification or deviation from a speedsquare response as the spacer critical speed ratio Ncr/N becomes less than 2. Check placement of spacer Ncr by the following equation (American Units) .0 inches) wide. The general opinion is that the critical is typically higher due to the frictional constraint and damping arising from the torque condition for a gear coupling.0307 lb/in3• U = y x V x 0/2 = . The detailed train analysis results in the identification of the actual system critical speeds and response sensitivities.25 . 's is considered totally acceptable for machinery having the spacer critical ratio of approximately 2.0 or larger.0.7 gmcm (A typical coupling component balance is made to a level of 0.254 mm (10 mil) thickness of oil. an amplification of 425% would occur for the residual imbalance forces to the adjoining rotor bearing systems. ] 2. For lightly loaded coupling end bearing machinery.0. 50.1 ozin).59 ozin or 186. The analysis of turbomachinery having the coupling spacer critical speeds less than 2.8) x 16 U = 2.0 x 60.1.0.5 mm (8.8 mm (2. For large center hung turbomachinery this calculation is typically adequate with the bearing reactions effectively giving a restraint to validate the approximate calculation. The proposed design procedure for preliminary selection of couplings is as follows: 1. Size coupling for torque capacity requirements.010) x (8.8 in. along a 1524 mm (60.g.0 times the maximum continuous operating speed should include a response anal ysis of the coupling joining the two adjacent rotor bearing systems. the coup ling represents a large portion of the modal mass of the coupling end critical (typically the turbomachines 2nd mode) and hence the system sensitivity to imbalance on the coupling is important not only at the spacer critical but also at the rotor system criticals. however.). This is shown in Table I where it is noted deviation is indicated for Ncr/N = 1. Example 1 Consider the imbalance of 0. (. and an oil having a weight density of y = 0. Coupling Spacer Critical Speed and Amplification Manufacturers of high speed couplings typically calculate a spacer lateral critical by considering it as a simply supported beam as the worst case (see Eq. A 176% This means that any residual imbalance force has been amplified by 176%. 1). that a 33% deviation from a speedsquare curve exists when Ncr/N = 2. This type anal ysis is commonly referred to as a train or partial train analysis.0 x .7 Ncr = 4 3 � L 106 D2 + J we (RPM) (1) 1 + L{02d2) 64 .) spacer tube with an 1. The standard practice of using coupling half weights located at their respective c.
a train or partial train analysis should be performed for test stand and field conditions if the spacer cannot be redesigned to move into the satisfactory region. 1/2 Wcplg/Wjournal. 65 . y 0. rad/sec. According to the results given in reference (1). d = spacer nominal inner diameter.7 X 106 lb/in2 and weight density. We = effective modal mass of flanges or torque meters referred to the spacer midspan. and the upper part of Zone III) for each of the adjoining machines journal re action ratio. 5. 4. in.283 lb/in3• = 3. a gear coupling in perfect balance will center on the mesh pitch line when the torque transmitted is either equal to o r larger than T M x E xw2 x D/4 = (2) where M = mass of floating member E = spacer eccentricity to be centered D = mesh pitch diameter w = rotor speed. L = mesh to mesh distance. w = 628. Coupling Throwout The previous discussion on amplification is important to be able to fully appreciate the potential problems relating to the mesh throwout instability. in. Exa m p l e 2 (American Units) Assume the following conditions: E = .3 rad/sec. analysis being made as noted above. lbm. If the design falls in the unacceptable region the coupling spacer should be redesigned to move the calculated critical as far as possible toward the satis factory zone. in. If the spacer is in the satisfactory region given in Figure 16 (Zones I and II.001 in. Spacer is assumed to be of standard steel having a Young's Modulus. If the design falls in the marginal region of Figure 16. E = 28. the design specifications need not require a train analysis. = . This torque is typically very small for standard tooth tip clearances. where D = spacer nominal outer diameter.0254 mm N = 6000 RPM.
P. N = rotor speed. = 72. = 228. = 500 = 372.P. imbalance to cause throwout Example 3 H. gives an estimate of goodness: P X 109 (4) E = ( Metric Units ) 1. KW M = spacer mass.0 1 . = 17. meters N = speed.6 mm Applying Eq. = = 9 x (6000)3 X 5 This imbalance represents an eccentricity of 0. = ozin.6 Kg o = 9 . P. = transmitted horsepower 0 = mesh pitch diameter. = = 33.000 H.55 ozin (39.6 gcm ) UT.P.36 x M x 02 X N3 where P = power.07 X 1010 x H.43 mil TIR of a 160 lb. (2) and converting to horsepower gives �� 2 � (W E w2 � x 1/12) x N H. it may be shown that the centering will not be maintained for an imbalance larger than 1 . UT.O. Consider now the influence of the spacer imbalance on the centering action of the mesh. RPM Q = spacer amplification factor U T.O.0 in.52 to center mesh at 6000 RPM. the likelihood of centering under unloaded or lightly loaded test stand conditions is very small for this example coupling.07 X 10 1 0 x 500 0. For a coefficient of friction of 0.6 mm N = 6000 RPM Q = 5.O.5 kw 0 = 9 in. = 228.000 33.15. W = 160 lb.. in. RPM 66 . Kg o = pitch dia. Hence. = ( American Units) (3) 0 x N3 X Q where H. A formula given by Staedeli (1) referred to as the ContiBarbaran formula. which was developed from test stand experience. spacer.P.
the throwout imbalance is over 38 times the desired balance level and 3. Component balance of the hubs. this would represent an additional imbalance level of 160 x 16 x . 1.334 . The nominal tooth clearance at zero speed is increased at running speed and temperature to give typically 0.02 x 60003 For H. This type of imbalance further amplified by proximity to a spacer critical is not desirable for turbomachinery. For the 72. Guidelines for Manufacturing Tolerances and Balance Requirements The design and manufacture of long couplings required for machinery such as reported in this paper must be treated with due concern for the potential problems previously discussed and demonstrated by test stand experience. problems with mesh centering Converting to units of H. stable and trouble free E < 5. For E ? 10. U = 1.) spacer of the previous example. = Typical balance standards would call for a balance of U = 4W/N = 7. lbm.. (American Units) (5) E = W X D2 X N3 Example 4 Consider the calculation of Eq.0 ozin (72..076 mm (.000 E = 6.003 inch) diametral clearance.Problems E = = 160 X 9.8 7 X 1012 x 500 .P. imbalance of the spacer is a function of the eccentric position of the floating member.P.7 Kg (160 lb. The concern for mesh centering is twofold in that gear wear would increase with the mesh off the pitch line and secondly.68 .8 times the practical balance level.(5) for the conditions of Example 3: 1.. = 10.3 gmcm (3. It is therefore of utmost importance for couplings falling into Zone III of Figure 16.002 .84 ozin).003/2 278.O. and 67 ..21 gmcm (0. The advantage of Equation 3 is that it gives a result that has physical meaning and gives the designer an imbalance level to achieve for best results.Problems not likely The above formula is similar to Equation 3 for the calculation of UT.1 ozin) For 40 WIN.051  0.1 gmcm) Hence.8 7 X 1012 x H. that the concentricities of the individual components be held below certain minimum standards. in.. The design of such couplings typically necessitate a multicomponent design spacer with bolted flanges and close tolerance fits. sleeves.P.
2. 68 . 2 plane correction on the floating member is adequate. Coupling spacers should be desig ned to have a critical speed ratio of 2. This criteria is relaxed for couplings in Zone I and Zone II as indicated on Figure 16. 5. Smaller ratios may be acceptable if adequate analysis is conducted to assure an insensitive design as outlined in this paper. 6. correction on the floating member should be made in three or more planes along the spacer lengt h. The final coupling assembly. to reduce unwanted modal amplification of the residual imbalance . This requirement necessitates that the coupling manufacturer achieve runout levels of less than . Coupling designs that are below the marginal zone of Figure 16 should not be accepted for Turbomachinery application. The manufacturing tolerances for couplings should meet specific minimum . For couplings having a spacer critical speed ratio larger than 2. Turbomachinery conditions having low horsepower requirements and utiliz ing g ear coupling s are particularly susceptible to larger than normal imbalance levels on the coupling due to spacer throwout. must have a total indicator reading on each of the ground balancing journals on the floating member of less than . 4. Design features of gear couplings should preclude the admission of oil into the spacer tube.051 mm (.0. When the floating member balance journal runout levels cannot be reduced to the required levels by selective component assembly . Long spacer couplings having a c ritical speed ratio less than 2.002 in). Gear couplings shoul d be designed to have a minimum increase in mesh tip clearance at design speed and temperature. standards as outlined in this paper. CONCLUDING REMARKS This paper has presented test stand data that points clearly to the impor tance for rigorous design standards on couplings for turbomachinery.0015 in) for each balance journal relative to its mounting bore or rabbet fit. as mounted on the turbomachinery . For couplings having the spacer critical lower than 2. Turbomachinery likely to experience this condition includes power turbines and compressors of an overhung design.0. with added precautions for machines that may have lightly loaded coupling end bearings.0 or larger. The concentricities of the balance arbor must be controlled to preclude significant arbor induced imbalance which can result in a built in imbalance when a correction is made and the coupling is removed  from the arbor.0 should have at least three planes for balance correction. 3. The major conclusions that may be drawn from this paper are: 1.the floating member is required. 7. it becomes necessary to require an arbor balance of the total coupling assembly.038 mm (.
REFERENCES 1. Dec. Journal of Mechanical Design. A. 4. 3. 7. ASME. 6. 69 . Cambridge. F. T. and Someya. 1966. 9. ASME Preprint 79DET62. 1968. Vance. J.A. Trans. Attention to proper material processing and heat treatment is essential in addition to the above considerati�ns. Lichtenberg.: SelfExcited Vibration of a Rotating Hollow Shaft Partially Filled with Liquid. Journal of Applied Mechanics. ASME. 676682. Thesis. pp. Wolf. Jr. F. ASME.: Toothed Couplings. The balance procedures outlined in this paper could apply to all couplings but are considered essential for those applications in Zone III of Figure 16. Trans. pp. Journal of Mechanical Design. S. Sept. ScD. Trans. ASME Paper 72PTG36..: Whirl Dynamics of a Rotor Partially Filled with Liquid. Ind.: Influence of Coupling Performance on the Dynamics of High Speed Power Transmission Shafts. 806812.: Vibrations of an Elastically Mounted Spinning Rotor Partially Filled with L iquid. ASME.8. Wolf. 0. Saito. Massachusetts. 5.: Whirl Dynamics of a Rotor Partially Filled with Liquid. J. Ehrich. J. MAAG Gear Wheel Company. Staedeli. Ltd. of E. 2. Trans. ASME Preprint 81DET54. 1972. Jr.. Nov. J. Switzerland. G.. 8023 Zurich. 1967.: The Influence of Trapped Fluids on High Speed Rotor Vibrations. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
434 .4 .67 .96 96 1. 10 MARINE TYPE REDUCED MOMENT TYPE SPACER END SPACER END Figure 1.50 .81 .1089 .80 .4 3.90 .0 4 . _ Expander original coupling design employing both marine and reduced moment spacer design features.0 .33 . .! .55 .70 .!.26 425 1.77 176 loll ... 70 .2 2. .122 13.434 43 1.0 1.2 2.81 4.49 .64 1. .42 .04)* 1. T ABLE I.0 1.16 .19 19 2.302 .333 33 (33.3 .233 23.60 .25 .Q rrQ  N s/ 2 cr 1_Q CO 0 0 0 0.0 CO en (900)* *Denotes value for typical damping value of Q .0667 6.25 .0625 .5625 56 (55. UNDAMPED MODAL A MPLIFICATION DUE TO APPROACH TO A CRITICAL SPEED Dimensionless Percent Deviation Speed Ratio Speed SpeedSquare Undamped Response from Ncr � SpeedSquare Curve  .5 .189 .25 .36 .5)* 1.
bration ( speed vs.m II III rmmnml i II i ri iii Ii iii i I iI 1 :! .. @ N 6000 RPM 1750 RPM MCOS = VAR..Acceptable axial compressor vi.' . i l.n it 1 :m1 HJI tHHtHH SYNCHR NOUS II ! iii II 1 2 3 4 5 6 ROTOR SPEED X 103 (RPM) Figure 2. 71 ..!' \. General configuration of expander test stand assembly.!. SPEED MOTOR Figure 3.++li j l +HH� H1+l+I · i.. TEST SET UP EXPANDER GEAR BOX 5:1 SPEED RATIO SUBJECT COUPLING 1750 H.. l l ! � b'. f+l+tt t t + t ttH+ I ..!/lllJ 1'. ' r I ' " t ' I ]': lI.P. �I TI�I � U J i . . tl Ij!uiUlmlwm1tm·. I . . .l l. 'II II' i i !i Ii : i ! III I I � :+1 tt .'6�. tt tI ! �r.1 I II I!I I Ii jll. Fourhour mechanical test run.. I'. O i !I 111w11 xI ' 'll �' Ii. amplitude ) signature.
til .� . �� o ��� 2 3 4 5 6 3 ROTOR SPEED X 10 (RPM) Figure 4. I:" l:. II I Ili !ilj rhl nij l! .1 . . Expander vibration signature for initial acceleration on test stand. ! ['!.m m �'Ti' li l i!. " ' :1 I . � l . 72 . .. I!I I· I : Ilii ' o ! il II i : 2 3 4 5 6 3 ROTOR SPEED X 10 (RPM) Figure 5.J ! .:. jl!! �I I:r i : IIii I trdr IIfltT t.:r H � 11' i[+ �: ..J. .cl. . I IF' 'iJj' [.:[ [ ti l'. . "�j._.. il i flhh. Expander vibration signature for final b alance condition of coupling on test stand during mechanical run.: i' . �:ti. . H�i .. iili' i ..' i [I'I..
. i +::'i'+''++c':J:c:.LJ::d .! ."lJlfi'+''� i : '1 1 1"+: '+'i . .+ t. 73 . .+i . Expander redesigned coupling with in creased spacer tube diameters.j�'_cc ...1 ffi �c I:+ i _+ .'.F �� 2 +.+::..:. l�) �[:l 1. ! I ri.  2 3 4 5 6 3 ROTOR SPEED X 10 (RPM) Figure 6. Figure 7. Test stand vibration signature comparison for balanced spacer with and without polyphen ylene tooth coating.... .I+ � : ___ L c� j. .tI +++'''+' I ..11+: ..++'�''f. _ ._+'+' .+''+l/III+''+''I +'.:+:'''I ..+.++ilfJ . '+ '.
I.. �·I·L+. �. . __ . · ___J_ I.. ... i �_. First Test Run = ... 3 tI''. 1 ! i ' • i ( a) First acceleration with entrapped oil. ' J. ._r. . _.... ·::t.. Expander Mechanical Test C.. ___ ._� b:O'013 j��. Test stand vibration spectrum signature. !1 I __ ! . .._  (b ) Second acceleration with entrapped oil. ._ . .�t. Coupling End Horizontal Probe .:c �· r. �� � ..' Case History g0..� � . "c:!: .� ·::.. . . Figure 8..j.. 74 . . . _ .
.� . " 'f (d) Fourth acceleration with entrapped oil.:  � �r. '. ':Tt:r= Case History 3 4704 RPM __ .s���G$�':i =V:T :rc.____+:_' 1.c . ==F::::. r.h'p (c) Third acceleration with entrapped oil. Concluded. 75 . .. . Figure 8..
. 1 2 3 4 6 3 ROTOR SPEED X 10 (RPM) Figure 10. Test stand vibration signature for retest run with oil drain holes in coupling spacer.=� . = _�:':.f::.. :..:.:i: ===t::::}=c:. �"' 0. .MCOS 5475 RPM ." ·�E �. ==== 5925 RPM .. Oil Drain Holes in Coupling Coupling End Horizontal Probe � § _=_ E="::.RPM .:�=::� Figure 9.=::i>===. I" ··It:!. . � + 2475 RPM . .� _= 2025. 76 . 5205 RPM 4500 RPM 3975 RPM _ _ = ___ =:c_ 3000 RPM F= = �= .. � __ �::T:::_: __ __ . Case History 3 ":. =£':::'::�.. Test stand vibration spectrum signature after oil drain holes were drilled in spacer. .':'"c:=�_  ...:  Expander Mechanical Test '" Final Test Run � .013 .. � �   �� == .
Test stand vibration signature with coupling assembled to minimize coupling spacer runout imbalance. 77 . II til H H I! :. Test stand vibration signature with coupling assembled u sing manufacturer's match marks (56 mils TIR). . .: 4 5 6 3 ROTOR SPEED X 10 (RPM) Figure 11. 'Ii! I11I I lilt Ii 11111 ! 111111 ill II til H H x: o 2 3 4 5 6 3 ROTOR SPEED X 10 (RPM) Figure 12.
: : . . I � � 0 � .:I Ul � '" Ul r..::! : i . 78 .. . ..l ..:I � :� !: .. .. Ui .l '" � r. . 0. ROTOR SPEED X 103 (RPM) (a) Exemplifying spacer throwout..! ! I ! i I i • I I ! : i .0 p... Figure 13. : ... . . .0 6 9 12 ROTOR SPEED X 103 (RPM) (b) For acceleration and deceleration showing spacer throwout. Gas turbine test stand vibration signatures. . .. :f! 1.
(a) (b) Figure 15. . 4 tT: 3 . . Failed coupling spacer.... �.....�::::. Gas turbine test stand vibration signature for the condition of a cracked coupling spacer. . 79 .:: ���::: 0 9 12 0 3 6 3 ROTOR SPEED X 10 (RPM) Figure 14. � :::..
. .. ...!i NOTES ON OPERATION :!:l 1..: BE IMPROVED .  .6 .2 .. 4 . Experience overplotted.8 1.....SENSITIVE TO TEST • 0 l3 CONDITIONS . N U 9 8 �  7 Cl '� � P III UNACCEPTABLE .. Chart for coupling selection showing degree of acceptibility with overhung turbomachinery.4 . SENSITIVE.. .0 WEIGHT RATIO (1/2 Wcp1g/Wjnl) Figure 16. GOOD U . TOLERANCES REQUIRED � iii 716 ..DIAPHRAGM 0 0 0 .....NO PROBLEMS � 6 .EXTENSIVE 0 PROBLEMS 0 2 .GEAR TYPE _ .. NO PROBLEMS ON TEST 5 ..ZERO oil TIP CLEARANCE ON � GEAR MESH 3 . 80 . J 12 .NO PROBLEMS III :z: I 0 . Zones indicate runout level of balance bands relative to the mounting bore or rabbet fit...MANUFACTURING "Wl 0 � TOLERANCES HAD TO . .
Henry and OkahAvae (ref. 81 . but these vibrations were not assumed to be caused by a crack. 1981 (ref. For one year the plant had to be put out of operation because two new rotors had to be produced. This paper deals with the comparison of analytical and experimental results of the dynamics of a rotor with an artificial crack. 1). how cracks can be recognized early enough so that large ensuing damage can be prevented. Some turbine plants even virtually exploded and fragments of the shafts flew away upto a few hundred meters. Federal Republic of Germany SUMMARY During the p ast years the dynamic behavior of rotors with cracks has been investigated mainly theoretically. 6) in September 1980 and at last by Inagaki et. This demonstrates the unawareness of the influence of a crack on the vibrational behavior of a shaft. The cause for shaft vibrations due to a crack is the asymmetric cross section at the crack position in connexion with the selfweight of the shaft. Like in Wlirgassen an abnormal increase in shaft vibration was noticed in many other cracked rotors. the crack can excite small or large vibration amplitudes or the system can even become unstable. But in some cases the warning signs were too small and some rotors were broken. SHAFr VIBRATIONS IN 'IUROOVl!\QU NERY EXCITED BY rnAQ{S Burkhard Grabowski Institut fur Mechanik Universitat Hannover Hannover. Depending on the depth of the crack. As far as known the first measurement results of a rotating shaft with a crack were published by Mayes and Davies (ref. 3. Certainly there is to take into account that cracks in practice are comparatively rare. The crack has been discovered accidentally. in September. A higher level of vibration amplitudes at running speed was noticed and during rundown the resonance amplitudes were very large. 8) also present cases in which deep cracks have been found without any influence on vibration amplitudes. until now it is not really"known. on its position and on the damping of the system. Nevertheless. Both of the LProtors had a crack in about the middle of the shaft. 2) in 1922 has already shown on principle the effect of a crack and these investigations were continued by other authors (refs. INTRODUCTION Frequently cracks in turbine rotors have been found. The latest greater damage in Germany occured in the nuclear power plant in Wlirgassen (ref. 4. They show the general possibility to determine a crack by extended vibration control. On the other hand Stodola (ref. 5). 7). The experimental results verify the crack model used in the analysis.al.
Where a constant gaping crack is concerned. 82 . Thus in the range between � = 900 and � = 2700 the simple model for the complete gaping crack is taken for valid. now. Buerhop (ref. Where a breathing crack is concerned. In order to compare the shapes of the two curves the level of the measured and the calculated amplitudes have been equalized. The main axes of the second moments of area at the crack position are not Figure 1. since space fixed coordinates will be used anyway because of the nonconservative sleeve bearings. is sufficient. In order to simplify the mathematical model. 10). ale (ref. Simulation of decreased cross a = 900) which has been applied up to section open crack location. However. A model according to figure 1 was selected to present this gradual change. The second moments of area along the vertical and horizontal axes and the deviation moment are needed. CRACK MODEL For a location above the horizontal' diameter. the shaft moves only once on an onionshaped orbit. the wedgeshaped cutout in figure 2 is approximately re placed by a square cut with L = T . e. the crack is subjected to only compression and the entire crosssection is s upporting. but the change is conti nuous in the neighbouring range. the numerical calculation. Due to the opening and closing of the crack area we call it a breathing crack in opposite to an always gaping crack. a part of the crack area opens. . The calculated curves of deflection in figure 3 are in good agreement with measured results of Ziebarth et. A clear picture of the stiffness depending on the angle of rotation can be attained when observing the static deflection of the cracked shaft due to its self weight during one revolution.g. 9) examined the effects «=90' of such crosssections in more detail and has come to the conclusion that the 450 approximation (wedge angle Figure 2. When further rotated. the shaft would move on a circular orbit twice per revolution. At the angle of � = 900 the complete opening of the crack is assumed. a cut. Crack model crosssections fixed to the body anymore. . showing rotationangledependent stressed this fact will have no influence on regions ( shaded areas ) . When the crack opens the change in stiffness along the axis of the rotor does not jump.
0 Angle of rotation [degree J X [""I In figure 5 the results of measurement and calculation are compared.0 210.2 .1 Parallel to these measurements the stiffness of the shaft with a gaping crack 1.2 has been calculated.1 . In a shaft of 46 mm diameter and 300 mm length E ( fig. The total com .10) crack depth is plotted. �. ______ �.0 180.2 . In consideration of . .8 cracked shaft has been.9 milled transverse cut of 0.O���+.0 Angle of rotation [degree) Figure 3. 83 .0 210.lculation amounts to =. 4) the crack was simulated by a thin !. a . but only for crack depths up to 50 percent. .0 3&0. Cal culation(cracl< model) pliance of the shaft depending on the . Example for self�weight' deflection for a breathing crack of 50 percent depth. The difference E E between measurement and ca.Measurement (ref . F I Measurement plane Material: 42 CrMo4 �2�� �.0 360.5 mm width. . .0 near the crack a constant bending moment existed.1 !i! less than 10 percent. except for crack depths c o N of 20 and 70 percent.0 90.0 lID. 1. 0 180. 1.investigated.!:! This shaft was loaded in such a way that � 1.3 For deeper cracks L has to be reduced analogically..300� Figure 4. At the crack position a square cut with L = T was assumed. y [""I In addition to the development of the theoretical crack model the stiffness of a . Shaft with milled cut.� the simple crack model even with these d iffe rences the agreement is remarkably good. .
yields a system of K + L coupled equations of motion for the generalized coordinates q(t) which is 84 .Calculation (crack model) Q Measurement 50��I�O�2�O3�O�'O'�50�'6�O'7�O�80 Crack depth [o'oJ Figure 5. where the eigenfunctions Yo(x) and Zo(x) Gf the uncoupled conservative system for the vertical and the horizontal planes are a good approximation. This is necessary for the consideration of the major curvature at the crack position. .t) will be composed by the first few eigenfunctions weighted with the generalized time dependent coordinates q (t). which includes the complete bearing stiffness and damping coeffi cients. " • Ci. .t) (I ) z(x. IO_�. The deflections �n the vertical direction y(x. An exact solution is not possible. compared with the un cracked shaft. The vibrational behavior can. Compliance at t of shaft depending on crack depth.t) ( 2) The transformation. 200 ETz === 100 (5 cS . For a large system. as follows y(x. A mean _ stiffness between open and closed crack will be taken approximately for the calculation of the eigenfunctions in this region. o ANALYSIS The mathematical model for a real rotor with cracked crosssection is a system of differential equations with time dependent coefficients.. • u c. this kind of procedure with digital cal culation takes a lot of time. The range of the local change of stiffness due to a crack covers the length L. Therefore.t) and in the horizontal di rection z(x. however. the behavior of the rotor can be described by its first few eigenfunctions. E 50 0 u • .. be calculated by means of numerical integration.
Additional theoretical results are in references 13 and 14. Figure 6 shows the experimental rotor. The time dependent elements in the stiffness matrix K (t) can be separated and we obtain • Mq + Cp + [K + �K (t) ]q F (t) + g (4) m A RungeKuttaFehlberg procedure of 5th order with constant stepsize (ref. we decided to produce the crack during the rotation of the shaft in the rig itself by application by an external force. 7). will be used by the numerical integration for the calculation of the instationary vibrational behavior. Due to the high bearing load as a result of the external force F (fig. The first few harmonics for certain positions on the rotor can be determined by means of Fourier analysis. was necessary during about 3 h. Therefore. For crack initiation a 4 mm deep cut was sawn with a thin wire of 70 �m diameter (fig. depending on the crack depth. which is supported by journal bearings in an experimental Heliumcompressor housing. The time variable system has a stationary periodic solution. After the retransformation according to equations (I) and (2) the deflection of the entire rotor which depends on the angle of rotation is obtained. The rotating speed was equal to correspon 85 . C and K can be considered as mass matrix. II) which proved to be very exact for the necessary computing time. damping matrix and stiffness matrix. 6) the journal bearing at the crack side of the rotor was replaced by a ball bearing. However. The load was afforded by a ball bearing. At first it was intended to produce the crack by anpscillating load. A detailed presentation of the mathematical method is given in references II and 13. • Mq + Cq + K (t) q = F (t) + g (3) M. For crack propagation an external force of 5000 N and 3000 N. that a crack surface due to such a treatment is different from a crack surface which is produced by an alternating load. The crack propagation was controlled by observing the twice per revolution resonance amplitude near th� crack pos�t�on using a 2channel FastFourierAnalyser. EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL INVESTIGATIONS Experimental Rotor and Crack Propagation To confirm the theoretical results of the vibrational behavior of cracked shafts experimental investigations were carried out. To reduce the necessary amount of the external force the diameter of the shaft at the crack position was reduced to a diameter of 45 mm with a cut radius of 5 mm . other experiments with this kind of load have shown. too. The necessary initial values will be taken from the stationary solution of equation (4) without the term �K (t) . while g contains the selfweight load. On the righthand side the function F (t) includes the outofbalance distribution.
S8 rt. The change of stiffness due to the crack is the same as in the case of the original rotor.5 I.. Therefore. e. We have assumed one element of a diameter of 64 rom and a length of 32 mm (fig. two cracks came into existence. This gives the same flexural shape as the real geometry. 104. To make use of the crack model with L = T .�� �. the comparison of the theore tical and experimental results is uncertain. 45 .t'50 .500 ��2.I Figure 7. �S6 jll3 ���� . Experimental rotor. ding resonance frequency. We intend to carry out additional experiments with this rotor. Therefore. pickup S7. . . we did not break the shaft at the crack position. the geometry in the neighbourhoo. But d ifficulties result from the uncertain knowledge of the stiff ness and damping coefficients of the j oumal bearings. 8).. Theoretical Model of the Rotor The vibrational behavior of the rotor has been caluclated with the FEM and the transfer matrix method. o . Unfortunately. with di fferent unbalances. For the theoretical calculations we have assumed a linear shape of the crack ground (fig.d of the crack had to be modified. . Crosssection at crack position.. 86 . 7) and a crack depth of 45 % of the diameter. N • 1.g. Probably on the opposite side of the cut a small groove was the cause for the second crack.D�  � Figure 6.
10 and 12). . f g �(x) Y ok (x) dx � 0 (5) o gravity constant. N  . already the eigenmodes give an idea about the speed ranges in which crackexcited vibrations can be expected. shaft weight/unit length. If R. 9 to 12) and accordingly for the third and fourth complex eigenmode of the complete system (fig. the crack does not excite any vibration. So. too. Figures 8 and 9 and figures 10 and 11 show. This is approximately the case for the second eigenmodes in the horizontal and the vertical plane (figs. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Eigenfrequencies and Eigenmodes The results of the numerical investigation of the vibrational behavior of the cracked rotor are obtained by using the uncoupled eigenmodes of the conservative system (figs. o ...500 �265 11030 1. The measured frequencies in figure 14 (uncracked) and figure 16 87 . 1 3 ). Rotor model for calculation. eigenmode.135'  ____ 1 Figure 8. The vibrations excited by a crack depend severely on the curvature of the eigenmodes at the crack position and on the weight influence (see ref. that the difference between the calculated eigenfrequencies of the uncracked and the cracked rotor amounts to approximately 3 %. 1... 1 3). The modal transformation includes the complete bearing stiffness and damping coefficients.
For comparison only the first few eigenmodes of the complete coupled nonconser vative rotor (fig. The small amplitudes of these resonance vibrations can be explained by the weight influence (see eq. This is to be explaned with the two cracks in the shaft. between the measured and calculated twice per revolution resonance amplitudes exist a factor of 2. The cut with a depth of approximately 10 % of the diameter has no influence on the once per revolution vibration amplitudes. The stiffness changes two times per revolution and therefore we have a greater excitation of twice per revolution vibrations than the crack model delivers. The twice per revolution vibration amplitudes may also contain runout. In figures 20 and 21 the complete frequency spectrum of the rotor with cut is compared with the spectrum of the cracked rotor. but this exact agreement must be an accidental one. In the case of the uncracked rotor the measured and calculated eigenfrequencies are in good agree ment. This indicates that the assumed mean stiffness reduction in the calculation of the eigenfrequencies is too small. The resonance frequency at 4000 rev/min is not theoretically determinable. We indeed expected a good agreement. The rotor is neither balanced nor equipped with an additional unbalance. But for crack detection this effects are of secondary order. (The small difference may be the result of a change in the distortion due to the storage during some days. Until now we have no explanation for this effect. The theoretical model of this rotor does not include the measured rigid body eigenmode at 2400 rev/min (figs.) The amplitudes at low speeds seem to be due to the runout. (5» . 16 and 18). The rotor with cut has not been theoretically investigated. On the other hand. 88 . Rotor with Cut An interesting experimental result is depicted in the figures 14 and 15. This corresponds to the theory for a gaping crack. 13) are calculated with FEM. but less than 1 �m. The scales are the same. This re presentation gives a good survey of the change of the vibrational behavior due to the crack. One or two additional resonance frequencies can be observed at higher speeds. At the rotational speed of 7000 rev/min a resonance vibration appeared with a frequency of approximately 3500 rev/min for a very short time. Cracked Rotor As mentioned. 17 and 19) and calculated (figs.(cracked) differ approximately 12 %. too. The resonance amplitude increases up to 16 �m. 16 and 18) once per revolution vibration amplitudes shows a very good agreement at both mesuring planes S 56 and S 78. The comparison of the measured (figs. the missing knowledge of the exact bearing stiffness and damping coefficients is a problem when calculating the vibrational behavior of rotating shafts.
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i I
I I
1.D A A
2 50. 00
•
2 50.00
I I
750.00 1
000.00 1
.00
length [ mm ]
Figure 10.  Horizontal eigenmodes of undamped system {cracked rotor}.
89
1.0
nc = 4048 rev/min
.5
. o +T�����
.5
 1.0ri�4Lri    , r
i    ' i  � i ���
.00 2 50.00 500.O 0 750.0 0 1000.00 1250.00
length [mm]
Figure 11.  Vertical eigenmodes of undamped system (uncracked rotor).
1.0
.5 n = 3917 rev/min
c
.0+4n��TTT
 5
. nc = 15310 rev/min
1.0 ri �4� i ��i� ��ri� �����
i r_
.00 250.00 500.00 750.00 1000.00 1250.00
le ngth [mm ]
Figure 12.  Vertical eigenmodes of undamped system (cracked rotor).
90
y (1111) Y(11111
10.0
2.0
fI.O
L. 13f1S"" 1.0 L. 13I1S""
2(11111 2(1111)
fl. 0 10.0 1.0 2.0
nC= 4144 rev/min
nc= 4004 rev/min
Y(I1I1)
1 Y (1111)
2.0
2.0
1.0
1.0 L. 13I1S"" L. 'US""
/
2(1111] 2(1111)
1.0 2.0 1.0 2.0
n c= 13609 r ev/mi n nc=14847 rev/min
system
Figure 13. First four complex eigenmodes of complete damped

(uncracked rotor).
91
O
. �� Or.O��� ��8� O� �
O O
O �����2�OO�OT�
O ����� 4 � OT�
O ����6 � O�
0 .
. . 00 . 0
Speed [rev/min]
Figure 14.  Onceperrevolution vibration am plitudes of rotor without and with
cut measured at position 578.
20.0 �
�
v
E
::1.
15.0 �
"
,I
x
a " I
E I I
0::: I I
I I
10.0 I I
I I
I
I \
I \
I \with cut
I V
" \
5.0 I without cut
I
I
Jv
..
.I

.0 2000.0 4000.0
Spee d [rev/min]
Figure 15.  Twiceperrevolution vibration am plitudes of rotor without and with
cut measured at position 578.
92
50.0 ���
v
40.0
E
::t
x
o
E 30.0
e:::
20.0
10.0
.0 2000.0 4000.0 6000.0 8000.0
Speed [rev/min]
Figure 16.  Measured vibration amplitudes of cracked rotor at position S56.
50.0 �'
v
40.0 Rmox
E
::t
x
0
E 30.0
a::: w
20.0
10.0
.0 2000.0 4000.0 6000.0
Speed [rev/min1
Figure 17.  Calculated vibration amplitudes of cracked rotor at position S56
( crack depth 45 % of diameter ) .
93
100.0
v
80.0 Rmax
E
::1.
''
x 60.0
0
E
e:::
40.0
.0 2000.0 4000.0 6000.0 8000.0
Speed [rev/mi n J
Figure 18.  Measured vibration amplitudes of cracked rotor at position 578.
100.0
V
80.0 Rmax
E
::1.
60.0
�
x
0
E
e:::
40.0
20.0
.0 2000.0 4000.0 6000.0 8000.0
Speed [rev/min]
Figure 19.  Calculated vibration amplitudes of cracked rotor at position 578
(crack d epth 45 % of diameter).
94
200.0
v
E
:1
150.0
x
0
E
a::
100.0
50.0
Figure 20.  Frequency spectrum of rotor with cut.
E 200.0
v
�
x
o
E 150.0
a::
100.0
50.0
.0
Figure 21.  Frequency spectrum of cracked rotor.
95
CONCLUSION
The comparison of calculation and measurement shows in principle that it is
possible to predetermine the vibration amplitudes excited by a crack. But at the
same time this investigation shows the problems in modelling the system. The de
veloped crack model seems to be useful.
For crack supervision the phase should be taken into account, too, because
the amplitude of the sum of the original vibration and the vibration due to crack
can become smaller with crack propagation.
In the future the influence of unbalance is to be investigated. Our calcula
tions have shown, that this influence frequently is small for greater turbine rotors
because the statical deflection is greater than the vibration amplitudes. But in
rotors constructed like this experimental rotor an influence can be expected. Here
the vibration amplitudes at crack position have the same magnitude like the statical
deflection.
REFERENCES
1. Haas, H.: GroBschaden durch Turbinen oder Generatorlaufer, entstanden im Be
reich bis zur Schleuderdrehzahl. Der Maschinenschaden, 50. Jahrgang, Heft 6,
1977, pp. 195204.
2. Stodola, A.: Dampf und Gasturbinen. Springer, Berlin, 5. Auflage, 1922,
pp. 931.
3. Kellenberger, W.: Biegeschwingungen einer unrunden, rotierenden Welle �n ho
rizontaler Lage. IngernieurArchiv, XXVI, 195B, pp. 30231B.
4. Tondl, A.: The Effect of Unequal Moments of Intertia of the Sha ft Section on
the Motion and Stability of a Rotor. Some Problems of Rotor Dynamics, 1st ed.,
Chapman & Hall, London.
5. Bishop, R.E.D. and Parkinson, A.G.: Second Order Vibration of Flexible Shafts.
Phil. Trans. of Royal Society of London, vol. 259, no. 1095, 1965.
6. Mayes, I.W. and Davies, W.G.R.: A Method of Calculating the Vibrational Beha
viour of Coupled Rotating Shafts Containing a Transverse Crack. Second Int.
Conference Vibrations in Rotating Machinery, University of Cambridge, 24
Sept., 19BO.
7. Inagaki, T.; Kanki, H.; and Shiraki, K.: Transverse Vibrations of a General
CrackedRotor Bearing System. ASME Paper No. BIDet45, Sept. 19B1.
B. Henry, T.A. and OkahAvae, B.E.: Vibrations in Cracked Shafts. Conf. on Vibra
tions in Rotating Machinery, University of Cambridge, Sept. 1976, pp. 1519.
9. Buerhop, H.: Zur Berechnung der Biegesteifigkeit abgesetzter Stabe und Wellen
unter Anwendung von finiten Elementen. VDIFortschrittsberichts, Reihe I,
Nr. 36, 1975.
96
10. Ziebarth, H.; Schwertfeder, H. und MUhle, E.E.: Auswirkung von Querrissen auf
das Schwingungsverhalten von Rotoren. VDIBerichte 320, 1978, pp. 3743.
II. Fehlberg, E.: Neue genaue RungeKuttaFormeln fUr Differentialgleichungen
zweiter Ordnung bzw. nter Ordnung. ZAMM 40, 1960, pp. 449455.
12. Grabowski, B.: Zur modalen Simulation des instationaren Schwingungsverhaltens
von Turbolaufern. VDIFortschrittberichte, Reihe II, Nr. 25, 1976.
13. Grabowski, B.: The Vibrational Behavior of a Turbine Rotor Containing a
Transverse Crack. Trans. ASME, J. Mech. Design., vol. 102, Jan. 1980,
pp. 140146.
14. Grabowski, B.: Das Schwingungsverhalten eines angerissenen Turbinenlaufers.
VDIBericht Nr. 320, 1978, pp. 3136.
97
The rotor mass can be changed by substituting a heavy or lightweight spacer disk to shift the critical speed so that the stiffness can be found at vari ous speeds. speed. This pre " load can be easily varied without disassembly of the tester. Attempts to determine bearing stiffness in the past by measuring applied loads and deflections have been compli cated by the large required loads and very small deflections. F. increase confidence in existing bearing computer programs. 2. the constraints of the outer race and shaft speed. The method used in this experi ment avoids these problems by utilizing a tester designed such that the lowest rotor critical speed is primarily a function of the test bearing stiffness. Axial preload can be accurately controlled by a hydraulic piston. The overall purpose of this test program was to advance the technology of measuring ball bearing dynamic stiffness in support of theoretical rotordynamic analysis and rotating machin ery design. The significant features of the test rotor are as follows: 1. INTRODUCTION The radial stiffness of a ball bearing is one of the key elements in the rotor dynamic analysis of rotating machinery and is strongly dependent on axial preload. shaft rotation is difficult to include in such conventional tests. 98 . Setscrew holes are provided in the large rotor disk for in situ balance cor rections and access is provided in the supporting structure for easy corrections. 3. Rowan Rocketdyne Division Rockwell International Canoga Park.5 pounds ) between configurations. Contract NAS827980. DESCRIPTION OF TESTER The tester (Fig. 4. Beatty and B. The mass distribution of the tester rotor is proportioned so that the cri __________ t�l:·�c�a=l speed is effectively independent of the slave bearing stiffness. F. *Work partially sponsored by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. 1) consists of a simple rigid rotor with control over the var iables that affect the bearing stiffness. The results of extensive testing are used to verify analytical predictions. DETERMINATION OF BALL BEARINJ DYNAMIC STIFFNESS* R. A tester was designed capable of controlling the bearing axial preload. The rotor weight differential is 9. and to serve as a data base for efforts to correct these programs.3 kg (20. and rotor unbalance. The rotor and support structures were constructed to permit critical speeds that are predominantly determined by a 57 rom test bearing. Also. These bearing data are vital to rotating machinery design integrity because accurate critical speeds and rotor stability predictions are highly dependent on the bearing stiffness. A curve of calculated critical speed versus stiffness was used to determine the actual bearing stiffness from the empirical data. California 91304 ABSTRACT The dynamic radial stiffness characteristics of rolling element bearings are currently determined by analytical methods that have not been experimentally verified.
000 rpm while speed was controlled manually to produce a series of step dwells to define the critical speed. 1). and a parametric computer analysis was performed to calculate the rotor critical speeds as a function of the test bearing stiffness to ground. 5. All tests conducted are listed in Table II and the bearing stiffness was found by using the Fig. Figure 2 shows a schematic arrangement of the test setup. The radial motion was monitored by two pairs of orthogonal displacement transducers that produced orbit plots on oscilloscopes. 4 indicates that the critical speed is highly dependent on the test bearing stiffness and should ensure accurate results. This test indi cated a critical speed at 20. The test rotor is driven by a variable speed motor.000 rpm and a resulting test bearing stiffness of 9. and the initial run indi cated that no balance correction was needed because the residual was sufficient to produce a resonance. 3 is a photo graph of the actual installation. The slope of the curve in Fig. 4. 5. By changing the mass of the rotor. ANALYTICAL APPROACH A finite element model of the rotating assembly was generated. 4 curve.52 x 100 lb / in. and Fig. Additional tests can be run with different axial preloads and / or unbalance to investigate these parameters. Different test bearing sizes can be accommodated by substituting bearing sleeves. ).1 x 107 N/m (0. The resulting critical speed plot is shown in Fig.slow speed ramp through the critical speed while monitoring the rotor motion. and the close spacing of curves A. The rotor and supporting structures were designed so that their dynamic properties could be accurately predicted by analysis. B. The selection of a 57 mm test bearing was influenced by the radial stiffness effect of this bearing on the rotordynamic characteristics of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME ) HighPressure Oxidizer Turbopump ( HPOTP ) . Locations are provided for two pairs of orthogonal displacement transducers to monitor rotor motion. which relates the critical speed to test bearing stiffness. Pertin ent design data of the tester is presented in Table I. Photographic documentation of the orbits were taken every 1000 rpm starting at 15. The lowest rotor critical speed mode shape is shown in Fig. Bearing outer race clearance in the fixture is evident 99 . and by referring to Fig. 2 for comparison. TESTING The general testing procedure consisted of determining the rotor residual un balance. and C indicate that the critical speed is nearly independent of the slave bearing stiffness. the test bearing stiffness can be determined. without excessively loading the bearings. 6. The rotor was installed with the heavyweight spacer.4 gmin. Details of this turbine end bearing on the dynamic performance of this machine are documented in the literature by Rowan (ref. Table II also contains the analytically predicted stiffnesses in accordance with the procedures of ref. setting the hydraulic cylinder to maintain a given axial preload. and run ning a . 3 are shown in Fig. The critical speed can be easily detected by test. unbalance. Typical radial displacements from Test No. 7. the critical speed can be shifted so that a curve of test bearing stiffness versus speed can be plotted. 6 for 445 Newtons (100 pounds ) axial preload and an estimated 6. 4.
This clearance is generally re ferred to as the bearing deadband.000 to 20. Budget and the rotor dynamic community interest will be the determining factors. June 1960.000 rpm. 2. B. the tester is designed so that tests with various clearances between the support and outer race can be conducted. 100 .75 x 107 N/m (0.by the abrupt postcritical drop in displacement above 22. testing was limited to that shown in Table II and further test ing suspended. The data indicate that the dynamic stiffness of this 57mm ball bearings is on the order of 8.000 rpm. F.) for 445 to 890 Newtons (100 to 200 pounds) axial preload in the vicinity of 20. A. Seattle. these tests are still in the planning stages. and no schedule is available. The data do indicate some sensitivity to the nonlinearity of the clearance between the outer race and the fixture. The analytically calculated value with the race free to tilt is approximately 20 percent lower than the measured value for the larger rotating radial load situa tion. Rowan. It is recommended as a guideline that rotor systems be designed so that the oper ating speed is not within ±20 percent of any calculated critical speed." Journal of Basic Engineering. May 1980. This nonlinear effect of the deadband produces an apparent shift in the critical speed and influences the effective bearing stiffness. Structural Dynamics. Stiffness increases for larger loading are typical of angular contact ball bearings and a nonlinear system. Washington. The rotor would then be ramped through its critical speed with simi lar axial preload and unbalance conditions for comparison with the original clearance. The effect of outer race constraint can be in vestigated by machining the diameter of the test bearing support so that an increased clearance is produced and installing a preload spring between the hydraulic piston and outer race.5 x 106 lb/in. B. FURTHER TESTING To increase scope." presented at the 21st Structures. and Materials Conference.000 rpm. which is not related to the tester de sign.: "Rotordynamics Analysis of the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Oxidizer Pump. This agrees with the theoretical behavior of a rotor with deadband bearing installations. 2 are adequate approximations for rotordynamic analyses if &dequate design margin is incorporated. The value may differ in the usual spring preloaded installation since the preload piston in this test may resist bearing tilting more than a conventional preload spring and this tilt re sistance may be responsible for some of the difference. REFERENCES 1. A closer lower stiffness correlation is obtained for the lower dynamic load ing cases. Computer program bearing stiffness such as calculated per ref. As of this time. It was found during testing that the facility gearbox drain was not large enough to allow free oil flow above 23.000 rpm range. Jones. CONCLUSIONS The tester and very practical testing technique functioned as intended with the exception of the gearbox lubrication.: "A General Theory for Elastically Constrained Ball and Radial Roller Bearing Under Arbitrary Load and Speed Conditions. Since increased preload or use of the lightweight spacer would tend to raise the current critical speed in the 19.
0 INCHES) ROTOR WEIGHT: HEAVY DISK 33. (0.0 kg (53.61 12.4 GMIN. 4) " REF.54) 3 445 N (100 LB) PRELOAD 20.40) 'SLAVE BEARING STIFFNESS CAN PRODUCE ±5% ERROR.000 RPM % NO.32 em (8. . 35) 2 890 N (200 LB) PRELOAD 19. TABLE I.945 +10.8 GMIN.5 INCHES) DUMMY MASS OUTER DIAMETER 20.000 RPM TABLE II.5 ESTIMATED UNBALANCE = 2.40) (0.8 GM·IN.70 23. AVERAGE CURVE B IS USED (FIG. 101 .0 POUNDS) MAXIMUM SPEED 35. N/m X 108 WITH TILT AT 20. CALCULATED BY FRANCIS LEE.0 INCHES) HOLLOW SHAFT OUTER DIAMETER 10.2 ESTIMATED UNBALANCE = 2.000 TO 0. TEST DESCRIPTION RPM (LB/IN.000 (0. TESTER DESIGN DATA ROTOR MATERIAL INCO 718 STEEL TEST BEARING 57mm SLAVE BEARING 45mm BEARING SPACING 34.0 ESTIMATED UNBALANCE = 6.70 0. X 106) ERROR 1 445 N (100 LB) PRELOAD 18. .000 0.5 POUNDS) LIGHT DISK 24. X 106) N/m X 108 (LB/IN. 20. 57mm BEARING DYNAMIC STIFFNESS MEASURED BEARING ANALYTICAL BEARING CRITICAL STIFFNESS' STIFFNESS" TEST SPEED.000 0.49) (0.52) (0. ROCKETDYNE. (0.3 kg (73.91 0.857 0.16 em (4. 2.3 em (13.
4 90° APART 90° APART Figure 1. 102 . (\ HYDRAULIC PISTON PRELOAD CYLINDER TEST BEARING .2 AND NO.1 AND NO.DISPLACEMENT TRANSDUCERS NO. DISPLACEMENT TRANSDUCERS SLAVE BEARING o QUILL SHAFT F igure 2. . . Bearing tester.3 DISPLACEMENT TRANSDUCERS NO. Test setup schematic.
 a: u o w � .5 7 . ._ \ _. Test setup.50 0.0 lOS N/M 1.... 50 CURVE SLAVE BEARING STIFFNESS 40 X 106 LB/IN X lOS N/M x � A 0.00 1.75 C w w B OBSERVED CRITICAL !JI A .J « u 10 3 4 5 6 7 8 5 10 LB/IN 2 9 106 LB/IN 2 I I I I I I 7 10 N/M 1.75 1.J SPEED FROM TEST 3 « u E 20 . 103 .75 3.J ::> U .5 TEST BEARING STIFFNESS Figure 4.S7 a: B 0.31 0' 30 C 1.  Heavyweight spacer critical speed plot. Figure 3.75 3.
... speed....IW 8511.. 3 displacements vs.0 IN. RPM X 103 SPEED.0 �.I  C� ....)� e(e( ...0 r<::'I:::::r:�' o o FINITE ELEMENT MODEL JOINT LOCATION 1... o 25...0 IN..DISPLACEMENT TRANSDUCER 3 UNBALANCE = 6.4 GMIN.8 em (10.Test no...... ..4 em 50. Z w :! w (. ..) AXIAL.... .� """...Ie( e(w II.. COORDINATE Figure 5. 1. RPM X 103 Fi gure 6. ODISPLACEMENT TRANSDUCER 2 VERTICAL FULL SCALE= 2.. 104 . Test rotor lowest mode shape relative displacement versus axial coordinate. ..) TEST BEARING SLAVE END END OF ROTOR OF ROTOR ... c e( cr: 24 SPEED.) (20.t.54 x 1 em 10 • DISPLACEMENT TRANSDUCER 4 (10 X 10 IN........ . o DISPLACEMENT TRANSDUCER 1 PRELOAD = 445N (100 POUNDS) ..... .
respectively. From the above analyses the following results are derived. RandatsuMachi Tsuchiurashi. 1. because of large gyroscopic effect. 1. considerations have been recently required for rotor vibrations caused by external forces except unbalance one. Ratsuaki Kikuchi. 502. In a high speed rotor. two resonances of a forward whirl motion and backward one are induced under a directional external excitation. rub and so forth. Such a forced vibration is investigated analytically and experimentally in the present paper. such as foundation motion. INTRODUCTION Many studies deal with vibration responses for some kinds of excitation in structure dynamics. For a nonlinear system a new and powerful quasimodal technique is developed and applied to the vibration caused by rub. i. a response of rotor under external excitation shows different features of motion from that of structure. However. The one is a rotor with high speed rotation and large gyroscopic effect. .e. when a rotor begins to rub. a directional respose changes to a stable forward whirl motion due to the nonlinearity in the water bearing. Ltd. However. Nonlinearity of a water bearing and rub vibration of a journal are considered. it is possible to stabilize the rotor vibration by select ing a rubbing stopper suitable to each resonance severity. The stopper effect for the suppression of a rotor v i br at i on due to rub is discussed. Some papers (ref. 2. In a low speed rotor such as a vertical pump with small gyroscopic effect. Two kinds of rotors are selected for the study of rub vibration. a response is a directional vibration within limits of no rubbing. These analytical results characterized by gyroscopic effect and bearing nonlinearity are confirmed by excitation tests of a high speed spin rotor and a p ump model rotor. The other is a pump model rotor with low speed rotation and water lubricated bearings. 2) describe such a response of a rigid rotor. 1. seismic wave. Ibarakiken 300 Japan SUMMARY For turbomachinery with low natural frequencies. Michiyuki Takagi. and Makio Raga Mechanical Engineering Research Laboratory Hitachi. 105 . ROfOR VIBRATION CAUSED BY EXTERNAL EXCITATION AND RUB (Bruni Matsushita. Although rub of rotor usually causes instability. In this paper. Vibrations in a rotorbearing system under a harmonic excitation are analyzed by the modal techique in the case of a linear system including gyroscopic effect. forward whirl motion and backward whirl motion at each resonance. a general description of a forced vibration in linear rotor bearing system is given and a rub vibration induced by contact between a rotor and a stator is also included in the discussion on nonlinear rotor dynamics.
(1)./( complex eigenvalue friction factor f'. 1. K b complex type of stiffness matrix = x.&0 rotor relative displacement 8" clearance S = . Si normal coordinate t time Qz = Q x + i Q y nonlinear restoring force z = X + iY rotor absolute displacement �o = Xo + i � o foundation absolute displacement z = Z .0(11).1. SYMBOLS it It B . (X :to) I<J'J ( '( .1 Equation of Motion in RotorCasing System The equation of motion on a coordinate system fixed in the space is derived for entire system including a rotor.C. v · excitation frequency ¢.y) stiffness matrix K stiffness of stopper with a clearance it K modal stiffness m . mass of a disk M .y) damping matrix F external force i imaginary unit !=1 Id transverse moment of inertia of a disk Ip polar moment of inertia of a disk Kf. ¢ i . as shown in Fig. Applying relative displacement z=Zz o. The system is discretized by a beam model along longitudinal axis with E direction. where the rotor motion is measured with respect to the casing motion.. 106 . Representing the absolute displacements at each location of a rotor with X and Y and that of a casing with x and y .�X + + K'jx. rotational speed 2. Since the acceleration Zo (t) of the foundation of the casing is usually measured. A. mass matrix • modal mass S.1 modal damping ratio CICc A . A complex numbered type of displacement is introduced here for the sake of convenience of description. eigen vector W I wf • tV/? natural frequency in rotation tUn natural frequency in no rotation Sl. E QUATION OF MOTION AND MODE SEPARATION 2.Jo) + CJX ( Xio) T C'j'j (ijo) + = Qy where Qx and Qy are nonlinear restoring forces. B. Mit. bearings and casing. Cb complex type of damping matrix = x. Z = X + iY (2) . the equation of motion is given as follows M 9. . the following equation of motion is obtained from Eq. + kx)( (XXo)+kx'j(Y:!o)+Cxx(XXo)+CXj ((J:) = Qx (1) M Y S2. the equation (1) is rearranged to obtain the acceleration excitation of foundation.• modal quantum in state equation Cg gyroscopic matrix C modal gyro l Cf.Y X.
That is a gyroscopic moment which is p ropor tional to a polar moment of iner tia of disks and rotational speed. This classification is due to symmetry or asymmetry in bearing dynamic properties. an additional force Qc.. the modal transformation is defined by the relationship as follows.3 of table 1 is given by the formula as shown in the line No.This formula is fundamental for the study of vibration under seismic excitation in rotor dynamics. stated on the righthand side of Eq. where !3/ ). :::: _ (6) (3� <. The former one indicates a free motion with a circular whirl and the latter one indicates a motion with an elliptical whirl. From a physical system with symmetrical bearings of I in Tab. fixed at Xaxis 107 .. reduces to only inertia force M Zoof mass as usual. PI" > Iet .� . The matrices M and Cg consist of inertias of each disk on a shaft in the following forms.1.l is also derived by the same manner. In the formula. =0]. HARMONIC FOUNDATION EXCITATION 3. . (5) The state equation with normal coordinate resulted by posttransformation becomes Si .(3). M � oL..As. 2. ) ' = [do.. Therefore..8. . ) (4 ) o � PLidrnaJ ( . it is assumed that eigensolution of free equation of motion indicated in the line No. if the casing moves in a parallel way with acceleration �() excitation force. One of them concerns with a rotor system suspended vertically and the other one with a horizontally suspended rotor system. The corresponding eigenvalue problem is obtained. and orthogonality condition is guaranteed in the forms given by the line No..4..(3) becomes where the harmonic acceleration in a certain direction e.. by using these eigensolutions o!' tree yibratiQn.f c/>/ /'1 Ti . the second term with the coefficient of rotational speed � shows gyroscopic effect which exists only in a rotor system. 0 ) 1f .g. There are two columns I and II in Tab.2 Response at Each Mode Table 1 is utilized to derive the modal response at each mode based upon orthogonality of eigensolution. Ai 1>: p .. Therefore.1 Harmonic Excitation The external force in the equation of motion Eq. For each case. 3.. if the casing is rocking in a non parallel way with i�=[ it" Q� ]. 80. it is pos s ible to separate a general response into each mode response on normal coordinate system.: + cp/ K CPt The normal transformation for a system with asymmetrical bearing of II in tab.1 to a normal coordinate system.. ...?8o adds up the excitation force..id.!{Jnd1 ( .. . On the other hand..
So no resonance Therefore.If I + w{/w.  As the one directional force acts upon the rotor. at preresonance and more than 270 deg.e.(10). because of gyroscopic effect. And it is less than 270 deg.. on and post resonance when the excitation frequency is swept. when just on a resonance. Then.(+Lwj. suppose that an eigenvalue A.  2. A modal response corresponding to an eigenvalue and also to an eigen A cl Lyt ].e Cv A. Each whirl force. 3. L cfotM . As usual. Then the rotor response on a resonance. the external force is defined as following exponential expression. with forward component i� and backward component .i)) . .. +  (.and exciting frequency. (9' ) e(pC F = � e . through the resonance as shown in Fig. it is equivalent to two whirling forces expressed by exponential form. (M + � �) _� e L'J>t _ (M _ � . in the case of no rocking motion the external force is simplified into the following formula.. compared with the one with no rotation.(7). K.(10).iW does not appears at the condition of � � M become an eigenvalue in rotor system. and excitation frequency V approaches the range of 1).2 Features of Response Some features appearing in the response are summarized for a vertically suspended vector is obtained by substituting Eq.". while in rotation. a forward whirl resonance becomes remarkably large as described in the first part of Eq. to more than 270 deg. a resonance occurs when excitation frequency Y comes close to a natural frequencyw i. 0<)' The phase lag of rotor behind the force is 270 deg. F= . .'v �]V 2 J (10) [1] Forward Whirl Resonance.w (tV >0) with a rotor in rotation is obtained.2 � ei(vt2700) sLt) � (12) 2. 2 ei (JC 2'70°) S ({) � L cj:>tM � 2 kif AS (11) I + W//uJ. Now. =.2. As the condition y�Wf with the relationship between eigenvalue).t'Jb .. (6)..3. (8) is substituted into Eq.=o(iwb becomes a backward resonance. O<+i. as described in the second part of Eq. for three instances of pre.�vt . M (l)t M a. On the other hand.4. divided from one directional harmonic force. 108 .e . the conjugate value ):. The phase lag of rotor behind the force is 270 deg. the rotor response [2] Backward whirl Resonance. ))�W . rotor here. 2 2 . at postresonance. When the relationship between eigenvalue). has half of the magnitude of one directional force. (9)' into Eq.. when just on a resonance in the Xdirection.. is reduced to about half of the amplitude.t The phase relationship between rotor position and exponential exciting force is shown in Fig.v .=cX. And it is changing from less than 270 deg.v a . Cj ) � eivt (9) Movements of the foundation in parallel and rocking motions are generally included in the amplitude a of an acceleration. it is clear that only one of the two whirl forces contributes to a resonance.
In the case of � =0 i.e + iy�A such that rotor. evt . Therefore it is clear that these two peak amplitudes reduce to about half of the amplitude at no rotation and the backward amplitude is slightly higher than the forward one. an elliptical whirl orbit becomes a straight line thus whirl direction can be interchanged.3 Harmonic Respose Curve Figure 8 shows the response curve under harmonic excitation.[3J Whirl Motion. respectively. On the boundary line. (11)." � i in Eq. This figure is described by nondimensional frequency and amplitude.e. In Eq. [4] Low Gyroscopic Effect. when rotating the rotor at a high speed. In order to return the normal response to the response in physical system the following relationship is used: ( 15) 109 .. Substitution of Eq. The peak at the forward resonance is less than the half of the peak at the resonance in no rotation. the peak at the backward is more than the half of that. . between forward direction and backward direction. the response whirl motion is changing from left to right as shown in Fig.5. which are normal ized by the values of the resonance frequency and amplitude at no rotation. vibrating only in Xdirection. In the case of low gyroscopic effect such as low rotational speed or small disks.A Resonance response is described by the following form it. at high speed rotation two resonance peaks appear with backward whirl and forward whirl. The typical state such as low gyroscopic effect leads to dynamics of nonrotational rotor.(14) into Eq. These values are different from conjugate relation and are independent from each other. 4. because OfWb�W! � 1 in Eq. Eigenvalues maintain conjugate form. coincides with the direction of the acting force without a whirl motion. a resonance peak appears. an arbitrary external force (14) is defined by insertion of the acceleration lo measured in the field. 3. (12).(6) and integration of the resulting equation gives time history response of rotor in normal coordinate system. At the beginning the backward resonance occurs with a circular orbit. The separation of a peak into two peaks is due to gyroscopic effect or rotor rotation. Therefore. corresponding with increase of excitation frequency. forward eigenvalue and backward one corresponding to an eigen mode are not independent of each other. The rotor has two eigenvalues which correspond to a mode shape. On the other hand. for example.(6). and later on through ell iptical orbits the forward resonance appears again with a circular whirl orbit. X K =' )v fi/(rl = . and they approach to a conjugate relation. the state equation in normal coordinate system is used for analysis of time history response caused by seismic excitation. Here the forward natural frequency is higher than the backward one. because of tJj Iw.. SEISMIC EXCITATION Instead of equation of motion in physical coordinate system. no rotation. On the other hand.
and a hybrid integration method based upon it is developed. the outer type of a stopper is more effective in a rotor with higher forward resonance severity. the response curve and the Lissajous figure of rotor motion are presented in Fig. for outer contact type (17) Q� =Fr ±iF& + . and it has large gyroscopic effect. V =W = 4. In this rub vibration. EXCITATION TEST OF HIGH SPEED ROTOR 6. On the other hand. For the response history analysis in such a nonlinear system a quasimodal technique is effective. a rotor in a stopper (2) Type I! contact between an inner surface of a rotor and an outer surface of a stopper i. stated in the previous chapters.. to suppress the rotor vibration by a cylindrical stopper. directional and the resonance frequency agr e with the natural frequency � tVn in a structure i. as described in A ppendix.(17) indicates an unstable friction force which induces a whirl motion. E and r .95 Hz. a stopper � the clearance between a rotor and a stopper and the friction factor with K. the response on normal coordinate system is given by Eq.e. the second term in Eq.. S EI SMIC EXCITATION WITH NONLINEAR SYSTEM Here we discuss a rotor vibration induced by seismic excitation which becomes larger than the clearance between a rotor and a stopper. In such situation the rotor begins to contact the stopper fixed on the casing. a stopper in a rotor The types I and II here are called an outer contact and an inner contact with respect to the rotor. Therefore.(6) and the external force is defined as follows. including a harmonic waveform with the excitation frequencyV. the rotor vibration response is one .7 is used. The rotor rotates in very high speed.1 Harmonic Excitation The features of a rotor response excited by a harmonic wave. e. Representing the stiffness of.(52 0 20 + Q i! (16) The force Qz is a nonlinear restoring force generated by the contact of a rotor with a stopper. n 110 . (1) Type I contact between an outer surface of a rotor and an inner surface of a stopper i. are reconfirmed by an experiment in which the rotor shown in Fig. F = . 6. The vibration response waveform. The two types of configuration of a cylindrical stopper are mentioned here. When the rotor does not rotate.for inner contact type where Fr = I< ( 121 . 5.8.e. The rotor is suspended by bearings at both sides. the inner type of a stopper is more effective with higher backward resonance severity..J" ) :a/I E I and F (}:::: r F l'" sign ( angular velocity of contact face on rotor) In the simulation of a nonlinear vibration caused by rub. The vibration mode with a low natural frequency is the conical mode in which the right side of the rotor vibrates with the nodal point in the left side. the nonlinear restoring force is defined as follows. M i 0 . respectively.
A selfcentering ball bearing is used at the upper part and water is filled in the cylindrical water bearing located at the lower part.5. C omparing the case (C) with the case (B) a larger acceleration causes a stronger rub between the rotor and the stopper.l0. In this measurement b.2 and Fig. III . two resonance peaks in the rotor response appear in the backward and forward resonances at the excitation frequency V = O. This stopper is not a usual circular type. as schematically shown in Fig. The experimertal rotor has two disks and two bearings.12. In the case of (A). The stable suppression of the rotor vibration is seen in the range of about five times of the acceleration at the beginning of rub in Fig. because the duration of rub in the former is less than one in the latter and the corresponding friction force which induces unstable vibration becomes less. 7. The other one at the forward resonance is about one fifth of Qn. Then. Under a rotation of the rotor.2 Natural Frequency The experimental rotor is discretized by beam element and a calculation model is obtained as shown in Fig. excitation acceleration is so small that the rotor moves in the clearance with no rub and nearly circular whirl orbit. The magnitude of excitation acceleration increases in turn by (A). Two weights are added to the lower part of the rotor. The horizontal axis shows the maximum value of the acceleration in the seismic wave. 7. except for a load cell with strain gages to measure the dynamic force in the lower water bearing. One directional stopper is rather preferable than a circular stopper.6. The pump model rotor is vertically located on a shaking table which can stand the load of 294 kN (30 tons). This numerical result proves a good agreement with the corresponding experimental result. the usual way is employed.21 Wn. but one directional type with a clearance of xdirection as shown in (i) of Fig. The calculated values of the resonance frequency and peak amplitude severity. well coincide w ith these experimental values. (B) and (C). EXCITATION TEST OF PUMP MODEL ROTOR 7. respectively. as demonstrated in this numerical simulation.7. normalized by the value in which the rotor begins to rub with the stopper.stem. In the rotor system with large gyroscopic effect. Natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes are represented in Tab. In the case of (B) and (C) rubs occur.' 10.11.respectively. 6. The effect of the stopper upon vibration suppression is indicated in Fig. Figure 9 shows vibration history response and its Lissajous figure of the rotor subjected to a seismic wave. close to an impact. vibration is satisfactorily suppressed by even one directional stopper at an arbitrary phase location.6 6cVn and y 1.2 Rub Vibration An aseismic stopper with a fine gap is installed in the rotor system with large gyroscopic effect. The perpendicular axis gives the value of the displacement in the response. the vibration of a rotor is always generated in a circular whirl motion by an external force in one direction. = The peak amplitude severity Q at the backward resonance becomes about half of the peak amplitude severity Qn = 156 f m/gal at the resonance of the rotor with no rotation.1 Outline of Experiment Figure 11 shows the outline of the experimental equipment which is simplified into a vertically suspended pump model rotor for atomic power plant. as shown in Fig. normalized by the clearance $. An aseismic support is located at the lowest part of the casing in order to prevent large vibration of the casing. The excitation wave is sinusoidal one in this test.
this experimental value becomes close to the value obtained by the calculation. the second resonance peaks occur at the rotational speed of 11 '" 19 rps.6 Hz and 18.2 kN/m (4. it can be said that this excitation acceleration of 0. in the case of large stiffness i.. The first natural frequency of 6.0 Hz. but it has a large influence on the rotor vibration. The comparison between amplitude responses in the rotation test and in the harmonic excitation test with no rotation is described in Fig. ofrly one high peak appears at the excitation frequency of about 18 Hz.13. a good agreement is also obtained by comparison between the calculation value of 13. the good agreement of natural frequencies between the calculation and the experiment suggests the reasonable modeling of the pump rotor system.. Consequently the increase of the stiffness and the decrease of the damping effect at the bearing are induced by a large whir l motion and they lead to a sharper amplitude and a higher resonance frequency. In this test the casing is tightly fixed by the aseismic support with no clearance. 20 Hz is negligibly d ifferent from the calculation value of 27.e. including dynamics in the water bearing.0Hz. It changes to 20 rps when a large unbalance is applied to the rotor. In the case of a small unbalance.9 HZi 6.13 and 14.. 112 . From the fact. an actual pump rotor with low load capacity in the water bearing is very sensitive to an external excitation. In the excitation test. it is estimated ttat the restoring rorce with a hard type of nonlinearity due to a contact is induced in a water lubricated bearing.614. From the calculationresults considering virtual mass effect (Ref.6 Hz under the assumption of no contact within small journal vibration. and the large journal vibration increases the bearing stiffness. With respect to the second natural frequency of rotor mode.4 Hz in calculation agrees well with the experimental value of 7. 7. Both response curves are very different from each other. The comparison of calculation values of natural frequency with experimental ones is presented in Tab.0 Hz.4 Hz and 27.6 Hz.8 MN/m (103 kgf/mm) natural frequencies are 13. The large unbalance induces a large amplitude of vibration such that the rotor moves in a large whirl orbit in the clearance of the bearing. and the rub often occurs..9 Hz and the experimental value of 14.3) of water and assuming water bearing stiffness of 9.1 G seems to be small in value. assuming a contact in the bearing.2. In fact the scratches of rub can be seen when opening the bearing. With the stiffness of 39. In the latter. However. The first unbalance resonance appears at the rotational speed of 7� 8 rps. Therefore. Its response curve is similar to the unbalance response curve with large unbalance. From these compar' isons. As stated above. The second resonance varies greatly with the unbalance. the experimental value of 18 . This fact indicates the necessity of aseimic design for a pump rotor suspended vertically. Concerning the casing mode. and the latter one is equivalent to the stiffness of water bearing under the condition of small journal vibration.0 k gf/mm) . The former stiffness is picked up to simulate the contact of the journal with the stator of bearing under the condition of large journal vibration.3 Rotation Test A rotation test is done before an excitation test. It is noticed that the peak amplitude becomes very sharp in this case. The vibration of the rotor itself is seen in the amplitude response curve in Fig. they are 14. the rotor vibrates remarkably in the first and second mode and the casing in the first mode. The first mode resonance does not appear remarkably in the excitation test because of very high modal damping ratio.
15.127 mm and 0. the corresponding peak amplitude is 580�m.2. The non linear stiffness K is extremely greater than the linear stiffness Ko. The one directional orbit at the no rotation changes into a circular whirl orbit with rotation due to rub. Then. The journal vibration is suppressed by the bearing clearance. as described in Fig. The waveform of the bearing load is nearly harmonic. (2) Influence of Rotor Rotation with Fixed Casing A harmonic excitation test is done at each rotational speed with the casing being fixed. As shown in the response curve with the clearance of 0.4 Harmonic Excitation Test Influence of some parameters on a rotor response is examined by sweeping of a harmonic excitation frequency. 7. Therefore. are summarized in Figs. When the rotor is rotating and is subjected to harmonic excitation. With the clearance of 0. the waveform of the bearing load at the rotation contains the ordinary harmonic component plus the spiky peak component due to rub. it is clear that a rotor with no rotation is most sensitive to an external force and the rotation reduces such sensitivity. When a rotor is in rotation.5 Hz and its peak amplitude reaches up to the value of 760fm. the sum of vibration responses in both directions becomes in balance with the power of external force. From these graphs. larger clearance results in high damping effect which reduces the peak amplitude. 7. like a hard type of spring. the casing is fixed by the aseismic stopper with no clearance.381 mm.18 simulates a resonance in the harmonic sweeping test. High spiky peak is superposed on the harmonic one at the instance of rub. Here.381 mm. including the responses in X and Y direction.5 Whirl Orbit due to Rub The response waveforms and whirl orbits of the journal motion at a resonance in the sweeping test are given in Fig. it is clear that an increase in rotational speed decreases the response peak amplitude and the dynamic bearing load in Xdirection. and it produces a curve which shows true nonlinear phenomena due to a hard spring. In case of 0. It is seen that the hydraulic force in a fine clearance and the rub force due to larger journal vibration cause a whirling agitation for a rotor.16. The numerical result given in Fig. (1) Influence of Clearance in Water Bearing The displacement of the rotor vibration is shown in Fig. the resonance occurs at the excitation frequency of 18. 113 . like projections on the waveform of bearing load. 7. 6 Simulation of Rub Vibration A dynamic model of the water bearing is assumed by a nonlinear relationship between the journal of displacement and the restoring force.14 by changing the bearing clearance of 0. The rotor response and dynamic bearing load. in spite of the extremely small gyroscopic effect in the pump rotor against the fact as mentioned in paragraph 3. the peak amplitude and the bearing load increase in Ydirection. This result indicates that a rotor response is a whirl motion. it is not clear why the separation of a peak appears in spite of the rotor with an extremely small gyroscopic effect. However. Although two peaks are seen in a response curve just like influence of gyroscopic effect.381 mm. 17.127 mm (normal specification). Ydirection vibration appears in addition to Xdirectional vibration. but the Ydirectional vibration occurs simultaneously near the resonance.
and Tamura. one directional vibration is generated. The disagreement may be attributed to the fact that a whirling force. The experimental whirl orbit is nearly circular and the calculation one closes to be rectangular. I and Urushidani. depends upon which response severity is greater between a backward resonance and a forward one. P 77 JSME (3) Fritz. S.20. and an unbalapce force which actually exists are neglected in the calculation. The comparison of the bearing load between the experiment and calculation is given in Fig. they are different from each other. REFERENCES (1) Kawamoto. A.16. It is verified by calculation and experiment that One directional stopper is rather stable and effective for the suppressi<:>J:l_() f rotor vibration in the system with large gyroscopic effect. With respect to results at 24 rps. The effectiveness of the new method is proved by numerical simulations of vibration due to such rub and nonlinearity in a water bearing. It is demonstrated that these experimental values of bearing load can be estimated by the calculation assuming a dynamic model of a water bearing with clearance. No 7845 (19783).e.45400 (197912). . (2 ) The peak amplitudes at a backward resonance and a forward resonance under a harmonic excitation when rotating a rotor in high speed are reduced to about half of the peak amplitude at no rotation. Generally speak ing. R.. A whirl motion is induced by rub at the rotation of 24 rps. vol. compared with a cylindrical type of stopper as usually used. P 167 114 . good agreement is seen with respect to the harmonic component and the spiky peak component in the bearing load waveform. 942 (19722). On the other hand. The whirl orbits obtained in the calculation of history response are shown in Fig. These general features of rotor response at a harmonic excitation are made clear in relation to gyroscopic effect. coinciding with the excitation direction. Trans. casing and bearings under an external excitation. Comparing Fig. . the rotol'r'gsponse indicates a whirl motion due to rub and nonlinearity in a water bearing. Preprint. H .19 with Fig. and the division of the vibration response at harmonic excitation into each component of eigen modes is achieved. for the nonlinear vibration analysis. . 8. and a hybrid integration method based on it is presented.J. Trans. (2) Kanai. the calculated whirl orbit at no rotation agrees with the experimental one. (4) Very high response sensl tivi ty of vertically suspended rotor such as a pump to external excitation and rub becomes experimentally clear. inner or outer type. At no rotation of 0 rps. generated in a fine gap when the journal rubs with the stator in the water bearing. . selection of a sto pper for the s uppression of rotor vibration i. The response of bearing dynamic load contains a ordinary harmonic component and a spiky component in waveforms. a new technique called quasimodal is developed. 19. It is also proved that the backward resonance severity is slightly greater than the forward one. The horizontal axis shows the value assumed by a nonlinear stiffness K. (5 ) In spite of very small gyroscopic effect in a pump rotor. P 1451 JSME. ASME Sere B. incl uding the dependence on bearing clearance and rotational speed. The. CONCLUSIONS Conclusions summarized in this study are as follows. (1) The modal technique is acceptable for the vibration analysis in a linear system with rotor.
kyy j + i [ k. K.=Kd.  2 OFBEARtNG cxx=Cyy cxy=Cyx MZ +iJlCo1 +(Cd iCc)z +(Kd iKe)z =F M:t +i!1Cgt + C.0 kgffmm = 39 kNfm (no rub) water bearing (nonlinear) 13..)·11 9 FORCED VIBRATION where ZX�ISI for i12n where Z=X(�'iSI+ii.<l>t e A l + ifisel.6 Bearing stiffness = 4.2n =Mod( ). cf... 0 6 MATRIX B. [ K.. K.\ EIGEN SOLUTION z = <I> e Al z .0 No peak 1820 Rotation N = 20 rps CALCULATION Water bearing (linear) 14.] _ C.k"] •• where C..0 Hi t casing u n balance r espons e 14.C d .=A'. ABt.4 27. .I r'�. 0 for i*'j CONDITION 1 *. Hz EXPERIMENT Impulse response 14.+G. DAMPED EIGENVALUE ANALYSIS OF ROTORBEARING SYSTEM No. = [ c"2cyy j + i [ c. kxy=k. .9 6.= [ i �: C' �.= [ M B..z + C. ] C.0 8 ORTHOGONALITY I (/)'B(/) { (/ItA (/II for i *j IJI"IB (/Ij (/Ij {.. ] B2 = [0 0 K.S + Mod(�).0 Bearin stiffness � = 10 Kgf fmm = 9.= [ k ..8 M�fm (with rub) 115 .s �..A symmetric  7 EIGENVALUE A=a+iq Damped Frequency=q Modal Damping = a/ (a2+q2 =O {.1>1�.k" j •• K.iCc =[ ··2 w] + i [ c c c.C..6 18.iKe = [ k . TABLE 2.z+ Krz+ KbZ =F 3 EQUATION OF MOTION K.C" j .0 7 1719 Harmonic excitation 14. 1>.0 { :� for i=j 0 IJI"IA 0 for i=j B'(s[A)s) .diCe KdiKe 1 A= [ /l �� j A ..kw j +i [ k. (/1= �."Ki) fori·. A2.Ke 0 A= [ A2A.[A)Mod(¢I)'F B'(s[l)s) =[l)(ModN:JF + Mod(</I /. Kd. TABLE 1. 1<1>. AB(/I=A(/I i C.COMPARISON OF NATURAL FREQUENCIES Vibration Mode CA5INb ROTOR lST 15T 2ND Item Comment Natural Frequency..j AA] = M [ KdiKe j 0 0 0 0 ] 5 EIGENVALUE PROBLEM B o (/I= �[ :j B= [ B2 � �] B. ITEM I II Circular Whirl Orbit with Symmetric Support Eliptical Whirl Orbit with Asymmetric Support 1 SYSTEM Vertically Suspended Rotor Horizontally Suspended Rotor DYNAMIC PROPERTIES k••=k.� Mod(�).
. y �2 BACKWARD FORWARD Figure 4. 116 . Rotorbearingcasing system. . Whirl orbit. H y Figure 2. 0 X 1 PRERESONANCE 2 ONRESONANCE BACKWARD 3 POSTRESONANCE FORWARD Figure 3. Zo L+tt'l. . . Coordinate system. Q x Xo D CASING Figure 1. Phase relationship between rotor and excitation acceleration.
.. FORWARD (ii) ROTOR . 5 INNER CONTACT FORM EXCITING FREQUENCY Fi gure 5.. Response curve in Fi gure 6.  (f) ".. � « Xo Fr O �=��J O.. . __ (i) ROTOR I a. . 1 80 t_�__::.. O ��� w  y' . 117 .5 1+.0 BACKWARD Fr Q=O w X OUTER CONTACT FORM o :::> Yo r 0. 360 !::::====!:===�==S���===:d 1.. A high speed rotor. ROTOR A CASING Figure 7. Stopper with clearance. .. .J a.. harmonic excitation. 5 1.. Yo « .
.. . o rpm NO ROTATION 1.. H 00 0.5 EXCITATION FREQUENCY Figure 8....0 1.5 1.0 � � � U) � t=l ..41wn ... � � H ... XDIRECTION RATED SPEED ___ XDIRECTION 09 YDIRECTION 1.5 � U) z o � U) � o 0...  Response of high speed rotor in harmonic excitation.
043 G � 1. Suppression of rotor vibration by stopper.r.3& ( A) 0 ��A1l/:l..0 mm ACCELERATION . .�12����:t�O::::t=�:=] � __ <.) .. 2 3 5 MAX.y SEISMIC WAVE 0.0 L.�T� � m ali ze d � >< CLEARANCE 1. History response analysis (one directional stopper).5��+�. .AIk'roY\. � o �1.1lVmIltYMH\lH�.::c EXPER IMENT o a: (/) CAlOJLAnON  CSO. ..nHllltfl\! 1� ( B) 0 1A1+A'A�V\tII\IttWIIIlH\!ffiQI�\\lHIi� ( c ) VIBRATION LISSAJOUS Figure 9. ACCELERATION Figure 10.0. 119 .
. 6.SMALL I (]) () (]) . +> 600 � UNBALANCE I (]) +> S � � 400 . Influence of clearance ' in water bearing..4 Hz 1B. A pump model rotor and its beam model. :z.9 Hz EI o ::g lst p:.0 Hz BEARING JJ:. . 120 .l LOAD C. . til 400 rl til () I P< rl I CJJ .I I H I=l J? o )( � +> C\I H(l:: o� o p:j +> o o o 5 10 15 20 25 5 10 15 20 p:j 25 EXCITATION FREQUENCY Hz EXCITATION FREQUENCY Hz Figure 13. p:j MOTOR o 14. . Figure 14. CASING MODE o EI o p:. . Figure 12. X DIRECTION s Boo �. ::1. XDIRECTION 600 JrIr. EI H CELL H 0 U) U) JJ:. 8x.8y c:t: c:t: 0 0 '1 \ BEARING A SEISMIC STOPPER lst 2nd ROTOR MODE Figure 11. Influence of unbalance. C.l 0 i2. Free eigen modes.LARGE .I P< I I=l ' CJJ peak 2nd peak 200 .
lG rI PI Ul XDIRECTION 'rl YDIRECTION (:1 +> � o . 800 __.. o rps 24 rps DISPLACEMENT 0. s 800 . Figure 17.Influence of rotational speed.::: 10 15 20 25 Il< 0 5 '5 10 15 20 25 z 60 co . . 1. 14 rps p 600 +> rps QJ S "I Acceleration QJ Acceleration c:J O. . 0 "" 0 12< H p:::.lG � ro 20 XDIRECTION 20 YDIRECTION QJ )( P=1CO o 5 10 15 20 25 o 10 15 20 25 5 :EXCITATION FREQUENCY Hz EXCITATION FREQUENCY Hz Figure 15. . .0 0 I:< U) P'1 p:::. NO ROTATION :i. 14 rps . 24 rps Acceleration H no O.. 8N p:::.14 rps :I _. 121 .1 ") OF WATER BEARING • .Restoring force in water bearing..lG Acceleration p 'rl O. NO ROTATION z 60 ...lG ro 400 O. N \� • oD.06 mm Figure 16.0 Kgf 0 x 9. . co .. ..14 rps ro � ccJ 0\ _.c mm P'1 . NO ROTATION • • .. WHIRL ORBIT DYNAMIC MODEL 0...24 rps H o 40 _ •• � � 40 ". . . NO ROTATION ccJd.2.Waveforms and whirl orbits.
::10\ < . Whirl orbit in resonances.. >.2.� toO t)Q � • 100 .Orps p. :>::. Comparison of bearing dynamic load. :3 80 o o rps EXP. co .2.. CAL. . . EXPERIMENT EXPERIMENT 24rps j 24rps NoRlinear l Nonlinear � 20 .8 KN /m Figure 20. I!z1 P H « . o '::'":1 A��. CAL. STIFFNESS Kgf/mm STIFFNESS Kgf/mm x 9. Orps . WHIRL ORBIT CALCULATION Harmonic o rps 24 rps Wave Bearing Load Jouna1 Figure 19. . Response waveforms near a resonance...8 KN/m x 9. . Vibration TIME Figure 18. 24 rps EXP. 122 . . . H � It< < �60 o rps rz.
the former is accurate. Generally speaking. However.which is exclusively applied for nonlinear analysis is developed on the basis of modal synthesis and the substructure method. INTRODUCTION In structure dynamics with many degrees of freedom of motion. time h istory response analysis involves two integration methods.which guarantees only a linear system. The modal technique is limited to linear analysis and its. APPENDIX Time History Response Analysis of Nonlinear RotorBearing System by QuasiModal Technique 1. in our experience it is very difficult to numerically simulate such a vibration mode changing due to rubbing. The authors have already presented the special form of the orthogonality condition in rotor dynamics and the modal integration technique for analyzing non stationary vibration of a rotor in a system with linearity or somewhat weak non linearity. However. and not a nonlinear one. These methods are also applied for non stationary rotor vibration analysis in rotor dynamics as well as in analyzing the gyroscopic effect and large damping force in bearings. but not convenient for large structure systems because too much computational time is required. Each integration method inevitably contains its own advantages and disadvantages. A quasi modal transformation is defined considering gyroscopic force and damping force for a general rotor system. the modal technique is more convenient and powerful than the direct one. One of them is direct inte gration and the other is modal. The integration method is then introduced by the quasi modal technique. by the modal integration technique. but its accuracy depends how many eigen vectors are introduced in the modal matrix. The latter is effective due to the great reduction of freedom of motion by the normal transformation. NOMENCLATURE matrices after the quasi modal transformation damping matrix equivalent damping coefficient for the inner system gyroscopic matrix equivalent gyroscopic effect for the inner system external force external force acting upon the inner system force on the quasi modal coordinate system imaginary unit stiffness matrix equivalent stiffness for the inner system mass matrix 123 . even the modal technique is not perfect and is inconvenient for time history response analysis in a rotorbearing system with strong nonlinear boundary conditions.forcible application to a nonlinear system is essentially unreasonable. In this study a new method. In many cases.
z2.t) : resistance force acting upon the boundary point t S=[S1. A bearing with non 124 . The complex form of the rotor displacement is denoted here by z=x+iy for the displacements in the Xdirection and Ydirection of x and y. but the explanation is omitted in this paper.rotor dis placement of the boundary point weighting value corresponding to � mode. and can be written as: (2) To simplify the description. includi n g bearings and disks.i. Discrimination of boundary point and inner system The cantilever type of rotor.z2Jt rotor displacement vector in a complex form (z=x+iy) z1 rotor displacement vector of the inner system z2 rotor displacement of the boundary point c5 deflection mode generated by the forced displacement complex eigenvalue deflection mode generated by the forced velocity matrix of the quasi�odal transformation eigen mode of the inner system eigen mode of the entire system including the inner system and the boundary point rotational speed Dirac's function 2. where kxx=kyy kxy=kyx Cxx=Cyy Cxy=Cyx the equation of motion becomes little simpler. In this rotor system.as shown in Fig.2. Q(z2. The rotor displacement is measured o n the coodinate system of O� which is fi xed in the space.e.S2v.i. This technique is also ex tended to general rotor vibration including asymmetrical bearing dynamics.s2dJ : state vector on the quasi�odal coordinate system s1 weighting value corresponding to ¢ mode s2d= z2 weighting value corresponding to c5 mode.1 . In the case of the circular whirl motion due to symmetrical dynamic properties. The equation of motion of a rotor is written as: (1) This equation represents the elliptical whirl motion of a rotor supported by general bearings with asymmetrical dynamic properties. the left side is a fixed point which is clearly a boundary location.rotor velocity of the boundary point t time Z=[Z 1. the vibration of a vertically suspended rotor with symmetrical bearing dynamics is studied first and a new quasimodal technique is presented. respectively. QUASIMODAL TRANSFORMATION Equation of motion This study deals with the rotor vibration in an entire system. is selected in order to clearly explain the concept of this new technique.e. as s hown in Fig.
The rest of the rotor system is designated as a linear inner system. 0 and f. ¢ and 0 . are used in the conventional methods. The right side is thus designated as a nonlinear boundary point. as shown Fig. denoted by z2. . The equation of motion (2) is rewritten. inserting displacements z1 and z2. and its displacement vector is denoted by z1.3(b).3. subscripts 1 and 2 mean the inner system and the boundary point.3(a). respectively. It is assumed that the bearing dynamic properties are not constant. • The first two modes. f. The third mode. The equation of motion of the inner system becomes (4) and the free vibration solution is assumed to be given by the following formula with the ¢ mode. z= ¢ e At The orthogonality condition with respect to these eigen vectors is derived as: (6) = Ojk o mode This is the deflection mode when the rotating shaft is subject to f orced displacement on the boundary point . as shown in Fig.as shown in Fig. <p mode This is the complex eigen mode of the restricted system on the boundary point. as (3) Where. It is obtained by damped eigenvalue solving with respect to the M1Cg 1K11C1 system.is introduced in this study for the first time and its necessity is emphasized.linearity is located on the right side of the rotor. and an external force of F1 is distributed on the inner system of the rotor. Transformation modes An arbitr a ry vibration mode shape in the system with a changing boundary condition can be arranged by the synthesis of three kinds of special mode shapes. This rotor system is a typical example of a system having one changing boundary condition. The quasimodal transformation matrix thus consists of the three modes: ¢ . called the substructure technique or modal synthesis. A resistance force of Q2 acts upon the boundary point. the 125 . Under a load Q2*.
Q l =k*t+i �Cg*+c* 126 . the relationship in cluding the gyroscopic force and the damping force up to the first order differ  ential equation of Eq.Z 1 = 0 t+ .. c= K11 1 C 1 o= K111 C1 K111 K12 Furthermore. when the inner system is viewed from the nonlinear boundary point. when the inner system is viewed from the boundary point. The latter values are determined by the following formulas : cg*= Cg2+ 0t Cg1 0 (13) c* =C2+ otC1 0 (14) Where.. (8) .g+ '.. as shown in Fig. and is determined by the following relationship. this load Q2* is equal to the sum of equivalent gyroscopic effect cg* and equivalent damping coefficient c*. which generates the forced velocity. g= K11. This mode shape has not been used heretofore.c (12) where. =i � '.(3) becomes (9) Assumin g the deflection of a nonlinear boundary point with (10) the deflection mode shapes of the inner system with the form .. This load is equivalent to the shaft stiffness. mode This is the deflection mode when the rotating shaft is subject to f orced velocity on the nonlinear boundary point.3(c). 1 . ( 11) are determined by the following relationship . Z1 = 0 .Cg1 0= K111 Cg1K111 K 12 .. Under a load Q2 *.relationship between the shaft stiffness and the displacement is expressed as: (7) where Z 1 = 0 is the deflection mode and Z2=1 is the forced displacement on the boundary point.
this transformation can not give a theoretically perfect diagonalization of the transformed matrices. however. All off diagonal elements of the coefficient matrices B and A are not zero. reflecting the spin effect of the rotor. Consequently. The matrices B11and A11 contain zero elements in the offdiagonal part. Thus these three modes must be considered in analyzing rotor dynamics. and by strong damping forces in the bearings. It should be noted that the almost perfect diagonalization with the nonzero 127 . For ordi nary structure dynamics. (16). The new technique presented here for analyzing rotor dynamics is thus based upon a more general concept. it does facilitate almost perfect diagonalization with nonzero elements at the edge of matrix B.(12) that the s mode is generated by the gyroscopic force.but many parts of them are.B 12=B21t is equal to the nonzero elements because there is no orthogonality in the relationship between eigen vector ¢ and deflection modes 0 and s . because the eigen vectors of the linear inner system are orthogonal with each other.4 . o o * * * B= B21B22 0 A= 0 i ncg +c k F s= otF1+Q2 * * o 0 k 0 k 0 0 The structures of the transformed matrices B and A of Eq.(2) is rewritten using a state equation (16) Putting the transformation relationship of Eq. and includes the usual substructure and modal synthesis techniques as well as the s mode. (17) are shown in Fig. the third mode is not needed for the vibration analysis of nonrotating structures with negligible damping forces. and premultiplying the transposed matrix of the transformation matrix � . hence we call it the quasi�odal technique. The rest of B matrix. (15) into the state equation of Eq. Transformation of coordinate system The quasinormal transformation matrix is defined by analogy with the modal transformation. This transformation technique is much closer to the modal one . a simple differential equation with respect to the quasi�odal coordinate of s vector is obtained as Bs=AsFs (17) where. This is why the conventional modal synthesis techniques applied to structure dynamics employ only the eigen mode ¢ of a restricted system and the deflection mode 0 at a forced dis placement. It is obvious in Eq. as follows : �s (15) The equation of motion of Eq. and these matrices become diagonal.
These quantities related to the boundary point are maintained by the same description in the physical coordinate system. corre sp o n ding to the velocity and displacement on the boundary point.edge can not be accomplished without the � mode. The degree of state equation (17) is equal to the degree of the modal transfor mation for the linear inner system plus twice the number of boundary points.J�� . In state equation (17) obtained by a quasi�odal transformation. the remaining elements of s2 v and s2d in the quasi�odal vector s equal the physical coordinates with the relationship (18) Thus.(17).. And the resistance force Q2 on the boundary point is also included in the force vector F s without being reformed.as compared with Eq. it can be said that the inner system is processed by the well known modal integration method. Conse quently the scale of the problem is greatly reduced. but the advantages of both methods are guaranteed in this new method. and are easily processed by the direct integration method. � Figure 1. The two conventinal methods have their own advantages and disadvantages.. respectively. The vector s1 of the quasi�odal vector s indicates the weighted values cor responding to the eigen modes of the inner coordinate system.. 128 .nrl. Therefore. . the boundary points are handle by physical quantities even in posttransfor mation. integration with respect to the quasi�odal coordinate s is equiva lent to hybrid integration where modal and direction methods are mixed. That is why we introduce the � mode for this new quasi�odal technique. as shown in Fig. the state vector s contains ph ysical c oo r dinates of z2=S2 v and z2=s2 d .1! U. Thus. as in the same manner as the FEM operation. TIME HISTORY RESPONSE ANALYSIS Hybrid Integration The integration of the state equation (17) on the quasi�odal coordinate system gives the time history response under an external excitation F 1(t).. Therefore. (3) or Eq. Rotorbearing system. W'\::. 5. On the other hand. 3.J�.. Thus the new technique is highly applicable to nonlinear vibration response analysis.the superposing oper ation is guaranteed after the quasinormal transformation. r.
{ Unit velocity Mode I. Oifficul t Programming Figure 5. . SII + � • 2:. + S • Z2 " " ( c) .t Economical Nonlineari ty is OK Nonlineari ty is NG. Figure 4. Transformation modes. iJ �A 8 r =l� " . . Quasi normal coordinate system.. f " '" z.'It '" 2. . z. z. Quasi normal system Figure 3.A.'i:!/. I Direct Intergration I z(t)=J. ¢. .)s(l) Convenient Econom i cal Convenie. 129 . . 0 1 I 0 z...i{ t) d t Accurate Large computational  time and cos t Inconvenient IHybrid Intergration I Nonlinearity is OK + + ). f (I z.. . . =]. Boundary point and inner system. A.. Hybrid intergration. � : Bearing _J Rotor I Z\ Zz Inner coordinate Boundary coordinate Figure 2.. (a) Constrained system free vibration I·jodes <Pj mass gyro stiffness damping force 2. ¢". "'¢". [:?sJj[:J �J[:}[. 0 I z. ¢.�] = Zd= Z [jiQdal Interg� r s(t) =J s (t)ell  Q2 : nonlinear z=[". �.
C. Ek.. and entrance coefficient �Tariation effects are adjudged to be small. California 91330 SUMMARY Coefficients are derived for equations expressing the lateral force and pitching moments associated with both planar translation and angular perturbations from a nom inally centered rotating shaft with respect to a statiqnary seal. and conclusions derived thereby will be the objective of this report. Green. Shaolian California Stat� Uhiversity at NOrthridge NOrthridge. These seals are in gen eral utilized to separate regions of high and low gas or liquid pressure. M. Fenwick Rocketdyne Division Rockwell International Canoga Park. particularly the phenomenon of "subsynchronous whirl � ' has been noted by many authors. and turbomachinery for rocket engine applications have been widely noted in the literature. shear pertur bation. mathematical means employed. LINEAR FORCE AND lVD\1ENT EQUATIONS FOR AN ANNUlAR Sl. 1).V[X)ffi SHAFI' SFAL PEEmJRBED OOIH ANJUlARLY AND lATERALLY* J. e. when *A11 work performed under NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Contract NAS827980 130 .g. speeds. The coefficients for the lowest order and first derivative terms emerge as being significant and are of approxima'tely the same order of magnitude as the fundamental coefficients derived by means of Black's equations. and S. California 91304 R. high performance pumps. Rothe (ref. DiJulio. In addition to their strong effects as pseudo bearings and destabilizing devices. The increased incidence of stability problems as a function of increased power density. The outcome of the investigation delineated in this report defines the coeffi cients of the equations: L = AE + BE + CE + Da + Ea + Fa (1) F = aE + bE + CE + da + ea + fa The assumptions utilized. Among the design features strong ly contributing·to this phenomenon in a wide var iety of highpowered turbomachinery are annular shaft seals. INTRODUCTION The factors leading to increasing pressures. they offer. The effects of the additional terms upon a typical rotordynamic system are presented. R. and temperatures in jet engines. Ehrgott. H. Second derivative.
4).properly configured. general coeffi D = d/dt.) 131 . as shown schemati cally in Fig. m 4 e = aF/dE. Orientation of references  from the general approach being carried axes for seal equations.5 E shaft elastic modulus = PRTIaL/AY F = force on seal. Various authors have delineated the extent of both the problems and remedies surrounding these possibilities. on by other investigators in that it ex plores the effect of pitching moments and angulation in the seal. m2 /s K = effective bearing spring rate. 7 and 8). 3). 5). and Alliare (refs.t). On many significant recent problems. 4) at Texas A&M. Childs (ref. Childs (ref. 4). e. the problem on the highspeed rota ting machinery for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) IEk (ref. in the figures. total due to perturbations I = shaft area moment of inertia. Present efforts to extend this work include continuing work by Allaire (ref. United Kingdom. A very significant part of the understanding of the dynamic behavior of annular smooth shaft seals has come from the pioneering work of Henry Black of Heriott Watt University. 1 4) at the University of Virginia. 5 and 14). NOMENCLATURE The nomenclature in general is that employed by Black (ref. 2 /sec) N/m (lb/in. n is defined in the af text b = gap thickness. (in. for example. Ek (ref.. 12) of NASA Lewis. y(x. Additional functions are delineated in the text as required. who in a series of papers (refs. in many designs the only real possibility for the introduction of damping in rotating systems. N/m3 (lb/in.g. these being Jensen (refs. A number of workers have ex tended his work significantly.3) (in. Childs (ref. This study represents a departure Figure 1.4 ) V = kinematic viscosity. 1. 13)]. as well as exper imental work with liquid oxygen and hydro gen at the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International. Hirs (ref. differential operation cient for moment and force equa with regard to time tions � = 0. Edinburgh. 2). Black's equa tions were the only analytical representa tion available for significant computer modeling. Alford (ref. or presented below. and Fleming (ref. and Gunter (ref. 612) defined the effect of shaft displacements with both long and short seal assumptions up to and including the second derivative of the displacement. 6) and specific nomenclature is introduced as comments in the body of the nomenclature table. inches H = PRTIa/6A(1+�+2a). 3)]. AF } = coefficients in force equations F n = force on seal. The recent trend is to shift to a mod ification of the bulk flow theory to define more closely a set of equations approxi mating experimental results IHirs (ref. 13).
) y 1. Z. i.. 15) R = shaft radius.e. m (in. 6. ZVyo/v the perturbation terms a R rotating Reynolds No. m (in.5 dF/da. Short seal theory is assumed. l3Z .) <5 weight density. Rwyo /V absolute viscosity.t). kg/m (lb/m ) E lateral displacement. ) loss factor per Yamada (ref. Pas (lbf r 11 T passage time. �p 5l.5. the product approaches zero. perturbations have negligible effect in the tangential direction. p(x. The system (shaft within seal) is assumed to be centered. m/s (in. Perturbations about the nominal centered position are small.z radial displacement of rotor mass T pitching moment at x 0.Z ) t time.) y. independent variable. seconds entry loss coefficient = 0. Nm o a angular displacement (lbin. i' kgs Z/m4 (lb g sec Z/in.L length of seal. Whenever two second order terms are multiplied. L/V. m (in. rad/sec ASSUMPTIONS In the following equations. � = 0./sec) p mass density. 4. assumptions are made as follows: 1. N/rad (lb/rad) 3 3 dT/de:. 5.t). The entrance coefficient into the seal is assumed to be 0. component spacing on rotor. u(x. rad/sec w design speed. Nm (in. yet).) friction coefficient. Pa (lb/in. m (in.lb/rad) w circular frequency. N (in. Nm (lbin.. The period of time required for a particle of fluid to travel from the inlet to the discharge is small compared to the frequency of the system.) dT/da.) x = �. ) P pressure within passage.Z p total pressure difference across Z seal. Z Pa (lb/in. seconds sec/in. rpm r n wetted perimeter.lb/in. coefficients for R axial Reynolds No.) area b N speed of rotation. There is no change of properties in the working fluid as it passes through the process. m/s (in.5 + Za. m (in. they are assumed to be higher order. Le. 3. variable.) 11jk functions of a.4) V = mean fluid velocity. 7./sec) a AL/yo W = weight of rotor. kg (lb) T = pitching moment taken about x axial distance.5 nominally u axial fluid velocity.
These are then translated to perturbations about x = L/2. Yamada's (ref. however. Derivation of fundamental tion through the fl� process is reflected equations.. .S + 2cr)'jL (2) 2 1. any of the effects can be added individ ually with no interdependence between individual effects.. The effect of fluid shear variation on the shaft moment is neglected in the fundamental equations. apart. and forces are taken at x = O. .�O'+� WJ777hI a and moments. by the following relationships: 2 p(1.�. In addition. .po +U DRAIN with the top plate fixed. the first derivations lead to a result in which all perturbations. the bottom plate Y perturbed: perturbations are positive up ward and counterclockwise. 8. and in the case of the moments. 2). as are forces SOURCE lO��. Ix b ·P2 P. 11.. (2) the equations for continuity and velocity are completely rewritten as a consequence of (1).p = . No fluid moves tangentially or I normal to the surfaces of the plates.x (Fig. T o is translated to T L/2 • I Explanations of each step and necessary symbol derivations occur as needed in the text. ::+ �+ T L . nominally y in. 10. and (3) the order of integration is reversed. 6) in three important respects: (1) clearance is expressed as a function of both x and a. This is done because of great simplification of the boundary conditions. 15) work in defining A for rotating shaft effects applies. Flow is positive to the right �NK . Perturbations are planar.e. l� (5) p dX 133 . moments. Tangential fluid velocity equal to onehalf the shaft tangential velocity is developed immediately at the seal entrance. 5 2 P .il The steadystate pressure distribu Figure 2. DERIVATION OF FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS � � I We first consider two plates of length L and unit width. i. APPROACH The process of deriving the fundamental equations departs from that used by Black (ref. . pv (3) 1 0 2 The fundamental equation for head loss through the flow process is (4) From the NavierStokes equations for unsteady flow. Total linearity is assumed. 9.
EX + 2 a (0 0) +V +v + Y = o Higher order terms (HOT) are droppedo Now.+ P (v + 2Vv)  p 2 o 134 . approximately a E: x dU ax = Y u + Y: + y: a OJ o or (9) au a u E: + xa dX y o and U(t) v +v(t).If a control volume of length dx..5 p( V + 2Va) and at x = L.p (V + 2VA v ) x + x 2 E + ( Vx + AVx 2 ) E: p y 2y Y 2 o o o Y o 3 2 3 x Vx AVX (11) +  6y a + . ab a(ub) + o (7) at ax or (8) Now.1. integrate and set the following boundary conditions: 2 at x = 0. and bounded by the two plates. the plates can be thought of as perturbed streamlines 0 The general continuity equa tion for an unsteady stream tube of fixed length ds is a(pA) + � A) at +L as (p o (6) 0 A A + + Since p = constant. is now considered. 5 2 c(t) . 2 I x (10) u . p = P o = P I . u ub.) a 0 Y o o 3y o 2 2 2 2 V x + 1 AV x ) AV + c(t) a + + ( y 2 2 Y x o Y o o Therefore PI 1. s = x. P = P 2 1 . b.+ 00 2 ( .
But 2 PI . and forces are taken about x = L/2.. fa + L l Ae: BE + CE (15) + L2 = Da + Ea. [V + � (1. Fa + F Fl + F2 . then Eq. 5 Vv o Yo DERIVATION AND SUMMARY OF FORCE AND PITCHING MOMENT EQUATIONS The symbolism and form of the equations for shaft is: } a + + + + L = Ae: BE CE + Da Ea Fa + + + + + (14) F = ae: bE CE da ea fa The fundamental assumption of linear independence and superposition is made. 2 AV 2 x ) a + 1. i. The subscript convention at x = 0 will be L (16) o 135 . 5 + 20) V] + �A [E + f 2 (1 + 0) E + 20£ :� ] (12) + �� [a + � 2(3 + o)a + �� 3( 2 + 30)a ] + If now. (11) becomes steady x2 Vx + Avx2 _ � p = (v + 2 �OA v ) x + 2y E + ( Yo Yo ) E o + A 2 V x (13) .5 + 20) � o . moments. L = L L2 = l In the above.P2 = P = p(I. the first solutions will be taken about x = 0.e. 2 e: Yo 2 2 2 + ( V x + y 1. + + Fl ae: bE CE + + F2 da ea. How ever. and the results transferred to x = L/2. p = P �p(t). all displacements.
+ e ex. the following force and pitching equations can be writ ten by integrating around a perturbed shaft as in Fig . 3 8 ) J} (23) v After eliminating v. + � Ta T a) (20) 20 I 40 4l �42 where T L/V. 5 Vv L I (21) 2 [ 2 F o Rnp { � [� iT + (20 + 3)v 1 V L +  6 Yo 2 t: + L V . t: . For example. + 8L V ( 1+. 5) 2v ) 2 + LV a 8A [ L V 2 2 . + 30t: ] 2 2 [ 2 + +O )ex.. T ) (18) 20 0 0 0 20 2l �22 a. Utilizing these. v between these equations (2324) and (1213).k will be defined as part of the derivation. 136 . H (� ex. then finally superposed. H (� ex. V L (3 + 20)t: .2:. ] + �� � 2 a � (8 + 20)a + 12(1 (22) and similarly. 3 4 ) .. 1. + 30L V ( 1 +� 4 15 ) ex. F _0_ f L 6p dx _ (v + 2VAV ) � 2 + � 6 3 E + ( VL 2 + AVL 3 ) E Rnp = o { y o 2 y 0 2y 0 3y 0 2 2 2 3 + _ V _L_ ( 2y o + _A_v_ =_ 2y o � ) ex.. t: + 2 2 L V 0 30A [ L 2 2 . ex. H ' and �j. f a. + 30 ( 1 + 30 ex. and H. (13) is for two plates of unit width.For the cases about x 0. the forces and torques can be defined. + 2OV V + (1. This is done piecewise. + + 11 + 2 T A t: B £ C E H (� t: + T£ T E) (19) lO 0 0 0 I 30 �3l 32 + Ea + Fa + 2 T Dex. 4 0 } T o R'lTP _ f VL2 3 ( . certain simplifying parameters will be defined: = the re sulting form of the equations will be: + b £ + c t: +� T£ + � 2 F a t: H (� t: T E) (17) lO 10 ll 12 = 0 0 0 +� Ta + 2 + F d ex.!:c v. I = FORCE AND PITCHING MOMENT EQUATIONS FOR A SHAFT The definition of pressure perturbations seen in Eq. + 1.
E.5 + 20) 6"Ay = 90 Y 2 (9 + 120 + 40 ) Y . (12). €. ) . with ( a. with a. the equation expressing v. eliminating (TD) of third and higher power.FORCE DUE TO LATERAL DISPLACEMENTS This will be expressed in the form (24) From Eq. 6) except that in � ' Black has 190.[TD + (20 + 3)]v + + + + (27)  R'ITP = t2 6y o Eliminating v. from Eq. 5 + 2a)v) + �A [E' + I 2(1 + a)E + �� 2ac) (25) This can be expressed as 2 2 o ITD + y]v + � � [T D + 2(1 + 0)TD + 20]€ (26) L n Now. a 0) o " [v + I (1. a.90 2 Y 3 2 (80 + 180 + 180) 3 y This agrees with Black ( ref. v between these two equations (2627) with TD « y. a 0 } = F 2 L 2 3 ]€ l O ( VL V [T D (3 20)TD . 12 FORCE DUE TO AN ANGULAR PERTURBATION This will be expressed in the form (29) 137 . (19). (28) where 01TRP H y (1.v as a function of €. Ct. 180 is correct. is.
as before. 5 0' + 12) + (60' + 180' + 9)J 22 y PITCHING MOMENT DUE TO A TRANS1ATION The pitching moment due to a translation will be expressed in the form (30) The equation expressing the boundary condition is (26) v 0' 2 2 o = [TD+y] v + L 2A IT D + 2(1 +O')TD + 20')E (31) From Eq. �t V13 2 (TD + 20'+ 1. a = 0.v.5 0' + 12) . a. (21).y(20' + 11. 31(20' + 60' + 3) Y 1 2 2 11 Z [y(20' + 11. y 1.52)v Rnp .(60' + 180' + 9)] 21 = y 1 2 2 2 11 = � {y (4.5 + 20' 6AY = 2 1120 = . 5 + 20' AY 1  Y = 138 . a. (33) where Rn0'1P .Proceeding as before.25 + 20') .  + � v2 I [ T2D2 + 8 (� + % ) (32) Eliminating v. PR7[(1 H Y 1.
1 [80 + 4 2 l .ex 2 20 lO(ex�) 0 = 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 2 (do .670 + 22.750 + 33.50 + 50. 0 "2 ex (36) These are both for ex rotated at x = 1/2.5)] 5y 2 . (20) is expressed in the form 4 (3 ) where PR1W1 H YA 2 1 2 P4 = 4 y [22. 2 (F0 . These involve the ex terms only.5] 0 5 �4 l = � 4 2 r y(80 2 + 39. 25)y .50 2 + 50. The next = step is to translate the resultant force and moment to x 1/2.5)] TRANS1ATION OF EQUATIONS TO x = 1 /2 The translation of the solutions for perturbations about x 1/2 can now be = written. b b' c c 0 0 0 0 0 = = o (38) 139 . An x rotation at � 1/2. 2 1 1 1 .The above pitching moment is about x = O.b0 2:1 ) .YC80 2 + 39.(22.50 + 50. Eq.750 + 33. can be con = sidered as the sum of an ex perturbation at x 0 plus a displacement of ex � .B0 !:)a Do .c .670 + 22.. The fundamental re = lationships are (F F ). F F F d ex + ea + f a a ex b a .75) .4 y3 5 2 + (22. but the moment is still at x O.75) W42 .670 + 22. so = that at L/2 there is a pure ex perturbation. a �)ex o ( o . TORQUE DUE TO AN ANGU1AR PERTURBATION After proceeding as before. o L (37) o To summarize. (fo co 12)" + e ex ex (35) and + + C 1 " ) L 20 = ( A0 �)� (E0 . these become: Forces: a EO: + b E: + c E since a a.
Moments .�+ b 2 e 4 0 0 L L L 2 F F C 2 .A 2  = 2 ao  4 a 0  . + C = 0 0 2 4 0 0 and where a=a b=b C = C 0 0 0 L d d 0 a L2 e = e b L2 0  0 0 .f .F 2 2 Do . e H 0 ]122 T ]121 T . (39) o 2 2 o0 0 where 2 a 0 H ]110 b 0 ]112 TH ]111 T C 0 H 2 d 0 H H ]120 . f f 0 C 0  2 140 .B o 2 e �+2 b a 0 4 0 0 + (F .d �+ .F L (A a )E + (B b �)E + (Co . C 0 ( L L 2). �d 1 T AE + BE + CE + Da + Ea + = (40) F aE + bE: + CE + da + ea fa + where A A a L2 B B b L2 0 0 C C C L2 0 0  0 0  L L 2 D D A 2 .f �+ C 4 . c L)... f 0 and C H ]1 H T2 T A 0 H I ]130 . B 0 I 32 I ]131 0 E H T F H T2 D H ]1 I 41 . a 02 4 0 0 0 2 L E E 0 B L2 0 .C L2) a L . + F . And finally. I ]1 42 0I ]140 0 0 The symbols are previously defined.E T T l IO l 2 o � o o2 0 0 2 L ( L L2) �+ T2 T20 .
.VISCOSITY (WATER) 1.4) K .54 em (1 INCH) Yo .0005 LB/IN.067 X 109 N·S/em2 (3 X 109 LB·SEC/IN 2) fJ .) W .24 em (6 IN.036 LB/IN. the equations for the seals were established in the cubic form and evaluated for the conditions of Table I.5 Kg/m3 (0.000 RPM p ..47 X 105 LB. the properties of two fluids. A Taylor's expansion was used for the denominator to obtain a simple polynomial form for the coefficients.01 INCH) N .97 em4 (0. varied with speed for the case of water and speed squared for steam. The restoring force and torque as a function of shaft translation and angulation are therefore described by 141 . 6.013 X 105 N·S/em2 (1. . 3) ROTOR E . it is obvious that the only affects that may legitimately be considered are those of stiffness and damping. DENSITY (WATER) 996. From these examples. Questions remain as to how many terms should be retained and what range of frequencies are allowed before the approxima tion degrades. if all dynamic terms are retained in the coefficient formulation. AREA MOMENT OF INERTIA 24.254 mm (0.) J1 . LENGTH 2.75 X 106 N/em (106 LB/IN. GEOMETRY AND PARAMETERS SEAL R . The resulting transfer functions are shown in Table II. the results are in the form of a frequencydependent cubic divided by a firstorder term.SEC/IN. SHAFT SPEED 30.3) JJ .067 X 107 N/em2 (3 X 107 LB/IN. COMPONENT SPACING 15.62 em (3 INCHES) L . For comparative purposes. DENSITY (STEAM) 13. ROTOR WEIGHT 36. VISCOSITY (STEAM) 2. The density for water was assumed to be constant but the density of steam was assumed to be proportional to pressure drop. however. ELASTIC MODULUS 2. CLEARANCE 0.84 Kg/m3 (0. RADIUS 7. EVALUATION OF SEAL COEFFICIENTS The geometry and parameter values shown in Table I were used to evaluate a sample rotor.6 N/em2 (500 PSI) JJ . water and steam under supercritical conditions were used.2) I .28 Kg (80 LB) G . PRESSURE DROP 344.2) 6 .. To answer the question of higher order terms.6 IN. TABLE I. The spring rates were found to vary with speed squared for both water and steam. Only those two affects were considered in the evaluation that follows.e3K/EI As indicated in ref. BEARING SPRING RATE 1. The damping coefficients. Seal coefficients were evaluated over a wide range of speed by assuming that pressure drop across the seal varied as the square of speed.
806 X 105 + 264.2 S </J (N) = 6.71 S x (N) = 3. and seals due to the lateral de flection (Y or Z) at the mass is given by Fly N/:5 (41) where [ 1 + ( 1 + 34 G ) e · 3 G +'2 �K (� + x) + 2 2G � + 12 �K 5 (G )2 (e� �x) N 2K K � K  }' 142 .524 S 1/1 Ncm) = 3. .84 X 10 4 + 150.8. )( 1 + 3 53 1 + ( � ) ( � t).536 X 10 5 + 2.948 10 40 + 10 40 1 S + 79 30 "" 6.949 X 10 4 ( )( )/( ) 1 S +5880 1 S +45365 1 S +42063 "" 3.688 S where S = jw �] �] Where operating point variations are described by e e dt dt d d E E dt dt steam water ROTOR MODEL A simple rotor model was necessary that would exhibit both translation and angulation at the seals. bearings.000 rpm WATER e (N/cm) = 7.872 + 84 80 + 84 80 1 +42 63 ""1 . SUMMARY OF SEAL COEFF ICIENTS AT 30.2308 X 10 19.323 X 4 10 31.84 X 104 ( 1 )( 1 + 5 8. A flexible massless shaft was chosen with a mass load at the center.( ) 1.43 S 5 "" 1. TABLE II.536 X 105 ( � )( � )( . �1 S +1057 '/.323 X 104 ( )( 1 S + 7949 1 S )( ) .29 S + = </J (N) = 1.0163 X 106 ( : )( ( � ) ( � n. +7930 "" 3.1 S x (N) = 3. Seals were placed at each end of the shaft and an ideal bearing was located halfway between each seal and the central mass.327 X 104 18.( � ) 1 + 2 295 1 1. The restoring force due to the shaft.3 1 S +7347)( � )/( � ) 1 +12 00 1 +7 30 "" 7.0163 X 10 6 + 25.76 S + STEAM e (N/cm) 9. )/( � ) 1 +41 00 1  80 63 1 +23 705 1 +42 63 �3.327 X 104 "" 9.949 X 10 4 .806 X 105 ( . Properties for the rotor model are contained in Table I.
steady circular motion of the shaft in the y'z plane.tK Inserting values for the structural properties and for the frequency dependent journal coefficients. respectively. Then solutions of equations (4144) produce the normalized orbit radius. we assume that they are fixed to Couette coordinates.. we obtain a dynamic forcedeflection relation at the mass. F Y (42) Since the journal equations were developed for a condition where the flow is ostensibly axial. D (1 Q) (�+ 3 + 3 + L 36 C ) c8 (2 1:. from the axis of rotation in the y direction are w 2W. we obtain 2 w 4 (43) The equations for the rotor with the central mass unbalanced a distance I:. or amplification ratio EVALUATION OF ROTOR RESPONSE Normalized rotor deflection vs shaft speed is shown in Fig. Rotor response considering only the trans lation coefficient (a) is shown for reference.4 ) � (¢ K + + C tK + X) + ( 2 + 12 � �) C 2 + (1 £) (�)2 3 + 18 tK (8ljJ . The rotor response with the complete 143 . y F g Y (44) w 2W. 3 and 4 for the steam and water journals. ¢X) . Transforming the forcedeflection equations to coordinates rotating with the shaft. These equations must be transformed to rotor coordinates to determine the whirl orbit. z F g z Solutions for shaft motion due to the unbalanced mass at a particular speed (w) are obtained by first scaling the seal coefficients that were obtained at design speed (w). Now assume.
To evaluate sensitivity of the various coefficients...36% 13806 0..28% 13780 5.. Reversed flow (inboard flow direction) was simulated by changing the sign of the off diagonal coefficients (¢ and �). Rotor response with Figure 4.32% 15410 7.:�:. HZ 300 Figure 3.�� goo��.2% [� �] [�. set of forces are shown for cases where the flow is outboard through the seals and where the flow is reversed. ::::i :E .60% 15510 8.47% [� : ] 13584 1.12% [� �] 13807 0.0% 13266 0. .J u: ::::i � LA.2% 14880 11. Rotor response with steam as fluid..SUMMARY OF CRITICAL SPEED CALCULATIONS STEAM WATER SEAL STIFFNESS MATRIX SPEED (RPM) DAMPING SPEED (RPM) DAMPING 13266 0. .0% [� �] 13585 0.HZ 200 250 FREQUENCY. water as fluid... « :E « O . .77% 15900 6.87% [� tl til] 144 .�2�5�0::::� FREOUENCY. 10 TRANSLATION COEFFICIENT ONLY / TRANSLATION COEFFICIENT ONLY FULL COEFFICIENTS IN BOARD FLOW o o �a: i= « a: z z o o 100 � 5 c. A summary of these cases in terms of critical speed and effective damping (�/� ) are contained in Table III.58% [� �] 13323 0. 200r.46% 15540 7. cr TABLE III. cases with the off diagonal terms increased by 10 percent were run as well as a case where the dia gonal coefficient (�) was increased by 10 percent.1X � �] 1 13830 0. .
This indicates that the centers of pressure for rotation and for translation do not coincide. 5. Moments due to variation in fluid shear along the shaft surface are very small. This is evidenced by an order of magnitude increase in damping at critical speed for thal journal. CONCLUDING REMARKS From a study of the results. the effect of angulation is destablilzing. Pitching moments and angulation effects are as significant as translation. where a different mode shape is involved. without them. a significant error may occur because of the slow development of tangential velocity. the critical speed is shifted slightly and the whirl radius is significantly reduced. While the partial of moment with respect to angulation appears to be de stabilizing. The coefficients are very small and are significant only in a frequency range where the approximations required to obtain them are questionable. Coefficient accuracy is not known in the absence of experimental data. For both fluids the spring rate varies with seal pressure drop and there fore speed squared. For short seals. Specifically this approach assumes full turbulent flow with a rotation at w/2 throughout the seal. where the flow is outboard. For the two fluids that were considered in the journal. off diagonil coefficients result in net stabilization. Black (ref. Damping forces at speeds below the design value are reduced more for a compressible fluid than for an incompressible one. 3. Forces associated with the firsttime derivative are very important. The second order "mass" affects of the journals were negligible and for whirl the mass affects may be deleted. 9. 13) comment on this. 4. Reversing the journal flow (to the inboard direction) actually increased effective damping for the cases investigated. The damping coefficient varies with speed for an incompressible fluid and the square of speed for a compressible fluid. 6. 2. 8. may not exhibit the same trend. 7. as well as the translation. the following conclusions have been reached: 1. Off diagonal seal coefficients are very significant. This result is due to a lack of coincidence between the centers of pressure for translation and rotation. 11) and Hirs (ref. 145 . The net effect of moment and angulation is a slight shift in critical speed and a significant decrease in peak amplitude. DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS When angulation affects are included. Seals. spring rates were very similar but damping coefficients were an order of magnitude higher with water. Higher critical speeds. showed lower damping than where the seal flow was inboard. Journal forces associated with the second time derivative of shaft motion should be ignored.
: Lateral Stability and Vibrations of HighSpeed Centrifugal Pump Rotors. 2731 March 1977. September 1976. pp. ASME. D. No. April 1973. No. Montreal. Vol. Fleming. 11. Pa. and Jenssen.: "Effects of Hydraulic Forces in Annular Pressure Seals on the Vibrations of Centrifugal Pump Rotors. 15. REFERENCES 1.: "Inlet Flow Swirl in Short Turbulent Annular Seal Dynamics. D. 4. 2. Pt. BHRA Fluid Engineering. E. Y. W. D. May June 1980. Vol." Bulletin JSME. 12. 3. F. C. D. K. 146 . 7lWA/ FE38. No. 333344. 1970. 6.: "Protecting Turbomachinery From SelfExcited Rotor Whirl. 95. 7. Series A. "Resistance of Flow Through an Annulus With an Inner Cylinder Rotating. No.: "The Space Shuttle Main Engine HighPressure Fuel Turbopump Rotor dynamic Instability Problem. 6th International Conference on Fluid Sealing." 9th International Conference on Fluid Seal ing. Lyngby / Denmark." ASME Paper No. and Barrett. 302310. J. 77GT49. UVA/ 528. Munich. 206213. pp. M. 1216 August 1974.: "Effects of High Pressure Ring Seals on Pump Rotor Vibrations. P. Canada. ASME. Rothe." Gas Turbine Conference. and Cochrane. C. pp.: "Turbopump Configuration Selection for the Space Shuttle Main Engine.: "Leakage and Hybrid Bearing Properties of Ser rated Seals in Centrifugal Pumps. pp.. Ek." Fluids Engineering Division. pp. 3N. Vol." Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. C. J. Black. Hirs. Black. Allaire. p. N. 208. 137146. Trans. 341347. 3. Vol. F. 10. Black." Report No. 74 FE23.. pp. 17. 1978. and Barrett. Yamada. 1973.: "Solving Subsynchronous Whirl in the HighPressure Hydrogen Turbo machinery of the SSME. Netherlands. H. 6170.: "Dynamics of Short Eccentric Plain Seals With High Axial Reynolds Number.: "Load Capacity and Hybrid Coefficients for Turbulent Interstage Seals. P. E. 184.: "A Bulk Flow Theory for Turbulence in Lubricant Films. H. 5. April 1981. 2." NASA Lewis Turbo machinery Work Shop. Joint Fluid Engineering Conference. Allaire.: "Effective Spring Rates of Tapered Seals. L.. 8." Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science. 2. March 1981. F. E. Vol. 18. 14. October 1965." Journal of Lubrication Technology. ASME Paper No. Gunter. Leeuwenhorst. and Jenssen." Dynamics of Rotors. May 1974.. 5. F. S. P. H. 92100. 9. C.. G. 49 / ME76/ l03. 11. F. H.. Alford. 1962. Lee. Trans." Institution of Mechanical Engineers. G. International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Symposium. Black. E. 6. L. A.. Series F. 13. D. pp. Lee. Philadelphia. Childs. Black. ASME. Allaire. No. C." Paper G5. 15. Black. Vol. E. and Gunter.: "Dynamic Hybrid Bearing Characteristics of Annular Controlled Leakage Seals. 1971. H. E." Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. J. N. F. 1969. H." Journal of Engineering for Power. E..
L. Also. INTRODUCTION As originally cited in an Electric Power Research Institute survey on feedwater pump outages. Ohio 44325 E. Reference (2). The most promising approac� is to optimize system damping. realizing that the typical multi�stage centrifugal pump has several more inter�stage fluid annuli than it has journal bearings . Makay Energy Research & Cbnsultants Cbrporation Mbrrisville. the classical approach when the dynamical forces are not adequately controllable. A. A major objective of this effort is to reduce vibration levels by devising inter�stage sealing configurations with optimized damping capacity. excessive vibration is responsible for many power plant forced outages. The typical multistage centri fugal pump has several more interstage fluid annuli than it has journal bearings (see Figure 1). take place at 100 percent efficiency. DiazTous EPRI Palo Alto. MEASUREVIENf OF INfERSTAGE FLUIDANNULUS DYNAlVllCAL PROPERI'IES M. These dynamical forces are a natural byproduct of the high rate of energy transfer to the fluid within a relatively small space and the fact that this transfer of energy cannot. of course. Adams Uhiversity of Akron Akron. the stronger these dynamical forces become. 147 . the fluid annuli are distributed between the journal bear ings where vibration levels are highest and can therefore be exercised more as dampers than can the bearings. particularly under the lowflow conditions required at partload operation. Hydraulic excitation forces will remain an inherent feature of feed pumps. california 94303 ABSTRACT The work described in this paper is part of an Electric Power Research Institute sponsored effort to improve rotor vibrational performance on power plant feed water pumps. Pennsylvania 19067 I. Described in this paper is a test apparatus which has been built to experimentally determine fluid �annulus dynamical coefficients for various configurations of interstage sealing geometry. the fluid annuli are distributed between the journal bearings where vibration levels are highest and can therefore be "exercised" more as dampers than can the bearings. but their elimination as an important practical consideration would appear to be unlikely.nfigurations. Reference (1). The farther away from the best efficiency flow a feed pump is operated. Further research on pump hydraulics may possibly reduce their intensity. The major cause of this excessive vibration is now widely recognized as the fluid dynamical forces generated within highhead centrifugal pump flow passages. Also. One of the approaches presently being pursued is to devise highdamping inter stage fluidannulus co.
ROTOR VIBRATION DAMPING EVALUATION A linearized vibration mathematical model is generally the appropriate start ing pOint to study and understand rotor vibration characteristics.fening effect (called "Lomakin" effect) deteriorates with wear. re spectively.B .rvative (damping) effects. Such interactive forces are commonly characterized in a linear model as shown in the following matrix equation. practically no attention has been given to the potential damping capacity of interstage fluid annuli.. First of all. which can cause high vibration levels after several hours of normal operation. [K].f ) the instantaneous radial dynamic force vector. some pump manufacturers have employed smooth or shallow groove geometries to utilize the resulting radial stiffening effect which can raise the first crit ical speed considerably above the operating speed. the [B] and [K] matrices are decomposed into symmetric and skewsymmetric parts. Currently used geometries are shown in Figure 2. the [B] and [K] matrices are nonsymmetric for journal bearings and other fluid annuli contained within a rotating and nonrotating boundary. [K] = [K] . [B�. symmetric (positive damping) 2 = + lJ lJ Jl [B��] 1 [B. y Presently. journal bearings. Q is the frequency of the orbital vibration (see Figure 4).. seals. (x. [B] and [0] are the stiffness.. As described in Reference (4). In the presence of vibration. this stif.Q2[D] (2) Here. there is little reliable information on the dynamic matrix coefficients for feed pump fluid annuli. Here. it is a considerable simplification if harmonic motions are used. In spite of the attention this potential stiffening effect has received. However. To separate out conservative and nonconse. . As shown in Reference (3)... To evaluate and compare damping capacity of various fluidannulus geometries. wearring geometry is already known to be a poten tially major influence on critical speeds.g.y) is the instantaneous rotortostator radial displacement vector with respect to static equilibrium and (fx. damping and virtual mass matrices.] . ] . an interactive dynamic radial force occurs where there is a close running clearance filled with a liquid or gas (e. B . Raising or lowering critical speeds can not circumvent the undesireable effects of large hydraulic excitation forces but proper ly adjusted damping can.] 1 [B.. this provides a convenient way to absorb the [0] matrix into the [K] matrix as commonly don�. wearring clearances). as also shown in Reference (3) (see Figure 3). of the entrapped flufd within the closerunning radial clearance. skewsymmetric (contributes no damping) 2 = lJ lJ Jl 148 . However. with some type of serrations often preferred to accommodate rubs.
The concept employed in the design of this rig follows directly from the governing equations which relate the interactive 149 . For example. a test rig has been designed and built to experimentally determine the dynamic coefficients of currently u sed and newly devised interstage fluidannulus configurations. {P}. lJ Jl J . x and y are the principal coordinates of and X and Y the corresponding [BsJ. A compact way to evaluate the net damping capacity of a fluid annulus (or journal bearing) is to determine Ecyc as a function of vibrationtospeed frequency ratio. e ) the respective phase angles. + K . A conceptual sketch of the test rig is shown in Figure 6. Furthermore. x 'B� and K are all Byy positive. predictive analyses of feed pump vibration in general would be considerably advanced with reliable dynamic coefficients. with the differential radial displacement over one period of harmonic motion. one sees�� the presence of both positive and negative damplng effe�ts on forward whirls. .K Jl . Testing is currently in progress and the results will be published when the work is completed. . A test rig has been designed and built to experimentally determine the and [OJ. trends of journal bearing damping (Ecyc) are shown in Figure 5. symmetric (contributes no damping) 1 [K��J lJ =  2 [KlJ. expressed as follows. and . Also. . 1 [K�. J . [BJ matrix coefficients under [KJ operating conditions in feed water pumps. if as with journal bearings. . It is clear from equation (5) why rotorbearing instability always occurs as a corotational or forward whirling vibration. A similar approach for evaluating net damping capacity of interstage fluid annuli could be employed if the dynamic coefficients were known. (4 ) The net energy imparted to the rotor (at a fluid annulus) per cycle of orbital motion can therefore be expressed by evaluating the integral of the nonconservative force vector. . E cyc = f {P}· { dX} sS _ _ 1T s [ rG (Bxx X 2 + BSyy y2) _ 2K xy sin (e  x e)J y (5 ) Here. which is an alternate way of explaining why rotorbearing instability occurs when the lowest rotorbearing resonance frequency is below the zerodamping cross over frequency ratio.J lJ =  2 [K . and a detail layout of the actual rig is shown in Figure 7. singlepeak amplitudes. (e x y For any corotational orbit sin (ex . TEST RIG AND GOVERNING EQUATIONS Under Electric Power Research Insti tute sponsorship.ey) > O. skewsymmetric (negative damping) (3) The instantaneous nonconservative interactive force vector on the rotor can there fore be expressed as follows.
Rotation of the outer shaft therefore causes the rotational centerline of the inside shaft to experience a circular orbit with a precession frequency of the outside shaft1s rotational speed. This necessitates independent control over rotational speed and vibration orbit frequency.2. it can be measured with extreme accuracy using an LVDT or even a precision dial indicator while slowly rotating the outer shaft by hand. The rotational speed of the inside shaft is the test rotational speed. the second approach is potentially more accurate. Independent control over vibration frequency and test speed is therefore accomplished.B J xx + Q D J xx � (F x sin e )/R x = + K xy � Q D J xy (6) (F cos y e )/R = .dynamic force components and the components of relative radial harmonic motion. K xx . and has been used in our design. K yx + Q D � J yx . test data is needed at three different vibration frequencies for a given operating condition. As implied by equations (6). one needs twelve independ ent equations to solve for twelve unknowns. ex and ey . The difference in pressure between these two compartments is controlled to the desired test pressure drop 150 . circular orbi �.Q.Q. The necessary advantage of piezoelectric load cells is that they are extremely stiff and therefore keep test ring vibration amplitudes negligible and therefor�unne��s. The test ring divides the chamber into high and low pressure compartments. or (ii) impose dynamical displacements and measure the forces.��/ (F cos e )/R x x = . The test rig is configured around a doublespool spindle. the singlepeak vibration amplitudes and their respective phase angles �x and �y. the singlepeak dynamic force amplitudes and their respective phase angles. The measured parameters are Fx and Fy. There are basically two experimental approaches one could take: (i) impose dynamical forces and measure displacements. That is. These equations are summarized below for the'harrnonic. The test ring is contained within a pressurized chamber. Strafn gauge load cells would not be a feasible option here because they require displacement to sense load.. yy J Y (F y sin e )/R y = .3 The controlled parameters are X and Y.coefficients. twelve independent equations are needed which relate the force and motion parameters to the twelve dynamic.K yy � Q D J yy where.B J yx .B Q. j = 1. The test ring is rigidly supported in the radial plane by four piezoelectric load cells (see Figures 6 and 7). two in each of the x and y mutually perpendicular directions which allow variation of orbitcenter eccentricity.saryto mea�lJre. which is the vibration mode built into the test rig eccentricspindTes design. As developed in Appendix A of this paper. The same approach is now being used (see Reference (5)) to experimentally determine the linearized spring and damping coefficients for low specific speed centrifugal pump stages. with the inner spindle having an adjustable runout or eccentricity with the outer spindle (Figures 6 and 7). With currently available measurement techniques. As the shafttoshaft eccentricity is adjusted.
EPRI Publication CS2027. The test ring is attached to the four load cells by four leaf springs which are soft in the circumferential direc tion but stiff in the radial and axial direction. 2. Phase 211 . diameter.e. and Caughey. "Insights into Linearized Rotor Dynamics". Proc.. pp 229235. Currently used configurations as well as newly devised highdamping configurations are being tested. and Makay.. clearance and surface geometry) the basic operating parameters are rotational speed. L. "A Test Program to Measure Fluid Mechanical WhirlExcitation Forces in Centrifugal Pumps". without introducing extraneous radial forces on the te�� �n�� The closure head of t�essurized cham�s easily removed as isthe test ring and test journal. 76(1). and Padovan. NASA Conference Publication 2133. December 1980. The test rig described in this paper has recently come online and is just beginning to provide reliable data on interstage fluidannulus dynamic coefficients. axial width. The effects of each of these parameters will be determined by varying them through ranges encountered in actual feed pump applications. "Development of Advanced RotorBearing Systems for Feed Water Pumps.yOilTTLiTdfiTrilllydrostatTCtffFUSr ces w ich introduce no extraneous radial loads. 1. Makay. Adams. September 1981.. CONCLUSIONS The importance of interstage fluid annuli to rotor dynamical performance of highhead feed water pumps warrants developmental efforts by the pump manufacturers in this area. 4. E. REFERENCES l. Makay. _ su ort. Texas A&M Workshop. with a maximum axial pressure drop of �through the test annul The tes rl ng lS5UPporteaaxTaTT. Adams. C. 5. 0. M. We expect to be able to recommend interstage clearance geometries which will provide considerable additional rotor vibrational damping capacity for feed water pump and other multistage centrifugal pump applications. outer shaft fixed) in the final assembled doubleshaft spindle. Acosta. static eccentricity and axial pressure drop across the test annulus.Caused Disaster?". M. E. Power. "How Close Are Your Feed Pumps to Instability .. This was accomplished in the final machining operation on the test journals by grinding 'them while they were rotated (inner shaft rotated. L. we anticipate the comple tion of the testing that is presently planned. May 1981. (May 1980) on Instability Problems in HighPerformance Turbo machinery. A. 3. For any given annulus configuration (i. It is essential that the radial runout of the test journals which results from inner shaft rotation be as close to zero as is possible to manufacture. April 1978. 151 . E.. E.. This type of construction allows the fluid reaction torque on the test ring to be equi1ibrated by the testLiJl� . This provides for quick interchange of the various fluid annulus config urations to be tested and modified. and Szamody. Vol.. McGrawHill. By the end of this year. J.across the fl id annulus. Journal of Sound and Vibration. K. Brennen. "Survey of Feed Pump Outages . water temperature. EPRI Publication II FP754. J.
K . i(nt+8y) x = xe y =Ye . ..K x . f =.K . equations for rotor system vibrations can be expressed using phasor notation as follows..inB + n2D )y y yx yx yx yy yy yy int Using the phasor form. the forcemotion equations are given in expanded form as follows.inB + n2D )Xe �x + y yx yx yx = i (. the forcemotion equations (A2) then can be simplified as follows.B x .K .inB + n2D )x + (.D yy Y Y Using harmonic motion.B yx yx yx yy y yY . .inB + n2D )y x xx xx xx xy xy xy (A3) f =(. f = (.D x .K . (Al) x =inx y =iny For the general 1 inear case.K .K . i i F e 8x =(.B x . 152 .K .inB + n2D )Xe �x + x xx xx xx i (.K . f .. f =F e x x y y i(nt t:@:x) .. . .inB T n2D )Ye �y yy yy yy i Recalling from basic phasor convention.inB +. (Al).B Y .K Y . . equations (A4) take the following form. Therefore. e 8 =cos 8 + i sin 8. equations (Al). Appendix A GOVERNING EQUATIONS WHICH RELATE EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS TO FLUIDANNULUS DYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS A.D x .l DEVELOPMENT OF GOVERNING FORCE DISPLACEMENT EQUATION Postulating harmonic motion.D Y x xx xx xx xyY xy xy (A2) .K .K x . n2D )Ye �y xy xy xy (A4) i8y i F e (.inB + n2D )x + (. i(nt+8x) i(nt+8y) f =F e . and dividing through by e gives the fo11 owing.
e. This leads to the following general form of the governing equations.K iQB + Q2D }Y � x x yy yy yy (cos <1> + i sin <1> ) (A5) y y The two complex equations of (A5) can be segregated by real and imaginary parts to obtain four real equations. xy xy xy . sin <1> JX x x J xx xx x xx J x + [(Q�D .K ) cos <1> + B Q.K yy ) sin <1> .2. the stiff ness.iQB + Q2D }X y y y yx yx yx (cos <1> + i sin <1> ) + (. F cos 8 = [(Q�D .K ) sin <1> .iQB + Q2D }Y+: <1> x x \::. reduces equations (A6) to the following.3) for a given operating condition.e. Qj. (cos <1> + i sin <1> ) y y F (cos 8 + i sin 8 ) = (.B Q cos <1> }Y y yy j y (A6) where. experimentally measured inputs to these equations must be obtained at three different vibration frequencies (i. As explained in. F (cos 8 + i sin 8 ) = (. That is.e.. damping and inertia coefficients). sin <1> JY J yy yy y yy J Y 8 = [(Q�D ..  f.2.K ) cos <1> + B Q.B Q.cos <1>x.B Q.� y x 2 _ Therefore.BX Q cos <1> JY Y y y j y F cos 8 = [(Q�D . the main text of this paper.K iQB + Q2D }X x x x xx xx xx (cos + i sin <1> ) ( K .3. the test rig has been designed to provide a contrdlled harmonic circular orbit of radius R. all phase angles can be referenced to the xcomponent of vibration (i. 153 .. sin <1> JX y y J yx yx x yx J x + [(Q�D . j = 1. j = 1.K X ) sin <1> .. X = Y = R and <1> = <1> . cos <1>y = sin <1>x and sin <1>y = . Implementing all these simplifications. sin <1> JY J xy xy Y xy J Y F sin 8 = [(Q�D . Since there are twelve unknowns (i.K . cos <1> JX y J yx yx x yx J x + j [(Q D yy .K ) cos <1> + B Q. Furthermore.K ) cos <1> + B Q. cos <1> JX x x J xx xx x xx J x + j [(Q DX y .0 ) sin <1> . <1>x = o).
The test rig spindle . being large enough to obtain good measurements. for each operating condition there will be an optimum orbital vibration radius which minimizes the experimental error. 154 . B Q y yx yy j K y J yx = + (F sin 8 )/R . Q�D J x6( + K Fx x Q5j':� xy J xy  = (F cos 8 )/R .3 A. Experimental error will come from two basic sources: (i) measurement inaccuracies. the larger the vibration amplitude. Fy) and the associated dynamic force phase angles (8 x. J xx = + XX " " "'\. The singlepeak dynamic force amplitudes (Fx. However. the more significant becomes the nonlinearities. These two sources of error will tend to work in opposition. but not too large to produce significant non 1inearities. Q. K . Q�D . solution requires indiv.� . Close examination of equations (A7) will reveal that the first two sets of equations are coupled only to each other. ( sin 8 )/R Q.B . specifically so that error can be minimized. which are neglected in the governing equations. measurement inaccuracies can be minimized by using 11arger" vibration amplitudes. This simplification tends to reduce the affinity for amplification of experimental error in the equation solution step of the overall scheme for determining the dynamic coefficients.�y . any three sufficiently differ ent frequencies should yield the same dynamic coefficients for a given operating condition. one can obtain data at say ten (or more) different vibration frequencies and then determine the dynamic coefficients with the data from all unique combina tions of three different frequencies out of the total of ten (or more) frequencies available.2 EXPERIMENTAL ERROR CONSIDERATIONS Equations (A7) provide twelve equations in twelve unknowns. j = 1. experimental data is required at three different frequencies for a specific operating condition in order to recover the twelve dynamic coefficients from the governing equations. thus making the measured response forces larger and therefore easier to measure accurately.B . Therefore. Q D j (A7) y y J yx yy yy = where. " i// ( cos 8 )/R . The difference in answers between the different combinations is the experimental spread or error.Clua1 '\ solution of Orle system of six equations and two systems of three equations. and its frequency are controlled by the design of the test rig.s designed to that the orbital vibration radius can be varied. That is. The experimental setup therefore inherently provides a means for determining the overall inaccuracy of the experimentally determined coefficients. This is a result of the basic approach of using a controlled circular orbit vibration. R. while the third and fourth sets of equations are individually decoupled from the other equation sets. The orbit of vibra tion. in theory. Instead. Q.2. An additional advantage is thereby provided since one does not haye Jo actuall. Therefore. K . As fully shown. The remaining twelve unknowns are the dynamic coefficients. 8y) are measured.B Q�D Fx x J xx /J'.Y/ solve a single system of twelve equations. and (ii) nonlinearity in the actual forcedisplace ment phenomenon. That is.
:: pump rotor. frequencytospeed ratio. .�':' MILS�  :.Twel�estage b oiler feed '":. Lomakin effect on first net damping per cycle of harmonic ' critical speed of a typical feed motion. AJLL LENGTH 132.MILS Figure 5.5 N.": T���..:.:: ::��.�x 5IOi MILST � _ Figure 4. o a: 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 IMPEL LER WEARR ING CL E A RA NCE . reference (3).�" . . . EF F E CT (. .'' ' '' :'".. . 155 .!=:' ~ NORMAL RINGS li X =X SIN[f)t +BxJ lj =YsIN[()jfeJ 69... Figure 1. .. 6 station. Singlefrequency harmonic LOMAKIN EFFECT RNGS orbital vibration of rotor with respect to stator.�� ''': . cane run no.:. n/oo is vibration water pump. .:>. ..... ' "10 '  I� " ''. .:: 3 /' � 2 a: o I . . ..����:�. �:'��:"  � .''1 X Louisville gas and electric. wear ring geometries.: . � .. '. . .0 IN. . .'. MUL TIS TAGE 10 BOIL ER FEED PUMP � 8 <X o 7 o o OPERATING SPEED " w 5 w 0..) . ' _IOo11Wb'� . WITHOUT o WEARRING .�. BEARING SPAN 110. �". .Trends of journal bearing Figure 3. Figure 2.. reference (3).. Currently used feed pump . I'" I..... �..
Legend:
1  Test rotating element 7  Inner spindle rotor
2  Test annulus ring 8  Outer spindle rotor
3  Piezoelectric load cell 9  Spindle housing
4  Hydrostatic axial ring support 10 Support base
5  Highpressure compartment 11  Vbelt pulley
6  Lowpressure compartment 12  Vbelt pulley
Fi gure 6.  Conceptual sketch of doublespool spindle fluidannulus test rig.
Figure 7.  Detail layout of doublespool spindle fluidannulus test rig .
156
TESTINJ OF TURBULENI' SFALS FOR ROIffiDYNAMIC CDEFFICIENI'S
Dara W. Childs
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Texas A&M Uhiversity
COllege Station, Texas 77843
John B. �essman
Department of Mechanical Engineering
The Uhiversity of Louisville
Louisville, Kentucky 40208
SUMMARY
A facility has been developed for dynamic testing of straight and convergent
tapered seals with the capability of measuring the radial and tangential force
components which result from a circular centered orbit. The test apparatus causes
the seal journal to execute smalleccentricity centered circular orbits within its
clearance circle. Dynamic measurements are made and recorded of the seal
displacementvector components, and of the pressure field. The pressure field is
integrated to yield seal tangential and radial reactionforce components.
Representative test data are provided and discussed for straight seals.
NOMENCLATURE
A amplitude of orbital motion (L)
C radial clearance (L)
r
C, c nondimensional, direct and crosscoupled damping coefficients,
introduced in Eq. (4)
C, c direct and crosscoupled damping coefficients, introduced in
Eq. (6), (FT/L)
H clearance function (L)
�
K, k nondimensional, direct and crosscoupled stiffness coefficients,
introduced in Eq. (4)
K, k direct and crosscoupled stiffness coefficients, introduced in
Eq. (6), (F IL)
L seal length (L)
M, m nondimensional, direct and crosscoupled addedmass coefficients,
introduced in Eq. (4)
M, m direct and crosscoupled added mass coefficients introduced in
Eq. (6), (M)
*The work reported herein was supported by NASA Lewis under NASA Grant 3200;
technical monitor, Dr. Robert C. Hendricks.
157
6.P seal differential pressure, (F/L2)
r r components of sealdisplacement vector, introduced in Eq. (4), (L)
X' y
component of seal ,reaction force, introduced in Eq. (4), (F)
�,�
R seal radius, (L)
R =
2VC/v nominal, leal axial Reynolds number
a
R =
RoJC/v nominal, seal circumferential Reynolds number
c
T =
L/V transit time of· fluid through seal, (T)
v nominal flow velocity of fluid through seal, (L/T)
A friction factor, defined in Eq. (3)
v fluid kinematic viscosity, (L2/T)
t;, entrance loss factor, introduced in Eq. (1)
(J friction loss factor defined in Eq. (2)
3 '
p fluid density (MIL )
W shaft angular velocity (T1)
INTRODUCTION
Black [1,2,3,4], in a series of publications incorporating theoretical and
experimental results;, has demonstrated that the rotordynamic behavior of pumps is
critically dependent on forces developed by neckrings and interstage seals
illustrated in Figure 1. Subsequent experience [5] has demonstrated that the
stability of cryogenic turbopumps is comparably dependent on seal forces. The
test program discussed here was stimulated by stability difficulties encountered
in developing the turbopump of [5], and has the objective of measuring radial and
tangential force components for straight and convergenttapered seals over a range
of axial and circumferential Reynolds numbers.
Seal Analysis: Leakage and Dynamic Coefficients
Black [1,2,3,4] is largely responsible for developing models for constant
clearance seals. Black's analysis yields a definition of the force acting on a
rotor due to its motion at a seal location, and is based on the following leakage
relationship from Yamada [6] for flow between concentric rotating cylinders:
(1)
where t;, is a constant entryloss coefficient, p is the fluid density, V is the
average fluid velocity, and (J is a frictionloss coefficient defined by
158
cr = A/
L C (
2
)
r
In the above, L is the seal length, C is the radial clearance, and A has been
r
(R , R)
defined by Yamada to be the following function of the axial and circumferential
Reynolds numbers
a c
7R /
(8 C 2 3 8
= 0.079 R , R = 2 VC lv, R RwC lv, (3)
R )]
� +
,
A [l =
a a r c r
a
(
),
3
where V is the fluid's kinematic viscosity, R is the seal radius, and w is the
1/7 power
rotor's rotational speed. The friction law definition of Eq. Yamada's
definition for A, is based on an assumed velocity distribution, and fits
the Blasius equation for pipe friction.
{ �} :rr �{:: : :rr �J {::} ::�: S�T
From a rotordynamic viewpoint, the objective of seal analysis is the defini
: :�
tion of seal force coefficients, i.e., stiffness, damping, and added mass terms. In
nondimenSio a rm f o r i f m
where (K,
� �
C, M) and
� �
(k, c, m) are, respectively, the direct and crosscoupled
�:} (4)
stiffness, damping, and addedmass terms.
Prior Analytical Results for ConstantClearance Seals
Test results for the constantclearance geometry seals are presented and dis
cussed here. Comparable results for convergenttapered seal geometries will be
presented subsequently. The contents of this section are provided to briefly
review theoretical and experimental results and procedures for this seal
configuration.
Seal analyses which have been published todate use bulkflow models in which
the raial variation of the velocity and pressure fields across the fluid film are
neglected. Governing equations consist of axial and circumferential momentum
equations, and the continuity equation for the axial and circumferential velocity
components, U (z,e),U (Z,e),p(Z,e), which are averaged with respect to the radial
z e
coordinate, r. Most reported analyses of seals use a perturbation analysis in the
eccentricity ratio of the form
(5)
where H is the clearance function, and E is the eccentricity ratio. Governing
equations for PO' U ' UZO define the centered, zeroeccentricity flow field, while
eo
th firstorder equations f r the variables U ' UZ ' PI def � ne the flow fields
: � e1 1
WhlCh result from small motlon about a centerea posItion deflned by the clearance
function H (t,e). A "shortseal" solution results if U ' "the pressureinduced
l el
circumferential flow, " is assumed to be negligible in comparison to the shear
induced term U • Black [1] initially developed an analytic shortseal solution,
eO
159
but then with Jensen [2] developed a numerical finitelength solution. Correction
factors were developed by Black and Jensen from the finitelength solution to be
used in adjusting the shortseal solution to account for finite L/D ratios. Black's
second refinement of the original theory was to account for the influence of a
change in clearance on local Reynolds numbers [3].
Finally, Black et al. [4] examined the influence of inlet swirl on seal coef
ficients. In previous analyses, a fluid element entering a seal was assumed to
instantaneously achieve the halfspeed tangential velocity, Ue = Rw/2. The results
in [4] demonstrate that a fluid element may travel a substant�al distance along
the seal before asymptotically approaching this limiting velocity. For interstage
seals in which the inlet tangential velocity is negligible, the practical conse
quences of accounting for this "swirl" effect is a marked reduction in predictions
for the crosscoupled stiffness coefficient, k. Black's experimental results show
clear evidence of the influence of swirl. A shortseal analysis is used in [4],
and the perturbation in Reynolds number due to a local change in clearnace
introduced in [3] is not included.
One of the authors [7,8] has recently completed two analyses based on Hirs'
turbulent lubrication model [9]. Short and finitelength solutions are developed
in [7] and [8], respectively, including all of the various influences introduced in
Black's initial analyses [14]. The results resemble, but do not coincide with,
Black's.
Prior Seal Testing Procedures and Results
The pertinent data which must be measured to confirm the seal leakage model
of Eqs. (1) through (3) are AP, V, (from flow rate), w, and the axial pressure
gradientwf.thin the seal. This latter measurement yields (J which in turn yields A.
Yamada's model for the friction factor was based on testing for these variables
over the Reynolds number range (200<R <40,000; O<R <40,000) and clearance to
 c
radius ratios of (.0106<C /R<.0129)� a
 r 
Various approaches can be taken to the measurement of rotordynamic coefficients
of Eq. (4). For example, if the journal segment of the seal is stationary (i.e.,
r ry rx ry 0), Eq. (4) can be inverted to obtain
X
= = = =
{::} 
 2
K
2 e
RpflPK
e
Hence, by applying the static load definition (F F ' F 0), and measuring the
x s y
= =
displacement components, r and r , one obtains a combined measure of the direct
X y
and crosscoupled stiffness coefficients. This is predominantly the type of
testing performed by Black, who cites results in the form of "receptance
magnitudes," 1. e. ,
The relative magnitudes of the direct K and crosscoupled k stiffness coefficients
depend on the relative magnitudes of the axial and radial Reynolds numbers.
160
Specifically, at zero running speeds, k is zero, but increases with R and can
c
exceed K.
Most of Black's testing [2,3,10,11] has been of the static nature cited above.
The second type of test cited consists of analytically modelling a test rotor in
cluding the theoretically predicted seal dynamics, and comparing the dynamic
characteristics of the model with test data. For example, in [2], the test rotor
was rapped and a correlation was made with the observed logarithmic decrement on
the decay curve. In [3], known imbalances were applied to the test rotor, and a
comparison was made with synchronous amplitudes and phase, critical speed location,
and onset speed of instability. Comparisons between rotor model results and tests,
of this nature, are helpful in deciding whether the general seal model is reason
able. However, this type of testcorrelation yields limited specific information
about the individual dynamic coefficients. Further, discrepancies in synchronous
amplitude and phase results could result from an inadequate initial balance.
A summary of the test results of references [2,3,10,11] is provided in Table .
1
The correlation in these tests ranges from "good" to "fair." The nature and
results of the test support the following general conclusions concerning the
adequacy of Black's dynamic seal model:
(a) Over the Reynolds number range tested, the prediction of the direct
stiffness coefficient K is adequate for plain and serrated seals,
although less accurate for serrated seals. Black's test results
indicate a divergence between tests and theory for the direct damping
coefficient C as the axial Reynolds number is increased.
(b) Although the data cited generally supports Black's dynamic seal model
over the Reynolds number range considered, it is inadequate to speci
fically verify the proposed relationships [Eq. (4)] for the dynamic
coefficients as functions of the axial and radial Reynolds numbers.
THE UNIVERSITY OF LOUISVILLE DYNAMIC SEAL TEST PROGRAM
Test Section Design
Figure 2 illustrates the testsection design employed in the current seal test
program. Water enters the center of the section and flows axially across the two
rotating test seals exiting at the bottom of the test section. The seal journals
(L 4 in 10.16 cm, D 2 in 5.08 cm) are mounted eccentrically on the shaft
1.27 x 10 4 m.
= = = =
with a constant eccentricity , A = .005 in= The nominal seal
clearance is C = .020 in = 5.08 mm, which yields C /R = .010. Accordingly, shaft
rotation cause§ the seal journals to execute circul�r centered orbits at the
nominal eccentricity ratio s = 0.25. Axial and circumferential Reynolds numbers
may be specified over the range R s[5,000,30,000], R s[O,ll,OOO] by varying the
c
shaft rotational speed (04,000 r�m) and flowrate. Shaftspeed is measured by a
onceperrevolution counter, while turbine flowmeters separately measure flowrate
through each seal.
The rotor of Figure 2 is supported in Torrington hollow roller bearings1[12].
These precision bearings are preloaded radially, have zero internal clearances, and
an accurately predictable radial stiffness. The first rotorbearing critical speed
1These bearings were donated by Torrington through the kindness of W. L. Bowen, whose
assistance is gratefully acknowledged.
161
is predicted to be approximately 12,500 rpm. The end thrust bearing is provided
to react the small axial load developed by the opposed testseal design.
Instrumentation and Data Analysis
The dynamic instrumentation illustrated in Figures 2 and 3 consists, for each
seal, of Bently eddycurrent motion transducers and five piezoelectric pressure
transducers which are distributed both axially and circumferentially along and
around the seal. The circumferential "clocking" of the pressure transducers is
provided primarily as a matter of convenience, since the transducers are provided
exclusively to define the time history of the axial pressure distribution. Since
the seal journal is forced to execute a closed circular orbit at constant speed
w within its journal, the steadystate pressure distribution is constant with
respect to an observed fixed to the shaft, and the circumferential pressure distri
bution at time t, p(z,8) is definable in terms of either past or future time
measurements p(z,t) at a fixed value of 8. The direct extraction of circumferen
tial pressure distributions from pressure time histories also permits the
"reconstruction" of a pressure time history at a given circumferential location
(e.g., 8=0), despite the fact that the transducers are distributed circumferen
tially around the seal as illustrated in Figure 3.
The seal reaction forces at a given time, t = t, are defined by the integrals:
 . L
2rr 2rr
�(t ) = f f p(8,z) sin 8 R d8dt = RL f sin 8 p (8) d8
0 0 0
(6)
2rr L 2rr
Ry(t) = f . f ·p(8,z) cos e R d8dz = RL J cos 8 p (8) d8
0 0 0
where p is the average axial pressure defined by
L
p(8) =
1

L
f . p(8,z)dz.
o
The integral of Eq. (6) is evaluated numerically from pressure time histories
corresponding to 8 = 0 measurements, and denoted Pl*(8). The axial spacing of the
pressure transducers has been chosen from GaussLegendre quadrature formulas [13]
to minimize the error involved in evaluating this integral. The quadrature
formula for integration with respect to z is;
where
A = 0.23603, A = 0.47862, and A = 0.56889.
l 2 3
Data Analysis Procedure
The dimensional form of Eq. (4) is
162
(7)
The nature of the test rig is such that steady synchronous motion of the form
r A cos wt , r =
A sin wt (8)
x y
=
results, and for this type of motion, the six coefficients of Eq. (7) can not be
separately identified. In fact, only two independent numbers result from the
steadystate, harmonic test data (r (t), r (t), Rv(t),
X y
(t» which is generated Ry
by the test rig for a given axial and circumferential Reynolds number set (R ,R ).
c
For the present study, the two numbers chosen for presentation are the radia t
and circumferential components of the reaction force. From Eqs. (7) and (8),
these components may be stated
RIA
rr x R'I
2
= =
a
A
(9)
TEST RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Test Results
Static test results for the seals consists of leakage. Dynamic test results
are the radial and circumferential force components, (R lA, RIA), of Eq. (9) as
a function of Reynolds numbers (R ,R ).
a c
Table 2 contai s bot static and dynamic ft ft
test results. With respect to static results, for � 0.5, the coefficient =
C 1 + � + 20'
d
=
of Eq. (1) is approximately 5% in error at the higher R range (R � 24,000) and
a a
+3% in error at the lower R range (R � 4,600). Hence, leakage is generally
a a
well predicted by Eq. (1).
An inspection of the Reynolds number sets of 'Table 2 demonstrates that R is
a
held nominally constant, while R is varied, with the result that the Reynolds
c
number pairs (R ,R ) are clustered about the nominal axial Reynolds numbers
[24,760; 18,8501 9;040; 4.580]. These results were obtained by holding the seal
leakage rate constant while varying the rotational speed w.
The dashed lines of Figures 4 and 5 connect the test data points of Table 2
for the +adial (R /A) and tangential force components (R /A) as a function of the
r a
circumferential Reynolds number, R . The test results reflect both the small
changes in R
a
about the nominal va ue R
a
£
and the obvious changes in R
c
resulting
from changes in w.
163
Discussion of RadialForce Component Results
Initial discussions of the test results will deal with results for radial
force components of Figure 4, and the comparison of these results to various
theoretical predictions of references [7] and [8]. The experimental and theo
retical results of interest are denoted as follows in Figure 4:
*** Experimental results.
Finite�length solution, reference [8].
0__ 0 0
__
Shortseal solution, reference [8].
+++ Shortseal solution, reference [7].
<10 � K from reference [8].
The theoretical results of reference [8] would, presumably, provide the best
prediction of the radial force component; however, the results of Figures 4(a)
through (e) show that: (1) measured radial forces are roughly twice as large as
predicted values, and (2) the magnitudes of measured forces tend to increase with
increasing R , while theoretical predictions show a decreasing magnitude.
c
As noted in the introduction, shortseal solutions are obtained by neglecting
the "pressureinduced" circumferential flow, while including the shearinduced
flow. Shortseal solutions yield larger radial force predictions, and, as
expected, reduce the discrepancy between theory and experiments of Figure (4).
The shortseal solution of reference [8] is developed under less restrictive
assumptions than that of reference [7], and agrees better with the test data.
The direct stiffness prediction of these two solutions are comparable; however,
reference [7] predicts values for M and c that are approximately twice as large
as those of reference [8]. The large value for M explains why this solution
diverges from both the experimental data and the remaining theoretical solutions
.with increasing R •
c
In fact, all solutions predict magnitudes for M which are excessive in com
parison to either test results or experience with predictions of pumps. An
overprediction of M would explain why the theory predicts a reduction in R
with increasing R , while test results show the opposite. The shortseal � heo
fi
retical results s ow that M and c arise from the same momentum terms in the
governing equations; hence, if the theory overpredicts M, one would assume that c
is comparably overpredicted. If both these terms are eliminated from Eq. (90),
only the direct stiffness K remains. This coefficient is illustrated in
Figures 4(a) through (e) for the shortseal solution of reference [8].
The coefficient K from the shortseal solution generally behaves the same
way as the test results for changes in R and R , and provides a much better pre
a
diction for the radial force component R than E
he other approaches of Figure 4.
However, �
it underpredicts the test resul s on the average by about twenty percent.
Discrepancies between theory and experiment illustrated in Figures 4(a)
through (e) may be explained as a combination of the following factors:
(a) The theoretical developments are based on a perturbation analysis which
assumes that the sealorbit amplitude A is small compared to the radial
clearance C , and that secondorder terms in A/c are negligible. However,
r r
for the current apparatus, A/c 0. 2 5, and secondorder effects may be
=
influencing test results. Thi § may provide part of the explanation for the
164
as presented by the momentum and continuity equations. All of these solutions include the influence of "swirl. Predictions of k are substantially reduced by including the influence of swirl. deficient. in contrast to typical hydrodynamicbearing analyses in which the fluid is assumed to have an average circumferential velocity of Rw/2. The generally steeper slopes for the experimental data curve supports this conclusion. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The test results presented support the following general conclusions: (a) Leakage is reasonably well predicted by Yamada's model. (c) The radial force is substantially underpredicted (40 to 50%) by the finite length theory. The direct. the theory assumes that the inlet circumfer ential velocity is zero. For shortseals with high axial fluid velocities. hence. which primarily represents the direct damping coefficient C and crosscoupled stiffness coefficient k. in some sense. The finitelength solution of [8] generally provides a better correlation with experimental data than either of the shortseal solutions. one would reach the following conclusions: (a) The crosscoupled coefficient k is smaller than predicted. addedmass coefficient m typically indicate a negligible contribution to the tangential force component. By inference. this means that a fluid particle may exit the seal without acquiring a substantial tangential velocity. the crosscoupled damping coefficient c is probably also much smaller than predicted. (10). and the difference between theory and experiment increases with increasing R . i.e. in the test apparatus. is adequately predicted by the finitelength theory of reference [8]. the acceleration of a fluid particle due to shear forces is accounted for. Discussion of Tangential Force Components Theoretical results for the crosscoupled. seals being stiffer than predicted. Since the test rig of Figure 2 provides negligible pre rotation of fluid entering the seal. test results of Figure 5 provide an additional verification of the influence of swirl. is." Specifically. This conclusion is supported by noting that measured values for R /A are � maller than e predicted at low values of R • C (b) The damping coefficient C is slightly smaller than predicted. addedmass coefficient M appears to be much smaller than predicted by theory. If the test results were curvefitted by a linear curve of the form predicted by Eq. (b) The fundamental bulkflow model. (d) The direct stiffness K from the shortseal solution of reference [8] has the 165 . An explanation of this nature is required to explain the apparent major overprediction of the direct added mass and crosscoupled damping coefficients. the shaft rotates in a clockwise sense and the tangential force would be defined by (10) A comparison of the test results with the finitelength solution predictions in Figures Sea) through (e) shows generally good agreement. Further.. (b) The circumferential force.
January 1978. H. 1971. of Lubrication Technology. "Effects of High Pressure Ring Seals on Pump Rotor Vibrations. Mech. or (b) basic inadequacies in the bulkflow model. Black. 4. 2. and Jensen. Allaire. pp." Proc. pp. Barrett. D. F. Black. same form as the measured radi. Yamada. 2.. "Dynamic Hybrid Properties of Annular pressure Seals. Eng� Sci. BHRA Fluids Engineering. vol. J. J." accepted for publication. the following reduced model for seal reaction forces is recommended for modelling seals in rotordynamics analysis of pumps: Note that the addedmass and crosscoupled coefficients have been discarded. 1962... and L. 206213. "effects of Hydraulic Forces in Annular Pressure Seals on the Vibrations of Centrifugal Pump Rotors.. 5. vol. "FiniteLength Solution for Turbulent Annular Seals. W. vol. F. pp. this prediction is approximately 20% lower than test results. C. N. M. 5. of Lubrication Technology. REFERENCES 1. 1969." J.. " Accepted for publications. 18. Black. The best prediction for K is provided by the shortseal solution of reference [8]. No. 184. W. "Bu!. . H.al force component but is approxi'll). W. 8... 4857. E. Black. 1970. On the basis of the present results.. Engin. however. ASME Trans. 6. J. N." ASME Transactions for Power. Childs. H. Childs.. it may result from either (a) nonlinearities due to the size of the seal orbits relative to the radial clearance. F.ately 20% less than measured values. D. pp.. Y. The coefficients of k and C are adequately predicted by the finitelength solution of reference [8].M. Childs. "Resistance of Flow through Annulus with an Inner Totating Cylinder. ASME Trans.." ASME Paper No. D. however. D. 3..S. "The Space Shuttle Main Engine HighPressure Fuel Turbopump Rotordynamic Instability Problem. 92100. 7lWA/FF38. "Dynamic Analysis of Turbulent Annular Seals Based on Hirs' Lubrication Equation. "Ninth International Conference in Fluid Sealing. 166 . 7. Leeuwenhorst. The Netherlands. F. April 1981. No. and Jensen. P. 11.. 302310. H. J.E.. A conclusive explanation for the discrepancies between the theory and experi mental results for the radial force component is not possible.E. "The Effect of Inlet Flow Swirl on the Dynamic Coefficients of HighPressure Annular Clearance Seals.
b. "Empirical Treatment of Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing Perfor mance in the Superlaminer Regime. d. 12.. "A Bulk . L. 6.000] [a. Froberg.PRIOR DYNAMIC SEAL TESTS REF. 12.9 plain a. Ohio. phase.. 6th International Conference on Fluid Sealing.23. Flow Theory for Turbulence in Lubricant Films. Lubrication Technology.000] . F. H. Rotordynamic modelling to correlate with synchronous test results. ASMEASLE Lubrication Conference. 1618 October 1979. 1. 1969.000] [a. 13.. 10. 7. 11. e.000] [a. Introduction to Numerical Analysis.5. 79Lub15. 10. February 27March 2. G. Receptance magnitude and phase at centered position. Resultant stiffness F /r for centered position and w = O. . b. 1.000 [a. Addison Wesley.1 Serrated d a. critical speed.000] .5. pp. 2. Bowen. 12. 14." J. 167 . W. LID (C /R ) x 103 Seal type Cited Results r [2] [6.3 plain d. "Leakage and Hybrid Bearing Properties of Serrated Seals in Centrifugal Pumps. "The Hollow Roller Bearing. 1973. and onset speed of instability." Paper G5. Hirs.7 plain f [11] [3.000.. f.232.000. 10. 7. TABLE 1.000] 1. G. A. Static forcedeflection curves for 0 � € � 0. 10. Correlation includes amplitude. 8. 1.. 9.25 . R. Dayton.500] . vol." ASME Paper No. Black.5. 6. Munich German Federal Republic. E. April 1973. Black. Receptance magnitudes for centered position. e [10] 10. . F. Rotordynamic modelling to correlate with test data on the direct damping coefficient c. Sci. and Bhateje. s c. and Cochrane.5 . 116122.000." ASME J. no. 3. Mech.. H. 137146.. c [3] [3.8. Second Edition. 12. 20. 1970. . pp. Engine.
0 2.410 4.308.700 5. . 6 18.010 2.503 : 11 13.330 8. . . 12.878 62.4.0 45.597. 812. 645.0 46. .5 3. 58.0 3.360.8.610 21. . 19 4. 7 19. INTERSTAGE SEAL Figure 1.0 47. 168 . 18 4. 3.4 1.0 33.170. 578.5 2.20 17.054.4 670.762. 11.0 1.9 3.0 23.560 10. 17 4.500.763. 4 25.210.0 22. 62.8 3. 13 13.090.507.095. .0 11. 15.730 8.950. .5 3. 3. 15 8. 16. 2. 5.985.750 2. 1.105. NECK RING NECK RING SEAL SEAL J . 13.276. 10 13. 16 9. 9.103.492.149.870.860 65. 12. 2. 9 18. .0 33. 4.871.582.920 3.344.060 8.8.220 4. Neckring and interstage seals for pumps.1 1.226.330 3.840 113.790.140 2.014.885. 2 23. 11.120.9.800.0 11.125.. . 66. .260 65. 1.850 5. (5.0 32.260 8. 62.000. .507.125.950 121.2.750 8.EXPER IMENTAL R ISULTS FO R A CONSTANTCLEA R ANCE SEAL.0 1.08 cm).545 10. .660 71.240. 417.790. '1.4 3.6 2.1 3.610 9.859.6.750. (0. 3.990 5. .880 35.840 19.7.475.0 11. 16.886.8 2. Cr = 0.580 3.860 41.5.360 106. 15.030' &.430· 9.0 46.50 " 8 mm) M(psi) Leaka (J e w(rpm) ( gpm ) 1 24. 2.780 7.150.7.630 5.540.190 6.802.0 11. 5.360 36. 20 4.2.51 1.178. L = R = 2 in. .821 8 18. 12 13.120.8 980.800 99.510' 6. 13.786. TABLE 2.060.020 in.0 33..040 34.410 10.0 22.250.715. 14 9.0 3.160 113. 58.209. 3 26.550 5.1 2.2. 5 23.1 1.
Testsection l�yout. .Instrumentation. x �Itl l +1 t + • �I 'Iz. .Figure 2. 169 .tl � o� Figure 3.
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172 . Fnom a rotordynamics viewpoint. INTRODUCTION The HPFI'P develop:nent program experienced considerable difficulty with sub synchronous. Childs. Dressman �partment of M:!chanical Engineering The University of Louisville Louisville. Axial Reynolds numbers on the order of 400. seal analysis has the objective of predicting the influencecoefficients of the following equations: (1) *The work reported herein was supported by NASA Contract NAS833176 from George C. The remedy for this situation consisted of the following steps: (a) the original soft bearing carriers were replaced by stiff bearing carriers.000 are realized in the test facility by using a Dupont freon fluid called Halon (CBrF )' The kinematic viscosity of Halon is of the same order 3 as the liquid hydrogen used in the HPFTP. With these m:xlifications. Contract Monitor: Frank Garcia. and Ted Noyes �partment of M:!chanical Engineering Texas Jl&M Un iversity . The essential contribution of the seal m:xlification to the elimination of the rotor instability was underlined by tests in 1979 on an HPFTP unit which whirled enthu siastically after the interstage seal clearances were deliberately enlarged. and (b) the grooving was rerroved from the original stepped interstage seal design. Texas 77843 John B. College Station. As originally designed. the HPFI'P was violently and destructively unstable at running speeds above approximately 20. Marshall Space Flight Center.000 rpm. Clayton Nelson. Alabama 35812. the HPFI'P has been stable over its design speed range. unstable vibration problems [1]. A HIGIREYN:)LDSNlMBER SEAL TEST FACILI'IY: FACILI'IY DE:3CRIPTlOO AND PRELIMINARY TEST n\TA* Dara W. Initial testing has focused on the cur rent flight configurations (a threesegment. stepped unit) and a convergenttaper candidate. Kentucky 40229 ABSTRACT A facility has been developed for testing the leakage and rotordynamic characteristics of interstageseal configurations for the HPFTP (High Pressure Fuel Turbopurnp) of the SSME (Space Shuttle Main Engine).
[25]. Black used the following leakage relationship from Yamada [6] : 6P = � [1+s+2a] (2) where s is a constant entryloss coefficient. Initial analyses and testing for inter stage and wearing seals were published by Black et al. AL a = C (3) r In this relationship.000. 173 . but differ in some respects. and extended out to axial Reynolds numbers on the order of 20. Childs [11] completed an analysis for convergenttapered seals which defined all of the dynamic coefficients.as a function of seal operating conditions. and eliminated the possibility of a local negative stiffness developing. Their principal advantage is in a direct derivation from a single set of governing equations. Fleming [10] proposed that the direct stiffness of seals could be increased by either (a) introducing a step in a constantclearance seal. R is the seal radius.8] for constant clearance seals based on Hirs' turb ulent lubrication equations [9] . Black's analysis was used initially in predicting the rotordynamic coefficients of the HPFI'P interstage seals [1] .000 for the HPFI'P. L is the seal length. and A is the following function of the axial and circufuEerential Reynolds numbers (R . and derronstrated that the seal taper significantly reduces the seal damping and crosscoupled stiffness teITIlS. from those tested by Black in both configuration and operating conditions. while increasing the direct stiffness. R = RuC lv a r c r where 'J is the fluid I s kinematic viscosity. the decision was made to implement a test program to directly measure the forces developed by seals. as compared to 500. or (b) using a convergenttaper geometry. Given that the HPFTP seals differ substantially. C is the radial clearance. Childs has subsequently developed analyses [7. and w is the rotor's rotational speed. V is the average fluid velocity. which are geo metrically similar to the HPFTP seals and operating at the same Reynolds number conditions. Hendricks [12] found in testing straight and convergent tapered seals at large eccentricities in liquid hydrogen that a slight taper reduced local seal cavitation at the seal exit. and a is the frictionloss coefficient defined by. The development of a facility to make these measurements together with a discussion of some preliminary results is the subject of this report. His experimental results were for plain (constantclearance) seals having srrooth and serrated surfaces. These results are similar to Black IS.R ) : a c (4) R = 2VC lv.
. (b) the highshaft rotational speed. The testsection rotor is supported in Torrington hollowroller bearings* [14). Incorporated through the courtesy of W. John Dres sman of the University of Louisville designed the test section and Supervised its construction. Fluid enters in the center and discharges axially across the two test seals. radially preloaded.9 x 10 7 rn2/sec.toothed wheel. provides a signal for a counter which defines the rpn of the test section. The seals on the right and left illustrate. TestFluid Selection The very high Reynolds numbers encountered in the HPFI'P result from (a) the extremely low kinema.:. the current stepped configuration and a proposed convergenttapered configuration for the HPFI'P interstage seals. * These bearings were made available from Torrington.tic viscosity of liquid hydrogen.rison. For corrpa. A 10hp variablespeed electric motor is used to drive the tes t section fran five rpn to 5300 rpn. actuated by a rotating ten. Seal notion is measured by MrI capacitance probes in the vertical and horizontal planes.9 x 10 Ns/rn2. an ideal test fluid should have a low absolute viscosity and a high density. kg/rn2 7 2 x  v = 1. Since the Reynolds numbers are inversely proportional to v. and (c) the very large t:. and have a predictable and re:peat able radial stiffness. and is illustrated in Figure 1. Axiallyspaced kulite straingauge pressure transducers are used to measure the pressure field which is developed by seal rotation. A notion transducer. which are extremely precise. p = 1000 kg/rn  v = 8. L. Inlet and discharge measurerre:nts are made of tenperature and pressure for use in defining the density and viscosity of the test fluid..63 x 10 7 rn2/sec. hence. respectively. which pennits testing of the "slingers" shown in the figure. The current test section differs from that enployed earlier [13] in that it assembles in a midplane position. Bowen.p' s developed by the HPFI'P stages. FACILITY DESCRIPTION Test Section The test section design is an extension of an earlier design used in a University of Louisville test program [13].16 10 Ns/rn2. p = 1. rotor rotation develops a rotating pressure field that is constant with res:pect to a rotorfixed observer. The average properties of hydrogen within the HPFI'P interstage seals are 5 � = 1. the nominal pro:perties of water at 25°C are 4 3 � = 8. The test seals are nounted eccentrically to the test rotor. 174 .
1. 1.5265 4.sions of the tapered seal are L = 4. valve 1 is closed and valves 2 and 3 are progressively opened. respectively. = 0. The vap:>r pressure of Halon is approximately 200 psi at room temperature.m:m.lm flow conditions.111. is opened to achieve ma. These 1. The test fluid selected to rreet these criteria is broontrifluo� thane. .I).4826 The d:i. A sixstage Goulds punp provides the flowrate required. this is a slight taper which should [11] slightly increase K. (em) C . Valve 4.0292 0. Loop flow rate discharges fran the pump.5080 1. the current flight gearetry uses three constant clearance seal segmants separated by two steps..siiSRs yiela the following definition for the tapered parcureter: (Cro�ri) / (CroiCri) 0. r1. 25°C are [15.54 x 10 = 7 v = 1. Mechanical System Layout Figure 2 illustrates the flow loop used to provide specified flowrates through the testsection seals. 0.5080 1. and has the additional advantage of being nonflarrmable and nontoxic. Seal Geometry As illustrated in Figure 1.45 72 rom ro r1.996 em. Valve 4 is closed in the l. Two control valves in series are required to absorb the full output pressure of the purrp without cavitation. As the required flowrate increases above 100 gpTI. while slightly decreasing the remaining coefficients.5715 nm. (em) R.>ypass node. = where C and C . p 1570 kg/m3. which has a larger capacity than the remaining valves. 175 . (nm) 1..4986 5.8034 4.m:m. 4 � = 1. d:i. and the remainder proceeding through control valves 1 and 3..0292.0 x 10 m2/s.sions of the test seal segments are L.xi:rm. This liquid actually has a lower kinematic vis<x>sity than liquid hydrogen. C C . are the entrance and exit clearances. Flowrate through the test section seals is neasured by FischerPorter vortex flowmeters. The d:i. which represents the lowest flowrate operating p:>int for the pump . and then may split with part of the flow going through the test section.9098 0.m:m..16] Ns/m2. q = = Relatively speaking. R = 5. CBrF ' which is manufactured as a fire extinguisher fluid (Dupont FE 1301 or Halon) and refrigerant (Freon Its fluid properties at 3 l3B.9682 0. The bypass flow node is used for total testsection flowrate less than 100 gpTI.
and the flowrates through the seals. and the specified test section speed is set manually. G. Five pressure measurements are made for tl\etapered seal. and then controls dumping of the data into disk menory of the Nova. The test rig causes a synchronous precession of the seals. The testsection fluid is circulated through a heat exchanger. Inc. Similar accumulators are used to transfer fluid back and forth from the 2000 lb Dupont delivery tank. which enables the recorder. and cause a change in the a Masoniellan control values. all of the Halon can be pumped back into the delivery tank using the accumulators. The physical data system is controlled from the D. In fact. the seal rotational speed w. They are also used to retIDve liquid Halon from the test section for replacerrent of rotors. Active control is flot entirely closedloop_ The operator specifies the number of control cycles to be evaluated by the computer. recorder. These data are recorded using a 17channel Physical Data. Nova computer. and integrating the pressure signals to obtain the seal force components. (t). c DATA ACQUISITION AND ANALYSIS Data Acquisition System The transient test data to be recorded consists of the seal rrotion r (t) . which is supplied chilled water by a Trane chiller. and the resultant rrotion may be stated: 176 . The chiller capacity is augmented by a 2000 gallon water tank which is buried outside the test facility. with their spacing §pecified by a GaussLegendre quadrature fonnula [13]. Control signals are generated. The filters illustrated in Figure 2 have a ten micron limit for particles. and 4096 storage locations. Control is supplied by means of a Data General Nova computer. The complete flow system is stainless steel except for the pump body and the heat exchanger so that particle contamination in the test fluid is minimized. Egch channel of this unit has its own A/D converter with a sampling rate up to 2 x 10 Hz. Four additional pressure measurements are made on the stepped seals to measure the pressure immediately upstream and downstream of the steps. Data Analysis As outlined in [13]. The computer calculates the running speed that is required to achieve a specified R . The ambient system pressure is maintained by the accumulators illustrated in Figure 2. comnands data capture. Transient data for control of the system is obtained directly through AID units on the Nova. These variables are determined by the pressure and tempera ture measurerrents within the seal (which define p and ]1). Control System The axial and circumferential Reynolds numbers are the quantities to be con trolled in the seals. based upon the dif ference between a measured R and a specified R . X r (t) and the pressure measurements p. transient data analysis consists of alignment of the pressure signals (which are measured at various circumferential locations).
000. changing w also changes the coefficients. for a radial distance 177 . one can not generally vary w to obtain additional independent equation� for � solution of the coefficients. Hence.000. if Eq. Stated differently.8] have derronstrated that the crosscoupling tenns of Eq.000. m. The standard test rig provides minimal prerotation of the fluid entering the seal. a matrix of tests has been carried out such that all of the five values of R are obtained for each value of R c a • Theoretical results [5.y be stated: R'/A   IrxRl =kCwmw 2 e 2 A (6) R /A = I r·RI Mw 2 .000 a R : 40. k. viz'" the current flight configuration and a tapered seal alternative.000 c tIDre specifically. For the present study. r ( b) Rotor 2. These rotors differ only in the nominal seal eccentricity. (1) can not be separately identified for this type of rrotion. on both sides of Eq. r = The zero e8centricity rotor provides static leakage and pressure gradients only.7.005 in. depend on the fluid tangential velocity entering the seal. 75. (5) is substituted into Eq. (1). the two nmnbers chosen for presentation are the radial and circumferential components of the reaction force. (1) are e:::ruated. rotor 2 was nofified by shrinking on an active "slinger" at the entrance to both seals to provide significant fluid prerotation. 90.25.t (5) x y The six coefficients of Eq.010 in. 325. specifically. TEST SERIES Three rotors were initially manufactured for use in testing the general seal configurations of Figure 1. A/C 0. A = . In fact.CW .. A = . 400. A = 0. 'rhe above rotors have been tested over the following nominal axial and circumferential Reynolds nmnber ranges: R : 50. 65. and the coefficients of sin wt and cos wt. only two independent nmnbers can be identified. which in turn depends on R = Ru£ lv.0 in.0. r = A cos w t. i. From Equations (1) and (5) these components ma. r 2 = A Since the coefficients depend on cr.000.e. An exception to this rule is provided by very high values of R for which cr is a insensitive to changes in w. A/C 0.000. 140. r = A sin w. A/C = 0. 150. and r = (c) Rotor 3.000.010 in. Rotors 1 and 2 provide insight as to the influence of seal dynamic eccentricity on test results. c. 115.50. (1).000. they have the following eccentrities and eccentricity ratios: (a) Rotor 1. Slingers incorporated radial slots and an axial clearance of 0.K .000.
was machined to yield an 0. 75 inches prior to seal entry. The pressure gradients of figures 3 and 4 are seen to be rrore sensitive to changes in % at low values of �. The original. Static Results  Static results were obtained for the stepped and tapered seals of rotor 3. Two additional rotors have been manufactured to examine the influence of surface roughness on both sealing capability and the seal reactionforce components. viz..005 in. All of these rotors have been tested over the COI'fPlete Reynolds number range. nominal clearances. and groove depths. respectively. Testing of helically grooved seals is proposed for the corning year which will include a systema.005 in. PRELIMINARY RESULTS Reduction of the test data is still in a preliminary stage. The power requirerrents to rotate this rotor are considerably higher than the other rotors.000.002 inches. for a range of axial and circumferential Reynolds numbers. A = 0.1% of full scale.0 in. at higher values of Ra' This result would"1>e expected.. (c) Rotor 5 (0.002 inches depth).002 inches depth). since from Eqs. respectively. Each data point in these figures corresponds to an average of 200 samples.of O. Initial testing for these seals will be at zero eccentricities.002 inch surface roughness pattern.. which arrounts to approximately 1 psi.001 and 0.. A = 0. These rotors have an "a1m:::>st" circumferential grooving pattern with a nominal depth of 0. Additional planned tests include machining surface roughness into the housing. and (d) Rotor 3 (0. 'lb sane extent.leakage and pressure gradients) and force magnitude results for the two seals of rotor 1. A = 0. respectively. The following rotors will be tested in these two surface roughened housings: (a) Rotor 1 (srrooth). Pecoming relatively independent of Ry. The straingauge pressure trans ducers used to obtain the�e results have an accuracy specifications of .tic variation in taper angles. hence. this explains the rrore "ragged" nature of the pressure gradients in the low flow conditions of figures 3 and 4 as canpared to high flow conditions. the zeroeccentricity rotor. A = 0. the results which are available for discussion are limited at present to sane static data (� . (2) and (j) 30 ' 045 (L)R 9/4[1 + (7%)2]5/8 8Ra ' = 3R C a c which shCMs a marked drop in sensitivity with increasing R ' a 178 .001 and 0. with the first and second machining operations yielding depths of 0. This lack of accuracy is much rrore noticeable at lCM flCM rates and shallCM pressure gradients than at high flCM rates. zero eccentric rotor...001 inches depth).003 in.002 inches. Figures 3 and 4 illustrate the steadystate pressure gradients for the stepped and tapered seals. (b) Rotor 4 (0. Each frame of these figure sets illustrates the influence of changes in R with Ra held constant. and data can only be taken for axial Reynolds numbers out to 150.
'!he experimental results from figures 4 (a) . At the inlet.000 1. '!he results for Ra = 75.178 50. Stepped Seal.681 .999 '!hese results are fairly regular and constant over the higher Reynolds number sets. 1=1 where Ai is the area of each annulus. Figures 3 (a) curl 3 (b) shov.255 .lly. while figure 3 (c) shOlrlS a flat pressure gradient across the first! step.ring entranceloss result: 179 .5.000 1. the entry step.916 .1 . would yield a praiiction of zero stiffness contribution from the first step. '!he rrost unexpected result fran Figure 3 is the relatively small pressure gradient across step 1. The following numbers for (1 + � ) 1 were obtainErl fran the data of Figure 3. 2.000 1.000 curl 50.484 323. the steadystate leakage relationship is [llJ for small q. (1) for each step yielding the results pV? 1 6Pi = ). but tend to be erratic over the two lower Reynolds number sets. For a tapered seal.531 150.913 . the te:rm (1 + represents a velocity head loss due to fluid accel �d� eration plus an entrance loss representai by � i . 3 � (1 + �i + 20i 3 /:"p = L: /:"p.ining two steps.129 .1 and 0. indepeQd�t of Ra and %' curl range between 0.537 .432 .000 1.371 75.435 . Nor:ma.000 1.000 should be viewai with sane skepticism. as canpared to the rema. one assumes that the entrance loss factors are constant.432 . Vata (1 + � ) (1 + � ) (1 + �3) Ra 1 2 382. A zero pressure gradient.r a small pressure rise imnediately before the first step. i = 1.129 . (c) yield the follov. An apriori analysis of the stepped seal for leakage would use Eq. a = 0. because of the pre viously mentioned accuracy of the pressure transducers.
In fact.000 0.890 and % = 49. The taperedseal re = sults above for high Reynolds numbers are consistent with Fleming's assumption lO[ J of zero s.926 325. A canparison of their radial and tangential forces and a ccrnparison to theory will be forthcoming shortly. 180 . an inlet pres sure increase was measured for % 16. Dynamic Results Only a very llinited number of dynamic data sets have been reduced. support theoretical predictions of seal rotordynamic coefficients and leakage. While these losses are constant. CLOSING STATEMENTS A test facility has been developed which has the capability for testing annular seals at Reynolds numbers which are canparable to those developed in cryogenic turbo pumps • Generally speaking. 1 + s 434. The only immediate conclusion which has been drawn fram these results is that the force mag nitude R t I = + (Rii Ri) � is canparable for both the current stepped seal configur ation and the proposed tapered seal. the facility �rks the way it was expected to and is beginning to yield the types of static and dynamic test data th at are required to .000 0 878 .996 150. independent of %' this is not the case in figures 4 (d) and 4 (e) where the losses increase steadily with Re.981.000 0.
"Effects of High Pressure Ring Seals on Pump Rotor Vibrations. "Resistanc e of Flow through Annulus with an Inner Ro ta ti ng " C ylind er . 1520 Novemb e r 1981. Apr il 1973. B u ! ." ASLE p r ep r in t No.."ASME Paper No.2.C.pp. 12. no. 9.ri." ASME J.N.! Vol.1969 3."ConvergentTapered Annular Seals: Anal ysis for Rotor dynamic Coefficients. 184 . Chicago. R. and L. 1618 October J.W. 1978 2.18 . H.Fleming. D. U. ASME Trans. H. 19 70 4. 79LC3B2.Black and D.Childs. Vol.F. J.Jensen .Black. 137146. 'the Netherlands.  ASME 'tr ans:J. Dayton. D.N." accepted for publication. REFERENCES 1. Lubrication Technology. Y. D.MECH. 7lWA/ff38. "Dynamic Analysis of 'turbulent Annular Seals Based on Hirs'·· Lubricati:on Equa1:ions."FiniteLength Solutions for Rotordynamic Coefficie nts of Turbulent Annular Seals. Childs. " ASME 't ra n •• J of E n gin ee ri ng for Power. pp. 'turbopump Rotordynamic Instability Prob lem. H. no. Hendricks.Allaire.ll. B lac k and D.J . 1971. Vol.P. C hilds . of Lubrication TechnologY. "High Stiffness Seals for Roter Critical S p eed ' Co ntrol . G. 4857.S . "A bulkFlow 'th eory for 'turbulence in Lubricant Films.G. Sci. Childs. 2630 Se ptemb e r 1977. pp. s. Jan.F.F. 5 .W. Leeuwenhur st.. D W.Black. 8. Ohio. 10.1962. 92 ." J. Yamada. H.'i accepted for p ublic ati on . pp.Jens en." ASME Paper 7 7 DE't 10 . "Dynamic Hybrid Properties of Annular Pressure Seals." Fluid Structure I nt erac ti ons in Turbomachinery presented at the AS�m wi nter annual m!eting."Some Flow Characteristics of Conventional and Tapered highPressureDrop Simulated Seals. Barrett. D. J.IL.2062l3.979 181 . pr esen ted at the ASLE/ASME Lubr i cation Confe renc e. De s i gn Engineering T echn ical Conference. April.Eng. "'the Effect of Inlet Flow Swirl on the Dynamic Coefficient o f Hi ghP r essu re Annular Seals." Ninth International Conference in Fluid S ea l in g. " Proc. of Lubrication T echnology . pp.. Engin. 6. P. F . "'the Space S'liuttle Ma i n Engine High P re ssur e Fuel •. BHRA Fluid Engineer E ngi n eeri ng. 302310. 1981.l00 . "Effects of Hydraulic Fo rces in Annu lar Pressure Seals on the Vibrations of Centrifugal Pump Rotors. 7.W.E .Hirs.M.
p. Dupont De ' Nemours c. Dayton. I. pp..W." NASA Con fe rence Publication 2133. 14.B. D. and R.Rotordynamic Instability Problems of High Performances Turbomachlnery. T1301.Lucas.Childs.59. Stephen and K. "Th'e Hollow Roller Bea ring . No. 182 . New' YorkLondon 16.14 11ay 1980. Deli 1966. 1 2. and S. "AS ME Paper.c Co eff i cients . Childs.Dressman. 15.B.13. proceedings p ub lished September 1980.Thermodynamic Properties. ASMEASLE Lubrication C onf erence . Wilmington. Dupont Fire Exti nguisher P rope rt ie s .. 121138. Viscosity of Dense Fluids . E.L. Co. 79Lub 15. Anon.Ohio. Bhateje. p roceed ings of a works hop held at Texas A&M Univ. �Testing of T urb ulent ' Seals for RotCllrdyn'tuDi.. 1618 O ctober 1979.P1enum Press . Bowen . J. H. W.
..'iE.. Figure 3(a). OI!>Ci\AP.  Testfacility layout.80 AXIAL LOCATION I IN) Figure 2.80 1.RD RC 64982 RA 377426 5ERVO + CONTROL ..40 Z'.RD RC 89931 RA 378744 FILE SEAL251031. SERL 1 DRTR AVG RXIAL REYNOLDS • = 382. 183 .oo 0. VAI..VE':..  Testrig assembly. Figure 1. ACC"MULATORS '" '" C " '" SEAL 1 PROFILE '" '" '" "'fa.40 0.RD RC 114747 RA 3e3!5� + FILE SEAL241031.RD RC 139857 RA 39C1270 '" FILE SEAL231031.0(1 Z . Cl FILE SEAL221031.98.60 2.20 1.
SERL 1 DRTR SERL 1 DRTR AVG AXIAL REYNOLDS .RO RC 65031 RA 322346 X FILE SEAL101031. = 323001.RD RC 64942 RA 76225 � � FILE SEAL211031.40 0.RD RC 114779 RA 320515 '" FILE SEAL071031.00 s.RO RC 39947 RA 325786 � FILE SEALl11031.. = 149168. Cl FILE SEAL011031.00 2.20 1.20 ====.RD RC RA SEALl41031. SERL 1 DRTR SERL 1 DRTR AVG AXIAL REYNOLDS . RO RC 90085 RA 148369 90093 RA 49774 + FILE SEAL031031.:::=�:r:: 0.RD RC 40048 o o m� o w� "'''' ::om ". 184 .6Cr 2.20 1.RD RC 65172 RA 149365 64997 RA 50870 X FILE SEAL041031.RO RC 39976 RA 74578 o o _0 �:i: 0.RD RC 89986 RA 74652 X FILE SEAL201031.� o o o o m o � 0> � g PROFILE �b:: m�. o o o o o � o � w ..80 1. = 49927.RD RC 114779 RA 75162 + FILE SEALl91031. 00 �. Figure 3(e).60 2.���=��====� SEAL P ROFILE �t:��=::= �. = 75305.oo� 0.60 (INI 2 .60 2.80 AXIAL LOCATION (INI Figure 3(c).OO 0. 2.00 AXIAL LOCATION !INI �.RD RC SEALl51031.m '" W ".RD RC SEALl61031.�__� ___ 2.40 0.RO RC 40030 RA 148631 RA 49471 � FILE SEAL051031.ao" 0.RO RC 139809 RA 3235G7 � fILE SEAL061031.OO �z':4Qz.80 AXIAL LOCATION (INI Figure 3(b).40 0. Figure 3(d).20 AXIAL LOCATION 1. AVG RXIAL REYNOLDS .===� 1.40 2.80 1.40 1.40 2. Cl FILE SEALl71031.40 � �" :t::::=: ��==.oo = :=0..80 � � � � �=.80 1.RO RC 89888 RA 322849 + fILE SEAL091031. AVG AXIAL REYNOLDS .RD RC 115074 RA 150306 115021 49691 "'FILE SEAL021031.RD RC 139912 RA 75910 '" FILE SEALl8103I. :� �:::�=�.RO RC 139755 RA 49828 SEALl31031.0 o.
SEAL061032.m u. W ". RVG RXIRL fE·.SEAL01 1032.SERLI71032.RD RC 64963 RR 326301 � FILE. 185 .0 w Ng.SEALI31032..RD RC 89904 RA 325388 X FILE.0 O .20 1. = 75166.SEAL191032. !r' Q) FILE. Figure 4(d).60 2.RO RC 114855 RR J 5154! + FILE SERL031032.40 2.RD RC 90063 Rh 149 J 18 X FILE SERL041D32. SERL 2 oRTR SERL 2 oRTR RVG AXIRL REYNOLDS .40 0.0 .80 1.SERL071032. RVG AXIRL REYNOLDS • = 325656 • Q) FILE.0 :...0 a.40 2�.SERLI51032.RD RC 89791 RA 75615 + FILE.� 0 "'le .� 0 N � 0 0 0 m '" 0 SERL PROFI 0 0 4.RO RC 140079 RA 324572 "FILE.1� ��1 ���§§��� SEHLj2��R�O�F�IL�E� __________ ".00 2.NOLDS " = 150886.60 RXIAL LOCATI ON 11 N) RXIAL LOCRTION (IN: Figure 4( a) • Figure 4{c).BO "b'.. = 434487.80 AXIAL LOCATION I IN) Figure 4(b).RD RC 114861 RA 326364 + FILE. \ �§1 " .CC 0.60 2." ' ' 2r:O==0 4 :="' .80 1..40 0.80 1.80 0. .RD RC 89832 RA 434150 + FILE.SEAL091032.RO RC 39983 RA 442058 ·.SERLI41032.40 2.  0 w � ".80 1.RD RC 140143 RA 432319 Q) FILE'SEALI21032.RD RC 114806 RA 431793 " FILE.".SERLI81032.<" RC 40074 RA 153180 o 00 m 'j \ o o o m m �.RD RC 64956 RA 75589 FILE.SEAL201032...40 0.SEAL211032. �LI o o '".RD RC 139905 RA 74777 Q) FILE.I I �� "..0 u.20 1.RD RC 64983 RR 432116 X FILE.J a: wo u.RD RC 64923 RR 151027 � 1>FILE SERL051032.00 2.00 0.20 1. SERL 2 oRTR SERL 2 OR R RVG RXIRL REYNOLDS ."u """ .20 1.60 RXIRL LOCRTION I IN) 2.RD RC 40050 RR 75836 0 0 0 N m o 0 o 0 o N 0 m m 0 0 _0 �� a.oo 0 .RO RC 114912 RA 74013 "FILE.00 2.RD RC 140002 RR 149563 "FILE SERL021032.SEAL101032.
RO RC 64890 RA 48676 � FILE SEAL271032. = 49212.RO RC 114619 RA 47769 + FILE SEAL251032. CD FILE SEAL231032.40 0.60 2.80 1.RO RC 90015 RA 50082 X FILE SEAL261032.OO 0.80 AXIAL LOCATION Figure 4(e).RO RC 40108 RA 49981 o o � o o �.RO RC 140537 RA 49552 "" FILE SEAL241032. SEAL 2 DATA AVG AXIAL REYNOLDS . 186 .20 1.
In time the vibration level again increased. These will be briefly presented. opera  tion was again satisfactory. NOMENCLATURE MW molecular weight P pressure Kyx Kxy cross coupled stiffness damping properties for seals Cxx Cyy principle damping properties for seals 14' angular velocity (rad/sec) D diameter P. After cleaning up the rotor. VIBAATION AND DESTABILIZINJ EFFECTS OF FLOATINJ RINJ SFALS IN CDVlPRESsc:RS Mark F. after some time the shaft vibration level increased to several mils. It was then found that the rotor vibration was primarily sub synchronous. radial P FA force. Subsequent analysis has provided a better understanding of the seal destab ilizing effects on the rotor and motion of the seal which has been con firmed'by test data on the current seal design. axial 187 . However. oil viscosity L seal or bearing length c clearance F force. Further investigation revealed that the original seal design was subject to wear and was no longer properly pressure balanced. Bnerick COmpressor and CUstom Pump Division AllisChalmers Cbrporation Milwaukee. Wisconsin 53201 I . A modified seal design was installed and it has operated successfully for the past six years. INTRODUCTION Operating experience on a compressor commissioned 12 years ago has pre sented an interesting history of sporadic increases in shaft vibration. Initial operation was satisfactory with low levels of vibration. Ini tially this was believed to be due to rotor unbalance from deposits formed in the passages due to process upsets.
It coefficient of friction
Q aerodynamic or seal destabilizing
( logarithmic decrement
II COMPRESSOR DESIGN
The subject machine is a 5stage, verticallysplit, centrifugal compressor
with floating ring oil film seals in refinery service. (See Figure 1)
The gas is a diesel distillate (MW = 8.2) and the process conditions are
as follows:
Inlet Pressure P = 2896. K Pa (420 PSIG)
1
Discharge Pressure P = 4178 K Pa (606 PSIG)
2
Flow =
322 Kg/min (739 LB/MIN)
Driver Size = 1118.6 KW (1500 HP)
The compressor has 38.1 cm (15") diameter impellers and operates at 12,320
RPM in 8.89 cm (3.5") diameter tilting pad journal bearings. The seal
diameter is 11.43 cm (4.5 in.)
III OPERATING HISTORY
Commissioned in 1970, the machine had a history of minor, occasional
vibration problems. A pattern developed which was noted by the
AllisChalmers Field Service and Repair Group:
The machine generally operated smoothly following service or
maintenance.
Increased shaft vibration would develop over time (6 months).
Seal oil flows would sometimes increase substantially, resulting
in operation of the auxiliary seal pump to keep up with the
increased flow.
Upon disassembly, the unit would be fouled with ammonium chloride
deposits in the aerodynamic passages. (See Figure 2) The presence of
the deposits and the resulting unbalance was initially believed to be
the cause of the vibration.
The floating bushing would be quite worn on the axial face
resulting in high axial forces on the seal housing. (See Figure
3 for arrangement.)
Finally, in 1975 the operator reported that vibration levels had become
unacceptable and noted that the machine behaved differently with each of
the two rotors (main and spare). One rotor performed smoothly with
enlarged radial seal clearances (8 mils vs. 23 mils design), even though
it was fouled and a balance check indicated it was out of balance. The
other rotor ran rough with design seal clearances, despite a touchup
balance. The apparent contradiction between vibration experience and the
188
machine balance condition strongly suggested that the vibration problem
was nonsynchronous in nature. The AllisChalmers service group discussed
the problem with the Compressor Engineering group and a study was
initiated.
Field vibration spectra were obtained by AllisChalmers on the balanced
rotor at several locations using displacement probes and accelerometers.
See Figure 4a.
The data showed:
1. A subsynchronous vibration signal was present at all locations
checked. (See Figure 4b & c)
2. The frequency which would change with a slight variation in bearing
and seal oil temperature, varied slightly from 80.6 to 81.6 hz, (4836
to 4906 CPM).
3. Accelerometer data (integrated to yield displacements) showed
casing motions which were significantly lower than shaft
amplitudes indicating that the probes were measuring actual
shaft motion, and not a foundation resonance.
Vibration amplitudes at various locations are shown in Table 1.
TABLE I.  VIBRATION AMPLITUDES AT 4850 CPM (FILTERED)
AMPLITUDE A IBI A OBI OB2
l 2
mm .0127 .051 .009 .009 .074
(mils) (.5) (2.0) ( . 35) (3. 5 ) (2.9)
The synchronous component of shaft vibration was less than .0127 mm (.5
mils). This coincided with the customers comments about the performance
of the two rotors. An increase in the synchronous vibration of the out
ofbalance rotor could still result in lower overall vibration levels if
the subsynchronous component present in the well balanced rotor were
eliminated.
IV ANALYSIS OF PROBLEM
At the time the machine was designed, analysis was limited to undamped
critical speeds, so an updated rotor dynamics analysis was performed using
improved rotor dynamics programs in use at AllisChalmers in 1975 which
included:
Undamped critical speed map showing intersection of
undamped critical speeds with bearing stiffness curves.
Mode shapes.
Elliptical orbit synchronous response analysis.
Stability analysis.
189
The critical speed analysis indicated that the machine was operating
between the 2nd and 3rd modes, see Figure 5a. The mode shapes show sub
stantial motion at the bearings for the second mode indicating it should
be well damped (see Figure 5b). This is confirmed by the response
analysis (Figure 5c), note that the 2nd mode is well damped and that the
amplitudes produced by an unbalance distribution based on the API
residual unbalance limit are quite low (less than .002 mm, [.8 mils]).
The response analysis showed a 1st resonance at 4100 RPM, and the 1st
critical speed on test was 4086 RPM.
Baseline (no destabilizing) stability analysis showed acceptable stability
with a log decrement of .169 at 3845 CPM for the 1st Ymode in forward
precession. (See Figure 5d.)
Since the machine was stable under baseline conditions it was then
desired to evaluate the rotor's sensitivity to destabilizing forces. To
approximate their destabilizing effect the stiffness and damping proper
ties of the seal ring were estimated by assuming that the seal stops track
ing the shaft ("locks up") and behaves as a noncavitated concentric plain
sleeve bearing.
Under these as�umptions the properties are given approximately by:
Kxy = Kyx = f CAr D)C (�)l
tAT C =.,.C = 2 Kxy
xx yy
From this calculation the properties developed for design conditions are:
5
Kxy = Kyx = 1077 N/CM (6.148 x 10 lb/in.)
Cxx = Cyy = 1681 NS/CM (960 lbsec/in.)
The principle stiffness terms Kxx and Kyy for a concentric seal are negli
gible. Note that these properties are highly sensitive to variations in
3
clearance (inversely proportional to C ), and that quadrupling the clear
ance reduces the properties by a factor of 64. Thus the enlarged clear
ances at the seals found on disassembly could have allowed operation even
if the seals were locked up. This explains why the unbalanced rotor with
enlarged clearances operated with less vibration than the balanced rotor
with design clearances which had bounded whirl.
More sophisticated calculation schemes exist to develop the seal complete
stiffness and damping matrices for various assumptions about the seal
lockup eccentricity. However, the results are sensitive to the
assumptions about whether lockup results in increased or decreased
journal loading. Reduced journal loading will change the natural
frequency of the rotor because the effective bearing span changes with
transfer of the load to the seals. Due to the uncertainties associated
with the assumption of a lockup eccentricity, the simple concentric seal
properties were used in this case.
190
Various values of seal destabilizing were input into the stability
analysis to evaluate the system sensitivity. See Figure 5e. The
stability analysis shows zero log decrement with aerodynamic destabilizing
of 2329 N/CM (1330 lb/in) distributed among the impellers and 38,530 N/CM
(22,000 lb/in) at each seal. This is substantially less destabilizing
than would be produced by the locked up seals with original design clear
ance. Thus the seals can produce sufficient destabilizing to drive the
rotor into bounded whirl under lockup conditions.
The frequency of the analytically predicted unstable mode was 3850 CPM as
opposed to 4850 CPM in the field. Phase information from the field test
data indicated that the shaft ends were in phase, so it was concluded from
the limited available information about frequency and mode shape that the
1st 'y' mode of the rotor was unstable (bounded whirl) and was being
driven by the seals. Several other conclusions can be drawn from the
operating experience and analysis:
1. Stable operation of this rotor with the design seal clearances is
only possible if the seal "tracks" the shaft and doesn't lockup.This
implies that any destabilizing produced under tracking conditions must
be substantially less than that present under lockup, in fact less
than 38,530 N/CM (22,000 lb/in).
2. Stable operation is possible if the seal locks up, if the
seal clearances are abnormally large (resulting in much smaller
hydrodynamic destabilizing forces).
3. The difference in the frequency of the unstable mode between analysis
and field data is possibly due to the development of principle
stiffness terms (Kxx, Kyy) at the seals due to an eccentric lockup
of the seal ring which transfers bearing load to the seals, thus
reducing the effective bearing span of the rotor, and raising its
natural frequency from 3850 to 4850
4. The frictional force (F ) which restrains the seal from moving
R
radially (and determines lockup eccentricity) is a function of the
pressure induced axial forces (F ) on the seal ring and the
A
coefficient of friction ( ,) between the seal and its housing.
Review of the axial forces (F ) on the seal at the design pressure
A
with no seal wear show a relatively small value. See Figure 6A.
2 2
(D  D ) = 792 N (178 lbs.)
2 1
However, as wear occurred on the axial face of the seal, the outer
diameter of the contact face (D )increased. For example, if axial
2
wear on the ring was .0254mm (.001") one fourth of the chamfer would
be removed, and D would increase from 11.53 cm (4.54 in.) to 13
2
cm (5. 118 in.).
191
At this point the axial force would be 8985 N (2020 lbs.) or 11.3
times the original seal design value. The radial force could increase
by more than this if the coefficient of friction increased with wear.
Thus the original design was highly sensitive to both the friction
coefficient and wear so that following some initial wear, the wear
rate would accelerate until lockup occurred.
4. Since the seal parts had shown substantial wear during earlier
maintenance and service inspections, the compressor performed
well after maintenance, and the stability analysis showed good
correlation with experience, seal modification was selected as the
best methotl of resolving the problem.
V SOLUTION:
Such a sealinduced instability can be solved by two types of seal
modifications:
1. Allow the seal to lock up, but reduce the hydrodynamic forces
produced by changing the geometry of the seal in the following ways:
a. Reduce seal effective length  reducing the effective
length by adding grooves to the seal surface reduces
the stiffness and damping produced but this is at the expense
of reduced film thickness and therefore seal centering
capability which can increase the possibility of seal rubs.
b. Increase seal clearances  This reduces the stiffness
and damping properties but increases oil flows dramatically
which is �desirable.
Increased clearance due to wear allowed operation in this case
despite a lockedup bushing. The auxiliary seal pump ran all the
time. In addition the customer added a thir� pump to keep up.
2. Balance the axial forces on the seals as closely as possible so
that the seal doesn't lock up to begin with. Reduction in axial
forces makes the seal less sensitive to the coefficient of friction
between the seal and its housing (which can increase with wear) and
reduces the seals tendency to wear.
The second type of modification was used to solve this problem. Figure 6a
and 6b show the original and modified seal bushings.
Note that the following modifications were made.
1. The residual axial force on the bushing was reduced by balancing
the pressure induced axial force.
192
a. aring was removed from bushing end reducing friction.
b. Face relief was remachined to better control pressure
equalization.
c. Pressure balancing axial hole added.
d. The taper was removed to make the new design
insensitive to wear.
2. These changes don't affect the hydrodynamic performance (i. e., leak
age or film thickness) of the seal, only the force required to move it
radially (FR).
Since the new seal has been installed, seal wear has been negligible and
the subsynchronous vibration problems have been eliminated. The modified
seal has performed successfully for over 6 years.
AllisChalmers has over 20 years experience in the design and application
of oil film seals. The current AllisChalmers standard "Trapped Bushing
Seal" features:
A "dual" bushing which encompasses both the inner and outer seal
in one ring for reduced axial length. (See Figure 7)
Low residual axial force on the seal which effectively reduces
the potential for lockup and seal sensitivity to friction and
wear. (See Figure 8)
VI SEAL VIBRATION TEST PROGRAM
A test program was subsequently conducted in the AllisChalmers test
facility to verify the motion of the AC standard dual bushing at design
pressure level to insure that the bushing tracks the shaft without
lockup. All seal vibration data were provided by Mr. P. G. Shay, the
Supervisor of the AllisChalmers Compressor Test Facility. Two displace
ment probes were mounted 90:' apart in the cage surrounding the bushing to
determine the amplitude of bushing motion and the relative phase lag
between the shaft motion and bushing motion. (See Figure 9, note the
epoxyfilled relief around the probe tips.) The oscilloscope traces show
the seal orbit to be circular with a phase lag of 45� behind shaft motion
and amplitudes slightly less than the shaft amplitude (See Figure 10.)
The vibration spectra show the seal motion to be predominently synchronous
with only small traces of nonsynchronous motion. Shaft vibration is
entirely synchronous. (See Figures 11AD.)
Based on this information, it may may concluded that this arrangement
results in minimal destabilizing effects as the bushing is able to freely
track the shaft motion. Seal induced hydrodynamic forces are dissipated
in seal motion and not applied to the shaft. The seal is also insensitive
to wear on the axial faces.
193
VII CONCLUSIONS:
1. Residual axial forces in seals can influence seal and shaft vibra
tion. Some small level should be present. However, seal lockup
should be avoided.
2. Restraint ("lock up") of bushing results in high levels of
destabilizing forces and it is therefore better" to err on the low side
with respect to axial (pressure induced) forces in the event that seal
wear increases the friction coefficient significantly.
3. Normally tracking seals exert only minor destabilizing effects.
4. The seal design should be relatively insensitive to wear on its
axial face to prevent accelerating wear rates.
REFERENCES:
1. Rouch, K. E., Kao, J. S., "Reduction in Rotory Dynamics by the Finite
Element Method". ASME Paper 79DET70.
2. Alford, J. S., "Protecting Turbomachinery From SelfExcited Rotor
Whirl", Journal of Engineering and Power, Trans. ASME Series A, Vol.
87, October 1965, pp. 333339.
3. Lund, J. W., "Stability and Damped Critical Speeds of a Flexible
Rotor in Fluid Film Bearings", ASME Paper 73DET103  1973.
4. Kirk, R. G., Miller, W. H. "The Influence of High Pressure Oil Seals
on TurboRotor Stability ASLE Preprint 77LL3Al.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:
1. P. G. Shay, Supervisor, Compressor Test, Compressor Engrg.,C&CPD
2. K. E. Kraemer  AC Field Service and Repair, C&CPD.
3. J. H. Hudson, Supervisor, Mechanical Design Engineering,
Compressor Engineering, C&CPD.
4. Keith Rouch, Advanced Technology Center, AllisChalmers.
194
I
I
11_
Figure 1.  5 stage barrel compressor.
195
Figure 2.  Fouling deposits in compressor.
1  BUSHING
2  DIAPHRAGM
3  IMPELLER
4  STATOR
I
j
 ��'
Figure 3.  Seal arrangement.
196
30° clockwlae from vertical as viewed from motor end A4 Vertical on gear box O� 60" counterclockwlae from vertical as viewed from motor end Figure 4(a). Figure 4( c ) . 197 . . Verticlll on COUpling guard Displacement A2 Verticlll on outboard bearing cap IB. 30" c/OCkwlae from vertical as viewed from motor end A(I Verticlll com� casing inlet end on OB. .Vibr�tion spectrum outboard probe I. Figure 4(b).Vibration spectrum inboard probe I.MOTOR H COMPRESSOR AcceIeromeIers: A.
50X105 '! 2260? RPM x Figure 5(b). . __ L���� __�__�LLW� <t.Mode shapes. o o '0. 198 .00 DISTRNCE RLONG ROTOR .. 3 1?0�3 RPM + 2 � .Critical speed map.00 110. CRITICAL SPEED MAP "b �__ �����+. Hi SUPPORT STIFFNESS Figure 5(a). . �r�r�Tr��r�rnnT�r�rTTTrM lrf lrf .. INCHES BRG BRG CRITICAL SPEED NO.00 GO.00 '20.00 100.93 RPM 1 � . ROTOR MODE SHAPE AT CRITICAL SPEED BRG .l BRG 2 o c::> I I .926 RPM (1) 2 115. STIFF 1 3.t.OO 90. '50X105 ..
4th Stage C1 30 .120 180.' 2 .037 90.00 16.0 . 3rd Stage ro '" 26 .134 164...Shaft whirl mode. o FWD o MODE 2 LOG DECREMENT = . .DO i �NGTH Figure 5(d).17 RPM = 384? o m . Balance Piston 45 . 2nd Stage >. �! o .U .DO GO. Thrust Collar 4.00 9.037 90. Coupling r� 14 . 22 . 199 .Jm 1. 5th Stage 0 '" 32 .134 16. '0. PROBES: O\J. DO 20.197 O.037 90.00 ROTOR SPEED·· WDD RPM Figure 5(c).c/O OOQ) STA �l THRUSTBRG..END O � �Qc::?c? (J 0 0 0 0 STA � COUPLING END �J "'I 01 �I '" �I '" 1 0 '" q ri STATION UNBALANCE ANGLE LOCATION Ul .037 90.00 12.Synchronous response. .00 tlO. 1st Stage I 18 ..
••••• '.' I r: I'•.• . T :.I" PY ".••• " ' . : Iii .... .. I ! iL w :. i! i ! :0.�U.. .. I ••.. . . ' '''' ':i W '.: inlVlIG�n . ! (01) Figure 6(a).. ".' ..••.. . . . (02) 4.. 1:1:.. Figure 6(b).. • •••••." I . . ••• : : : ': . .: . 'i � if :..' "''1' ' .. o .• ' b""'! i' I> .:.:.r L .. : '.. L . . ...J ..•..•. ' •• ..••• •••• .' ......'.•• <I •••• .••. . Log decrement vs. .TH •••••••. ... T CHAMFER ..Jii " : : : . :I..• ':::' I'!i if r: :. : . 1. n'!" .l: :"1 .1. Original bushing.•••. " •.' •• ' o ..'.• I 1\ ' .. .' i ... •••• : ..• ' i •• '. ..••• ' •• . . Ui j.. ""' . Ut�F:0 W .'.'. . ::ii: 'fil'f:.. I> : . . . I:.• .li: <:'::iii! i'.1. 05 .. iX •••• ... . ! ' .. .• .i. " . • I::> .• ' I'. ." : .. Modified bushing.54 OIA. ' Ii' : I I' • . �. . I � kW:i :" r::::.:: b" r...." . ...' .. : i.HI nii' " ..H'. liii " ' . .: 1 •. .m I •• 1" i... '. . I"".:�.. " •••• ... r:.··' ' ••• '''1'' . I . 1� I F. ' .' I . ... ••• I o r.. ::I"I�. . ." • .•. ... ': :. Z .•• . . . . ..ll . ::'iI"'.••. I::.. 2p 60){)1). L l'd'..'. .. r:� ..•.• : . .....:: . .' TOTAL DESTABILIZING Q (LB/IN) Figure 5(e )..: . iH:.:. ' .:. " •.'. I •• ·. r' . LENGTH �� 4... 200 .' : '.:i "'P� >":. destabilizing.. .LlW logO( ' .i.. I.: �W.•." I o W:U: . . . : '.. "..48 OIA. � •.':•••••• i .:. I". .' I . . ...' .�'. " ... " •• Ul:�:". 'i":: . . .1:..•••.• \ . .. ""tilt. . .' I·.. . tjf'...• I •..'.' �I.i ....• •.:.••.:: :T: . J' ..1 :: " :.. ..t:.+ .:xl�nMn .. ' •• . F ..' Ji' I ": : 1. . ' ••••• ' CJ) W I ' I '" ['2': i II: .. . « '''...... '. .' :: i:... .•.: •• K': " .: 1'. .:i ··Jf£+�P:. " .. ljii I". ..' : .. !: FCC'.• I • I l�� .:. .J : ••••• : " ....• ii •• ' ' .•. .'.. .��� (!) '. . .":.. I:.
. . .. . . . ...Compact Design . . ... 3 .. .  I ttmmtmf PD :t. . 8 ...no INNER field fitting of parts. . . . . ..SEAL OIL SUPPLY PRESSURE P D .. .  Trapped bushing seal arrangement. . .allows shorter bearing spans for higher critical PROCESS speeds of the compressor rotor. . .  Pressure induced forces on dual bushing. . . ... 7 ... . . .� �ltff�tltlftl/!E"ltttftlttJfrtt PD PD Ps tt TOTAL FORCES ON DUAL BUSHING RESIDUAL FORCES ON DUAL BUSHING t\:' I I Ps .. .Shaft ..Stator . ..Shear Ring .protects shaft and simplifies assembly and disassembly. . . 201 .. 4. .. . .. . OIL DRAIN ITEM 1. . Requires only a jack/puller bolt ring. .. . .Nut . ....Oil/Gas Baffle . GAS Sleeve (impeller) with interference fit under bushing .. .... .Spacer Ring .Impeller . . .Stepped Dual Bushing .OUTER LEAKAGE PRESSURE Figure 8. . 9 .. . DESCRIPTION CD 2 . . . 5.Bushing Cage ' " 6 .... TO Spacer fit at initial assembly . TO RESERVOIR Figure 7. .
202 . . Probe arrangement for trapped bushing seal vibration test. Figure 9. Shaft and dual bushing vibration data. . 1 Mil I I Upper: Bushing Orbit Upper: Bushing X 1 Mil Lower: Shaft Orbit Vibration Y Lower: Shaft X Vibration Y 13050 rpm 1 MIL Per Division F ig u r e 10.
. 31+it I 'tTlr I I ! II I 11 I I ' I � 0: I 2 fs I rI_+� I � 1·e. 203 .. _"____�=��_ . I I Figure ll(a)...____ ._� .. .M.... . .. ! 0:.... . i I I I Ij � a 1J· I I a.> I .. 1 � 1 ' .._.shaft (horizontal). � I i � I 2�f !!}. 3t+r1i . I 1 rr i ++lii! I .shaft (vertical).Vibration spectrum .JJ Fi gure ll(b). .Vibration spectrum .
·· 4 I ! I I ()g ·r ::E i I I ' j ··i· : ·tL ! I . II .  I I · j I i 1 ! ! !! . i t·t� "'i" +·lI . II I L_UJ� Figure 11(c). . . .11 ' i . i. I I i j··r·+ i I .�ll it cL rT 21 i ' � i s: . 3 I rtir1. r�·t'I ·. I t�. .  == g ! i j .seal (vertical). . r I rJrrr" T.''1 .··· :. seal (horizontal). () i I II !i I ! ...rl. .·ta.I � i ! ! I I I I i I I I ! I I I' ! 1 L Figure 11{d). 204 .·�··· I I I 1 .i11 r I ! I I � I I I 1 I I' I II ! i I I I .'+iii ::E I I I r.Vibration spectrum ...j I I '.Vibration spectrum ..
That is.I. pressure difference between inlet and outlet. labyrinth seal radius. seal interval and seal number on the flow induced force of the seal are investigated and it is known that some of these factors are very influential on the flow induced force. number of seal cham ber. Naoto Mbtooka. rotor diameter. experi ments are executed to observe the flow pattern in the gland and to study the characteristics of the flow induced forces in the labyrinth seal.. a approximate solution is given for the partial differential equation representing the flow in labyrinth seal and it is compared with the finite difference method which was proposed in the previous report in order to verify the accuracy of both methods. seal clearance. phase angle and leakage flow rate are investigated.(M7 INJ:XX::E) :FC:RCE OF IABYRINlli SFAL Takuzo Iwatsubo. 657 Japan SUMMARY This paper deals with theoretical analysis of flow induced instability force due to labyrinth seal. and by using the result. Furthermore. Kobe University Rokko. the stability of a rotor system having labyrinth seal is discussed on this coefficient by using the energy concept. However. the fundamental equation of flow in the labyrinth seal was derived by consi �ering the effec t of the variation of gland cross section. After that influences of deflection of steady state. Nada. seal clearance. seal pitch. F. The equation is numerically solved by using the finite difference method. Then the spring and damping coefficients of the labyrinth seal are calculated. deflection of pressure and mass flow from the steady state. INTRODUCTION In the previous report (1). further theoretical investigations are required for the accuracy of numerical calculation and more detail description of labyrinth seal behaviour. seal strip height and divergence and convergence seal on the flow induced force. Then in this paper the equation is solved by another method and the calculated results are compared with the solution of finite difference method. and Roj i Kawai Faculty of Engineering . SYMBOLS t time w = Rsf RS radius of labyrinth seal p pressure in seal chamber 205 . Then the effects of difference of inlet and outlet pressures of the seal. Kobe.
c peripheral velocity in seal chamber f density of gas q mass flow rate in axial direction angle from x axis f cross section of seal chamber 2. length of strip pitch h strip height radial clearance of seal friction shear stress of stator surface friction shear stress of rotor surface U' length of acting surface of shear stress ( stator ) u" length of acting surface of shear stress ( rotor ) R gas constant T absolute temperature of gas in seal "t specific weight of gas 1f" flow coefficient n ratio of specific heat W rotating speed of rotor Wn critical speed of rotor system u=WRs peripherical velocity of rotor K coefficient of viscosity J) coefficient of kinematic viscosity Reynold's number friction coefficient ( stator ) X' friction coefficient ( rotor ) subscript * steady state 206 .
v specific volume and subscripts I and 0 mean inlet and outlet of nozzle.l. (4) Change of flow state in the gland is assumed to be isentropic change...Q. c.1 = (2) _ Vi. F J 0_ G=�� 2g1L J:t (.) + ( a.. " ) i. EQUATION OF MOTION Derivation of Equation of Motion Derivation of the equation which describes the labyrinth seal flow is followed the previous report (1)..e.. where Yt. ) + . fL. C... denoting the gas flow velocity through labyrinth nozzle ( seal clearance ) S.1.f. (... )71 '\to 'Vl 1't n I '\It f1. 8��f�) + f� �{i�) t (l6i. respectively.� � )n=rJ. = Next.�(.J n I 1 1'L (4) where n is isentropic exponent. I. R 1. the equation of state in the ith gland is given as.. dW �t L. (2) Temperature of the fluid in the labyrinth seal is assumed to be constant.LJt )W 2. (3) Cross section area of the seal gland is assumed to be constant in spite of the deflection of rotor and time derivative of cross section area is only consi� dered. tJ {J l.'0 Pi. . (1) Fluid in labyrinth seal is assumed to be gas and its behavior is assumed to be ideal. �(pi. Po nI s= 2g�p Vl(l(�)n.. j.. . Thus the fundamental equations with respect to continuity and momentum for the ith seal element are as follows..\+ =d. i.Cb + � (fLo h Ci. the relation between axial flow rate and pressure in the gland is given by the the rmo dyn ami c al energy equilibrium condition as. dW " As temperature of each gland is constant. 'b_ I ..i"Iifn) = 0 (1) . PI (5) 207 . where the following assumptions are taken and schematic flow is shown in Fig. [. LT l. vo=(Pr / Po)��Vt' the flow rate through the nozzle G [ kgf / sec ] is given as. Assuming that the flow is adiabatic change.1 Ul _ """ "U:I .. fj.
a ) correspond to the gland number of the labyrinth seal. cJ. ( 7 ).( I + �) = Ci.''0/*  are mean value and perturbation of seal clearance.. the following equation is obtained . tVt is repre sented as (11) 208 . the perturbations of 'pressure.) (10) Cf5i.:'I . (I +"0/) = where ��. Also 01" � and .= �*i. peripheral velocity and axial flow rate.2 _ 1)2 J"L Rewriting Eq.= C*i. mass flow rate for unit area is given as. pressure difference between each gland is small and enthal py of each gland is nearly equal. Assuming that the rotor is whirling along elliptical orbit. �i. (6) to the flow through the ith seal element. t. J� RT /R. peripheral velocity and flow rate from those of the steady sta te and also mean value and perturbation of seal clearance are introduced as R. where (8) Linearization of Fundamental Equation For the linearization of the equation.where F is nozzle cross area ( area of seal clearance ) and subscripts ( i.c��and q*�are pressure. 8*i. Then leakage flow rate through labyrinth seal G ( kgf /sec ) is given by using the relation (6) Applying Eq. peripheral velocity and axial flow rate of steady state in the ith gland and �i ' t �and � �are nondimensional perturbation terms of pressure. (I + �) 6i. (I + ti. Applying the above rela tion to flow in the labyrinth seal. we assume that the labyrinth seal is a series of the nozzle.
Then the cross section area in the ith gland is represented as fi. i... n nRs c. Po.� R T'Rtt... �  derivative and spatial derivative ( : ) and ( ) I. �* 1') 2 :z. . £t� g: RTFit�&ti. 2 � R T� b1ti.I.�2.�* it\...) + hLt1 + 6*i.:tIWSir1wtsinftb"t..oswtsin<f} (15) (16) 209 . )�..".WCoswtsinflA. R�){aLc.+1 _ _ . + Cltitt. i" C2. ( lO ) (14) into Eqs. ( + "o/i. the ..+ISinwtsincp J t�. rtfLi ('R2 2.�* .WC. following equations are obtained for the ith seal element.. f�.OSCP + bi.A (13) .I 2 'P*t. £. oft %/Rt.. i.. (COtt. 2.fI. b*� (��_I. 1.oswtcoSCf+ bi. P¥ri.+1 2. C. and denoting the time *.+I)} i (12) As the change of state in the gland is isentropic.  therefore afl =nR� (14) gt 'pi. + Q R T"2o*i. = {hi. 2 Ri.. '1 "..1. the following relations are obtained. Rt:tI)t a�+lcoswtcoS'P+bi.  P. ( .1 + C�f�i..tl (I + "ljri. + �RTr�8. }RTf{2 = �*P*i b*i:tl (R:. 2. f""i. ( l ) and (2). c. 1 (R� a� ) d" 'R2 ) t.i.Si nwtsH1'f} + � {aLWsiVlwtC... t.. let.1 ?J*i.". tfi. + b*i..i"1 E �. respectively.. _ Ott . 2 . Rs h %it'�i. 9t Substituting Eqs.
J� n I '0' 0' r i.n(i.. is coeff. (21) where A� is determined by the shape of labyrinth seal.(19) in the same manner. From these equations.T "U . L. O· A .)n+lj n (20) _ n n "11 ' 'tI ri.4[Ba sin(t.. �i. the axial flow rate in the steady state is obtained as follows () L 1) ..I where P�_I is the pressure of (il)th chamber which is taken into account of draughty flow. the pressure and flow rate satisfied the equilibrium condition. The peripheral velocity is obtained by using Eq. is obtained by iterating Eqs.( .wt) + bifSin ltJ'+wt) + b Sin (If wt� . 210 . ()j[ ettCOS(<p+wt) + Ba(J)SCLf..1 [( �)1. " = 0 ( 19 ) i+1 i iUol 11 1 1 As the multi labyrinth stage is considered as a serial nozzle.S.. Cc.(3) as.== Tee (22) l.f+wt)+a"1(SiYl(r. �he pressure is given by Ref.= r:f. + T I U.o.d:..wt� t ([.[LlilCOS(tf'twt)+ a*COS(fwt)b�CoS(Lf+wt) = + b. state variables i. Eqs. zero in Eqs.. +tanB where C c. ANALYSIS Analysis of Steady State Setting the perturbation terms t and ti.icient of vena contracta.wi) 8bLOS Up+wt) + + ebCOsCLf.(18) and (19).+l 1 = q .q /I \ .J=J.p+wi) T9aSin(tpwt)+ BbS.1 = � C". (18) q W .n(f +wt) + 9bSiYl (CPwt� (17) where PitO = Po (inlet pressure) and PM = Pn (outlet pressure).(15) and (16) in order to obtain the pressure and peripheral velocity of each seal stage in steady state.' . .I ) [... q .(15) and (16) are represented in matrix form as..OS (<f wt� + QJ2�a.e. lfU! +V ul'+ AUI <G.For the n stage labyrinth seal..
the coefficients are represented as follows. n r2T£.p+wt)+E��Sin (fwt)+ E�cos (If+wt)] (24) Representing the above coefficients in matrix form as A+I Btl B1 fil::: �i' I . (2T) and E qs (28).wl�2 +VdJ. '�2 and �2 are obtained. .2= (/31= F+I J liz = fa A+Yl B+n BI'I E+VI Ftn Fn o 0 0 the solution is written as.8 fJb (27) . Then velocity and pressure in the gland is calculated by substituting the coefficients into Eq.ti. IF and Solving Eqs.H. Representing the x and y direction force by P�and P� . (26) .:=: .(30) and (31) in the following matrix form. 211 ..b* + H78b = (28) wl�2 .(IT). It . simultaneous ly. Substituting E q (2 5 ) into Eq.. "" G8 and !HI rv are coefficient matrices which is composed of the matrices lB .COS(f+wt)+A_�SH1(tpwt)tRi.COS(CP_wt)} (23) Ci. sin ( Cj' +wt ) . and the flow induced force for whole seal is obtained by integrating the pressure for each gland.V//1! t + $4 efA t 'iJb � + ([.2 HidA1t+ HI3Bat. +C?ti. Analysis of Dynamic Force Re fe rring to the left term in Eq. smrd'f 1. (23).Q cosCfd if (30) p� Rs t P1tp.u51Tfil .::. and separating it to the elements cos U f +wt ) . Px. WlfC#1 + 1+ := +$.l EtLS == elf"" wt)+ F+i"COS(c.1 +{J5"b*+QJ?eb (26) . cos ( cp Wt ) and sin ( Cf wt ) . �'1 = (.(rr).1 Jo The flow induced force F and phase angle from x axis are described as (31) Spring coefficients and damping coefficients are obtained from Eqs.. the s olut ion s are assumed as follows Pi. �'JA8.RstI JD R� �i". C*i. � + His eb (29) where ([.::: �� 1" P!('i" {AHSin(LftUJt)+B+i. + H148a+ HI.. d/. (29) .
Ce�y When Eqs.. the other is one which is the finite diference method that was proposed in Ref. f 200 1 Xi. Kex� =+<8�X.� = . CjX C&X�= Ce9Y. Ken= K8�� K. and its radius a* = O . For the calcula tion the following equation is used as the friction coefficient between rotor and stator. 212 . and rotating speed of the rotor is represented in nondimensional expression as W/Wn({D (rpm):rotating speed of the rotor).. C{* coswt + �2i.tX. Then parameter surveys of labyrinth seal are carried out to see the influence on the flow induced force which exits the instability..' �i. lmm . Ce�= C8�� C. C*d where D is wetted perimeter length considered the rotating Reyno�d's Number R�L <.(32) in the above. = l) .b�sm wt't �H el). x C. In this paper critical speed of a rotor system is assumed to be 5000 rpm. =64/R�i.Cx� 0 Y t c�:x:. coswt = +�bLea Sinwt �n. is used as a numerical model. Cj!1 (32) eX.�'i. At first calculated results for these two methods are compared with and as the result it is known that these two results agree. which is shownin Fig.3164 ReO.�j�boffCOS wt + �4.2.i. F and FAI shown i n figures mean the absolute value of the force induced by labyrinth seal and its phase angle from x axis. the following form is used as . In order to evaluate the seal'force. for stator surface. DW (. NUMERICAL EXAMPLE AND DISCUSSIONS The labyrinth seal having three teeth.2.a1fSj nwt t.' R�L � 1200 A�'= J 0. P(U R�i. one is the method which is shown in previous section.J  Two methods are used for the numerical calculation. Details of the labyrinth seal is shown in Table 1 and for the parameter survey each element of seal dimension is independently changed in order to investigate the influence of its seal size on the flow induced force. = j.8bSinwt + + Using the above expression. cex� e� C9�X. circular orbit (a* = b* in Eq. for rotor surface. o Cexx.(30) and (31) are rewritten to Eq.'i. the following relations are obtained between coeffi cients.(17)) are used as a whirling of labyrinth seal.K�x.ebcoswt .(l).t..� ::.x.jli) Rei.
13(KPa) and outlet pressure P3=98. e) Influence of Seal Clearance Fig. full line and broken line show the coefficients for inlet pressure Po =196. howeve� Kostyuk and other authors obtain them by another method and there are some discrepancies between both steady state values. so this figure is neglected. where as the clearance increases.13(KPa) and 147.8 shows the relation between seal clearance and the flow induced force and the leakage flow rate (leakage mass flow rate per unit length). Therefore.I(KPa) respectively and outlet pressure Pn=98. From this figure full line and dotted line coincide very well so each calculation method has good accuracy. d) Influence of Labyrinth Seal Radius Fig. influence of rotating speed is remarkable as shown in Fig. where the seal radius is valiable and other dimensions are fixed at constant values. From the above discussions it is concluded that in the calculation of flow induced force. On the other hand if the pressure is deflected 0.4 shows the flow induced force and its phase angle when pressure is a little deflected from steady state where the number on lines correspond to the number in Table 3. From the calculated result. they are influenced very much. Also it is known that the induced force is not influenced by rotating speed of rotor but if it is separated to component. the flow induced force b ecomes small. 213 . Then Fig.a) Accuracy of Two Calculation Method Fig. peripheral velocity and flow rate in steady state are iteratively calculated.5. b) Influence of Deflection of Steady In this paper pressure. From the figure the flow induced force proportionaly increases as the seal radius increases.3 shows the spring coefficients and damping coefficients which are obtained by two methods i. when the seal radius is known. As the flow rate decreases.6 shows the influence of pressure difference between inlet and outlet on the flow induced force when inlet (entrance) pressure is kept constant value (209 atm) and outlet (exit) pressure is changed. In the figure. c) Influence of Pressure Difference Between Inlet and Outlet Fig. it is known that even if the flow rate is deflected 20% from the steady state. Here flow rate means total flow rate as shown in the expression. the pressure difference between inlet and outlet becomes small. The figure shows that as the outlet pressure becomes large. steady state values in field and the calculated values may have discrepancies. flow induced force and phase angle are not so influence� and these curves become like one line. the induced force F decreases and the flow rate increases proportionally.5% from steady state value.O(KPa) which is obtained by the finite difference method. steady state values must be calculated with high accuracy. Also sign () on line means negative value. So it is important to investigate the influence of deflec tion from steady state on the accuracy of the induced force. The calculated data are shown in table 2.e. the induced force p ropo rti onall y decreases.the flow induced force due to labyrinth seal can be easily evaluated by the similarity law. Moreover.07(Kpa) which are obtained by the approximate method and doted line shows the coefficient for inlet pressure Po=196. approximate method and finite difference method.e.7 shows the influence of labyrinth seal radius on the flow induced force. i.
On the other hand leakage flow rate decreased like exponentially. REFERENCES 1.12 ( a ).May 1214. 1980. seal clearance. convergence type and divergence type. the labyrinth seal of shroud of steam turbine is used as an example and its flow induced force and stiffness and damping coefficients are theoretically calcula ted by two method. As the results. From Fig. h ) Influence of Seal Strip Height Fig. However further theoretical and experimental investigation are reQuired in order to obtain a more precise description of labyrinth seal characteristics. 214 .12 shows a comparison of seal types. Fig ll( c ) shows the spring coefficients k and k xx xy i ) Influence of Divergence and Convergence Type Labyrinth Seal Fig. but the leakage flow rate Q does not so much changed. it is known that the above factors are very influential on the flow induced force. NASA 2133. That is. In this case the induced force. the induced force increases. From the figure the induced force increases like hyper bolic as the chamber number increasing. labyrinth seal radius. seal pitch. it is known that the flow induced force for the convergence type is the smallest of all and divergence type is the largest inspite of the same leakage flow rate.12 ( c ). phase angle and leakage flow rate do not influenced so much. when strip height is kept constant. Thus the large pitch is not good from the view point of the flow induced force. : Evaluation of Instability Forces of Labyrinth Seals in Turbines or Compressors. T. CONCLUSION In this report the flow induced force due to labyrinth seal which is some times the cause of instability is studied for the special model. number of seal chamber and seal strip height on the flow induced force and leakage flow rate are investigated. the influ ence due to the strip height is remarkable.9 shows the influence of seal pitch on the flow induced force. that is. Then influences ot deflection of steady state. g ) Influence of Number of Seal Chamber Fig. so its figure is neglected.f ) Influence of Seal Pitch Fig. the flow induced coupling stiffness kx� is similar characteristics. Therefore optimum number of chambers may be determined when inlet and outlet pressure are known. In this calculation there is little discrepancies of the flow rate Q.ll( a )( b ) shows the influence of seal strip height. but convergence type is excellent from the viewpoint of st abili ty . comparison of straight through type.10 shows the influ�nce of chamber number on the induced force and the leakage flow rate. pressure difference between inlet and outlet. Iwatsubo. But if this result is represented in the spring and damping coefficients. From the figure it is known that as the seal pitch increases. From Fig. where inlet and outlet pressure is constant and each chamber dimension is also same.
TABLE 1.0 20065. .4 6.0 20166.2 20036.9 19678.7 19678.4 6.4 6.1599 215 .3 (mm) STRIP PITCH 1.0 20166.8443 PRESSURE Pl.15 (K) ENTRANCE PRESSURE Po 20482. .7 19678.8443 DEFLECTION OF (2) 20482. .0 (kP a ) EXIT PRESSURE Pn 19678.7 19678.4 19678. GAS CONDITION FOR NUMERICAL EXAMPLE OPERATING LIQUID air LIQUID TEMPERATURE T 784.0 20166.4 7.3 19936.3 19936.4 (kPa) TABLE 3.8443 DEFLECTION OF (2) 20482.5 19836.P2 (3) 20482.4 6. LABYRINTH SEAL DIMENSIONS FOR NUMERICAL EXAMPLE SEAL RADIUS Rs 1 (m) ROTOR NATURAL FREQUENCY Wn 5000 (rpm) STRIP HEIGHT h 10 (mm) SEAL CLEARANCE 0 1 .0 20267.3 19936. DEFLECTION OF PRESSURE AND FLOW RATE FROM STEADY STATE PRESSURE OF EACH STAGE (kPa) FLOW RATE PO PI P2 P3 (kg simi) STEADY STATE VALUE (1) 20482.5287 FLOW RATE (3) 20482. 30 (mm) NUMBER OF CHAMBER N 2 SEAL TYPE straightthrough type TABLE 2.
Cross section of labyrinth seal Figure 2. for numerical example. casing POo' c. . c ••• UtAl rotor (a) (b) ' i+1 B'B AA "�+ C}c'&w aw I I i il � " Jw (C) (d) //////////// PO Pl P2 P3 r Inlet Outlet .  ' ( e ) 777777/777/7 Figure 1. .. Labyrinth seal model and definition of the coordinate. c. 216 .
�0 .. ...�� � � ��. / . . .. .. ...�  .... 10 � : . .. 2 j::bI Q) o m I .  � ( ) . .. . ... '" .... o  �10 I . .. .. � .   . . " . .... Kxx=Kyy 3 Cxx=C yy 10 'L====�==== ============�  ( ) e ���� " ( ) '10 \�. ..  ..... . u ... : Kxy9':Kyx9: _.. 10 . .... Q) ( ) Cxx9=Cyy9 o . b������ �10�� �. Accuracy of two calculating methods and influence of pressure difference between inlet and outlet./ � � .. . . 4 Cxy9': Cyx9 . � .. ...... ... u 100��1��2��  I 1 2 3 NONDlMENSIONAL FREQUENCY NONDlMENSIONAL FREQUENCY (a) (b) ( ) "10 1 � ����4 .. ....) E o �../ . ... 10·�.   .. . I ":" s 10�� : ��2��3 100��2��3 NONDlMENSIONAL FREQUENCY NONDlMENSIONAL FREQUENCY (c) (d) Figure 3. 217 .. ...� . o ... � .   .. 10 � I ____________________ 10' � Kxy=Kyx'  10 b���� � � ...... b������ � . 10 . Kxx9= Kyy9 "'0 I "'0 I'd 1'd10 ' ' .' ... 1 o 1::. .... .. ':' .
.. . . ... .L... )� . . .2L .... ...�3 0 NONDIMENSIONAL FREQUENCY Fi gure 5.... /' . . .2"' ( . 4 I . .. . . E 5 (3). . . /' /' . . . Influence of pressure deflection from steady state on the cross c oupling stiffness. . . . . . () . . 10 ����� 3 10 1.m • . .Jnfluence of pressure deflection from steady state on the flow induced force... . ... . • .  .. (1) '" 5 r (2 ) u. . ). .. 10 9 4000 (3 ) 8 7 0 (3) III 6 I. .. .. . .. .. 5000 �. . 218 . 2000 4 (2 ) & 3 (1) 1000 2 0��� 0 k� rl�c�� NONDIMENSIONAL FREQUENCY NONDIMENSIONAL FREQUENCY (a) (b) Figure 4. ...".. � 1 ..0 1(_. .. .. .... . : • .
. E .." 3 5 2000 D" 2 1000 q @ q 0 EXIT PRESSURE EXIT' PRESSURE (a) (b) Figure 6.. rd Z....." .: ROTOR RADIUS Rs(m) (a) (b) Figure 7...&.. 6 � OJ 5000 10 '' 5 l. 5000 10 OJ/wn=1.... Influence of pressure difference between inlet and outlet. "q. .0 9000 Po=20482.0 9 4000 100 8 .0 (kPa) 9 ' " . 8000 " . 15 7000 . 7 " "C 1: .. Influence of labyrinth seal radius. . . "C 7 0 rd Z3000 '"' r. 219 .L 4000 4 '. 2000 50 4 e 3 CI 1000 2 0 131::1 1 2 ROTOR RADIUS Rs(m) . ".6000 0 '' r.... 6 � OJ 5 I... . "... . 8 " . e 3000 '. 10000 20 10 w/Wn = 1.
. 5 F 1. .... 1000 4 e " 3 5 IT 500 " " 2 .. 2500 10 10 W/Wn= 1. ? E "0 7 . . It! (I) Z1500 6 l S C'l � 5 . . .. . .... . .. .' ... .....J. . .. Influence of seal clearance.. . . ' 0 0 CLEARRNCE d (mm) CLERRRNCE Jemm) (a) (b) Figure 8.. . ... . . . Influence of seal pitch length....0 9 9 2000 8 . .... . .. 8 q '" . 2500 20 10 w/Wn= 1. . . . 220 ..0 9 2000 8 '15 . . . C'l q � " 10 5 u.. ... ... E 7 . . . . .. ... .. "0 It! (I) Z 1500 l S F ..1000 4 4 e 3 3 IT 500 2 2 1 0 0 00 0 SERL PITCH tCmm) SEAL PITCH ! (mm) (a) (b) Figure 9.. ..
. 6 ..... .. 5 = � l............. 5 . " . .. OJ . 5000 10 10 UJlwn 1 .. 221 . .... 6 L . 7 "e ... 7 . '" q til Z 600 6 L ... ....... . ....... 10 10 900 F 9 9 800 8 8 700 .... :J ll!::! l:J 20 STRIP HEIGHT h(mm) (a) (b) Figure 11.. . 5 � ..� .... til "'D '" z3000 '" ' ..... ......... .... . ..... ...... .. 0 9 = 9 4000 ' . Influence of number of seal chamber. .... � .0 500 ..... 2000 . 5 lL 400 4 4 e 300 3 3 D'" 200 2 2 100 1 0':1 0.... 8 . . .... OJ UJ IWn 1 ....... 8 .. "'D 7 ....... 6 .. LL 4 4 e 3 3 D'" 1000 2 2 1 0 era 0 NUMBER OF CHAMBER N NUMBER OF CHAMBER N (a) (b) Figure 10. Influence of seal str ip hei ght on the flow induced force and phase ang le... 7 "e ... 1000 ...
... straightthrough type . . 2500 r������ straightthrough type divergence type convergence type 5 10 .. divergence type .  . . 1 � . .... ... 9 convergence type . . . . . . . NONDIMENSIONAL rREQUENCY (a ) 10 . /' 3 �� 0 I=:"f'/'� 2 1 I 0. ... . 10����� ••• •• ••• • "'C 7 III � /</ / L '"' 6 . 1 2 100����2�3 NONDIMENSIONAL rREQUENCY (b) NONDIMENSIONAL rREQUENCY (c) Figure 12....  3 ___  5 10 F��� �.. 222 . ... 1000 5 10 15 STRIP HEIGHT h(mm) (c ) 500 . � Influence of divergence and convergence type labyrinth seal.� ".... .. � 7 10 Kxx=Kyy E " Z • '"'10 r. .. . . . _ . � 4 10 . . . . ... . 4 /' e. .. .. Z1500 �/f) 20 L. Influence of seal strip h�ight on flow induced crosscoupling. 2000 > x Kxy=Kyx .. 8 4 • � ... Figure 11.
IFERENTIAL PRESSURE DIS1RIBUfIQ\lS IN A IVllJEL LABYRIN'lH SEAL Y. CIICUV. A research programme to isolate and study this cause of instability has been initiated. Parameters that are likely to affect the pressure distributions are incorporated into the test rig. If the instability arises in the bearings then the problem will be eliminated. Furthermore it has been concluded that instability arises if and only if the labyrinths converge. there are other sources of instability which may prove to be significant. Thus the energy available for various mechanisms leading to unstable motion also increases. or diverge Spurk (ref. M. Operational practice ensures that each bearing takes a load and/or the use of more stable bearing confiqurations. In extreme cases tilting pad bearings may be used. lemonbore. Leong and R. Greathead (ref. It is also argued that the pressure in the labyrinths would equalise and hence cannot maintain the unequal pressure field which is essential in producing the lateral forces acting on the rotor. S. The increase in power implies an increase in length of turbine generator sets as these machines operate at a fixed speed (3000 or 3600 rpm).3) which of course led many to conclude as highly unlikely to occur in practice. Brown HeriotWatt University Riccarton.5) has brought 223 . Some preliminary pressure profiles are presented. Steam whirl associated with differential clearance at the periphery of a blade row has long been suggested as a possible source.l). The light loads instability problem is accentuated by the presence of a large number of bearings supporting a typical rotor with rigid couplings. Recent experience has indicated that the dynamic effects have been under estimated. High level nonsynchronous vibrations have often been attribu ted to instability ariSing from lightly loaded bearings. INTRODOCTION OVer the last few decades the development of steam turbines and gas turbo compressors has resulted in a steady increase in the energy density of the working fluid. M. The destabilising forces were considered by Pollman to be inSignificant (ref. This makes the machine less rigid and the operational speed often lies above the first and second criticals.e been often underestimated. The possibility of labyrinth seals inducing instability has not been given the same weight of attention. D.2). Alford (ref. Edinburgh EH 14 4AS Scotland SUMMARY Leakage flow through labyrinth glands had long been known to affect rotor stability but its effects hav. e. However. Based on operational steam turbines. Circumferential pressure distributions are measured in the labyrinth glands with geometry approp riate to the high pressure labyrinths in large steam turbines. 4. Knowledge of this pressure distribution is essential as it is this unequal pressure field that results in the destabilising force.g.
Evidently the resultant destabilising force reexcites the lower criticals .Jp density Ta Taylor number (. NOTATION p absolute pressure n number of labyrinth stages absolute pressure at entry £ eccentricity ratio absolute pressure at exit r radius of rotor mean axial flow U rotor surface velocity axial flowrate per unit c circumferential velocity of fluid circumference in gland flow coefficient v axial velocity of fluid kinematic viscosity Re circumferential Reynolds number ( = (Uc)h/2v) A� change of flow coefficient at l. in particular at the high pressure end ad j acent to the working fluid inlet. widest clearance Re axial Reynolds number a ( = 2v 6)/v) . to light the influence of the labyrinth sealing glands. The response is strongly load dependent and has a major frequency component greater than half speed.Re / (h /r» R gas cons tan t 6 peripheral angle. on the subsynchronous response and the instability threshold. A further interesting observat ion here was that the replacement of the standard journal bearings with tilting pad j ournal bearings had detrimental consequences on the response. This indicates that an instability which does not originate from the bearings canno t be eliminated by the use of tilt pad bea rings .2 narrow. measured from T temperature widest clearance horizontal coordinate ( . r6) radial clearance z axial coordinate h height of labyrinth fin Subscripts f crosssectional area of gland i ith gland L' wetted perimeter of gland per unit circumference mean value L" we tted peri�ter of rotor per unit circumference 224 .
�e experimental work of cenckert and Wachter (ref. A physical explanation of the occurance of selfexcited vibrations through clearance flows at the blade tips and interstage glands was presented by Thomas (ref. 11.6). with or without the occurence of spiral flow: and these lateral forces lead to unloading of radial bearings. circumferential flow and pressure distribution was arrived at by applying compressible gas dynamics and conservation of energy and momentum.7). The whirl amplitude increases with power output. With a simpler approach Kurohashi et al applied an equivalent clearance to take into account of the variable flow coefficient through the annular clearance of the labyrinths to arrive at a pressure distribution and set of stiffness and damping coefficients. Pressure profiles were indeed obtained on cases with a parallel eccentricity through the labyrinths and swirl has an increased forcing effect on the rotor. Simplified solution to the equations was forwarded for cases with tilt although the form of solution arrived at predicts no unequal pressure distribution for cases of parallel eccentricity between rotor and labyrinths. 13. number of stages.15) represents the first serious attempt to investigate the leakage flow induced forces on multistage labyrinths.2). 3) in that diverging labyrinths are destabil1Bing instead. 225 . This stability criterion was contradicted by Spurk (ref. It is already recognised that ��ese vibrations were very much load dependent. The whirl frequency was identified as the fundamental frequency of the rotor and rotor support system whose whirl speed was about 40 to 50 percent rotational speed. eccentricity and realistic peripheral velocity of rotor were catered for. No swirl or spiral flow was assumed nor considered. with converging labyrinth glands being destabilising. Among the first attempts to analytically quantify these forces in multistage labyrinths was by Kostyuk (ref. 12). 8. The application of Kostyuk's equations were extended by Iwatsubo and Kurohashi et al (ref. However the published results were mainly of integrated forces and only few pressure distributions were published. CURRENT STATE OF ART Reports on labyrinth induced instabilities date back as early as the 1950·8 (ref. Pressure measurements were made at only two opposite locations within a labyrinth chamber hence with the assumption that the pressure peaks at such location.es on jet turbo compressors and turbines (ref. inlet conditions. Although some experimental work was performed the published data were found to be rather limited especially on the pressure distributions. Until 1975 approximately comprehensive experimental work on multistage laby rinths is nonexistent. The occurrence of a circumferential variation of static pressure acting on the cylindri cal surface of a rotor particularly within labyrinth seals was put forward. Alford introduced further understanding to the problem in his report on aerodynamic exciting forc::. 10) • A set of fundamental equations correlating leakage flow.14. Further literature (ref.9) indicates that lateral forces can be produced by parallel clearances when eccentricity exists. It was an extensive experimental programme on labyrinths on a high pressure air rig. In common with Alford the rotational motion of rotor is neglected in the stability analysis and the reason given for the contradiction is due to the further neglect of circumferential flow within the labyrinth by Alford. and at best the destabilising forces are only defined qualitatively. Iwatsubo applied a finite difference method on the equations with the spring and damping coefficients of the labyrinths numerically determined. Based on a single chamber labyrinth a stability criteria was arrived at. It 1s concluded that unequal radial clearances at entry and discharge have significant effect on the excitation. Various geometry.
When an adequate match has been achieved between experimental and theoretical circumferential pressures.pressure distributions with rotor rotation were not presented. Moreover circumferential pressure distributions give a better inSight into the nature of the problem. Nevertheless the rotor and labyrinth dimensions should meet the requirement that the flow parameter of Reynolds number and Taylor number are of the same order of magnitude both in the axial and circumferential direction. However the literature has a number of examples where considerable scatter was demonstrated in attempts to measure stiffness and damping coefficients. Consultation on the above data and seal geometries had been made with United Kingdom based manufacturers and public utilities. Work on rotordynamic instability included the effects of high pressure ring seals on turbomachinery vibrations. As it is felt that the rotor peripheral've�ocity is of importance in the shearing of the leakage flow. boiler feed pump instability and a general rotor dynamic computer programme evaluating forced response and stability. It is interesting to know how these pressure distributions are affected by eccentricity. A rotor diameter approximately half that of a typical steam turbine shaft is used. speed and a host of other parameters. especially combination and stepped labyrinths.3. An alternative method is to attempt to measure overall force and/or stiffness coefficients directly. It is this lack of directly applicable experimental results in open literature based on realistic seal geometry with full rotational speeds that necessitates the need for further research. fluid force induced vibrations. DESCRIPTION OF RIG The experimental rig consists of a main casing enclosing the rotor and labyrinth assembly. A vertical rotor is mounted on roller ball bearings 226 . 2 . The main casing is made up in two sections with the upper section easily removable to enable the labyrinth assembly. The integrated pressure force for overall perturbed conditions yield the appropriate stiffness and damping coefficients. figures l. a realistic velocity must be attained on the rig. As the interest of the authors was towards gas turbo compressors the published work was based on geometry and dimensions not appropriate to steam turbines. It is ultimately hoped that the programme would incorporate labyrinth seal forces to extend its range of applicability. be built up conveniently. Slots are milled on the casing adjacent to the labyrinth assembly to facilitate the mounting of pressure tappings in the labyrinth. This research programme on labyrinth seals was a natural extension of existing work on rotor dynamics in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at HeriotWatt University. the required dynamic coefficients can be obtained theoretically. in this case of 100 m/s as in operational steam turbines. clearance. The approach taken is to measure the static pressure distributions in the labyrinth chambers as the flow passes through the labyrinth and to match these measured distributions with theoretical predictions. OBJECTIVE The main objective of the rig is to isolate the labyrinth induced effects from other rotor dynamic effects that can possibly arise.
Just prior to entry into the labyrinths the flow enters a set of swirl ring mounted on top o of the abyrin a � assembly. o 30". 'lhis allows interchangeability of seals with different geometry. 'lhe main shaft and drum are first balanced individually and finally as a completed assembly to ISO G 1.216 x 103 and 14 x 103 . To take the high downwards thrust a matched pair of angular contact ball bearings is used in tandem. 'lhe rotor is driven by a timing belt from the gear box with the necessary step up in speeds achi� ved through the pulleys giving speed ranges from 0 to 7600 rpm . 'lhe top bearing housing is bolted on to the main top cover plate and the bottom bearing housing on the main platform on which the casing is bolted. 'lhis measured flow rate is compared with the extensively used and tested semiempirical labyrinth leakage equation of Vermes (ref.. 63 x 103and 17 x 103 respectively can be attained on the rig as compa�d to" typical values of 222 x 10 . the labyrinth assembly is built up from interlaying individual seal fin and chamber or as in integral individual labyrinth. Consistent with the need t o isolate other rotor dynamic effects a rigid rotor is used. In order to achieve the peripheral velocity of 100 mIs. A high pressure thrust compensating dummy piston could have been incorporated into the design but was not as conservation of the available working fluid was a major consideration.16) as well as equation 1. A further pressure sensing hole measures the static pressure less the suction pressure which eventually gives a differential pressure representing the mean velocity along the tube.within the casing. 'lhe drum is interchangeable and the �xperiments will involve the use of a plain drum and grooved drum for various labyrinth combinations. Mounting it vertically eliminates the need to consider gravitational effects in the experiments and subsequent theoretical work.5 kW variable speed DC motor.0 (1 qmmm per kg rotating mass). 'lhe 0 vanes are used as a flow straightener when no pre swirl is required. From here the flow enters a plenum chamber where the flow is further settled. 'lhe bottom bearings are oil lubricated from nozzles directed on to the cages and races allowing them to be used at the higher speeds. 15 and o .12). sizes and 227 . Within the diffusion box deflection vanes and perforated holes spread the fl ow. 'lhese swirl rings can hence preinduce a spiral flow prior to entry �nto the labyrinth assembly. Drive is by means of a horizontally mounted 8. figures 4. a drum of 240mm in diameter is mounted on to the main shaft to form part of the rotor. Depending on dimensions. and the dynamic pressure being averaged by means of an interpolating inner tube.5. 10. 'lhe flow rate through the rig is measured by an annubar. 'lhis eliminates the influence of hydrodynamic bearings as well as making it easy to preset and maintain predetermined eccentricities. with the driving shaft attached to a 1:1 right angle conversion gear box. Grease lubricated self aligning ball bearings are used at the top to allow for small relative misalignment between the rotor and main casing for tilt investigations. (ref. 'lhe working fluid used is compressed air at a gauge pressure of 5. Axial and circumferential Reynolds number and Taylor number of 33 x 103.35 x 103 respectively on operational united Kingdom steam turbines. Nevertheless one of the main current constraints on the rig is due to the limitations of output from the compressors of the Department. As the rotational direction of the rotor can be reversed the case of the preswirl in opposite direction to the rotation of the o rotor is also possible.52 bar although higher pressure or higher density compressed gas can easily be adapted for use on the rig. It has four dynamic pressure sensing holes facing the stream. 3 124 x 103 . 'lhe working fluid is fed into a diffusion box in the main casing. 'lhese rings are interchangeable with vane angles of 45 . 'lhe axial length of the drum is 160mm to accommodate the axial length of a complete labyrinth assembly.
'lbe labyrinth assembly together with the main casing as a whole is moved laterally across the main table platform.064mm (height) 6. with the main casing moving in guide blocks. This is so achieved by raising the main casing off the platform and an angled tilt pad inserted betw�n the main casing and platform. 'lbe current number of stages considered total up to 12 labyrinth chambers.Ags on the digital voltmeter and paper tape for final processing on a digital computer. of open inlet ports gives a complete pressure mapping. four sets of ball bearing thrust pads are brought into play raiSing the main casing and assembly off the table platform whilst being moved. to be served by 1 pressure transducer at the outlet port of the switches. Bere again the rotor is left undisturbed and the main casing with the labyrinth assembly tilted. on the inlet ports. The eccentricity is checked by means of displacement proximators as well as dial gauges. Lateral adjustable precompressed springs are mounted against the casing to eliminate any backlash on such small moveme nts. The number of stages can be altered by removing or adding appropriate individual fins. 525DD1l being the largest size to be x used.1. The eccentricity of the rotor with respect to the labyrinths can be set at any predete%1Dined location.254mm . The current sizes used for straight through labyrinths are 4. 228 . including swirl (v) eccentricity (vi) rotational speed of shaft. giving output in forms of read. stepped and combination labyrinths (ii) number of stages (iii) relative tilt between labyrinths and rotor (iv) flow rate and inlet conditions. The current total of 144 pressure distribution measurements of the labyrinth assembly as well as static mld dynamic pressure measurements at the inlet and outlet are fed to a bank of mechanical rotary swi tches • These switches allow 5 pressure lines. with clearances of 0. 'lbe working fluid inlet and outlet temperature from the labyrinth assembly are also monitored by thermocouples to validate the theoretical assumption that the two temperatures are constant. 'lbe movement is achieved by means of lateral finely threaded jack screws.62Omm x 6.635mm. 35Qmn 'axial length) and 9. At each setting of these parameters static pressure measurements are taken as the leakage flows through the labyrinths. with the rotor and its bearings housings being fixed in its original location. The scanning of the pressure transducers as well as thermocouples and proximators are activated via a data transfer unit. To minimise the effort required to move the job. Other than parallel eccentric movement a relative tilt between the rotor and labyrinths can be set. At each inlet port setting a scan of all the pressure transducers are taken and sequential switching . As static pressure measure ments are of interest here this arrangement would be more cost effective than electronics based scanning valves.clearance. 525DD1l X 9. The experimental parameters are (i) seal geometry and types: straight through.064DD1l/4.35Omm are also used. CUstom made pressure fittings are mounted on recesses in 5he individual labyrinth fins to measure static pressure circumferentially at 30 intervals in each and every stage down the labyrinth stack.0. although more can be added. Stepped and cOmbination seals of 4. Further combination of labyrinth dimensions can be catered for by mere manufacture of the fins required.
c )h cihi i i Rei Re" ...c ) P + Pi ci i+ 1 i i a f  ax  t i ap 2 2 i (3) + K' P c . = 2v �v (6) The analytical solution to the above set of equations is simplified by defining an equivalent clearance change (ref.   ax f a1.. i qi+1 1. Kost as follows: (1) >= aP a(P c ) 1 (2) i i i + (q ...lli) (8) where �i 0: 229 . Sign (U .t.c ) K' i i .K" P (U. " ..c )  i  i i i ax )" L' ). .  2f 2f i i (5) ).1l2 ..q + ) i i l . + (c .12) (7) (1 + � )Yi Y(e ) i = !i(t.. i aC ile. fn (Re") (U ."L" (4) sign c t Ki .lO) derived a set of fluid to be a perfec t gas. SUMMARY OF THEORY and the working Assuming an isothermal process in a multistage labyrinth glands fundamental equations yuk (ref.' = fn(Re' ) ).
y 230 .cylinders rotating within moderate clearance ratios.3. Figure 12 shows the pressure ratio for all chambers on an absolute scale for a case seen earlier € = 0.3 m/s. It is pointed out here that the experimental points are averaged values of readings taken continuously for each pressure measurement. Apparently peripheral speeds do not affect the distributions except for the first chamber where the trough increases with speed. However subsequent chambers give a distribution with minimum pressure just before the minimum gap. f.17) has shown that the Reynolds Equation in a modified form can be used for finite.c) � (9) f.6. If the pressure distributions are numerically integrated as defined in the sign convention. � q* where 0 = 2rrr i [ (10) A possible alternative approach is to apply modified bearing theory to labyrinth chambers.K" (0 .4. i .Subsequently giving a pressure distribution . € = 0. The profiles are similar in form but with values scaling up with increased eccentricity.525mm and labyrinth depth 9. 37. Scatter are within + 2�% and extremely good repeatability is obtained. axial pitch 9. figure 13.6 and u = 94.63Smm. � � 2 1 Dr. Note that with the sign convention adopted a positive F indicates a negative spring force. Pinkus and Etison (ref. Figures 811 give the circumferential pressure distribution down the stages for cases of parallel eccentricities. These give rise to radial negative spring forces. A restoring force type of pressure distribution with a slight trough is observed in the first chamber. It is obvious here that unequalPressure field do�s exist for parallel eccentricity cases. 0. radial and transverse forces can be obtained. The resulting circumferential pressure distributions are shown in Figure 7. 2 Dr. This indicates that any biased pressure profiles would be due to eccentricity. Figure 6 shows the pressure reduction as the working fluid is throttled for a concentric rotor.525mm. 94. cos 6 2 [K'C +.7. The obtaining of pressure profiles beyond the first chamber shows the limitation of the 'equivalent clearance' pressure prediction of Kurohashi which gives a zero differential pressure field beyond the first chamber. 0 m/s. � . ADDITIONAL MATERIAL PRESENTED AT THE WO RKSHOP All experimental data presented in figures 6 17 are for straight through seals  with mean radial clearance 0. The expected unbiased pressure distributions are obtained except for slight deviation in chambers 6 and 7. speed or other experimental parameters and can be taken as significant. say between 103 to 101 which cover likely values for labyrinths. c Or . cos 6 + sin 6 Pi (6) Pi = f.
E. Engng. 11. power. J. Thomas.: SelfExcited Vibration in Turbomachines resulting from Flow through Labyrinth Glands.: Investigating Aerodynamic Transverse Forces in Labyrinth Seals in Cases Involving Rotor Eccentricity.: Further Investigations into Load Dependent Low Frequency Vibration of the High Pressure Rotor on Large TurboGenerators. Sci. Trans. The transverse force tends to be small and fairly insensitive to eccentricities. H. Translated from Energomashinostrojenie Vol. (1958) Vol. W. D. 5. and Termuehlen. 295. April 1978. Trans. These radial forces vary with stage number and eccentricity in a consistent manner. M. Power. 6.E. H.Mech.: Flow Excited Vibrations in High Pressure Turbines (Steam Whirl).G. and beyond this chamber negative spring forces are evident in all stages. 127135. J.Mech. pp. 12. fourth edition.. 6. S. REFERENCES 1. pp. 6785.3 mls and € = 0. Greathead.4. C. 219228. 0. 1517.J.A. October 1965. H. McGrawHill Book Co. The pressure distributions. 6281.: Investigations into Load Dependent Vibrations of the High Pressure Rotor on Large TurboGenerators.E.: Protecting Turbomachinery from SelfExcited Rotor Whirl. I. 1974. Vol. pp. Bull. Schwerdtfeger. Greathead.. P. ASME . as seen earlier.: Mechanical Vibrations. Trans. Conference on Vibrations in Rotating Machinery. I. C. in particular an axial wave variation is clearly present. J. Figure 16 gives the radial and transverse forces for several eccentricities. Translated from Ingenieur Archiv.E. J.P. September 1980. and Slocombe} M. 43 (1974). and Keiper. 2. Translated from A. C. I. Figure 14 gives the radial and transverse forces in individual labyrinth chambers for u : 94. figure 15. New York.E.: Unstable Oscillations of Turbine Rotors due to Steam Leakage in the Clearances of the Sealing Glands and Blading. Nos.S. C.with the linear relationship of F with eccentricity seen. 4. U. The effects of these forces will be incorporated into a model of a real rotor using the rotordynamic computer programme of the Department in the near future. 3. 71. 8. Alford. Spurk. pp.S. and Marshenko. R. September 1976.Engng.H. Conference on Vibrations in Rotating Machinery. Trans. are fairly insensitive to speed and obviously so would the resulting forces. 333344. and Bastow. pp.296· 7.. 231 . Rosenberg.H. 7083. 8. E. Trans. y The above results presented are some of the experiments done with the recent commissioning of the test rig. Inc. The first chamber has a restoring radial force. Figure 17 gives the summation of radial and transverse forces plotted against eccentricitY. pollman. Obviously the full experimental schedule is yet to be undertaken and it is hopeful that meaningful results will be obtained. ASME. S. The radial forces are dependent on eccentricity and the transverse forces much less so. Orlik. J.H. Den Hartog.
Kostyuk. 7104. I. Iwatsubo. Inoue. and Etsion. 13. April 1961. 16. '1'. 9. Fluids Engng. Conference on Vibrations in Rotating Machinery. 'lb. 2933).E. NASA Conference Publication 2133.Mech. pp.Workshop on Rotordynamic Instabllity Problems in HighPerformance TUrbomachinery. J. Budapest 1979. 19 (11) pp.E. NASA Conference Publication 2133. 19 1972 (11). 11.ermal Engineering Vol. Benckert. Pinkus.Mech. Trans. Trans. pp.: Analysis of Finite Cylinders Rotating Within Moderate Clearance Ratios.. September 1980. '1'. Y. May 1980.. Benckert. 15. 232 . 17.: A Theoretical Analysis of the Aerodynamic Forces in the Labyrinth Glands of TUrbomachines. J. Power. Conference on Vibrations in Rotating Machinery. Texas A&M Oniv. Proceedings of the 6th Conference on Fluid Machinery. B. W. Kurohashi. pp.. J. J. I. Benckert.Engng. J.: Evaluation of the Instability Forces of Labyrinth Seals in Turbines or Compressors. Symposium . ASHE. 14.: Flow Induced Constants of Labyrinth Seals.: Spring and Damping Coefficients of the Labyrinth Seals.. and Wachter. Orlik. Ve:rmes. G. et al: 'lb. pp. and Fuj ikawa. May 1980. Trans. H. and Wachter. Abe. 12. September 1980.: Flow Induced Coefficients of Labyrinth Seals for Application in Rotordynamics. A. Symposium . ASHE.G. 156162.: Investigations on the Mass Flow Induced Forces in Contactless Seals of 'l'Ilrbomachines. M. o. and Wachter. Texas A&M Oniv. '1'. 10. pp. H. 1975.E.e centring Effect in Labyrinth Type Seals and its Effect on Low Frequency Vibration of TurboMachines. 5766. 3944 (Teploenergetika 1972. C.: A Fluid Mechanics Approach to the Labyrinth Seal Leakage Problem. . I. June 1976..Workshop on Rotordynamic Instability Problems in High Perfomance 'l'Ilrbomachinery. Translated from Energomashinostrojenie Vol. 2529. 10. 161169..G.
Schematic layout of test rig an d 'instrumentations. View of overall test rig. . Figure 2. .  FLOW MfASUAEl1ENT DATA "TRANSFER UNIT WORKING FLUID THERMOCOUPLES Figure 1. 233 .
o 50 100 mm I I Figure 3. . 234 . Sectioned assembly drawing of test rig (main assembly).
Straight through labyrinths. _. View of builtup straight through labyrinths. . +. . es of builtup labyrinth stack. . Figure 5.  . Figure 4.  (a ) . Combination labyrinths. . . (b) . . 235 .
' Ilo � \:.:p. /p. ! � .�� I ! I 4 i : I .. til til i I I � P7 I'"J ill t.""'' �.2 .2·95 bars P. ii '\' p.. " r _ o 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 I LABYRINTH CHAMBER NUMBER o 60 120 I 180 • 240 I 300 360 0 PERIPHERAL ANGLE Figure 6..._.�. '''I (.I  ..1 � 'I .9 bar• l:l . ! .... � : I I til til . . .. . ._+ . I I ! • I .. Po "I I�"r I I 1.�..'1' 11 �. �i��·�I�" 1 i I ... p.. :. ..I . J. .. .9 I I "l....• .Ij a' . Ilo ...... · § ..___ o . . I : � 1 ' 1 I ' I �i . p...5 P : • 2. i P... l · .. ' : 0.� Ii \ i . I • I '! . 1 . i i I" P� .. ' I i · tl :. .4 ! ..0 . e . ____ � � .... p. . concentric rotor.P.. Pressure distribution. •  i I 0 1.12 I .35 I...8 .: "±'t""�'. : : i � iNo...835_. . ·0 mi.p. '...'i.i.. ' .tlPi• � I I I • 0.0 ma12 II 0 mls p.5 ' � r I ..1 .. i . . �  J  ..P. : I : I ! ..... .:t= ' :d+.... 0\ • r�l. 1 i_I i ll .of_I.. ' ____ I L. 9 ���+. _ �...Pressure expansion through the s�ages.6 1= a.0 P1.3 1 \ P9 ' T .7 : . . ' foI::u.!" . . '' £0 .. " . _...+== .21 .0..8 I " '" . I ·3  1\ t�.I . . __ I . i P" I i 't' .p. P3� ' 1""' ' 1 i or' I "+ ' I .....t'\...' 003S �'�I"rI' = 1.. ..) i �. . :"\�.. _.m.� P1 I ! '� '/ ". concentric rotor Figure 7. " :� I '..+ Ps I ._r.l.6 I 0 Swirl . I o Swirt Q .
...... " " . __ 'I 300 I • 360 · · 60 il � l I 120 110 240 I I 300 i 360· 120 180 240 o PERIPHERAL ANGLE o 80 PERIPHERAL ANGLE Figure 8.3m/s . I 'P.12 i' �..... .. � Cop (Ref. .932 bars o 3oU! aj ... 'T'.' " .'..669 0 ' ri pni '.. . i 1'.1 .. • " ' 2. . I I • .... 15 " ' .468 ' .. I . ' i o '.. . '. _ I f'" ' p i.. I ! \ I..Q e 15 ' V ". ' ' • 15 l.._.345 ..640 0 " 2. 1.. . CIl � '" 15 ' Y ' . .. o ' 2..) (Reference) I : _':��'. 2 ' . � 30 t.. i .i .r  � : j 1' .. parallel ...""'__=_.1 .� ... I PM/PO = 0345 2.. •.. ' . .... eccentricit� .. � . .. I I P s 30 o r.Pressure distribution... . . Q . ...._ .. '� ' i i I ! i I .�. t .. "" ....�. m o 2. · i 30 .. S..' .' : : 2. . t _ E  1:: ..... i .3m/s 30 I uz94.Pressure distribution. P6 . CIl .0... .. : Co' 0. �_ ..499 ' ' r' 1 ... .368 ! � o .. � '" 15 f � .... Ps : ' j j fil • N ' 15 P s W .271 30 30 � . ' ..: ' ! i .:) · I P4• . 15 !'.Q e 15 . ' 15 . __ .... . .. ' Pa • . .. P". ""../"r ..:) ' � CIl U� "  CIl .990 o 15 r.620 30 r _ . 30 �I : 2. eccent ricity . " .. . 15 't:./ i o ... '""" . : ". ��'. ' .1p •• 0. I I.4 'i : . .587 =12 : . o 3° I : ti.' ' �.. o � .. t". s•• •• Swirl. .. "' . ]L 30 u=9It.. i 15 .. ...248 ....� � � . o "� . . � · ..� i ' : L J I) :i '.. ' : :0' i 'I +I Po' 2.I 30 30 � � . �_� ' ..� 2. .....6 15 0 1S Y. .. 30 ' ::... /r 30 �l{... � . . 2. ' Ap P 15 . parall�l Figure 9.. m .
i 1 :1 i i:. .: 1 rs ... i '" ..'.i' h I � : 2 ... e.�. .:.I ''F o .. :z 3 15 . • ..Li '. 'J.. "1 I o 30 i ! 3 ! j i i: P31 � i I p I I �.' .' I .. eccentricity.. _ " .___ I 2. p�11 . Po I ...... P2 30 I 0 . : ''l'.� � I I � _I : : ..819 bars Ap 15 L1 ' l "L 11 P1 .12 p 15 'l . i:: r�. 2.'.: I: ... . parallel Figure 11.. I 1" .. I I i I o ..' . : �/IS ' 2557 i ' 2. ! �� I i 15 i __ r "".. .. 1 t.240 300 360' 60 '10 180 140 300 . ! I i .r :.. r • I � ..ar ' "... . ___ N fl! e.924 • i ' ''' i ' 30 30 I.110 '' i : rL Ii: ! l.t.787 . : r! " en lS fl!� • . . iIp : ': .97 I • j i I . � i i i �. 5 • I � ' !/ 1 I r' 2. parallel eccentri city.·r ' : 1 1..�i.12 : • ri 1513 .. : .!.. I . : / : r... . 0 30 II . . �+" 15 i 1 ·1_. . i f . .. �lUOl 3 G' .." ["" (R.I 15 /.." ..' .� . 1.. . I .. I 2..+" .. .. P Pa "' ! j ' 15 : .. .f..."'11 ! ' . � I ' .! � f � :. 1 I� . ..7 ". '� 30 J..�� : . u 37. 1 4.' ! .Pressure distribution. (Ref. i j�' : ! it : ..·....Pressure distribution. ___ 1 + .... .60 Figure 10..1 8 "�·!·l VJ 5 rr:I Eo I 00 rx. : � '.... 1..0' Pl I I I . I .0. t Swirl 0 15 i Swirl=O . ... I & : to.� V! til i.�/i .! 15 "r 'I 1 1. �. .. . /' ... i t i I ...! I 1 iiiI ..1....... .538 .�ar. : f" '� 1 1057 i' ' 30 f a .399 2... i '!'. . . 1 �t1 1047 j.A. : ! ! P4 � 0 I ..J..778 I i 60 12Q 180 .292 . i ' . � 2. ' i""'" .. l "L 15 � ...Is � .382 _·t I 0 : ! I ' fl!Q 30 . . . I ".� lA 15 i �� 1 .. ' ' P7/ "�: i I..� 1.837 bars Ap 30 � 0 :r'rr'ra..6 3 a i : I""'" &�.
� .�� C J T F r to p COS a de Y ..• �.. . Figure 12...�. ' .: ...0. p'/p... . ..8 ... 0. : _____ 0 J ' 1_ 10 .�.... 8 . : Fx .1 1 I I o eo 120 180 I ' Figure )3• Sign convention for eccentricity .. 21t ..�� s .....6 m .. &f4.. .� + I I i • �..9 1 ...o::...9... ... . .. ...� . �.  i I��L_'"_. t...... .. . ..�.. . u . �.�.. fT _ 2 . f . t _�_.. �.......... .' t= . . _P _... .5 1 ________ ' . ........345 P� Pili • Fy � Pfli Swirl .3 m/. = 1. ... •I '� ' '... .. '.3 1' "__ • .1 § I • I/) I/) . t:�..�... 2 t..0 p•• 2... . Fx • r to p Sin a de 11 1 ..0 t ...:... ... ...... II =1 \0 .... N 9 W ' : ' ..8 Jo.... .94. .91 bars 1 j i 0 I ! .:.. ... '� .. 0 J...7 t==� t!....... • 12 P. .....7 .• PERIPHERAL ANGLE and forces..: : 2!l I ' ..ti__....6. ... �=J  .
N 7 [Zj e:Q. labyrinth chamber.4 Fx '" = 12 a !':Q.5 N ·4 u :94.35 4 N : 4.. :0.