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under the guidance of

Department of Civil Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi

DLF. USA defines tall building as 14 or more stories or over 165 ft(50) meter height . 2 Preface What is a tall Building? • Council of Tall Building and Urban Habitat. Motivation for the project • India has become one of the hot spot in Asia for big construction companies such L&T. the expectation would be over 50 Storey. • Formulae proposed in published paper either does not cover tall buildings or if covered. Ron Klemencic authored document titled Recommendations for the Seismic Design of High-rise Buildings in which A tall building is defined by them in this document as a building of sufficient height for the period of the first translational mode of vibration to exceed 4 seconds. Michael Willford. Chopra) . Andrew Whittaker.and Anil K. only one or two parameters has been taken as variable. Tata Projects. • It has been seen that The measured time period is on higher side compared to Code based Time Period specially for building height Measuring 150 ft or beyond (45 Meters –approximately about 15 story and beyond). Gammon India and Hindustan with hundreds of high-rises and more than 100 super tall skyscraper under construction most of which are concrete Shear Wall Dominant System. Goel. • Current code formulas for estimating the fundamental period of concrete SW buildings are grossly inadequate ( Rakesh K. Murray suggest tall building in world term.

Scope RCSW Building with height Range 100 Meters to 200 Meters.15 g IS 1893 Response Spectra for Analysis of New Models of buildings Tools to be used CSMIP & Others-Measured Time Period Data from Instrumented Buildings SAP2000 and ANSYS . 3 Project Objectives Aim Development of a simplified analytical function to calculate fundamental time period to be used for estimation of Base Shear in Tall Building with Shear Walls. with Average story height of 2.5 Meter Peak Ground Acceleration >0.5 to 3.

Modal identification of concrete shear wall buildings by Damien Gilles. Goel. . Chopra. EERI. • They used available data on the fundamental vibration period of buildings measured from their motions recorded during several California earthquakes. starting with the 1971 San Fernando earthquake and ending w. codes using the available data on the fundamental period of buildings "measured" from their motions recorded during eight California earthquakes. Chopra Building Period Formulas for Estimating Seismic Displacements’ by Anil K. M. 4 Literature Review Ref. Ghyslaine McClure Estimation of Fundamental Period for Residential Building with Shear Wall by Chun Yon Sue • The foremost paper on time period of Shear wall buildings used by designers is Period formulas for concrete shear wall buildings By Rakesh K.l and Anil K.S. M. Chopra . Evaluated first in this paper are the formulas specified in present U.ith the 1994 Northridge earthquake.: Period formulas for concrete shear wall buildings By Rakesh K. EERI and Rakesh K. a factor to limit the period calculated by a "rational" analysis. Goel. Finally. Goel and Anil K. • They have proposed a formulae calibrating theoretical formulae using Dunkerley‘ s method against measured period of various Shear Wall Buildings through regression analysis. is recommended. such as Rayleigh's method.

Goel and Anil K. Chopra • The Fig 1 Below show the variation of Time Period(Measured & by Code formulae) with Height . 5 Literature Review Ref:Period formulas for concrete shear wall buildings By Rakesh K.

Goel and Anil K. 6 Literature Review Ref:Period formulas for concrete shear wall buildings By Rakesh K. Chopra • The Period of Flexural Cantilever • The Period of Pure Shear Cantilever k=shape factor=5/6 for Rectangular clad Building • Combining The Two .

7 Literature Review Ref :Period formulas for concrete shear wall buildings By Rakesh K. Goel. Chopra • For Stiffness properties of wall uniform over entire height Goel & Chopra 1997a .l and Anil K. Appendix G • Regression analysis based on above formulae with available measured data leads to .

8 Literature Review Ref. Goel.r. Chopra The plot below shows plot of Time period from above formulae along with measured time period w.:Period formulas for concrete shear wall buildings By Rakesh K. Height in Ft. and Anil K.t. .

Chopra ASCE-7-2010 adopted the formulae • Formulae Proposed in IS 1893-Draft Provision . Goel and Anil K.Proposed Draft Provision on Indian Seismic Code by Sudhir K Jain. CVR Murthy • Based on the paper by Rakesh K. 9 Literature Review Ref:ASCE-7-2010.

. EERI.019H The Figure 4 shows the Time Period plotted data using the above formula and measured time period data.: M. 10 Literature Review Ref. Modal identification of concrete shear wall buildings by Damien Gilles • Evaluated Measured Data for a subset of the 27 RCSW buildings in Montréal for which shear wall dimensions were available proposed T = 0.

• UBC. • When above two formulas are plotted against measured time period.09H/√Ds Ds=Length of Wall or Braced frame in Meter. SEASOC gives Alt.09H/√D This formulae gives a period much shorter in Longitudinal direction and Longer in Transverse direction • NBCC formulae T= 0. 11 Literature Review Ref: Estimation of Fundamental Period for Residential Building with Shear Wall by Chun Yon Sue • Analysed full scale measurement of 50 Reinforced Concrete Apartment building with shear wall dominant system(RCASDS) • UBC formulae T=0. both gave 2 to 3 times shorter time period than Measured . Where Ae=∑Ai(0.1 H 0.75/√Ae. which constitute the main Lateral Load system in the Direction parallel to applied forces. formulae as T=0.2+(De/Hi)2).

the Time Period range beyond 2 Seconds has been taken into account and studied. UBC. based on Measured Time period data of up to 2 Seconds. 12 Limitations of Formulae proposed in Literature reviewed & Code Formulae • Time Period formulae proposed by Goel & Chopra is based on Measured Time period data of up to 2 Seconds. NBCC Code Formulae gives shorter Period than measured one. . But considering height alone to control the Fundamental Time period of tall Shear Walled building will be too simplistic • IS code does not prescribe any formulae for RCSW Buildings. Whereas Tall buildings have longer Fundamental time period usually above 4 Seconds. ASCE formulae is based on formulae is based on Formulae proposed by Goel & Chopra. • Formulae proposed by Damien Gilles.

To ignore them in calculating the period is to err on the un conservative side. the calculated period is lengthened. . 13 Theory Behind Code formula for Base Shear Determination. 2001]: “If one ignores the contribution of non structural elements to the stiffness of the structure. Non structural elements do not know that they are non structural. • Reason – As per NEHRP Commentary [FEMA 369. They participate in the behaviour of the structure even though the designer may not rely on them for contributing any strength or stiffness to the structure. Base shear obtained from Dynamic Analysis is scaled up to Base Shear Obtained from Code Formulae.” Increase in Stiffness of Structure-therefore the Code prescribes Time Period formulae to include the effect of Non Structural Elements Hence Computation of Accurate Time Period of Structure including the effect of Non Structural elements is of prime importance. leading to a decrease in the design force.

14 Methodology Collection of Measured Time period data Building Data from CSMIP.5 -Comparing Computed Period -Simulation to achieve measured period Collection & Development of Theoretical Formulas to Model Stiffness Contribution by Non Structural Elements Modeling a Number of Hypothetical RCSW Tall Buildings -Plotting Time Period Data Vs Individual Parameters -Identifying equations governing the above plots -Combining all equation to arrive at final Semi-empirical formulae .ATC-09 and Other’s Instrumented Building Modeling Instrumented Building in SAP2000 / ANSYS 14.

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16 Thank You!! .