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A Friendly Introduction to Differential Equations

**Book · January 2015
**

DOI: 10.13140/2.1.4168.4806

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Mohammed K A Kaabar

Riverside Community College District

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**A Friendly Introduct... A Friendly Introduction to
**

Differential Equations

Authored by Mohammed K A Kaabar

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164 pages

ISBN-13: 9781506004532

ISBN-10: 1506004539

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Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved

**About the Author
**

Mohammed Kaabar has a Bachelor of Science in

Theoretical Mathematics from Washington State

University, Pullman, WA. He is a graduate student in

A Friendly Introduction to Applied Mathematics at Washington State University,

Pullman, WA, and he is a math tutor at the Math

Differential Equations Learning Center (MLC) at Washington State

University, Pullman. He is the author of A First

Course in Linear Algebra Book, and his research

interests are applied optimization, numerical analysis,

differential equations, linear algebra, and real

analysis. He was invited to serve as a Technical

Program Committee (TPC) member in many

conferences such as ICECCS 14, ENCINS 15, eQeSS

15, SSCC 15, ICSoEB 15, CCA 14, WSMEAP 14,

EECSI 14, JIEEEC 13 and WCEEENG 12. He is an

online instructor of two free online courses in

numerical analysis: Introduction to Numerical

Analysis and Advanced Numerical Analysis at Udemy

Inc, San Francisco, CA. He is a former member of

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

(IEEE), IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society,

IEEE Consultants Network, IEEE Smart Grid

Community, IEEE Technical Committee on RFID,

IEEE Life Sciences Community, IEEE Green ICT

Community, IEEE Cloud Computing Community,

IEEE Internet of Things Community, IEEE Committee

on Earth Observations, IEEE Electric Vehicles

Community, IEEE Electron Devices Society, IEEE

Communications Society, and IEEE Computer Society.

He also received several educational awards and

certificates from accredited institutions. For more

information about the author and his free online

courses, please visit his personal website:

http://www.mohammed-kaabar.net.

2 M. Kaabar 3

www.ebook3000.com

Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved

**Table of Contents 4 Extended Methods of First and Higher Orders
**

Differential Equations 78

Introduction 6

4.1 Bernoulli Method………………….….....………78

1 The Laplace Transform 9

4.2 Separable Method…..…..................................85

1.1 Introduction to Differential Equations..…........9

4.3 Exact Method………..…..................................87

1.2 Introduction to the Laplace Transforms……..14

4.4 Reduced to Separable Method…..…...............90

1.3 Inverse Laplace Transforms……….…….........24

4.5 Reduction of Order Method……...…...............92

1.4 Initial Value Problems……..……………..........27

4.6 Exercises……………………………………….....95

1.5 Properties of Laplace Transforms……….……33

1.6 Systems of Linear Equations……….………....45

1.7 Exercises……………………………………..…...49 5 Applications of Differential Equations 96

5.1 Temperature Application……........................96

5.2 Growth and Decay Application…..………....100

2 Systems of Homogeneous Linear Differential 5.3 Water Tank Application…………….....…….104

Equations (HLDE) 51

2.1 HLDE with Constant Coefficients..................51 Appendices 109

2.2 Method of Undetermined Coefficients…….…60 A Determinants…………………….......................109

2.3 Exercises…………………………………….…...65 B Vector Spaces…………….………..………….....116

C Homogenous Systems…...…………….....…….135

**3 Methods of First and Higher Orders Differential Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises 157
**

Equations 67

3.1 Variation Method……………………………….67 Index 159

3.2 Cauchy-Euler Method………..…………..……74

3.3 Exercises……………………………………..….76 Bibliography 163

4 M. Kaabar 5

I wrote five chapters: The Laplace 1 Transform. and they left it at the end of their books. Methods of First and Higher Orders Ͳ Differential Equations.wsu. Systems of Homogenous Linear Differential ࣦሼ݂ሺݐሻሽ ൌ න ݁ ି௦௧ ݂ሺݐሻ݀ݐ Equations (HLDE). I have noticed that some students have difficulty to understand some concepts of 7 ݁ ି௦ ݁ ି௦ laplace transforms because most authors of differential ࣦሼܷሺ ݐെ ܾሻሽ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቊ ቋ ൌ ܷሺ ݐെ ܾሻ ݏ ݏ equations books did not start with laplace transforms as a 8 ࣦ൛݂ ሺሻ ሺݐሻൟ ൌ ݏ ܨሺݏሻ െ ݏିଵ ݂ሺͲሻ െ ݏିଶ ݂ ᇱ ሺݏሻ െ ڮെ ݂ ሺିଵሻ ሺݏሻ first chapter. According to my ࣦ ିଵ ሼ݁ ି௦ ܨሺݏሻሽ ൌ ݂ ሺ ݐെ ܾሻܷሺ ݐെ ܾሻ experience as a math tutor. Kaabar 7 www. please email your comments to integer mohammed. In conclusion. Extended Methods of First and 2 ͳ ࣦሼ ݐ ሽ ൌ Ǩ where m is a Higher Orders Differential Equations. then: area of differential equations. applied 6 ࣦሼ݄ሺݐሻܷሺ ݐെ ܾሻሽ ൌ ݁ ି௦ ࣦሼ݄ሺ ݐ ܾሻሽ mathematics. and my only lovely 13-year old brother who is sick.kaabar@email. I would appreciate ࣦሼߜሺ ݐെ ܾሻሽ ൌ ݁ ି௦ 12 ࣦሼߜሺݐሻሽ ൌ ͳ to consider this book as a milestone for developing more math books that can serve our mathematical society in the 13 Assume that ݂ሺݐሻ is periodic with period ܲ. and electric circuits II. I also added exercises at the end of each chapter above to let students practice additional sets of number) 3 ܿ ݏ problems other than examples. I decided to start with a different approach by where m is a positive integer choosing laplace transforms to be in the first chapter of this ௗ ிሺ௦ሻ ௗ ிሺ௦ሻ 9 ࣦሼ ݐ ݂ሺݐሻሽሺݏሻ ൌ ሺെͳሻ ࣦ ିଵ ቄ ቅ ൌ ሺെͳሻ ݐ ݂ሺݐሻ ௗ௦ ௗ௦ book. and they can also check ࣦሼ ܿݐሽ ൌ ࣦሼ ܿݐሽ ൌ ଶ ݏଶ ܿଶ ݏ ܿଶ their solutions to some of these exercises by looking at “Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises” section at the end of 4 ͳ ࣦሼ݁ ௧ ሽ ൌ this book. and I want to spend every dollar in his 11 ௧ heath care.1: Laplace Transform 6 M. my mother. I would also like to give a special thanks to all ܨሺݏሻ ࣦ ቐන ݂ ሺ߰ሻ݀߰ቑ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ሼܨሺݏሻ ή ܪሺݏሻሽ ൌ ݂ሺݐሻ ݄ כሺݐሻ administrators and professors of mathematics at WSU for ݏ their educational support.ebook3000.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Introduction Table of Laplace Transform λ In this book. and other students who want to review 5 ࣦሼ݁ ௧ ݂ሺݐሻሽ ൌ ܨሺݏሻ ȁ ݏ՜ ݏെ ܾ ࣦ ିଵ ሼܨሺݏሻ ȁ ݏ՜ ݏെ ܾ ሽ ൌ ܾ݂݁ ݐሺݐሻ some concepts of differential equations before studying courses such as partial differential equations. If you have any comments related to the contents of where m is a positive where m is a positive integer this book.1. ௧ 10 I wish to express my gratitude and appreciation to ࣦሼ݂ሺݐሻ ݄ כሺݐሻሽ ൌ ܨሺݏሻ ή ܪሺݏሻ ݂ሺݐሻ ݄ כሺݐሻ ൌ න ݂ሺ߰ሻ݄ሺ ݐെ ߰ሻ݀߰ my father. This book is a very useful for college students who ݏെܾ studied Calculus II.com .edu. and Applications of ࣦሼͳሽ ൌ ௦ శభ ݏ positive integer (whole Differential Equations. Therefore. ͳ ࣦሼ݂ሺݐሻሽ ൌ න ݁ ି௦௧ ݂ሺݐሻ݀ݐ ͳ െ ݁ ି௦ Mohammed K A Kaabar Table 1.

Finally. 1. Then. and we will find the order of differential equations. We cover in the remaining sections an important concept known as the laplace transforms of derivatives. we define the laplace transforms. we start with an introduction to Differential Equations (DEs) including linear DEs. Kaabar 9 .1 Introductions to Differential Equations In this section. we are going to discuss how to determine whether the differential equation is linear or nonlinear. 8 M. and we mention some properties of laplace transforms. and the order of DEs.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Chapter 1 This page intentionally left blank The Laplace Transform In this chapter. dependent variables. and we give some examples of Initial Value Problems (IVPs). nonlinear DEs. independent variables. we will show the purpose of differential equations. we learn how to solve systems of linear equations (LEs) using Cramer’s Rule. At the end of this section. In addition. we discuss the inverse laplace transforms.

c) What is the order of this differential equation? Example 1. we need to introduce the following definition: a) Find ݕ. Example 1.3 The order of differential equation is b) Determine whether ݕᇱ ൌ ͳͷ ݔis a linear the highest derivative in the equation (i.2 Given that ݖᇱᇱᇱ ʹ ݖᇱᇱ ݖᇱ ൌ ʹ ݔଷ ʹʹ. the order of ݕᇱ ൌ ͳͷ ݔis 1. Solution: Part a: To find ݕ. Since the dependent variable ݕand all its derivatives are to the dependent variable can be written in terms of power 1. 10 M. Why? Using definition 1. Thus. the general solution is the following: determine whether ݖᇱᇱᇱ ʹ ݖᇱᇱ ݖᇱ ൌ ʹ ݔଷ ʹʹ is a ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ǥͷ ݔଶ ܿ where ܿ is constant. (Hint: Find the general solution of ݕᇱ ) Definition 1.1.1 Given that ݕᇱ ൌ ͳͷݔ.2 as follows: and ݔis called independent variable because it is Since the dependent variable ݖand all its derivatives independent from ݕ.e. equation is linear. equation.1. we have the following: dependent and independent variables where the ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ǥͷ ݔଶ ܿ where ܿ is constant.ebook3000. are to the power 1. differential equation or nonlinear differential equation. then this differential equation is Part b: To determine whether ݕᇱ ൌ ͳͷ ݔis a linear linear.1. we need to find the general a) Determine whether ݖᇱᇱᇱ ʹ ݖᇱᇱ ݖᇱ ൌ ʹ ݔଷ ʹʹ is solution of ݕᇱ by taking the integral of both sides as a linear differential equation or nonlinear follows: differential equation. Part c: To find the order of this differential equation. and ݔis called independent ଵହ ݂ ᇱ ሺݔሻ ݀ ݔൌ ݂ሺݔሻ).1.1.1. then to ଶ Ǥͷ ݔଶ ܿ. differential equation if it has two types of variables: According to the above question. equation.1.2.1. Part b: To find the order of ݖᇱᇱᇱ ʹ ݖᇱᇱ ݖᇱ ൌ ʹ ݔଷ ʹʹ. because it depends on ݔ. this differential independent variable.1. the differential equation Definition 1.com . Otherwise. Kaabar 11 www. This means that ݕ linear differential equation or nonlinear differential is called dependent variable because it depends on ݔ.2 The differential equation is called and with a simple example about differential equation.3 which implies that the order is 3 because the highest derivative is 3.3.1 A mathematical equation is called is nonlinear. Why? න ݕᇱ ݀ ݕൌ න ͳͷݔ݀ ݔ b) What is the order of this differential equation? Since ݕ ᇱ ݀ ݕൌ ݕbecause the integral of derivative Solution: Part a: Since ݖis called dependent variable function is the original function itself (In general. then ݕൌ ͳ ͷ ݔ݀ ݔൌ ݔଶ ܿ ൌ variable because it is independent from ݖ.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved let’s start with the definition of differential equation Definition 1. linear if the dependent variable and all its derivatives are to the power 1. then using definition 1. we need to use definition 1. The order of differential equation or nonlinear differential ݕᇱᇱᇱ ͵ ݕᇱᇱ ʹ ݕᇱ ൌ ͳʹ ݔଶ ʹʹ is 3). we need to introduce the following definition: we use definition 1.

Step 1: ݄ is a dependent variable. section: Step 2: Since ݄ and all its derivatives are to the power Example 1. we need to use definition 1.1. linear differential equation or nonlinear differential we use definition 1. the above differential equation is a linear Since the dependent variable ݉ and all its derivatives differential equation of order 3. Why? 1.1. Kaabar 13 . and ݔis called independent in terms of ݔ. then the above differential equation is linear. differential equations: We need to apply what we have learned from the ݖሺሻ is the ݉th derivative of ݖ. Solution: To determine whether it is a linear The following are some useful notations about differential equation or nonlinear differential equation. is a linear differential equation or nonlinear Step 2: Since ܾ and all its derivatives are to the power differential equation. ʹܾݔሺଷሻ ሺ ݔ ͳሻܾሺଶሻ ͵ܾ ൌ ݔଶ ݁ ௫ .5 Given that is nonlinear. and ݔis an a) Determine whether ݉ሺସሻ ሺ͵݉ᇱᇱ ሻଷ െ ݉ ൌ ξ ݔ ͳ independent variable. Solution: Part a: Since ݉ is called dependent variable Step 4: Assume that ܥሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݔଶ ݁ ௫ Ǥ Then.1.1. are not to the power 1.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Example 1. then this differential equation Example 1.3 Given that ݉ሺସሻ ሺ͵݉ᇱᇱ ሻଷ െ ݉ ൌ ξ ݔ ͳ.4 Given that 1. variable because it is independent from ݉. b) What is the order of this differential equation? Step 3: Coefficients of ܾ and all its derivatives are in terms of the independent variable ݔ. 12 M. previous examples in the following five steps: ݖ is the ݉th power of ݖ.1.2 as follows: Thus. Solution: To determine whether it is a linear (Hint: Do not confuse between ݉ሺସሻ and ݉ସ because differential equation or nonlinear differential equation. equation. then the above differential equation is linear. Determine whether it Step 3: Coefficients of ݄ and all its derivatives are in is a linear differential equation or nonlinear terms of the independent variable ݓ. and ݓis an The following two examples are a summary of this independent variable. 4 because the highest derivative is 4. then to Step 5: Our purpose from the above differential determine whether ݉ሺସሻ ሺ͵݉ᇱᇱ ሻଷ െ ݉ ൌ ξ ݔ ͳ is a equation is to find a solution where ܾ can be written in linear differential equation or nonlinear differential term of ݔ. ܥሺ ݔሻ must be because it depends on ݔ. differential equation. ሺ ݓଶ ͳሻ݄ሺସሻ െ ͵݄ݓᇱ ൌ ݓଶ ͳǤ Determine whether it is a Part b: To find the order of ݉ሺସሻ ሺ͵݉ᇱᇱ ሻଷ െ ݉ ൌ ξ ݔ ͳ. while ݉ସ means We need to apply what we have learned from the the fourth power of m). ݉ሺସሻ means the fourth derivative of ݉.3 which implies that the order is equation. previous examples in the following five steps: Step 1: ܾ is a dependent variable.

1 section 2.1 Using definition 1. we substitute ሺͳሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀ݔ differential equation of order 4.1.1. we need to look at table Definition 1. Step 5: Our purpose from the above differential Step 3: λ equation is to find a solution where ݄ can be written in ࣦሼͳሽ ൌ නሺͳሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀ݔ term of ݓ. ଵ ଵ ଵ of the laplace transforms in general. we need Step 1: We write the general definition of laplace to do the following steps: transform as follows: λ Step 1: We write the general definition of laplace ࣦሼ݂ሺݔሻሽ ൌ න ݂ ሺݔሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀ݔ transform as follows: λ Ͳ ࣦሼ݂ሺݔሻሽ ൌ න ݂ ሺݔሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀ݔ Ͳ 14 M.ebook3000. do the following steps: Solution: To find ࣦሼ݁ ௫ ሽ using definition 1. find ࣦሼͳሽ.2.2.2. Fact 1.1 is helpful to find laplace transforms. Solution: To find ࣦሼͳሽ using definition 1. ݂ ሺݔሻ ൌ ͳ because ࣦሼ݂ሺݔሻሽ ൌ be in terms of ݓ. denoted by ࣦ . and after that we can find the limit of In this section.1. 1. To check if our answer is right. Ͳ Thus. the above differential equation is a linear ஶ By the definition of integral. ଵ ଵ function.2 Introductions to the Step 4: We need to find ՜ஶ ݁ ି௦௫ ݀ ݔas follows: It is easier to find what it is inside the above box Laplace Transforms ቀ ݁ ି௦௫ ݀ ݔቁ. is 1. According to table ଵ defined in general as follows: 1. we are going to introduce the definition ݁ ି௦௫ ݀ݔ. we can conclude our example with the ࣦሼ݂ሺݔሻሽ ൌ න ݂ ሺݔሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀ݔ following fact: Ͳ Example 1.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Step 4: Assume that ܥሺݓሻ ൌ ݓଶ ͳǤ Then. ࣦሼͳሽ. and we will show how the table ଵ ଵ ଵ ቀെ ௦ ݁ ି௦ ௦ ቁ ൌ ௦ ݏ ͲǤ ՜ஶ 1. with ՜ஶ ሺͳሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀ݔ. ܥሺݓሻ must Step 2: Here in this example. find ࣦሼ݁ ௫ ሽ.2. Thus.1 the laplace transform.1. Kaabar 15 www.1. we found ࣦሼͳሽ ൌ ௦ which is the same λ answer we got.1 ࣦሼܽ݊ݐ݊ܽݐݏ݊ܿ ݕǡ ݉ ݕܽݏሽ ൌ ௦ .2.1.2.1 at the beginning of this book.2. we will give several examples about Step 5: We need find the limit of െ ௦ ݁ ି௦ ௦ as follows: the laplace transforms. and how can we Thus.2 Using definition 1. ݁ ି௦௫ ݀ ݔൌ െ ௦ ݁ ି௦௫ ቚ ௫ୀ ௫ୀ ൌ െ ௦ ݁ ି௦ ௦ ݁ ି௦ሺሻ ൌ ଵ ଵ use this definition to find the laplace transform of any െ ௦ ݁ ି௦ ௦ .1.com .2. Then. we need to Example 1.

4 Find ݔ͵ ଶ ሺͶݔሻ݀ݔ.1 at the beginning of this book. Kaabar 17 . ݔ ଷ ݁ ଶ௫ ݀ ݔൌ ଶ ݔଷ ݁ ଶ௫ െ ସ ݔଶ ݁ ଶ௫ ସ ݁ݔଶ௫ െ ଼ ݁ ଶ௫ ܥ.1 section 4. ݂ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ because Then. we substitute ͵ ݔଶ ଵ ଶ௫ ݁ ஶ ଶ ሺ݁ ݔሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀ݔ with ՜ஶ ሺ݁ ݔሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀ݔ. stop integrating when the corresponding row is zero. and we ࣦሼ݂ሺݔሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼ݁ ௫ ሽ.2. ଵ Table 1.2. The Step 3: following table shows the table method to find ݔ ଷ ݁ ଶ௫ ݀ݔ: λ ࣦሼ݁ ௫ ሽ ൌ නሺ݁ ௫ ሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀ݔ Derivatives Part Integration Part Ͳ ݔଷ ݁ ଶ௫ By the definition of integral. and the other one for integrations of ݁ ଶ௫ . we need to create two columns: one for derivatives of ݔଷ . Now. According to table In conclusion. and we stop known as the table method than using integration by parts. we need to create two columns: one for derivatives Example 1. The following table shows the table method to find In the table method.2.1: Table Method for ݔ ଷ ݁ ଶ௫ ݀ݔ Thus. ሺ ݈ܽ݅݉݊ݕ݈ሻሺܽݔሻ݀ݔ. The following examples are two examples about finding the integrals to review some concepts that will help us finding Solution: To find ݔ͵ ଶ ሺͶݔሻ݀ݔ.1. we can always use the table method to ଵ 1. it is easier to use a method we need to keep deriving ͵ ݔଶ till we get zero. Solution: To find ݔ ଷ ݁ ଶ௫ ݀ݔ. we need to look at table Thus. followed by negative ଵ ሺି௦ሻ ଵ ሺି௦ሻሺሻ ଵ ሺି௦ሻ ଵ sign.3 Find ݔ ଷ ݁ ଶ௫ ݀ݔ. from the above table 1.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Step 2: Here in this example. and so on as we can see in the above table 1.1. In the table method.2.1. and after that we can find the limit of ଵ Ͳ ݁ ଶ௫ ଵ ሺ݁ ݔሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀ݔ. ݔ ͳ ଶ௫ Step 4: We need to find ՜ஶ ሺ݁ ݔሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀ݔ as follows: ݁ Ͷ ଵ ଶ௫ It is easier to find what it is inside the above box ݁ ଼ ቀ ሺ݁ ݔሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀ ݔቁ. 1. ݔ͵ ଶ ሺͶݔሻ݀ݔ: 16 M. we need to keep deriving ݔଷ till we get zero. Then. integrating when the corresponding row is zero.2. ሺ݁ ݔሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀ ݔൌ ݁ ሺି௦ሻ௫ ݀ ݔൌ ሺି௦ሻ ݁ ሺି௦ሻ௫ ቚ ௫ୀ ௫ୀ ൌ We always start with positive sign. ሺି௦ሻ ݁ െ ሺି௦ሻ ݁ ൌ ሺି௦ሻ ݁ െ ሺି௦ሻ . we can find ݔ ଷ ݁ ଶ௫ ݀ ݔas ଵ ଵ Step 5: We need find the limit of ሺି௦ሻ ݁ ሺି௦ሻ െ ሺି௦ሻ as follows: ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ follows: න ݔଷ ݁ ଶ௫ ݀ ݔൌ ݔଷ ݁ ଶ௫ െ ሺ͵ሻ ݔଶ ݁ ଶ௫ ሺሻ ݁ݔଶ௫ െ ሺሻ݁ ଶ௫ ܥ ଵ ଵ ଵ ଵ ʹ Ͷ ͺ ͳ ቀ ݁ ሺି௦ሻ െ ሺି௦ሻቁ ൌ െ ሺି௦ሻ ൌ ሺ௦ିሻ ݏ Ǥ ՜ஶ ሺି௦ሻ ଵ ଷ ଷ ଷ To check if our answer is right. table method than using integration by parts. it is easier to use the the laplace transforms.1. and the other one for integrations of ሺͶݔሻ. of ͵ ݔଶ . Example 1. we found ࣦሼ݁ ௫ ሽ ൌ ௦ି which is the same find integrals like ሺ ݈ܽ݅݉݊ݕ݈ሻ݁ ௫ ݀ ݔand answer we got.

ሺ ʹݔሻ݁െ ݔ݀ ݔݏൌ െ ݁ ʹݔ ݏ െ ݁ݔ െ ݁ ቚ ௫ୀ ௫ୀ ൌ λ ʹݏ ͵ݏ Step 3: ࣦሼ ݔଶ ሽ ൌ Ͳሺ ݔଶ ሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀ݔ ͳ െܾݏ ʹ െܾݏ ʹ െܾݏ ʹ ቀ െ ܾʹ ݁ െ ܾ݁ െ ݁ ͵ቁ . ݏଶ ଵ ି௦௫ ଷଶ Ͳ െ ௦య ݁ Example 1.5 Using definition 1. followed by negative sign. from the above table 1.2. and the other one for as follows: integrations of ݁ ି௦௫ .2. Kaabar 19 www. ݏ ʹݏ ͵ݏ ݏ 18 M. Step 1: We write the general definition of laplace Now.2.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ஶ Derivatives Part Integration Part By the definition of integral. The following table shows the ͳ ͳ table method to find ሺ ݔଶ ሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀ݔ: ൌ െ ሺ͵ሻ ݔଶ ሺͶݔሻ െ ൬െ ൰ ݔሺͶ ݔሻ Ͷ ͳ Derivatives Part Integration Part ͳ ൬ ൰ ሺͶ ݔሻ ܥ ݔଶ ݁ ି௦௫ Ͷ ଵ ʹݔ െ ݁ ି௦௫ ௦ ଷ ଷ Thus. and so on as we can see in the above table 1. we need We always start with positive sign. In the table method. ሺ ݔଶ ሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀ ݔൌ െ ݔଶ ݁ ି௦௫ െ ି ݁ݔ௦௫ െ ݁ ି௦௫ ܥ. ଵ ݔ െ ସ ሺͶݔሻ Step 4: We need to find ՜ஶ ሺ ʹݔሻ݁െ ݔ݀ ݔݏas follows: ͳ It is easier to find what it is inside the above box െ ሺͶݔሻ ͳ ቀ ሺ ʹݔሻ݁െ ݔ݀ ݔݏቁ. we need to keep deriving ݔଶ till we get zero.3. and we stop integrating when the න ͵ ݔଶ ሺͶݔሻ݀ݔ corresponding row is zero.1. ݔ͵ ଶ ሺͶݔሻ݀ ݔൌ െ ݔଶ ሺͶݔሻ ݔሺͶ ݔሻ ʹ ͳ ି௦௫ ସ ଼ ݁ ଷ ሺͶ ݔሻ ܥ. we need to create two Now.2.2. and so on as we can see in the above table 1. we substitute ሺ ʹݔሻ݁െݔ݀ ݔݏ ͵ ݔଶ ሺͶݔሻ with ՜ஶ ሺ ʹݔሻ݁െݔ݀ ݔݏ. ݂ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݔbecause ଶ follows: ͳ െݔݏ ʹ െݔݏ ʹ െݔݏ ࣦሼ݂ሺݔሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼ ݔଶ ሽ. we can find ݔ͵ ଶ ሺͶݔሻ݀ݔ columns: one for derivatives of ݔଶ . we need to find ሺ ʹݔሻ݁െ ݔ݀ ݔݏusing the table We always start with positive sign.2.3: Table Method for ሺ ݔଶ ሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀ݔ Solution: To find ࣦሼ ݔଶ ሽ using definition 1.ebook3000.3.2. we need to evaluate the above integral from 0 to ܾ as Step 2: Here in this example. method.2. followed by negative to do the following steps: sign.2: Table Method for ݔ͵ ଶ ሺͶݔሻ݀ݔ Now. find ࣦሼ ݔଶ ሽ. Then.com . Table 1. from the above table 1. ࣦሼ݂ሺݔሻሽ ൌ න ݂ ሺݔሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀ݔ ௦ ௦మ ௦య Ͳ Now.1. Table 1. we can find ݔ͵ ଶ ሺͶݔሻ݀ݔ transform as follows: as follows: λ ଵ ଶ ଶ Thus. and after that we can find the limit of ଵ Ͳ ሺͶݔሻ ସ ሺ ʹݔሻ݁െݔ݀ ݔݏ.2.2.2.

Step 1: We look at the transform table (table 1. we have the following: Solution: To find ࣦሼሺͷݔሻሽ using table 1.2.2. ݂ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݕᇱ because Step 1: We look at the transform table (table 1.1. Step 4: We change what we got from step 3 to make it look like ࣦሼሺͷݔሻሽ as follows: Solution: To find ࣦሼ ݕᇱ ሽ using definition 1. find ࣦሼ ݕᇱ ሽ.1. we need to ࣦሼ ͷݔሽ ൌ ହ ൌ ହ .1. we need to look at table ࣦሼ ሺെͺݔሻሽ ൌ ൌ .1. λ Step 2: We look at which section in table 1. ଼ a) ࣦሼ݃ሺݔሻሽ ൌ ܩሺݏሻ (i.1. we substitute ሺݕԢ ሻ݁െݔ݀ ݔݏ with ՜ஶ ሺݕԢ ሻ݁െݔ݀ ݔݏ. λ ࣦሼ݂ሺݔሻሽ ൌ න ݂ ሺݔሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀ݔ Solution: To find ࣦሼ ሺെͺݔሻሽ using table 1. Then.1. find ࣦሼሺͷݔሻሽ. ࣦሼ ͷݔሽ ൌ ௦మ ାହమ ൌ ௦మ ାଶହ. 20 M.6 Using table 1. do the following steps: ௦ మାହమ ௦ మ ାଶହ ହ ହ Step 1: We write the general definition of laplace Thus.1). ࣦሼ ሺെͺݔሻሽ ൌ ௦మ ାሺି଼ሻమ ൌ ௦మ ାସ.1.1. Step 2: We look at which section in table 1.2. transform as follows: Example 1.1 c) ࣦሼ݂ሺݔሻ ݃ טሺݔሻሽ ൌ ܨሺݏሻ ܩ טሺݏሻǤ d) ࣦሼ݂ሺݔሻ ή ݃ሺݔሻሽ is not necessary equal to ܨሺݏሻ ή ܩሺݏሻǤ (Section 3 at the left side) as follows: ܿ ࣦሼ ܿݐሽ ൌ ݏଶ ܿଶ Example 1.2.1.e.1.1 ଶ ଶ ଶ (Section 3 at the right side) as follows: ܾ݁ ି௦ െ ݁ ି௦ య ቁ as follows: ݏ ௦మ ௦య ௦ െܾݏ െܾݏ െܾݏ ࣦሼ ܿݐሽ ൌ ቀെ ܾʹ ݁ ͳ െ ʹ ܾ݁ െ ʹ ݁ ʹ ʹ ͵ ቁ ൌ ቀͲ ͵ ቁ ൌ ݏଶ ܿଶ ՜ஶ ݏ ʹݏ ͵ݏ ݏ ՜ஶ ݏ Step 4: We change what we got from step 3 to make it ʹ ݏ ͲǤ look like ࣦሼ ሺെͺݔሻሽ as follows: ͵ݏ ௦ ௦ To check if our answer is right. According to table ௦ Thus.1. we need Ͳ to do the following steps: Step 2: Here in this example. find ࣦሼ ሺെͺݔሻሽ. ࣦሼͺሽ ൌ ௦ ൌ ܩሺݏሻ where ݃ሺݔሻ ൌ ͺ).1 Assume that ܿ is a constant.1. We will give some important mathematical results ௦య about laplace transforms. By the definition of integral.2. Kaabar 21 .1 contains b) ࣦ൛ܿ ή ݃ሺݔሻൟ ൌ ܿ ή ࣦሼ݃ሺݔሻሽ ൌ ܿ ή ܩሺݏሻǤ ݊݅ݏfunction. ࣦሼ݂ሺݔሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼ ݕᇱ ሽ.1. Example 1. ௦ ଶǨ 1.1.8 Using definition 1.1). and ݂ሺݔሻ.1.7 Using table 1.1 section 2 at the right side.1. we need to (Hint: ܨሺݏሻ ܩሺݏሻ are the laplace transforms of ݂ሺݔሻ and do the following steps: ݃ሺ ݔሻǡ respectively). Result 1.2.1 contains Step 3: ࣦሼ ݕᇱ ሽ ൌ Ͳሺ ݕᇱ ሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀ݔ ஶ ܿ ݏfunction.1. ௦ మ ାሺି଼ሻమ ௦ మ ାସ 1. ݃ሺݔሻ are functions.1. we found ࣦሼ ݔଶ ሽ ൌ ௦మశభ ൌ ଶ which is the same answer we got.1 at the beginning of this book.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ଵ Step 5: We need find the limit of ቀെ ௦ ܾଶ ݁ ି௦ െ Step 3: We write down what we get from table 1. Step 3: We write down what we get from table 1.

then using result 1. Then. and ݂ሺݔሻ is a λ function where ܨሺݏሻ is the laplace transform of ݂ሺݔሻ. we obtain the following: Result 1.1. Now. and ܨሺݏሻ is න ݕԢ ݁െ ݔ݀ ݔݏൌ ݁ݕെ ݔݏെ න ݕሺെ݁ݏെ ݔݏሻ ݀ݔ ՜ஶ ՜ஶ ՜ஶ the laplace transform of ݂ሺݔሻ. we need to use integration by parts as follows: න ݕԢ ݁െ ݔ݀ ݔݏൌ ሺͲ െ ݕሺͲሻሻ ܻݏሺݏሻ ݑൌ ݁െݔݏ ݀ ݒൌ ݕᇱ ݀ݔ ݀ ݑൌ െ݁ݏെݔ݀ ݔݏ ݒൌ ݒ݀ ൌ ݕ ᇱ ݀ ݔൌ ݕ න ݕԢ ݁െ ݔ݀ ݔݏൌ ܻݏሺݏሻ െ ݕሺͲሻ න ݒ݀ݑൌ ݒݑെ න ݑ݀ݒ න ݕᇱ ݁ ି௦௫ ݀ ݔൌ ି ݁ݕ௦௫ െ න ݕሺെି ݁ݏ௦௫ ሻ ݀ݔ Thus. ՜ஶ ՜ஶ Ͳ 22 M.1.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Step 4: We need to find ՜ஶ ݕԢ ݁െ ݔ݀ ݔݏas follows: න ݕԢ ݁െ ݔ݀ ݔݏൌ ሺݕሺܾሻ݁െ ܾݏെ ݕሺͲሻሻ ܻݏሺݏሻ It is easier to find what it is inside the above box ՜ஶ ቀ ݕԢ ݁െ ݔ݀ ݔݏቁ. Ͳ λ For more information about this result.ebook3000.2. Ͳ λ Because ݕሺ݁ݏ ି௦௫ ሻ ݀ ݔൌ ݕ ሺെି ݁ݏ௦௫ ሻ ݀ݔ. you will find the following: ஶ Since we have ି ݁ݕ௦௫ ݀ݔ. If you ՜ஶ ՜ஶ Ͳ look at it. we have the following: ࣦሼ݂ܿሺݔሻሽ ൌ ࣦܿሼ݂ሺݔሻሽ ൌ ܿܨሺݏሻ.2. Kaabar 23 www. λ ൫ ି ݁ݕ௦௫ ݀ ݔൌ ܻሺݏሻ൯. න ݕԢ ݁െ ݔ݀ ݔݏൌ ሺ݁ݕെ ܾݏെ ݁ݕെݏሺͲሻ ሻ න ݕሺ݁ݏെ ݔݏሻ ݀ݔ d) ࣦ൛݂ ሺସሻ ሺݔሻൟ ൌ ݏସ ܨሺݏሻ െ ݏଷ ݂ ሺͲሻ െ ݏଶ ݂ ᇱ ሺͲሻ െ ݂ݏᇱᇱ ሺͲሻ െ ՜ஶ ՜ஶ ݂ ᇱᇱᇱ ሺͲሻ.2. න ݁ ݕ ݀ ݔൌ ݁ݕ න ݕሺ݁ݏെ ݔݏሻ ݀ݔ ՜ஶ ՜ஶ ݔൌͲ b) ࣦሼ݂ ᇱᇱ ሺݔሻሽ ൌ ࣦ൛݂ ሺଶሻ ሺݔሻൟ ൌ ݏଶ ܨሺݏሻ െ ݂ݏሺͲሻ െ ݂ ᇱ ሺͲሻ. we can find the limit as follows: ܾ We conclude this example with the following results: Result 1.2 Assume that ݂ሺݔሻ is a function. and after that we can find the limit of ݕԢ ݁െݔ݀ ݔݏ.com . we have the Ͳ λ following: Ԣ െݔݏ െ ݔݏȁ ݔൌܾ a) ࣦሼ݂ ᇱ ሺݔሻሽ ൌ ࣦ൛݂ ሺଵሻ ሺݔሻൟ ൌ ܨݏሺݏሻ െ ݂ሺͲሻ.3 Assume that ܿ is a constant.1 ࣦ൛݂ ሺሻ ሺݐሻൟ ൌ ݏ ܨሺݏሻ െ ݏିଵ ݂ሺͲሻ െ ݏିଶ ݂ ᇱ ሺݏሻ െ ڮെ ݂ ሺିଵሻ ሺݏሻ. it is න ݁ ݕ Ԣ െݔݏ ݀ ݔൌ ൫ݕሺܾሻ݁ െܾݏ െ ݕሺͲሻ݁ െݏሺͲሻ ൯ ݏන ݁ݕ െݔݏ ݀ݔ recommended to look at section 8 in table 1. ࣦሼ ݕᇱ ሽ ൌ ܻݏሺݏሻ െ ݕሺͲሻ. c) ࣦሼ݂ ᇱᇱᇱ ሺݔሻሽ ൌ ࣦ൛݂ ሺଷሻ ሺݔሻൟ ൌ ݏଷ ܨሺݏሻ െ ݏଶ ݂ ሺͲሻ െ ݂ݏᇱ ሺͲሻ െ ܾ՜λ λ ݂ ᇱᇱ ሺͲሻ. න ݕԢ ݁െ ݔ݀ ݔݏൌ ሺݕሺܾሻ݁െ ܾݏെ ݕሺͲሻሻ ݏන ݁ݕെݔ݀ ݔݏ Then. න ݕԢ ݁െ ݔ݀ ݔݏൌ ൫ݕሺܾሻ݁െݏሺஶሻ െ ݕሺͲሻ൯ ܻݏሺݏሻ To find ݕԢ ݁െݔ݀ ݔݏ.

1.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ௦ Since ࣦ൛ ξʹ ݐൟ ൌ ௦మ ାሺξଶሻమ .1 Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄ ௦ ቅ.2 Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄ మ ቅ.3. then this laplace transforms. then this means that ௦ ࣦ ିଵ ቄ ቅ ൌ ξʹݐ. ݂ሺ ݔሻǡ ݃ ሺ ݔሻǡ . ݏ ܿଶ ଶ ௦ ௦ ௦ మ ାଶ is an equivalent to ௦మ ାሺξଶሻమ 24 M.1. ࣦ ିଵ ቄ ௦ ቅ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቄ͵Ͷ ቀ௦ ቁቅ.1 Assume that ܿ is a constant.1 The inverse laplace transform. the inverse ଵ ଵ Since ࣦሼ݁ ି଼௧ ሽ ൌ ௦ା଼ . ଷସ ଵ a) ࣦ ିଵ ሼܿܨሺݏሻሽ ൌ ࣦܿ ିଵ ሼܨሺݏሻሽ ൌ ݂ܿሺݔሻ. ௦ ାଶ ହ ଵ Solution: Using definition 1. ࣦሼ݁ ௧ ሽ ൌ ௦ି . ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మାସቅ ൌ ͷࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మାସቅ.3 Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మାଽቅ.3. ଵ by ࣦ ିଵ ǡ is defined as a reverse laplace transform.1. ࣦ ିଵ ቄଵ௦ቅ we need ݁ ି଼௧ . function where ܨሺݏሻ ܩሺݏሻ are the laplace transforms of ଷସ Example 1.3.1.1 and the left side of section 3 in table 1. (i.3.1 and the right side of Solution: Using result 1. and to find the inverse laplace transform. we need ݏ ࣦሼ ܿݐሽ ൌ to make it look like ௦మ ା మ because ࣦሼ ܿݐሽ ൌ ௦మ ା మ.1.4 Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦ା଼ቅ. section 3 in table 1. suppose that ݂ሺݔሻ is a function where is an equivalent to ௦ିሺି଼ሻ ௦ା଼ ܨሺݏሻ is the laplace transform of ݂ሺݔሻ. Solution: First of all. ିଷ Transforms Solution: Using definition 1.5 Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మାସቅ.3.1.1.1. means that ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మାଽቅ ൌ ሺെ͵ݐሻ. we will discuss how to find the inverse ࣦሼ ܿݐሽ ൌ ݏଶ ܿଶ ିଷ ିଷ laplace transforms of different types of mathematical is an equivalent to ௦మ ାሺିଷሻమ ௦ మ ାଽ functions. ଵ ଵ For example.3. the answer is 34.1 and table 1. Example 1. and ݂ሺݔሻ is a equals to ௦ ǡ in this case the answer is 1).1. ିଷ Definition 1. to think which function has a laplace transform that ଵ Result 1. Then.1 to refer to the ିଷ Since ࣦሼሺെ͵ሻݐሽ ൌ ࣦሼሺെ͵ݐሻሽ ൌ ௦మ ାሺିଷሻమ . Now. ݃ሺݔሻǤ ௦ ହ Example 1. b) ࣦ ିଵ ሼܨሺݏሻ ܩ טሺݏሻሽ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ሼܨሺݏሻሽ ି ࣦ טଵ ሼܩሺݏሻሽ ൌ ݂ሺݔሻ ט Using definition 1.1.1 and section 4 in table about which function has a laplace transform that 1. we find the following: ܿ In this section. then this means that ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦ା଼ቅ ൌ laplace transform is ࣦ ିଵ ሼܨሺݏሻሽ ൌ ݂ሺݔሻ. denoted Example 1.3.1. we find the following: ଵ equals to the function in the inverse laplace transform.3.e. 1.3.1.3. we need to think Solution: Using definition 1. and we will use table 1. Kaabar 25 . we find the following: by using the left side of section 3 in table 1.3.3.3 Inverse Laplace ௦ మାଶ Example 1.

Definition 1. and this type of mathematical problems ௦ మାଽ ௦ మ ାଽ ଷ ௦ మାଽ ௦ మାଽ ଵ Since ଷ ࣦሼሺ͵ݐሻሽ ͵ࣦሼ ሺ͵ݐሻሽ ൌ ቀ௦మାଽ ௦మ ାଽቁ .3.1 Find the largest interval on the ݔെ ܽݏ݅ݔ ௫ିଷ ଵ ଷ௦ ଵ so that ௫ାଶ ݕሺଷሻ ሺݔሻ ʹ ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ ξ ݔ ͳ ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ͷ ݔ has ࣦ ିଵ ቄ మାଽቅ ࣦ ିଵ ቄ మାଽቅ ൌ ଷ ሺ͵ݐሻ ͵ ሺ͵ݐሻ. ହ ሺʹݐሻ. 26 M. Now. ௦ మା ௦ మା మ ௦ మ ା unique which means that there exists exactly one ݕሺ ݔሻ Therefore. Kaabar 27 www.1.com .1. Solution: Using definition 1.3. we do the following: ࣦ ିଵ ቄଶ௦ିଷ ቅ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቊ ଵ ଵ ቋൌ (IVP).7 Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మାଽ ቅ.4. ܽ ሺݔሻǡ ܽିଵ ሺݔሻǡ ǥ ǡ ܽ ሺ ݔሻǡ ܭሺݔሻ are continuous on ܫ.1.3 to find the largest interval on ିଵ ቊ ଵ ࣦ ቋ. Ǩ ହ ହ ହ ଶ ହ ࣦሼ ݐ ሽ ൌ శభ where ݉ is a positive integer. differential equations known as Initial Value Problems ௦ି Therefore. Now. and we will use it with what we have learned య ଶቀ௦ି ቁ మ from sections 1.6 Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄଶ௦ିଷቅ.1 and the right side of ଶ ଶ section 2 in table 1. then by ଵ ଷ௦ is called Initial Value Problems (IVP).1. this means that ࣦ ିଵ ቄଶ௦ିଷ ቅ ൌ ଶ ݁ మ௧ . by using Suppose that ݕሺݓሻǡ ݕᇱ ሺݓሻǡ ǥ ǡ ݕሺିଵሻ ሺݓሻ for some ܫ א ݓ.8 Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦ర ቅ.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ହ ଵ ହ ଶ Therefore. ଶ Example 1. we need to make it In this section. ଶ ቀ௦ି ቁ య మ the x-axis. and Example 1.1. Given ݕᇱ ሺͷሻ ൌ ͳͲǡ ݕሺͷሻ ൌ ʹǡ ݕሺଶሻ ሺͷሻ ൌ െͷ. Assume that ܽ ሺ݉ሻ ് Ͳ for every definition 1. Example 1.1. then this means that ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦ర ቅ ൌ ݐଷ . then by using ቀ௦ି ቁ మ య ܽ ሺ ݔሻݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ ܭሺݔሻ.3. this means that ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మାଽ ቅ ൌ ଵାଷ௦ Example 1.1. we find the following: and ௦మାସ is an equivalent to ௦ మ ାሺଶሻమ .3.3. we will introduce the main theorem of ଵ ଵ look like because ࣦሼ݁ ௧ ሽ ൌ ௦ି. we need to make it look like ௦మ ା మ ௦ ௦ Then. using definition 1.1 Given ܽ ሺݔሻ ݕሺሻ ܽିଵ ሺ ݔሻ ݕሺିଵሻ ڮ య య ௧ ௧ ଵ Since ଶ ࣦ ቄ݁ ቅ ൌ ࣦ ቄଶ ݁ ቅ ൌ ଶ ቆమ మ య ቇ ൌ ଶ௦ିଷ . section 3 in table 1. ௦ Since ଶ ࣦሼሺʹሻݐሽ ൌ ࣦ ቄଶ ሺʹݐሻቅ ൌ ଶ ቀ௦మ ାሺଶሻమቁ ൌ ௦మ ାସ . ࣦ ିଵ ቄଶ௦ିଷቅ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቄଶ௦ିଷቅ. by using section 4 in table 1. ௦ ௦ a solution.3. in terms of ݔ.3. we do the following: ࣦ ିଵ ቄ ଵ ଷ௦ ଵ ቅ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቄ ଵሺଷሻ ቅ ͵ࣦ ିଵ ቄ ௦ ቅ.3.1. ଵାଷ௦ ଵ ଷ௦ Solution: ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మାଽ ቅ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మାଽ ௦మ ାଽቅ.4.1. ଵାଷ௦ ݉ܫא where ܫ is some interval.2 and 1.ebook3000. we do the following: ଶ ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺʹሻ ௦మାସቅ ൌ ଶ ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మାସቅ. ଵ 1. the solution to the differential equations is and మ because ࣦሼ ܿݐሽ ൌ ࣦሼ ܿݐሽ ൌ మ . this means that ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మାସ ቅ ൌ ଷǨ Since ࣦሼ ݐଷ ሽ ൌ ௦యశభ ൌ ௦ర .1.4 Initial Value Problems Solution: Using result 1. then by ଷǨ ௦ర is an equivalent to ௦యశభ ହ using definition 1.

ܽ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ has a solution which is continuous ௫ାଷ ܽଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ξ ݔ ͳ has a solution which is continuous on everywhere (Ը) except ݔൌ െ͵. we need to determine the interval of each coefficient above as follows: coefficient above as follows: ܽଷ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ௫ିଷ has a solution which is continuous ܽଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ሺ ݔଶ ʹ ݔെ ͵ሻ ൌ ሺ ݔെ ͳሻሺ ݔ ͵ሻ has a solution ௫ାଶ which is continuous everywhere (Ը) except ݔൌ ͳ and everywhere (Ը) except ݔൌ െʹ ݔൌ ͵Ǥ ݔൌ െ͵. we need to find the domain for the solution of the above differential equation in 28 M.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Solution: Finding largest interval on the ݔെ ܽݏ݅ݔ Solution: Finding largest interval on the ݔെ ܽݏ݅ݔ means that we need to find the domain for the solution means that we need to find the domain for the solution of the above differential equation in other words we of the above differential equation in other words we need to find for what values of ݔthe solution of the need to find for what values of ݔthe solution of the above differential equation holds. the interval ሾെͳǡ λሻ. ܽଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ʹ has a solution which is continuous ଵ everywhere (Ը). Thus.2 Find the largest interval on the ݔെ ܽݏ݅ݔ ଵ so that ሺ ݔଶ ʹ ݔെ ͵ሻ ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ ݕሺݔሻ ൌ ͳͲ has a Solution: ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ͵ݕሺݔሻ ൌ Ͳ is a linear differential ௫ାଷ solution. Example 1. we also suppose the following: ݔെ͵ ܽଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ሺ ݔଶ ʹ ݔെ ͵ሻ ܽଷ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݔʹ ܽଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳ ܽଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ʹ ͳ ܽ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ܽଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ξ ݔ ͳ ݔ͵ ܭሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͷ ݔ ܭሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͳͲ Now.4. the largest interval on the ݔെ ܽ ݏ݅ݔis ሺ͵ǡ λሻ.4. the largest interval on the ݔെ ܽ ݏ݅ݔis ሺͳǡ λሻ. First.3 Solve the following Initial Value Problem (IVP): ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ͵ݕሺݔሻ ൌ Ͳ.4. Given ݕሺͲሻ ൌ ͵. we need to determine the interval of each Now. everywhere (Ը).1. Given ݕᇱ ሺʹሻ ൌ ͳͲǡ ݕሺʹሻ ൌ Ͷ. Example 1. ܭሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͳͲ has a solution which is continuous ܭሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͷ ݔ has a solution which is continuous everywhere (Ը). Therefore. we also suppose the following: Using definition 1. Kaabar 29 . equation of order 1.1. we do the following: following: ௫ିଷ ଵ ௫ାଶ ݕሺଷሻ ሺݔሻ ʹ ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ ξ ݔ ͳ ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ͷ ݔ ሺ ݔଶ ʹ ݔെ ͵ሻ ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ ௫ାଷ ݕሺݔሻ ൌ ͳͲ Using definition 1.4. we do the above differential equation holds. Thus. Therefore.

other words we need to find for what values of ݔthe ܻሺݏሻሺ ݏ ͵ሻ ൌ ͵ solution of the above differential equation holds.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved other words we need to find for what values of ݔthe ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͵݁ ିଷ௫ (It is written in terms of ݔinstead of ݐ solution of the above differential equation holds. and ܻݏሺݏሻ െ ݕሺͲሻ ͵ܻሺݏሻ ൌ Ͳ ݕᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ͳ. 30 M. ܻሺݏሻ ൌ ሺ௦ାଷሻ ଷ Therefore. Example 1. ᇱ ࣦሼ ݕሺݔሻሽ ͵ࣦሼݕሺݔሻሽ ൌ Ͳ because (ࣦሼͲሽ ൌ Ͳ). we need to find the inverse laplace Using definition 1. we will find ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ by finding the derivative of Using definition 1. ܻሺݏሻሺ ݏ ͵ሻ ൌ ݕሺͲሻ Solution: ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ ͵ݕሺݔሻ ൌ Ͳ is a linear differential We substitute ݕሺͲሻ ൌ ͵ because it is given in the equation of order 2. First. we need to find the domain for the solution of the above differential equation in question itself.1.2.1.1 section 4.4.com .ebook3000. because we need it in terms of )ݔ. we do the following: ͳ ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ͵ݕሺݔሻ ൌ Ͳ Then. to check our solution if it is right. we do the following: ͳ ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ ͵ݕሺݔሻ ൌ Ͳ To find a solution. Problem (IVP): ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ ͵ݕሺݔሻ ൌ Ͳ. Kaabar 31 www. Therefore.2. we also suppose the following: transform as follows: ܽଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͳ ࣦ ିଵ ሼܻሺݏሻሽ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ ͵ ቅ ͳ ൌ ͵ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺݏ͵ሻቅ and we use table ܽଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳ ݏ͵ሻ ܽ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͵ 1.1. we also suppose the following: what we got above (ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͵݁ ିଷ௫ ሻ as follows: ܽଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͳ ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ሺ͵݁ ିଷ௫ ሻᇱ ൌ ሺ͵ሻሺെ͵ሻ݁ ିଷ௫ ൌ െͻ݁ ିଷ௫ . our solution is correct which is ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͵݁ ିଷ௫ and ᇱ ࣦሼ ݕሺݔሻሽ ࣦሼ͵ݕሺݔሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼͲሽ ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ െͻ݁ ିଷ௫ . Given ݕሺͲሻ ൌ Ͳ. െͻ݁ ିଷ௫ in Now. ܭሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳ The domain of solution is ሺെλǡ λሻ. we need to take the laplace transform for െͻ݁ ିଷ௫ ͵ሺ͵݁ ିଷ௫ ሻ ൌ െͻ݁ ିଷ௫ ሺͻ݁ ିଷ௫ ሻ ൌ Ͳ both sides as follows Thus.4. we ܭሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳ substitute what we got from ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͵݁ ିଷ௫ and ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ The domain of solution is ሺെλǡ λሻ. ܽ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͵ Finally. to find the solution of the above differential ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ͵ݕሺݔሻ ൌ Ͳ as follows: equation.4.4 Solve the following Initial Value ൫ܻݏሺݏሻ െ ݕሺͲሻ൯ ͵ܻሺݏሻ ൌ Ͳ from result 1.

we will find ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ by finding the derivative of section 5 in table 1.1. ଵ ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ ሺξ͵ ݔሻ (It is written in terms of ݔinstead of Example 1. we ଶ ᇱ ܻ ݏሺݏሻ െ ݕݏሺͲሻ െ ݕሺͲሻ ͵ܻሺݏሻ ൌ Ͳ substitute what we got from ݕሺ ݔሻ and ݕሺଶሻ ሺ ݔሻ in ܻሺݏሻሺ ݏଶ ͵ሻ ൌ ݕݏሺͲሻ ݕᇱ ሺͲሻ ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ ͵ݕሺݔሻ ൌ Ͳ as follows: We substitute ݕሺͲሻ ൌ Ͳ. table 1. to check our solution if it is right.2.5. to find the solution of the above differential ͳ ͳ ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ൬ ሺξ͵ ݔሻ൰ ൌ ൫ξ͵൯ ൫ξ͵ ݔ൯ ൌ ൫ξ͵ ݔ൯ equation. ܨሺݏሻ ൌ ࣦሼ ݔଷ ሽ. Thus.2. and ݕᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ͳ because it is െξ͵ ൫ξ͵ݔ൯ ξ͵ ݊݅ݏ൫ξ͵ ݔ൯ ൌ Ͳ given in the question itself. we obtain: ଵ ࣦሼ݁ ௫ ݂ሺݔሻሽ ൌ ܨሺݏሻ ȁ ݏ՜ ݏെ ܾ what we got above ቀݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ ሺξ͵ ݔሻቁ as follows: ξଷ Let ܾ ൌ ͵. ξଷ ݐbecause we need it in terms of )ݔ. and ݂ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͵ݔ. we need to take the laplace transform for ξ͵ ξ͵ both sides as follows Now. 32 M. our solution is correct which is ଶ ܻሺݏሻሺ ݏ ͵ሻ ൌ ሺݏሻሺͲሻ ͳ ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ ଵ ሺξ͵ ݔሻ and ݕሺଶሻ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ െξ͵ ൫ξ͵ݔ൯.5 Properties of Laplace ܻ ሺ ݏሻ ൌ ଶ ሺ ݏ ͵ሻ To find a solution. Finally.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ᇱ Now. Solution: By using shifting property at the left side of Then. We start with some examples of shifting property. Kaabar 33 . and convolution.1 Find ࣦሼ݁ ଷ௫ ݔଷ ሽ. we discuss several properties of laplace ͳ ͳ ͳ transforms such as shifting.1. ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ ൌ ൫ ൫ξ͵ ݔ൯൯ ൌ െξ͵ ൫ξ͵ݔ൯ ሺ ݏଶ ܻሺݏሻ െ ݕݏሺͲሻ െ ݕᇱ ሺͲሻሻ ͵ܻሺݏሻ ൌ Ͳ from result 1.1 at the left side of section 3.1. we need to find the inverse laplace Transforms transform as follows: In this section. we will find ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ by finding the derivative of ࣦሼ ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻሽ ࣦሼ͵ݕሺݔሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼͲሽ what we got above as follows: ᇱ ࣦሼ ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻሽ ͵ࣦሼݕሺݔሻሽ ൌ Ͳ because (ࣦሼͲሽ ൌ Ͳ). ࣦ ିଵ ሼܻሺݏሻሽ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ൜൫ ʹݏ͵൯ ൠ ൌ ξ͵ ࣦ ିଵ ൝ ʹ ൡ and we use ൬ ʹݏሺξ͵ሻ ൰ periodic function. unit step function. ξଷ ଶ ܻሺݏሻሺ ݏ ͵ሻ ൌ Ͳ ͳ ܻሺݏሻሺ ݏଶ ͵ሻ ൌ ͳ ͳ 1.

1.com .3 Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ିଶሻమ ାସ ቅ. ሺ௦ሻర By using shifting property at the right side of section 5 Now. ݏ ݏʹെʹ ݏʹ ʹ Hence. ܨଵ ሺݏሻ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺݏെʹሻʹ Ͷ ቅ.2 Find ࣦሼ݁ ିଶ௫ ሺͶݔሻሽ. Thus.ebook3000. ௦ Thus. we need to substitute ݏwith ݏ ʹ as follows: ݏ ͳ െʹ Ͷ ࣦെͳ ቊ ͵ ቋ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቊ ʹ ቋ ࣦെͳ ቊ ቋ ሺ ݏ ʹሻ ሺ ݏ ʹሻ ሺ ݏ ʹሻ͵ ሺ ݏ ʹሻଶ ͳ ସ By using shifting property at the right side of section 5 Thus.1.5. in table 1. we need to substitute ݏwith ݏെ ͵ as follows: in table 1.5. ሺ ݏെ ʹሻଶ Ͷ ሺ ݏെ ʹሻଶ Ͷ 34 M. ࣦሼ݁ ଷ௫ ݔଷ ሽ ൌ ሺ௦ିଷሻర ൌ ሺ௦ିଷሻర. we need Let ܾ ൌ െʹ. ௦ ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ିଶሻమ ାସ ቅ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ሼܨଵ ሺݏሻ ȁ ݏ՜ ݏെ ʹ ሽ ࣦ ିଵ ሼܨଶ ሺݏሻ ȁ ݏ՜ ݏെ ʹ ሽ Example 1. we obtain: ௦ Example 1. ࣦሼ݁ ଷ௫ ݔଷ ሽ ൌ ࣦሼ ݔଷ ሽ ȁ ݏ՜ ݏെ ͵ ൌ ሺ௦ሻయశభ ȁ ݏ՜ ݏെ ͵ ൌ ݏ ݏെʹ ʹ ࣦെͳ ൜ ൠ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ൜ ൠ ࣦെͳ ൜ ൠ ሺ ݏെ ʹሻʹ Ͷ ሺ ݏെ ʹሻ ଶ Ͷ ሺ ݏെ ʹሻʹ Ͷ ଷǨ ȁ ݏ՜ ݏെ ͵.4 Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ାଶሻయ ቅ.1. and ܨଶ ሺݏሻ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ାଶሻయ ቅ. and ݂ሺݔሻ ൌ ሺͶݔሻ. we need Let ܾ ൌ െʹ. we obtain: ͵Ǩ ࣦ ିଵ ሼܨሺݏሻ ȁ ݏ՜ ݏെ ܾ ሽ ൌ ݁ ௫ ݂ሺݔሻ ൌ ሺ ݏെ ͵ሻସ ሺ ݏെ ͵ሻସ ݏെʹ ʹ ଷǨ Let ܾ ൌ ʹ. to do the following: ࣦ ିଵ ቄ ௦ ቅ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ሼܨଵ ሺݏሻ ȁ ݏ՜ ݏ ʹ ሽ ࣦ ିଵ ሼܨଶ ሺݏሻ ȁ ݏ՜ ݏ ʹ ሽ ሺ௦ାଶሻయ ݏ ݏെʹʹ ࣦ ିଵ ൜ ൠ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ൜ ൠ ௦ ሺ ݏെ ʹሻ Ͷ ଶ ሺ ݏെ ʹሻଶ Ͷ Thus. and ܨଶ ሺݏሻ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺݏെʹሻʹ Ͷ ቅ.1. ࣦሼ݁ ௫ ݂ሺݔሻሽ ൌ ܨሺݏሻ ȁ ݏ՜ ݏെ ܾ Solution: Since we have a shift such as ݏ ʹ.5 Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మିସ ቅ. we obtain: Example 1.1. ࣦሼ݁ ିଶ௫ ሺͶݔሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼሺͶݔሻሽ ȁ ݏ՜ ݏ ʹ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ൜ ൠ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ൜ ൠ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ൜ െ ൠ ሺ ݏ ʹሻଷ ሺ ݏ ʹሻଷ ሺ ݏ ʹሻଷ ሺ ݏ ʹሻଷ Ͷ ݏ ݏʹ െʹ ȁ ݏ՜ ݏ ʹ ࣦെͳ ቊ ቋ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቊ ቋ ࣦെͳ ቊ ቋ ݏଶ ͳ ͵ ͵ ሺ ݏ ʹሻ ሺ ݏ ʹሻ ሺ ݏ ʹሻ͵ Now. ࣦ ିଵ ሼܨሺݏሻ ȁ ݏ՜ ݏെ ܾ ሽ ൌ ݁ ௫ ݂ሺݔሻ ଵ ିଶ Solution: Since we have a shift such as ݏെ ʹ. ܨଵ ሺݏሻ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ାଶሻమ ቅ.1.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ଷǨ Hence.5. ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ିଶሻమ ାସ ቅ ൌ ݁ ଶ௫ ሺʹݔሻ ݁ ଶ௫ ሺʹݔሻǤ Solution: By using shifting property at the left side of ௦ section 5 in table 1. Kaabar 35 www. ࣦሼ݁ ିଶ௫ ሺͶݔሻሽ ൌ ሺ௦ାଶሻమାଵ . to do the following: ܨሺݏሻ ൌ ࣦሼሺͶݔሻሽ.5. ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ାଶሻయ ቅ ൌ ݁ ିଶ௫ ݔെ ݁ ିଶ௫ ݔଶ Ǥ ݏെʹ ʹ ଵ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ൜ ൠ Example 1.

ࣦሼ ݁ݔ௫ ሽ ൌ ሺെͳሻଵ ܨሺଵሻ ሺݏሻ ൌ െ ܨሺଵሻ ሺݏሻ to finish it. value of ܽ. we need to do the following: Example 1.6 Find ࣦሼ ݁ݔ௫ ሽ. we will introduce a new property from table 1. in this case. ͳ ͳ ͳ െͶ Solution: By using the left side of section 9 in table ࣦ ିଵ ൜ ൠ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቐ Ͷ ቑ ݏଶ െ Ͷ ሺ ݏെ ʹሻ ሺ ݏ ʹሻ 1. and substitute ݏൌ ʹ in ሺ௦ିଶሻሺ௦ାଶሻ to find the that we first need to find the laplace transform of ݂ ሺ ݔሻ. and and then we need to find the first derivative of the ଵ result from the laplace transform.1. Now.1 ( ݔ ൌ ͳሻ. we obtain: ͳ ͳ ݀ ܨሺݏሻ ͳ െ ࣦሼ ݐ ݂ሺݐሻሽሺݏሻ ൌ ሺെͳሻ ൌ ሺെͳሻ ܨሺሻ ሺݏሻ Ͷ Ͷ ቑ ݀ ݏ ࣦെͳ ൜ ʹ ൠ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቐ ቑ ࣦെͳ ቐ ݏെͶ ሺ ݏെ ʹሻ ሺ ݏ ʹሻ where ࣦሼ݂ሺݔሻሽ ൌ ܨሺݏሻ. ሺ௦ିଶሻሺ௦ାଶሻ ᇱ ଵ ଵ ܨሺଵሻ ሺݏሻ ൌ ܨᇱ ሺݏሻ ൌ ሺࣦሼ݂ሺݔሻሽሻᇱ ൌ ሺࣦሼ݁ ௫ ሽሻᇱ ൌ ቀ ቁ ൌെ ଵ ଵ ௦ିଵ ሺ௦ିଵሻమ Thus. we cover the original. we obtain: ͳ ܽ ܾ ݀ ܨሺݏሻ ൌ ࣦሼ ݐ ݂ሺݐሻሽሺݏሻ ൌ ሺെͳሻ ൌ ሺെͳሻ ܨሺሻ ሺݏሻ ሺ ݏെ ʹሻሺ ݏ ʹሻ ሺ ݏെ ʹሻ ሺ ݏ ʹሻ ݀ ݏ It is easier to use a method known as cover method where ࣦሼ݂ሺݔሻሽ ൌ ܨሺݏሻ. we cover the original. 2. Since the numerator has a polynomial of degree 0 Now.1. we need to find ܨሺଵሻ ሺݏሻ as follows: This means ଵ say ሺ ݏെ ʹሻ. ǡ ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦ మିସ ቅ ൌ ସ ݁ ଶ௫ െ ସ ݁ ିଶ௫ . and ݂ ሺݔሻ ൌ ሺݔሻ.1. Thus. substitute ݏൌ െʹ in to find the value of ܾ. and the denominator a polynomial of degree in the following two examples.1. than using the traditional method that takes long time Hence.7 Find ࣦሼ ݔଶ ሺݔሻሽ. ܽ ൌ and ܾ ൌ െ .5. This implies that ସ ସ ଵ Thus.5. then this means the degree of numerator is less than Example 1.1. Kaabar 37 . Now. Then. we need Solution: By using the left side of section 9 in table to use the partial fraction as follows: 1. the degree of denominator. ࣦሼ ݁ݔ௫ ሽ ൌ ሺെͳሻଵ ܨሺଵሻ ሺݏሻ ൌ െ ܨሺଵሻ ሺݏሻ ൌ െ ቀെ ሺ௦ିଵሻమ ቁ ൌ ͳ ͳ ͳ െ ൌ Ͷ Ͷ ଵ ሺ ݏെ ʹሻሺ ݏ ʹሻ ሺ ݏെ ʹሻ ሺ ݏ ʹሻ ሺ௦ିଵሻమ . say ሺ ݏ ʹሻ.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ଵ ଵ ଵ ଵ ଵ Solution: ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మିସ ቅ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ିଶሻሺ௦ାଶሻ ቅ. ࣦሼ ݔଶ ሺݔሻሽ ൌ ሺെͳሻଶ ܨሺଶሻ ሺݏሻ ൌ ܨሺଶሻ ሺݏሻ ࣦെͳ ൜ ʹ ൠ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ൜ ൠ െ ࣦെͳ ൜ ൠ ݏെͶ Ͷ ሺ ݏെ ʹሻ Ͷ ሺ ݏ ʹሻ 36 M. In the cover method. ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ Hence. and ݂ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ .

and Ͳ ݕሻ ൌ Ͳ ቀ ቁ ൌ ሺ௦ మାଵሻమ ሺ௦ మାଵሻర because it is given in the question itself. ଵ ሺ௦ మ ାଵሻర ሺ ݏଶ ܻሺݏሻ െ Ͳ െ Ͳሻ ͷሺܻݏሺݏሻ െ Ͳሻ ܻሺݏሻ ൌ ௦ Example 1. ͳ ܽ ܾ ܿ ൌ ݏሺ ݏ ͵ሻሺ ݏ ʹሻ ݏሺ ݏ ͵ሻ ሺ ݏ ʹሻ Now. ܻሺݏሻሺ ݏଶ ͷ ݏ ሻ ൌ ௦ ଵ Solution: ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ ͷ ݕሺଵሻ ሺݔሻ ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͳ is a linear ͳ ͳ ܻ ሺ ݏሻ ൌ ൌ differential equation of order 2. Therefore. we need to take the laplace transform for we cover the original.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Now. ିଶሺ௦ మାଵሻమା଼௦ మሺ௦ మ ାଵሻ Thus. we need ܭሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͳ to use the partial fraction as follows: The domain of solution is ሺെλǡ λሻ. we need to find ݏሺ ݏଶ ͷ ݏ ሻ ݏሺ ݏ ͵ሻሺ ݏ ʹሻ the domain for the solution of the above differential To find a solution. Thus.com .1. First. we do the following: ݕሺݔሻ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ሼܻሺݏሻሽ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቄ ቅ ݏሺݏ͵ሻሺݏʹሻ ͳ ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ ͷ ݕሺଵሻ ሺݔሻ ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͳ Since the numerator has a polynomial of degree 0 Using definition 1.2.5.2. Kaabar 39 www. result from the laplace transform. we also suppose the following: ܽଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͳ ( ݔ ൌ ͳሻ. ଵ ଵ ᇱᇱ ሺ ݏଶ ܻሺݏሻ െ ݕݏሺͲሻ െ ݕᇱ ሺͲሻሻ ͷሺܻݏሺݏሻ െ ݕሺͲሻሻ ܻሺݏሻ ൌ ܨሺଶሻ ሺݏሻ ൌ ܨᇱᇱ ሺݏሻ ൌ ሺࣦሼ݂ሺݔሻሽሻᇱᇱ ൌ ሺࣦሼሺݔሻሽሻᇱᇱ ൌ ቀ ቁ ൌ ௦ ௦ మାଵ ᇱሺ ିଶ௦ ᇱ ିଶሺ௦ మ ାଵሻమା଼௦ మ ሺ௦ మ ାଵሻ from result 1. In the cover method. We substitute ݕሺͲሻ ൌ Ͳ. 38 M. we use the cover method. equation.4. Given ௦ ݕሺͲሻ ൌ ݕᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ Ͳ.8 Solve the following Initial Value ଵ ݏଶ ܻሺݏሻ ͷܻݏሺݏሻ ܻሺݏሻ ൌ Problem (IVP): ݕሺଶሻ ሺ ݔሻ ͷ ݕሺଵሻ ሺݔሻ ݕሺݔሻ ൌ ͳ. ࣦሼ ݔଶ ሺݔሻሽ ൌ . in this case. ͳ ࣦሼ ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻሽ ͷࣦሼ ݕሺଵሻ ሺ ݔሻሽ ࣦሼݕሺݔሻሽ ൌ ݏ and then we need to find the second derivative of the ͳ because ቀࣦሼͳሽ ൌ ݏቁ. we need to find the inverse laplace equation in other words we need to find for what transform as follows: values of ݔthe solution of the above differential ͳ equation holds. We cover the original. and substitute ݏൌ Ͳ in both sides as follows ଵ ௦ሺ௦ାଷሻሺ௦ାଶሻ to find the value of ܽ. to find the solution of the above differential Now. we need to find ܨሺଶሻ ሺݏሻ as follows: This means ࣦሼ ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻሽ ࣦሼͷ ݕሺଵሻ ሺ ݔሻሽ ࣦሼݕሺݔሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼͳሽ that we first need to find the laplace transform of ݂ ሺ ݔሻ. say ݏ. then this means the degree of numerator is less than ܽ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ the degree of denominator.ebook3000. and the denominator a polynomial of degree ܽଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͷ 3.

5. then by ݂ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͵൫ܷሺ ݔെ ͳሻ െ ܷሺ ݔെ Ͷሻ൯ using definition 1. the value of ܾ.1.12 Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄ ቅ. ݏሺ ݏ ͵ሻሺ ݏ ʹሻ ݏሺ ݏ ͵ሻ ሺ ݏ ʹሻ ௦ షమೞ െͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ Example 1. ܾ ൌ and ܿ ൌ െ . ൌ .1.5. Then. ܷ݊݅݊݅ݐܿ݊ݑܨ ݁ݐܵ ݐ. we do the following: Solution: Since ݔൌ ͺ is between ܽ ൌ and λ. Then. ࣦሼܷሺ ݔെ ͵ሻሽ ൌ షయೞ . Unit Step Function is షమೞ Ͳ ݂݅ Ͳ ݔ൏ ʹ Thus.5. This implies that ଷ ଶ Example 1.10 Find ܷሺ ݔെ ͵ሻȁ ݔൌ ͳ. Thus. and substitute ݏൌ െ͵ in ௦ሺ௦ାଷሻሺ௦ାଶሻ to find Example 1.5. b) ܷሺ ݔെ λሻ ൌ Ͳ for every Ͳ ݔ λ. we obtain: ௦ሺ௦ାଷሻሺ௦ାଶሻ ଵ ଵ ଵ ܷሺ ݔെ ͵ሻȁ ݔൌ ͳ ൌ ܷ ሺͳ െ ሻ ൌ Ͳ.1. ሺ ݔ ͳሻሺܷሺ ݔെ ͳͲሻ െ ͲሻǤ 40 M. we obtain: ሺ ݔ ͳሻ ݂݅ ͳͲ ݔ൏ λ a) ܷሺ ݔെ Ͳሻ ൌ ܷሺݔሻ ൌ ͳ for every Ͳ ݔ λ.5.5. then by and substitute ݏൌ െʹ in ଵ to find the value of using definition 1. we cover the original.5.1.9 Find ܷሺ ݔെ ሻȁ ݔൌ ͺ.13 Given ݂ሺݔሻ ൌ ቐ െݔ ݂݅ Ͷ ݔ൏ ͳͲ Result 1. say ሺ ݏ ʹሻ. ࣦ ൜ ൠ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ൜ ൠ ࣦെͳ ൜ ൠ ௦ ݏሺ ݏ ͵ሻሺ ݏ ʹሻ ݏ ͵ ሺ ݏ ͵ሻ Solution: By using the right side of section 7 in table ͳ ͳ െ ࣦെͳ ൜ ൠ 1.1. we need to do the following: ݁ ି௦ ࣦሼܷሺ ݐെ ܾሻሽ ൌ ͳ ͳ ͳ ݏ ͳ ͵ െʹ ିଵ ቊ ିଵ ቋൌࣦ ቐ ቑ ࣦ Thus. Solution: Since ݔൌ ͳ is between 0 and ൌ ͵ .1. Solution: To re-write ݂ሺ ݔሻ in terms of Example 1.5. we obtain: ሺെ ݔሻ൫ܷሺ ݔെ Ͷሻ െ ܷሺ ݔെ ͳͲሻ൯ ܷሺ ݔെ ሻȁ ݔൌ ͺ ൌ ܷ ሺͺ െ ሻ ൌ ͳ. ࣦ ିଵ ቄ ቅ ൌ ܷሺ ݔെ ʹሻ ൌ ൜ Ͳ ݂݅ Ͳ ݔ൏ ܽ ௦ ͳ ݂݅ ʹ ݔ൏ λ defined as follows: ܷሺ ݔെ ܽሻ ൌ ൜ ͵ ݂݅ ͳ ݔ൏ Ͷ ͳ ݂݅ ܽ ݔ൏ λ Example 1. Kaabar 41 .11 Find ࣦሼܷሺ ݔെ ͵ሻሽ.1 Given ܽ Ͳ.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ଵ say ሺ ݏ ͵ሻ. Rewrite ݂ሺ ݔሻ in terms of ܷ݊݅݊݅ݐܿ݊ݑܨ ݁ݐܵ ݐ. ࣦ ିଵ ቊ ቋ ൌ ܷሺ ݐെ ܾሻ ݏ Definition 1. ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ െʹ Solution: By using the left side of section 7 in table ൌ ͵ ݏሺ ݏ ͵ሻሺ ݏ ʹሻ ݏ ሺ ݏ ͵ሻ ሺ ݏ ʹሻ 1. we obtain: Now.1 Given ܽ Ͳ. we obtain: ʹ ሺ ݏ ʹሻ ଵ ଵ ଵ ଵ ݁ ି௦ ǡ ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦ሺ௦ାଷሻሺ௦ାଶሻቅ ൌ ଷ ݁ ିଷ௫ െ ଶ ݁ ିଶ௫ .5. ܿ.

௫ ଵ Thus.1. Kaabar 43 www. Example 1.2 and section 10 in ሺͻ ͳሻሺܷሺͻ െ ͳͲሻ െ Ͳሻ table 1.3 ݂ሺݔሻ is a periodic function on ሾͲǡ λሻ if Solution: By using the upper side of section 6 in table ݂ሺݔሻ has a period ܲ such that ݂ ሺܾሻ ൌ ݂ሺܾ െ ܲሻ for every 1.5.1.2 Convolution.16 Given ݂ሺݔሻ is periodic on ሾͲǡ λሻ such that the first period of ݂ሺݔሻ is given by the following Hence.2 ࣦሼ݂ሺݔሻ ݄ כሺݔሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼ݄ሺݔሻ ݂ כሺݔሻሽ ൌ Since we need find the 8th period. ௫ ݂ ሺݔሻ ݄ כሺݔሻ ൌ න ݂ሺ߰ሻ݄ሺ ݔെ ߰ሻ݀߰ Solution: Part a: By using section 13 in table 1.ebook3000. b) Suppose ܲ ൌ ͺ.1. our unit step functions are correct. we obtain: ௫ ݂ሺͻሻ ൌ ͵ሺͳ െ ͳሻ ሺെͻሻሺͳ െ Ͳሻ ሺͳͲሻሺͲ െ Ͳሻ ͳ ͳ ࣦ ൝න ݊݅ݏሺ߰ሻ݀߰ൡ ൌ ࣦሼͳ כሺݔሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼͳሽ ή ࣦሼሺݔሻሽ ൌ ή ݏሺ ݏଶ ͳሻ ݂ሺͻሻ ൌ ͵ሺͲሻ ሺെͻሻሺͳሻ ሺͳͲሻሺͲሻ ݂ሺͻሻ ൌ Ͳ ሺെͻሻሺͳሻ Ͳ ൌ െͻǤ ͳ ൌ ݏሺ ݏଶ ͳሻ Thus. ൜ ௦ ௦ െʹ ݂݅ ʹ ݔ൏ ͺ Definition 1.2 to find ௫ ࣦ൛ ݊݅ݏሺ߰ሻ݀߰ൟ.5.14 Find ࣦሼܷݔሺ ݔെ ʹሻሽ. ͳ െ ݁ ି௦ Result 1. (Note: do not ͳ ࣦሼ݂ሺݔሻሽ ൌ න ݁ ି௦௧ ݂ ሺݔሻ݀ݔ confuse between multiplication and convolution). follows: We choose ݔൌ ͻ. we need to check our unit step functions as Result 1. ࣦ൛ ݊݅ݏሺ߰ሻ݀߰ൟ ൌ ௦ሺ௦మାଵሻ. we obtain: where ݂ሺ ݔሻ and ݄ሺݔሻ are functions.1. and we can apply what we got above as follows: of this result left as an exercise 16 in section 1.3 ࣦሼ݂ሺݔሻ ή ݄ሺݔሻሽ ് ࣦሼ݄ሺݔሻሽ ή ࣦሼ݂ሺݔሻሽ.5.5. we obtain: ܾ ܲ. Find ݂ሺͳͲሻ.5. Find ݂ሺ͵Ͳሻ. ࣦሼ݄ሺݔሻܷሺ ݔെ ܾሻሽ ൌ ݁ ି௦ ࣦሼ݄ሺ ݔ ܾሻሽ where ܾ ൌ ʹ.1.15 Use definition 1.5. Example 1. and ݄ሺݔሻ ൌ ݔ. 42 M. then this means that ܨሺݏሻ ή ܪሺݏሻ where ݂ ሺ ݔሻ and ݄ሺݔሻ are functions. as follows: c) Suppose ܲ ൌ ͺ.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Now. Definition 1. denoted by כǡ is defined a) Find the 8th period of this function.5.1. (The proof ܲ ൌ ͺ.7).5. ݂ሺͻሻ ൌ ͵൫ܷ ሺͻ െ ͳሻ െ ܷሺͻ െ Ͷሻ൯ ሺെͻሻ൫ܷሺͻ െ Ͷሻ െ ܷሺͻ െ ͳͲሻ൯ Solution: By using definition 1. ࣦሼܷݔሺ ݔെ ʹሻሽ ൌ ݁ ିଶ௦ ࣦሼ݄ሺ ݔ ʹሻሽ ൌ ݁ ିଶ௦ ࣦሼ ݔ ʹሽ ൌ piece-wise continuous function: ଵ ଶ ͵ ݂݅ Ͳ ݔ൏ ʹ ݁ ିଶ௦ ቀ మ ቁ. Example 1.com .5.

ࣦሼ݂ሺݔሻሽ ൌ න ݁ ି௦௧ ݂ሺݔሻ݀ ݔൌ න ݂ሺݔሻ݁ ି௦௧ ݀ݔ ͳ െ ݁ ି଼௦ ͳ െ ݁ ି଼௦ Solution: By using the right side of section 12 in table Using the given first period function. we obtain: Definition 1. Kaabar 45 . ߜ ൏ ݆ ൏ ݅ is chosen arbitrary. such as initial value problems (IVP).3. we discuss how ݂ሺͳͶሻ ൌ ݂ሺͳͶ െ ͺሻ ൌ ݂ ሺሻ ൌ െʹ from the given first to use what we have learned from previous sections period function. we obtain: 1.5. 44 M. differential equations. First Edition1. Then.5.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ଼ ଼ ͳ ͳ Example 1.6 Systems of Linear ൌ ͵ න ݁ ି௦௧ ݀ ݔെ ʹ න ݁ ି௦௧ ݀ݔ ͳ െ ݁ ି଼௦ ͳ ͵ ଶ ݔൌ ʹ ʹ ି௦௧ ݔൌ ͺ Equations ൌ െ ݁ ି௦௧ ฬ ݁ ฬ ൨ ͳ െ ݁ ି଼௦ ݏ ݔൌͲ ݏ ݔൌʹ Most of the materials of this section are taken from ͳ ͵ ʹ ൌ ି଼௦ െ ሺ݁ ିଶ௧ െ ͳሻ ሺ݁ ି଼௧ െ ݁ ିଶ௧ ሻ൨ section 1. ࣦሼ݂ሺݔሻሽ ൌ න ݂ሺݔሻ݁ ି௦௧ ݀ݔ ͳ െ ݁ ି଼௦ ͳ ଶ ଼ 1. Ͳ ݂݅ Ͳ ݐ൏ ሺ݅ െ ݆ሻ Let ൌ be the matrix form of the given system: ͳۓ ݔଵ ܽଵ ߜ ሺ ݐെ ݅ ሻ ൌ ݂݅ ሺ݅ െ ݆ሻ ݐ൏ ሺ݅ ݆ሻ ݔ ۍଶ ܽ ۍ ېଶ ې ݆ʹ۔ ۑ ێ ۑ ێ Ͳە ݐ ሺ݅ ݆ሻ ݔ ێଷ ۑൌ ܽ ێଷ ۑ ߜ ሺ ݐെ ݅ ሻ is called Dirac Delta Function.3. very important to give a review from linear algebra Part c: By using definition 1.4 Suppose that ݅ Ͳ is fixed.17 Find ࣦሼߜሺ ݐ ͳʹሻሽ. we obtain: in Linear Algebra: Study Guide for the Undergraduate ݂ሺͳͲሻ ൌ ݂ሺͳͲ െ ͺሻ ൌ ݂ ሺʹሻ ൌ െʹ from the given first Linear Algebra Course.1. we obtain: about Cramer’s rule.1. because it is period function.8 in my published book titled A First Course ͳെ݁ ݏ ݏ Part b: By using definition 1. ࣦሼߜሺ ݐ ͳʹሻሽ ൌ ݁ଵଶ௦ . ۑڭێ ۑڭێ ݔ ۏ ܽ ۏ ے ے Result 1.6. and Cramer’s rule to solve systems of linear equations.1 Given ݊ ൈ ݊ system of linear equations.5. and how to use Definition 1. In this section.5. we obtain: ࣦሼߜሺ ݐെ ܾሻሽ ൌ ݁ ି௦ ଼ ͳ Thus.5. and how some concepts of linear ݂ሺ͵Ͳሻ ൌ ݂ሺ͵Ͳ െ ͺሻ ൌ ݂ ሺʹʹሻǤ algebra can be used to solve some problems in ݂ሺʹʹሻ ൌ ݂ሺʹʹ െ ͺሻ ൌ ݂ሺͳͶሻ.4 ߜ ሺ ݐെ ݅ ሻ ൌ ՜శ ߜ ሺ ݐെ ݅ ሻ.

ݏଶ ܰ ሺݏሻ െ Ͷܯሺݏሻ ൌ ݏ ʹ. we need to take the laplace transform ͳ ͳ ڭ൩ of both sides for each of the above two equations. we write ʹ ൈ ʹ system in the form Thus. For ʹ ݊݅ݐܽݑݍܧǣ We take the laplace transform of both ʹ ݔଵ ͳ͵ sides: ቂ ቃቂ ቃ ൌ ቂ ቃ െͳͲ ͵ ݔଶ െͶ ࣦሼ݊ሺݐሻሽ ࣦሼʹ݉Ԣ ሺݐሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼͷ݁ʹ ݐሽ ʹ Since W in this form is ቂ ቃ. then െͳͲ ͵ ࣦሼ݊ሺݐሻሽ ʹࣦሼ݉Ԣ ሺݐሻሽ ൌ ͷࣦሼ݁ʹ ݐሽ ሺሻ ൌ ሺʹ ή ͵ሻ െ ൫ ή ሺെͳͲሻ൯ ൌ െ ሺെͲሻ ൌ ് ͲǤ ͷ ܰሺݏሻ ʹ൫ ܯݏሺݏሻ െ ݉ሺͲሻ൯ ൌ The solutions for this system of linear equations are: ݏെʹ 46 M. ൌ according to definition 1.ebook3000.com . Kaabar 47 www. we substitute what is given in this question to equations using Cramer’s Rule: obtain the following: ʹݔଵ ݔଶ ൌ ͳ͵ ൜ െͳͲݔଵ ͵ݔଶ ൌ െͶ ሺ ݏଶ ܰሺݏሻ െ ݏെ ʹሻ െ Ͷܯሺݏሻ ൌ Ͳ Solution: First of all. the solutions are ݔଵ ൌ ݔଶ ൌ ଵଶଶ Ǥ linear equations are: Example 1.1.6.1 Solve the following system of linear Now.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved The system has a unique solution if and only if ͳ͵ ͳ͵ ቂ ቃ ቂ ቃ ݔଵ ൌ െͶ ͵ ൌ െͶ ͵ ൌ ሺሻ ് Ͳ.6. ܽ ͵ ݔଶ ൌ For ͳ ݊݅ݐܽݑݍܧǣ We take the laplace transform of both ሺሻ sides: ͳ ͵ ܽଵ ࣦሼ݊ԢԢ ሺݐሻሽ ࣦሼെͶ݉ሺݐሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼͲሽ ͳ ʹ ڭ൩ Ͷ ܽ ࣦሼ݊ԢԢ ሺݐሻሽ െ Ͷࣦሼ݉ሺݐሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼͲሽ ݔଷ ൌ ሺሻ ሺ ݏଶ ܰሺݏሻ െ ݊ݏሺͲሻ െ ݊ᇱ ሺͲሻሻ െ Ͷܯሺݏሻ ൌ Ͳ Example 1.2 Solve for ݊ሺݐሻ and ݉ሺݐሻ: ܽଵ ͵ Ͷ ݊ᇱᇱ ሺݐሻ െ Ͷ݉ሺݐሻ ൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ͳ ݊݅ݐܽݑݍܧ ͳ ʹ ڭ൩ ൜ ܽ Ͷ ͵ ݊ሺݐሻ ʹ݉ᇱ ሺݐሻ ൌ ͷ݁ ଶ௧ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ʹ ݊݅ݐܽݑݍܧ ݔଵ ൌ Given that ݊ሺͲሻ ൌ ͳǡ ݊ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ʹǡ ݉ሺͲሻ ൌ ͳǤ ሺሻ ͳ ܽଵ Ͷ Solution: First.6. the solutions for the system of ሺሻ Ͷ ͵ Thus. Cramer’s Rule tells us how to ሺሻ find ݔଵ ǡ ݔଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ݔ as follows: ʹ ͳ͵ ʹ ͳ͵ ቂ ቃ ቂ ቃ ͳʹʹ ͳ ͵ Ͷ ݔଶ ൌ െͳͲ െͶ ൌ െͳͲ െͶ ൌ Let W = ͳ ʹ ͳ൩ Then.

Given ݂ሺݔሻ ൌ ൜ ଶ௫ Further. ݊ሺݐሻ ൌ ࣦെͳ ሼܰሺݏሻሽ ൌ ࣦെͳ ቄ ቅ ൌ ݁ ଶ௧ . we substitute what is given in this question to ݊ᇱᇱ ሺݐሻ Ͷ݁ ଶ௧ ݊ᇱᇱ ሺݐሻ െ Ͷ݉ሺݐሻ ൌ Ͳ ՜ ݉ሺݐሻ ൌ ൌ ൌ ݁ ଶ௧ Ǥ obtain the following: Ͷ Ͷ Thus. ݏെʹ Now. Solve the following Initial Value Problem (IVP): ͳ ʹݏ ݕᇱᇱ ሺݔሻ Ͷݕሺݔሻ ൌ Ͳ.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Now. ௦ାହ 2. ݊ᇱ ሺݐሻ ൌ ʹ݁ ଶ௧ . we can find ݉ሺݐሻ as follows: 48 M. ଵ Hence. Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄଷ௦ିଵቅ. ௦ ݁െͶݔ 13. From what we got from Equation 1 and Equation 2. Ͷ ݂݅ Ͳ ݔ൏ ͵ ௦ିଶ 12. ቐ ʹ ݏ ͳ ܰሺݏሻ ʹܯݏሺݏሻ ൌ ଶ 5. we use Cramer’s rule as follows: ହ 6. ହ ݏଶ ܰሺݏሻ െ Ͷܯሺݏሻ ൌ ݏ ʹ 4. Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మ ି௦ି଼ቅ. Given ݕሺͲሻ ൌ െͶ. Solve the following Initial Value Problem (IVP): ʹݏ ݏെʹ ܰ ሺ ݏሻ ൌ ݏെʹ ൌ ͳ ʹ ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ݕሺݔሻ ൌ Ͳ. Find ࣦሼܷ ቀ ݔെ ʹ ቁ ሺݔሻሽ.7 Exercises ܰሺݏሻ ʹ ܯݏሺݏሻ ൌ ʹ ൌ ݏെʹ ݏെʹ ଵ 1. Given ݕሺͲሻ ൌ ʹ. ൌ ൌ ሺ ݏെ ʹሻሺʹ ݏଷ Ͷሻ ݏെʹ 11. We need to find the second derivative of ݊ሺݐሻ. Find ࣦሼܷሺ ݔെ ʹሻ݁͵ ݔሽ. ሺ ݏെ ʹሻሺʹ ݏଶ Ͷݏሻ ͺ ݏ Ͷ ସ ൌ 9. ଶ ቂݏ െͶቃ ʹ ݏଷ Ͷ 8. Kaabar 49 . and ݕᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ Ͳ. we can use one of the given equations to find ݁ ݂݅ ͵ ݔ൏ λ ݉ሺݐሻ as follows: ݊ᇱᇱ ሺݐሻ െ Ͷ݉ሺݐሻ ൌ Ͳ Rewrite ݂ሺ ݔሻ in terms of ܷ݊݅݊݅ݐܿ݊ݑܨ ݁ݐܵ ݐ. Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄ ௦మ ାସ ቅ. ݊ᇱᇱ ሺݐሻ ൌ Ͷ݁ ଶ௧ Ǥ Now. ݉ሺݐሻ ൌ ݁ ଶ௧ Ǥ ͷ ܰሺݏሻ ʹሺܯݏሺݏሻ െ ͳሻ ൌ ݏെʹ ͷ ʹ ݏ ͳ 1. Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ାଷሻర ቅ. ଶ௦ାଵ Thus. Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మ ି௦ାଵଷቅ. Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ିସሻర ቅ. ሺ ݏെ ʹሻሺʹ ݏଷ Ͷሻ ߨ ʹ ݏଷ Ͷ ݏଶ െ Ͷ ݏଶ െ ͺ ݏ ͺ ݏ Ͷ ͳ 10. we ௦ାହ need to find ܰሺݏሻ and ܯሺݏሻ as follows: 3. ݏ ʹ െͶ ቈʹ ݏ ͳ ʹ ݏଶ Ͷ ݏͺ ݏ Ͷ 7. Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ିଵሻమሺ௦ାଷሻቅ. ܰሺݏሻ ʹܯݏሺݏሻ ൌ ௦ିଶ . Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ିଵሻమାଵቅ.

we discuss how to find the ݕሺଷሻ ሺݔሻ ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ܷ ሺ ݔെ ͵ሻǤ Given ݕሺͲሻ ൌ ݕᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ݕᇱᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ general solution of HLDE. linear differential equations (HLDE) with constant 17. we introduce a new method called Undetermined ௫ 18. we start introducing the homogeneous 16. Solve the following Initial Value Problem (IVP): ݕᇱᇱ ሺ ݔሻ͵ ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ െ Ͷݕሺݔሻ ൌ ݂ሺͲሻ.1 Homogeneous System is defined as a (Hint: Use laplace transform to solve this problem) ݉ ൈ ݊ system of linear equations that has all zero constants. In this chapter. Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦మାସሻమቅ. we discuss how to find the general 21. ൞ Ͳ ݓᇱᇱ ሺݐሻ ݄ᇱ ሺݐሻ ൌ Ͷ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ʹ ݊݅ݐܽݑݍܧ To give an introduction about HLDE.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved 14. Solve the following Initial Value Problem (IVP): Linear Differential ݕᇱᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ െ ͺݕሺݔሻ ൌ ݂ሺݔሻ where ݂ሺݔሻ ൌ ൜ ͵ ݂݅ Ͳ ݔ൏ ͷ Equations (HLDE) െʹ ݂݅ ͷ ݔ൏ λ ݕሺͲሻ ൌ ݕᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ Ͳ.5. Ͳ. In addition.1. (i. Kaabar 51 www. *Definition 2. Coefficient Method. Solve the following Initial Value Problem (IVP): coefficients. Solve for ݎሺݐሻ and ݇ሺݐሻ: ݎᇱ ሺݐሻ െ ʹ݇ ሺݐሻ ൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ Ǥ ͳ ݊݅ݐܽݑݍܧ ൜ ᇱᇱ ݎሺݐሻ െ ʹ݇ ᇱ ሺݐሻ ൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ʹ ݊݅ݐܽݑݍܧ Coefficients Given that ݇ሺͲሻ ൌ ͳǡ ݎᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ʹǡ ݎሺͲሻ ൌ ͲǤ In this section.e.com . At the end of this chapter. 2. ିଷ௦ ௧ 22. Prove result 1. 15. the following is an example of 50 M. Solve for ݓሺݐሻ and ݄ሺݐሻ: ݐ solution of the homogeneous linear differential ݓሺݐሻ െ න ݄ሺ߰ሻ݀߰ ൌ ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ͳ ݊݅ݐܽݑݍܧ equations (HLDE) with constant coefficients. Find ࣦ൛ ܿݏሺʹ߰ሻ݁ሺ͵ݔʹటሻ ݀߰ൟ. ଶ௦ 19. it is important to Given that ݓሺͲሻ ൌ ͳǡ ݓᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ݄ሺͲሻ ൌ ͲǤ start with the definition of homogeneous system.1 HLDE with Constant 20.2. Find ݂ሺݐሻ such that ݂ሺݐሻ ൌ ݁ ݂ሺ߰ሻ݀߰.ebook3000. Given Chapter 2 ͳ ݂݅ Ͳ ݔ൏ ͵ ݂ሺݔሻ ൌ ቄ Ͳ ܱ݁ݏ݅ݓݎ݄݁ݐ Systems of Homogeneous ݕሺͲሻ ൌ ݕᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ Ͳ.

1. *Definition 2.1 in my Example 2. In addition.1. since the highest ܽ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͷ derivative is 3. In Solution: Since the above differential equation has a addition.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ʹܽ ܾ െ ܿ ݀ ൌ Ͳ Thus. For the order homogeneous differential equation. we do the following: homogeneous differential equation.1. it is linear because the dependent variable ݕ zero constant. Example 2.2 Describe the following differential Solution: ʹ ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ Ͷݕሺݔሻ ൌ Ͳ is a homogeneous linear differential equation of order 1.4) equation of order 2. is a non-homogeneous differential equation. For the order of this Thus.1. derivatives are to the power 1.1 is taken from section 3. it is ʹ ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ Ͷݕሺݔሻ ൌ Ͳ linear because the dependent variable ݕand all its Using definition 1. we need to find equation: ͵ ݕሺଷሻ ሺ ݔሻെʹ ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ݕሺݔሻ ൌ Ͳ.1.1. derivative is 2.1. then according to definition 2. First. then according to definition 2. Given: ݕᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ͳǤ (Hint: Use the concepts of section 1. the domain for the solution of the above differential Solution: Since the above differential equation has a equation in other words we need to find for what zero constant. Study Guide for the Undergraduate Linear Algebra Course. Solution: Since the above differential equation has a Example 2. Thus. For the order of this ܽଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ʹ homogeneous differential equation. it is a and all its derivatives are to the power 1. then the order is 2. since linear because the dependent variable ݕand all its the highest derivative is 2.1. Kaabar 53 .1.4 Find the general solution the following ݕ ᇱᇱ ሺ ᇱ ݔሻ͵ ݕሺݔሻ ൌ Ͳ is a homogeneous linear differential Initial Value Problem (IVP): ʹ ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ Ͷݕሺݔሻ ൌ Ͳ.1. since the highest linear differential equation of order 2.1 Describe the following differential nonzero constant. First Edition1. it is a values of ݔthe solution of the above differential equation holds. In addition.4. then the order is 2.1. 52 M.1. it is of this non-homogeneous differential equation. Therefore. we also suppose the following: derivatives are to the power 1. ͵ ݕሺଷሻ ሺݔሻെʹ ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳ is a homogeneous homogeneous system): ൝͵ܽ ͷܾ ͵ܿ Ͷ݀ ൌ Ͳ െܾ ܿ െ ݀ ൌ Ͳ linear differential equation of order 3. Example 2.3 Describe the following differential published book titled A First Course in Linear Algebra: equation: ͵ ݕሺଶሻ ሺ ݔሻെʹ ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ͳʹ. then the order is 3. ͵ ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻെʹ ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ͳʹ is a non-homogeneous homogeneous differential equation. it ᇱᇱ ሺ ᇱ equation: ݔ ݕሻ͵ ݕሺݔሻ ൌ Ͳ. then according to definition 2. ܭሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳ The domain of solution is ሺെλǡ λሻ.

ܿ ൌ ͳ. ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௫ Result 2. ᇱ ࣦሼʹ ݕሺݔሻሽ ࣦሼͶݕሺݔሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼͲሽ Example 2. Then. Since ܻ ሺ ݏሻ ൌ ൌ ൌ ʹ ݏ Ͷ ʹሺ ݏ ʹሻ ݏ ʹ ݕᇱᇱ ሺ ݔሻ െ Ͷݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳ is HLDE with constant coefficients. to find the solution of the above differential Result 2. say ݂ଵ ሺ ݔሻǡ ݂ଶ ሺ ݔሻǡ ǥ ǡ ݂ ሺ ݔሻǤ ݁ ௫ ሺ݇ ଶ െ Ͷሻ ൌ Ͳ ሺሻ b) Every solution of ݉ଵ ݕ ሺݔሻ ݉ଶ ݕሺݔሻ ൌ Ͳ is of ݁ ௫ ሺ݇ െ ʹሻሺ݇ ʹሻ ൌ Ͳ the form: ܿଵ ݂ଵ ሺ ݔሻ ܿଶ ݂ଶ ሺ ݔሻ ڮ ܿ ݂ ሺ ݔሻ. the general solution ݕሺݔሻ ൌ ܿ݁ ିଶ௫ ǡ for some as follows: constant ܿ. ʹሺܻݏሺݏሻ െ ݕᇱ ሺͲሻሻ Ͷܻሺݏሻ ൌ Ͳ from result 1.5 Given ݕᇱᇱ ሺ ݔሻ െ Ͷݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳǡ ʹࣦሼ ݕᇱ ሺݔሻሽ Ͷࣦሼݕሺݔሻሽ ൌ Ͳ because (ࣦሼͲሽ ൌ Ͳ).2.ebook3000. Then. ݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ଶ௫ 54 M.2. we will find the first and second derivatives Thus. (Hint: Use results 2. we need transform as follows: to find ݇.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Now. ݇ ൌ ʹ ݇ ݎൌ െʹ.1.1 Assume that ݉ଵ ݕሺሻ ሺݔሻ ݉ଶ ݕሺݔሻ ൌ Ͳ is a ݕᇱᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇ ଶ ݁ ௫ homogeneous linear differential equation of order ݊ Now.1 and 2. ݕଶ ൌ ݁ మ ௫ . Here.1. for Thus. …. ݕᇱᇱ ሺ ݔሻ െ Ͷݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳ as follows: a) ݉ଵ ݕሺሻ ሺݔሻ ݉ଶ ݕሺݔሻ ൌ Ͳ must have exactly ݊ ݇ ଶ ݁ ௫ െ Ͷ݁ ௫ ൌ Ͳ independent solutions. ݕሺͲሻ ൌ Ͷǡ ݕᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ͳͲǤ Find the general solution for ݕሺ ݔሻ. we need to take the laplace transform for ݕ ൌ ݁ ௫ are independent if and only if ݇ଵ ǡ ݇ଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ݇ are both sides as follows distinct real numbers. substitute ݇ in our assumption which is ݕሺݔሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ : at ݇ ൌ ʹ.4 ʹ ʹ ͳ (laplace transform approach) to solve it. ͳ ݕሺݔሻ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ሼܻሺݏሻሽ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቄݏʹቅ ൌ ݁ ିଶ௫ Ǥ First of all. we ܻሺݏሻሺʹ ݏ Ͷሻ ൌ ʹሺͳሻ will use a different approach from example 2. Kaabar 55 www. In this example. we need to find the inverse laplace then we will do the following: Let ݕሺݔሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ .2) ᇱ ʹܻݏሺݏሻ െ ʹ ݕሺͲሻ Ͷܻሺݏሻ ൌ Ͳ Solution: ݕᇱᇱ ሺ ݔሻ െ Ͷݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳ is a homogeneous linear ܻሺݏሻሺʹ ݏ Ͷሻ ൌ ʹ ݕᇱ ሺͲሻ differential equation of order 2. To find a solution. equation. we substitute ݕሺݔሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ and ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௫ in with constant coefficients ݉ଵ and ݉ଶ . we use our values to some constants ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܿ .2 Assume that ݕଵ ൌ ݁ భ ௫ .1.com .1.1.1.

Kaabar 57 . then ʹܿଵ െ ʹܿଶ ൌ ͳͲ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺʹሻ ݁ ௫ ሺ݇ሺ݇ െ ʹሻሺ݇ െ ͵ሻሻ ൌ Ͳ From ሺͳሻ and ሺʹሻ.1. Example 2. we need to find derivatives as follows: the values of ܿଵ ܿଶ as follows: ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௫ at ݔൌ Ͳ. the general solution is: substitute ݇ in our assumption which is ݕሺݔሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ : ݕ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͶǤͷ݁ ଶ௫ െ ͲǤͷ݁ ିଶ௫ . for some ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ אԸ. using result 2. Then. for some ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ܿଷ אԸ.1. ݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ଶ௫ Find the general solution for ݕሺ ݔሻ. at ݇ ൌ Ͳ. ݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ିଶ௫ constant coefficients. and Since ݕሺͲሻ ൌ Ͷ. the general solution for ݕሺݔሻ ݕሺݔሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ . ݕ ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ʹܿଵ ݁ ଶሺሻ െ ʹܿଶ ݁ ିଶሺሻ ݇ ଷ ݁ ௫ െ ͷ݇ ଶ ݁ ௫ ݇݁ ௫ ൌ Ͳ ݕ ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ʹܿଵ ݁ െ ʹܿଶ ݁ ݁ ௫ ሺ݇ ଷ െ ͷ݇ ଶ ݇ሻ ൌ Ͳ ݕ ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ʹܿଵ െ ʹܿଶ ݁ ௫ ሺ݇ሺ݇ ଶ െ ͷ݇ ሻሻ ൌ Ͳ Since ݕᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ͳͲ. and in this example.1. we substitute ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௫ .1. second. is: ݕ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ܿଵ ݁ ଶ௫ ܿଶ ݁ ିଶ௫ .7 Given ݕሺହሻ ሺݔሻ െ ݕሺସሻ ሺݔሻ െ ʹ ݕሺଷሻ ሺݔሻ ൌ ͲǤ Since ݕሺଷሻ ሺݔሻ െ ͷ ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ Ͳ is HLDE with 56 M.1 and 2. and third ݄ ݉denotes to homogeneous).1.1. Now. we use our values to Thus.2. ܿଵ ൌ ͶǤͷ and ܿଶ ൌ െͲǤͷ. ݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ሺሻ௫ ൌ ͳ Example 2. ݇ ൌ Ͳǡ ݇ ൌ ʹ ݇ ݎൌ ͵. the general solution for ݕሺݔሻ the values of ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ܿଷ ) is: ݕ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ܿଵ ܿଶ ݁ ଶ௫ ܿଷ ݁ ଷ௫ . (Note: First of all.6 Given ݕሺଷሻ ሺݔሻ െ ͷ ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ͲǤ at ݇ ൌ ʹ. we will find the first.1. ݕ ሺͲሻ ൌ ܿଵ ݁ ଶሺሻ ܿଶ ݁ ିଶሺሻ ݕᇱᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇ ଶ ݁ ௫ ݕ ሺͲሻ ൌ ܿଵ ݁ ܿଶ ݁ ݕሺଷሻ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇ ଷ ݁ ௫ ݕ ሺͲሻ ൌ ܿଵ ܿଶ Now. then ܿଵ ܿଶ ൌ Ͷ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͳሻ ݕሺଷሻ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇ ଷ ݁ ௫ in ݕሺଷሻ ሺݔሻ െ ͷ ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳ as ݕ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ʹܿଵ ݁ ଶ௫ െ ʹܿଶ ݁ ିଶ௫ follows: at ݔൌ Ͳ. using result 2. homogeneous linear differential equation of order 3. we need to find ݇. Thus. then we will do the following: Let Hence. no need to find Thus. (Hint: Use results at ݇ ൌ ͵. ݕᇱᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇ ଶ ݁ ௫ .1. ݕଷ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ଷ௫ 2. Solution: ݕሺଷሻ ሺݔሻ െ ͷ ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳ is a (Note: ݄ ݉denotes to homogeneous).Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved at ݇ ൌ െʹ.

and in this example. ݁ ௫ ሺ݇ ହ െ ݇ ସ െ ʹ݇ ଷ ሻ ൌ Ͳ Example 2. the general solution for ݕሺݔሻ ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௫ is: ݕ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ܿଵ ܿଶ ݔ ܿଷ ݔଶ ܿସ ݁ ଶ௫ ܿହ ݁ ି௫ .8 Given ݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ଷ௫ ǡ ݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ିଷ௫ ǡ ݕሺହሻ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇ ହ ݁ ௫ ݕଷ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ Ǥ Are ݕଵ ሺݔሻǡ ݕଷ ሺ ݔሻǡ ݕଷ ሺ ݔሻ independent? Now. ݕሺݔሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ . and ݔଶ . third. Thus. at ݇ ൌ െͳ.1 and 2.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Find the general solution for ݕሺ ݔሻ. Kaabar 59 www. second. we need to find ݇. ሺସሻ ସ ௫ ݕ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇ ݁ Example 2.1. no need to find at ݇ ൌ Ͳ. fourth.1. ݕଵ ሺ ݔሻǡ ݕଷ ሺ ݔሻǡ ݕଷ ሺ ݔሻ are ݕሺݔሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ : dependent (not independent). (Hint: Use results at ݇ ൌ Ͳ.9 Given ݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ሺ௫ାଷሻ ǡ ݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ଷ ǡ ݁ ௫ ሺ݇ ଷ ሺ݇ ଶ െ ݇ െ ʹሻሻ ൌ Ͳ ݕଷ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ Ǥ Are ݕଵ ሺݔሻǡ ݕଷ ሺ ݔሻǡ ݕଷ ሺ ݔሻ independent? ݁ ௫ ሺ݇ ଷ ሺ݇ െ ʹሻሺ݇ ͳሻሻ ൌ Ͳ Solution: We can write ݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ as a linear combination of Thus. Then.2.1.ebook3000. ݕସ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ଶ௫ First of all. ݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ሺሻ௫ ൌ ͳ 2. for some ݕᇱᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇ ଶ ݁ ௫ ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ܿଷ ǡ ܿସ ǡ ܿହ אԸ.com . means ܽ ή ͳ ܾ ή ݔ ܿ ή ݔଶ ൌ Ͳ) Since ݕሺହሻ ሺݔሻ െ ݕሺସሻ ሺ ݔሻ െ ʹ ݕሺଷሻ ሺݔሻ ൌ Ͳ is HLDE with In other words ܵ݊ܽሼͳǡ ݔǡ ݔଶ ሽ is the set of all linear constant coefficients. ݕଷ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ሺሻ௫ ൌ ͳ ή ݔଶ Solution: ݕሺହሻ ሺݔሻ െ ݕሺସሻ ሺݔሻ െ ʹ ݕሺଷሻ ሺݔሻ ൌ Ͳ is a because ݇ ଷ ൌ ܵ݊ܽሼͳǡ ݔǡ ݔଶ ሽ ൌ Ͳ (Note: ܵ݊ܽሼͳǡ ݔǡ ݔଶ ሽ ൌ Ͳ homogeneous linear differential equation of order 5. ݕሺସሻ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇ ସ ݁ ௫ . we use ݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ and ݕଷ ሺݔሻ as follows: our values to substitute ݇ in our assumption which is ݁ ሺ௫ାଷሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ ή ݁ ଷ . at ݇ ൌ ʹ. then we will do the following: Let combinations of ͳ. ݕହ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ି௫ and fifth derivatives as follows: Thus. Solution: We cannot write ݕଷ ሺ ݔሻ as a linear and ݕሺଷሻ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇ ଷ ݁ ௫ in ݕሺହሻ ሺݔሻ െ ݕሺସሻ ሺݔሻ െ ʹ ݕሺଷሻ ሺݔሻ ൌ Ͳ combination of ݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ and ݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ as follows: as follows: ݁ ௫ ് ሺݎܾ݁݉ݑܰ ݀݁ݔ݅ܨሻ ή ݁ ଷ௫ ሺݎܾ݁݉ݑܰ ݀݁ݔ݅ܨሻ ή ݁ ିଷ௫ ݇ ହ ݁ ௫ െ ݇ ସ ݁ ௫ െ ʹ݇ ଷ ݁ ௫ ൌ Ͳ Thus. we will find the first.1. we substitute ݕሺହሻ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇ ହ ݁ ௫ . ݔ.1. 58 M. ݇ ൌ Ͳǡ ݇ ൌ Ͳǡ ݇ ൌ Ͳǡ ݇ ൌ ʹ ݇ ݎൌ െͳ. ݕଵ ሺ ݔሻǡ ݕଷ ሺݔሻǡ ݕଷ ሺ ݔሻ are independent. using result 2. (Note: ݄ ݉denotes to ݕሺଷሻ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇ ଷ ݁ ௫ homogeneous). ݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ሺሻ௫ ൌ ͳ ή ݔ the values of ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ܿଷ ǡ ܿସ ܿହ) at ݇ ൌ Ͳ.1.

denotes to homogeneous). (Hint: No need to find the follows: Since ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ͵ݕሺ ݔሻ equals ݔ. fourth.1 Given ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ͵ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݔǡ ݕሺͲሻ ൌ ͳǤ Find Step 2: We need to find the particular solution as the general solution for ݕሺݔሻ.1. it is a homogeneous linear We substitute ݕ௧௨ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ܾ in ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ͵ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݔ. we will find a our assumption which is ݕሺݔሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ : general solution consisting of homogeneous solution at ݇ ൌ െ͵. Now. Kaabar 61 . Example 2.1 to combine it with what we ݇݁ ௫ ͵݁ ௫ ൌ Ͳ will learn from section 2. we need to find ܽ and ܾ as follows: letting ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ͵ݕሺݔሻ equal to zero as follows: ݕ௧௨ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ܾ ᇱሺ ݔ ݕሻ ͵ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳ.1. then the value of ܿଵ ) particular solution should be in the following form: Solution: Since ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ͵ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݔdoes not have a ݕ௧௨ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ܽ ܾ ݔbecause ݔis a polynomial of the constant coefficient. differential equation of order 1. In this method. Thus. Step 1: We need to find the homogeneous solution by Now. we use our value to substitute ݇ in coefficients method. and the general form for first degree undetermined coefficients method as follows: polynomial is ܽ ܾݔ. we will find the first. we need to find ݇. ݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ሺିଷሻ௫ ൌ ݁ ିଷ௫ and particular solution together. ݇ ൌ െ͵.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Let ݕሺݔሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ . second. we substitute ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௫ in ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ͵ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳ as In this section. then we will do the following: 60 M. for some ܿଵ אԸ.2.2 in order to find the general ݁ ௫ ሺ݇ ͵ሻ ൌ Ͳ solution using a method known as undetermined Thus. third.2 Method of Undetermined First of all. Then. and fifth derivatives as follows: Coefficients ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௫ Now. then we need to use the first degree. using result 2. ܾ ͵ሺܽ ܾ ݔሻ ൌ ݔ Since ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ͵ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳ is a HLDE with constant ܾ ͵ܽ ͵ܾ ݔൌ ݔ coefficients. 2. (Note: ݄݉ undetermined coefficient method. we discuss how to use what we have follows: learned from section 2. the general solution for ݕሺݔሻ We give the following examples to introduce the is: ݕ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ܿଵ ݁ ିଷ௫ .

݇ ൌ െ͵. second. we need to find ݇.com . we get: ܽ ൌ െ ଽ and ܾ ൌ ଷ .1. Then.ebook3000. ݕ௧௨ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ െ ݔ. third. (Note: ݄݉ Solution: In this example.2.1.2 Given ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ͵ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ିଷ௫ ǡ ݕሺͲሻ ൌ ͳǤ at ݇ ൌ െ͵. ݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ሺିଷሻ௫ ൌ ݁ ିଷ௫ Find the general solution for ݕሺ ݔሻ. ଽ ଷ our assumption which is ݕሺݔሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ : Example 2. fourth. it is a homogeneous linear ሾሺܽ݁ ିଷ௫ ሻ െ ͵ሺܽି ݁ݔଷ௫ ሻሿ ͵ሺܽ݁ ିଷ௫ ሻ ݔൌ ݁ ିଷ௫ differential equation of order 1. the general solution for ݕሺݔሻ find the value of ܿଵ ) is: ݕ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ܿଵ ݁ ିଷ௫ . using result 2. we will have the same denotes to homogeneous). Now. ܾ ͵ܽ ͵ܾ ൌ ͳ and fifth derivatives as follows: Ͷܾ ͵ܽ ൌ ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺʹሻ ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௫ ଵ ଵ From ሺͳሻ and ሺʹሻ. we substitute ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௫ in ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ͵ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳ as ଵ Thus.1. Kaabar 63 www. Now. at ݔൌ ͳ.2. ݕ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ܿଵ ݁ ିଷ௫ ቀെ ݔቁ.1 but Step 2: We need to find the particular solution as the only difference is the particular solution. Since ݔ ݕሻ ͵ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ does not have a ݕ௧௨ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ሺܽ݁ ିଷ௫ ሻݔ constant coefficient. we use our value to substitute ݇ in ଵ ଵ Thus.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved at ݔൌ Ͳ. then the repeat some steps in case you did not read example particular solution should be in the following form: ᇱሺ ିଷ௫ 2. for some ܿଵ אԸ. (Hint: No need to Thus. 62 M. we need to find ܽ as follows: undetermined coefficients method as follows: ݕ௧௨ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ሺܽ݁ ିଷ௫ ሻ െ ͵ሺܽି ݁ݔଷ௫ ሻ Step 1: We need to find the homogeneous solution by We substitute ݕ௧௨ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ሺܽ݁ ିଷ௫ ሻ െ ͵ሺܽି ݁ݔଷ௫ ሻ in letting ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ͵ݕሺݔሻ equal to zero as follows: ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ͵ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ିଷ௫ . we obtain: ܾ ͵ܽ ሺ͵ܾሻሺͳሻ ൌ ͳ First of all. then we will do the following: ܾ ͵ܽ ൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺͳሻ Let ݕሺݔሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ . we obtain: ܾ ͵ܽ ሺ͵ܾሻሺͲሻ ൌ Ͳ Since ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ͵ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳ is a HLDE with constant ܾ ͵ܽ Ͳ ൌ Ͳ coefficients. We will follows: Since ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ͵ݕሺ ݔሻ equals ݁ ିଷ௫ . we will find the first. ᇱሺ ݔ ݕሻ ͵ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳ.2. homogeneous solution as we did in example 2. then we need to use the Now. ଵ follows: ଽ ଷ ݇݁ ௫ ͵݁ ௫ ൌ Ͳ Step 3: We need to find the general solution as follows: ݁ ௫ ሺ݇ ͵ሻ ൌ Ͳ ݕ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݕ ሺ ݔሻ ݕ௧௨ ሺ ݔሻ Thus.

and we write it as: ݕ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݕ ሺ ݔሻ ݕ௧௨ ሺ ݔሻ ܽ ܾ ݔ ܿ ݔଶ . (Hint: Use results 2.2.1 and 2.3 Given ݕ ݔሻ െ ݕ ݔሻ ൌ ݔǤ Describe 1. Given ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ ʹ ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͲǤ Find the general ݕ௧௨ ሺ ݔሻ but do not find it.1. Given ݕሺସሻ ሺݔሻ െ ݕሺଷሻ ሺݔሻ ൌ ͵ ݔଶ Ǥ Find the general By using result 2. we obtain the following: In this example. Result 2.4 Given ݕ ݔሻ െ ݕ ݔሻ ൌ ͵Ǥ Describe solution for ݕሺ ݔሻ. we obtain the following: ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ) ݕ௧௨ ൌ ሾܽ ܾ ݔ ܿ ݔଶ ሿ ݔଷ . we obtain the following: solution for ݕሺ ݔሻ.1. ିଷ௫ ሻ ିଷ௫ Thus. (Hint: No need to find the value of ݕ௧௨ ൌ ሾܽሿ ݔଷ ൌ ܽ ݔଷ Ǥ ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ܿଷ ǡ ܿସ ) 64 M. Thus. ݕ௧௨ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ሺͳ݁ ݔൌ ݁ݔ Ǥ Solution: To describe ݕ௧௨ ሺݔሻ. ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ܿଷ ) Solution: To describe ݕ௧௨ ሺݔሻ. Then. ݕ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ܿଵ ݁ ିଷ௫ ି ݁ݔଷ௫ Ǥ ݕ௧௨ ൌ ሾܽ ܾ ݔ ܿ ݔଶ ሿ݁ ௫ . we look at ሺ͵ݔሻ. we do the following: 3.2.1.2. and then we multiply it by ݁ ௫ .Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ܽ݁ ିଷ௫ ൌ ݁ ିଷ௫ Example 2.2. equation. Solution: To describe ݕ௧௨ ሺݔሻ. solution for ݕሺ ݔሻ. then the general solution is always written as: ݕ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݕ௨௦ ሺ ݔሻ ݕ௧௨ ሺݔሻ. we look at ݔଶ . we do the following: ݓ.2 Suppose that you have a linear differential ݕ௧௨ ൌ ሾܽ ሺ͵ ݔሻ ܾሺ͵ݔሻሿ݁ ௫ .2. say ݉. we do the following: and in this exercise.2. Result 2.2. Kaabar 65 .1.2. and this Describe ݕ௧௨ ሺ ݔሻ but do not find it. (Hint: No need to find the value of ݕ௧௨ ሺ ݔሻ but do not find it.2. 2.6 Given ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ െ ͵ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ ሺ͵ݔሻ݁ ௫ Ǥ equation with the least derivative. ሺܽ ሺ͵ ݔሻ ܾሺ͵ݔሻሻ. 2. Given ݕሺଷሻ ሺݔሻ െ ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ ൌ ͵ݔǤ Find the general ሺସሻ ሺ ሺଷሻ ሺ Example 2.1 Suppose that you have a linear differential Example 2. no need to find the values of By using result 2.5 Given ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ െ ͵ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݔଶ ݁ ௫ Ǥ Describe ܽൌͳ ݕ௧௨ ሺ ݔሻ but do not find it. and we write it as: ݕ௧௨ ൌ ሾܲݓ ݁݁ݎ݃݁ܦ ݂ ݈ܽ݅݉݊ݕ݈ሿ ݔ . differential equation equals to a polynomial of degree Solution: To describe ݕ௧௨ ሺݔሻ. and then we multiply it by ݁ ௫ .3 Exercises ሺସሻ ሺ ሺଷሻ ሺ ଶ Example 2. we do the following: Step 3: We need to find the general solution as follows: In this example.

Given ݕሺଷሻ ሺݔሻ െ ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ ൌ ሺʹݔሻǤ Find the general Methods of First and solution for ݕሺ ݔሻ. to solve first and higher orders differential equations. we introduce two new methods called Variation Method and Cauchy-Euler Method in order but do not find it. Then. Definition 3. Given ݕሺଷሻ ሺݔሻ െ ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ Ǥ Find the general solution for ݕሺ ݔሻ. మ 7. Given ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ െ ͵ݕሺݔሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ Ǥ Describe ݕ௧௨ ሺݔሻ In this chapter. For the homogeneous solution. (Hint: No need to find the value of ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ܿଷ ) Higher Orders Differential 6. Given ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ െ ͵ݕሺݔሻ ൌ ͵ݔሺͷݔሻǤ Describe Equations ݕ௧௨ ሺ ݔሻ but do not find it. we give several examples about these methods.1 Variation Method In this section. 3. Assume that ݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ and ݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ are independent solution to the homogeneous solution. In addition.ebook3000. the particular solution using Variation Method is written as: 66 M. Kaabar 67 www.1 Given ܽଶ ሺ ݔሻ ݕሺଶሻ ܽଵ ሺ ݔሻ ݕᇱ ൌ ܭሺݔሻ is a linear differential equation of order 2. we discuss how to find the particular solution using Variation Method.1. and the difference between them and the previous methods in chapter 2. it will be similar to what we learned in chapter 2.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved 4.com . (Hint: No need to find the value of Chapter 3 ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ܿଷ ) 5.

Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ݕ௧௨ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݄ଵ ሺ ݔሻݕଵ ሺݔሻ ݄ଶ ሺݔሻݕଶ ሺݔሻ. ଵ Solution: Since ݕሺଶሻ ͵ ݕᇱ ൌ does not have a constant Thus. Kaabar 69 . as follows: Step 2: We need to find the particular solution using Step 1: We need to find the homogeneous solution by ଵ definition 3. we will find the first and second derivatives ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻݕଵ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻݕଶ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ܽଶ ሺ ݔሻ as follows: Definition 3. To find differential equation of order 2. for some coefficient. ሺଶሻ ᇱ ௫ letting ݕ ͵ ݕequal to zero as follows: then the particular solution should be in the following ݕሺଶሻ ͵ ݕᇱ ൌ Ͳ. ݄ଵ ሺ ݔሻ and ݄ଶ ሺ ݔሻ. we need to solve the following two equations: 68 M. To find ݄ଵ ሺ ݔሻ Since ݕሺଶሻ ͵ ݕᇱ ൌ Ͳ is a HLDE with constant and ݄ଶ ሺ ݔሻ. Then. we substitute ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௫ and ݕᇱᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇ ଶ ݁ ௫ in using Variation Method is written as: ݕሺଶሻ ͵ ݕᇱ ൌ Ͳ as follows: ݕ௧௨ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݄ଵ ሺ ݔሻݕଵ ሺݔሻ ݄ଶ ሺ ݔሻݕଶ ሺݔሻ ݄ଷ ሺݔሻݕଷ ሺ ݔሻ. Assume that ݕଵ ሺ ݔሻǡ ݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ and ݕଷ ሺ ݔሻ are independent solution to the ݕᇱᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇ ଶ ݁ ௫ homogeneous solution. (Hint: No need to find the values of at ݇ ൌ െ͵. ݇ ଶ ݁ ௫ ͵݇݁ ௫ ൌ Ͳ To find ݄ଵ ሺ ݔሻǡ ݄ଶ ሺ ݔሻ and ݄ଷ ሺ ݔሻ.1.1. the particular solution Now. ݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ሺିଷሻ௫ ൌ ݁ ିଷ௫ ܿଵ and ܿଶ ) Notice that ݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ and ݕଶ ሺݔሻ are independent. Then.1. it is a homogeneous linear form: ݕ௧௨ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݄ଵ ሺ ݔሻݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ ݄ଶ ሺݔሻݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ. we use our values to ܭሺ ݔሻ ݄ଵ ሺଶሻ ሺ ݔሻݕଵ ሺଶሻ ሺ ݔሻ ݄ଶ ሺଶሻ ሺ ݔሻݕଶ ሺଶሻ ሺ ݔሻ ݄ଷ ሺଶሻ ሺ ݔሻݕଷ ሺଶሻ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ substitute ݇ in our assumption which is ݕሺݔሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ : ܽଷ ሺ ݔሻ ଵ Example 3. then we need to use the variation method ܿଵ ܿଶ אԸ. the general homogenous ௫ solution for ݕሺݔሻ is: ݕ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ܿଵ ܿଶ ݁ ିଷ௫ .2 Given ܽଷ ሺ ݔሻ ݕ ڮ ܽଵ ሺݔሻ ݕᇱ ൌ ܭሺݔሻ is ሺଷሻ ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௫ a linear differential equation of order 3. we need to solve the following two coefficients. we need to solve the following three equations: ݁ ௫ ሺ݇ ଶ ͵݇ሻ ൌ Ͳ ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻݕଵ ሺݔሻ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ ݄ଷ ᇱ ሺݔሻݕଷ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳ ݁ ௫ ሺ݇ሺ݇ ͵ሻሻ ൌ Ͳ ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻݕଵ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻݕଶ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ݄ଷ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻݕଷ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳ Thus.1. (Note: ݄ ݉denotes to homogeneous).1. then we will do the following: equations: Let ݕሺݔሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ . we need to find ݇. ݇ ൌ Ͳ and ݇ ൌ െ͵. ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺݔሻݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳ ܭሺ ݔሻ First of all. Now.1 as follows: Since ݕሺଶሻ ͵ ݕᇱ equals . ݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ሺሻ௫ ൌ ݁ ൌ ͳ solution for ݕሺ ݔሻ.1 Given ݕሺଶሻ ͵ ݕᇱ ൌ ௫ Ǥ Find the general at ݇ ൌ Ͳ. using result 2.

then we need to use the variation ͳ method as follows: ᇱ ᇱ ିଷ௫ ሻ ݄ଵ ሺ ݔሻሺͳሻ ݄ଶ ሺ ݔሻሺ݁ ൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺͳሻ Step 1: We need to find the homogeneous solution by ͳ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻሺെ͵݁ ିଷ௫ ሻ ൌ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺʹሻ letting ݕሺଶሻ ݕᇱ ͺ ݕequal to zero as follows: ݔ ଵ By solving ሺͳሻ and ሺʹሻ. (Hint: No need to find the solution form as follows: values of ܿଵ and ܿଶ ) ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻሺͳሻ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻሺ݁ ିଷ௫ ሻ ൌ Ͳ ͳ Solution: Since ݕሺଶሻ ݕᇱ ͺ ݕൌ ݁ ିସ௫ does not have a ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻሺͲሻ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻሺെ͵݁ ିଷ௫ ሻ ൌ ݔ constant coefficient. we will find the first and second derivatives ଵ Since it is possible to integrate ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ଷ௫ to find ݄ଵ ሺ ݔሻ. ݔ Ͳ. we need to find ݇. ଷ௫ ଷ௫ ଵ Since ݕሺଶሻ ݕᇱ ͺ ݕൌ Ͳ is a HLDE with constant ᇱ ଷ௫ Since it is impossible to integrate ݄ଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ െ ଷ௫ ݁ to coefficients.ebook3000. ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ଷ௫ ሺ݁ ିଷ௫ ሻ ൌ . ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ െ ଷ௫ ݁ ଷ௫ and ݕሺଶሻ ݕᇱ ͺ ݕൌ Ͳ. ௫ ଵ ݄ଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ െ ଷ௧ ݁ ଷ௧ ݀ݐ.com . ݕ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ሺܿଵ ܿଶ ݁ ିଷ௫ ሻ ሺȁ ݔȁሻ ܽଶ ሺ ݔሻ ଷ ᇱ ݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͳ ------Æ ݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳ ௫ ଵ ݁ ିଷ௫ ቀ െ ଷ௧ ݁ ଷ௧ ݀ݐቁǡ for some ܿଵ ܿଶ אԸǤ ݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ିଷ௫ ------Æ ݕଶ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ െ͵݁ ିଷ௫ Example 3. we substituteݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ ǡ ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௫ and Thus. ଷ௫ Now. Now. Kaabar 71 www. First of all.1.2 Given ݕሺଶሻ ݕᇱ ͺ ݕൌ ݁ ିସ௫ Ǥ Find the Now. as follows: ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௫ then we do the following: ଵ ଵ ݕᇱᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇ ଶ ݁ ௫ ݄ଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݀ ݔൌ ଷ ሺȁ ݔȁሻ. it is a homogeneous linear ଵ ଵ differential equation of order 2. we substitute what we got above in the particular general solution for ݕሺ ݔሻ.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺݔሻݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳ ݕ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݕ ሺ ݔሻ ݕ௧௨ ሺ ݔሻ ܭሺ ݔሻ ଵ ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻݕଵ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻݕଶ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ Thus. then it is enough to write as: Let ݕሺݔሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ . then we will do the following: find ݄ଶ ሺ ݔሻ. we write the particular solution as follows: ݕᇱᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ݇ ଶ ݁ ௫ in ݕሺଶሻ ݕᇱ ͺ ݕൌ Ͳ as follows: ௫ ͳ ͳ ݇ ଶ ݁ ௫ ݇݁ ௫ ͺ݁ ௫ ൌ Ͳ ݕ௧௨ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ሺȁ ݔȁሻ ݁ ିଷ௫ ቌන െ ݁ ଷ௧ ݀ݐቍ ͵ ͵ݐ ݁ ௫ ሺ݇ ଶ ݇ ͺሻ ൌ Ͳ Step 3: We need to find the general solution as follows: ݁ ௫ ሺሺ݇ ʹሻሺ݇ Ͷሻሻ ൌ Ͳ 70 M.

ͳ ൬ ݁ ିଶ௫ ൰ ሺ݁ ିଶ௫ ሻ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻሺ݁ ିସ௫ ሻ ൌ Ͳ Step 2: We need to find the particular solution using ʹ definition 3. (Note: ݄ ݉denotes to By substituting ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻ in ሺͳሻ to find ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻ as follows: homogeneous). the general homogenous െͶ݁ ି௫ ʹ݁ ି௫ െʹ݁ ି௫ ͳ solution for ݕሺݔሻ is: ݕ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ܿଵ ݁ ିଶ௫ ܿଶ ݁ ିସ௫ . we use our values to By solving ሺͳሻ and ሺʹሻ.1. then we do the following: ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺݔሻݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳ ଵ ݄ଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ି ݁ ଶ௫ ݀ ݔൌ െ ݁ ିଶ௫ . ଶ ଶ Now. for ൌ ݁ ିଶ௫ ʹ some ܿଵ ܿଶ אԸ.1. ݕ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ሺܿଵ ݁ ିଶ௫ ܿଶ ݁ ିସ௫ ሻ ቀെ ସ ݁ ିଶ௫ ሺ݁ ିଶ௫ ሻ െ ݄ଵ ሺ ݔሻሺെʹ݁ ሻ ݄ଶ ሺ ݔሻሺെͶ݁ ିସ௫ ሻ ൌ ݁ ିସ௫ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺʹሻ ିଶ௫ ଵ ଶ ݔሺ݁ ିସ௫ ሻቁǡ for some ܿଵ ܿଶ אԸǤ 72 M. we substitute ݇ in our assumption which is ݕሺݔሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ : obtain: at ݇ ൌ െʹ. we substitute what we got above in the particular Thus. we need to solve the following two equations: ݄ଵ ሺ ݔሻ.1.1 as follows: Since ݕሺଶሻ ݕᇱ ͺ ݕequals ͳ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ െ ݁ ିସ௫ . ଵ ଶ ସ ܭሺ ݔሻ ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻݕଵ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻݕଶ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ଵ ܽଶ ሺ ݔሻ Since it is possible to integrate ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ െ ଶ to find ିଶ௫ ᇱ ିଶ௫ ݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ------Æ ݕଵ ሺݔሻ ൌ െʹ݁ ݄ଶ ሺ ݔሻ. then the particular solution should be in the ʹ following form: ݕ௧௨ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݄ଵ ሺ ݔሻݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ ݄ଶ ሺݔሻݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ. using result 2. then we do the following: ݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ିସ௫ ------Æ ݕଶ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ െͶ݁ ିସ௫ ଵ ଵ ݄ଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ െ ݀ ݔൌ െ ݔ. ݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ሺିଶሻ௫ ൌ ݁ ିଶ௫ ୢୣ୲ షరೣ షరೣ ൨ ᇱ ିସ షరೣ ݄ଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݔଵ ൌ షమೣ షరೣ ቃ at ݇ ൌ െͶ. Then.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Thus. Kaabar 73 . and using Cramer’s rule. െ݁ ି଼௫ െ݁ ି଼௫ ൌ ൌ Thus. ݇ ൌ െʹ and ݇ ൌ െͶ. ଵ Since it is possible to integrate ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ଶ ݁ ିଶ௫ to find To find ݄ଵ ሺ ݔሻ and ݄ଶ ሺ ݔሻ. we write the particular solution as follows: solution form as follows: ͳ ͳ ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻሺ݁ ିଶ௫ ሻ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻሺ݁ ିସ௫ ሻ ൌ Ͳ ݕ௧௨ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ െ ݁ ିଶ௫ ሺ݁ ିଶ௫ ሻ െ ݔሺ݁ ିସ௫ ሻ Ͷ ʹ ݁ ିସ௫ ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻሺെʹ݁ ିଶ௫ ሻ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ ݔሻሺെͶ݁ ିସ௫ ሻ ൌ Step 3: We need to find the general solution as follows: ͳ ݕ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݕ ሺ ݔሻ ݕ௧௨ ሺ ݔሻ ᇱ ିଶ௫ ሻ ᇱ ିସ௫ ሻ ݄ଵ ሺ ݔሻሺ݁ ݄ଶ ሺݔሻሺ݁ ൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ሺͳሻ ଵ ᇱ ᇱ Thus. ݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ሺିସሻ௫ ൌ ݁ ିସ௫ ୢୣ୲ቂ షమೣ ିଶ ିସ షరೣ Notice that ݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ and ݕଶ ሺݔሻ are independent.

we general solution for ݕሺ ݔሻ. we will show how to use Cauchy-Euler Thus.2 Cauchy-Euler Method ݔିଵ ሺሺ݇ െ ͳሻሺ݇ െ ͳሻሻ ൌ Ͳ In this section. then we need to use the Cauchy- as follows: Euler method by letting ݕൌ ݔ . for some ܿଵ ܿଶ אԸ. Example 3. we will find the first. ݇ ൌ ͳ and ݇ ൌ ͳ. (Hint: No need to find the Euler method by letting ݕൌ ݔ . ݕଶ ൌ ݔଵ ൌ ݔή ሺݔሻ as follows: In the above case. Then.1 Given ݕݔሺଶሻ െ ݕᇱ ௫ ݕൌ ͲǤ Find the had a repeating for ݔ. and after substitution ݕᇱ ൌ ݇ ݔିଵ all terms must be of the same degree as follows: ݕᇱᇱ ൌ ݇ሺ݇ െ ͳሻ ݔିଶ First of all.2. we multiplied ݔby ሺݔሻ because we ଵ Example 3. values of ܿଵ and ܿଶ ) Thus.com . we start with some examples at ݇ ൌ ͳ. ݕଵ ൌ ݔଵ ൌ ݔ To introduce this method. Kaabar 75 www.2 Given ݔଷ ݕሺଶሻ െ ݔଶ ݕᇱ ݕݔൌ ͲǤ Find the constant coefficients. then we need to use the Cauchy- general solution for ݕሺ ݔሻ. we will find the first and second derivatives constant coefficients. (Hint: No need to find the should multiply any repeating by natural logarithm. and in Cauchy-Euler Method. we substitute ݕൌ ݔ ǡ ݕᇱ ൌ ݇ ݔିଵ .Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ݔିଵ ሺ݇ ଶ െ ʹ݇ ͳሻ ൌ Ͳ 3.ebook3000.2. the general solution for ݕሺݔሻ is: ଵ Solution: Since ݕݔሺଶሻ െ ݕᇱ ௫ ݕൌ Ͳ does not have ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ ܿଵ ݔ ܿଶ ݈݊ݔሺݔሻ. second and third Now. at ݇ ൌ ͳ. we substitute ݕൌ ݔ ǡ ݕᇱ ൌ ݇ ݔିଵ and ଵ derivatives as follows: ݕᇱᇱ ൌ ݇ሺ݇ െ ͳሻ ݔିଶ in ݕݔሺଶሻ െ ݕᇱ ݕൌ Ͳ as follows: ௫ ݕᇱ ൌ ݇ ݔିଵ ͳ ݇ݔሺ݇ െ ͳሻ ݔିଶ െ ݇ ݔିଵ ݔ ൌ Ͳ ݕᇱᇱ ൌ ݇ሺ݇ െ ͳሻ ݔିଶ ݔ ݇ሺ݇ െ ͳሻ ݔିଵ െ ݇ ݔିଵ ݔିଵ ൌ Ͳ ݕᇱᇱᇱ ൌ ݇ሺ݇ െ ͳሻሺ݇ െ ʹሻ ݔିଷ ݔିଵ ሺ݇ሺ݇ െ ͳሻ െ ݇ ͳሻ ൌ Ͳ Now. and after substitution values of ܿଵ and ܿଶ ) all terms must be of the same degree as follows: Solution: Since ݔଷ ݕሺଶሻ ݔଶ ݕᇱ ݕݔൌ Ͳ does not have First of all. we use our values to Method to find the general solution for differential substitute ݇ in our assumption which is ݕൌ ݔ : equations that do not have constant coefficients. and ݔିଵ ሺ݇ ଶ െ ݇ െ ݇ ͳሻ ൌ Ͳ ݕᇱᇱ ൌ ݇ሺ݇ െ ͳሻ ݔିଶ in ݔଷ ݕሺଶሻ ݔଶ ݕᇱ ݕݔൌ Ͳ as follows: 74 M.

Kaabar 77 . then by using the Cauchy-Euler Method. (Hint: No need to find the values of ܿଵ . (Hint: No need to find the values of ܿଵ and ܿଶ ) 2. Given ݔଶ ݕሺଶሻ ݕᇱ ൌ ʹ ݔଶ Ǥ Is it possible to find the general solution for ݕሺ ݔሻ using Cauchy-Euler Method? Thus.3 Exercises 1. Given ݔଷ ݕሺଷሻ ݕݔᇱ ൌ ͲǤ Find the general solution for ݕሺ ݔሻ. the general solution for ݕሺݔሻ is: ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ ܿଵ ሺሺ ݔሻሻ ܿଶ ሺሺ ݔሻሻ. ܿଶ and ܿଷ ) ݔାଵ ሺ݇ ଶ െ ݇ ݇ ͳሻ ൌ Ͳ ݔାଵ ሺ݇ ଶ ͳሻ ൌ Ͳ 5. ݇ ൌ േξͳ ൌ േ݅ ൌ Ͳ േ ሺͳሻሺ݅ሻ. Given ݕሺଶሻ ݕᇱ Ͷ ݕൌ ͲǤ Find the general solution for ݕሺݔሻ. Why? Then. 3. (Hint: No need to find the values of ܿଵ and ܿଶ ) 3. Given ݕሺଶሻ ͷ ݕᇱ ݕൌ ͲǤ Find the general solution for ݕሺݔሻ. ܿଶ and ܿଷ ) 76 M. for some ܿଵ ܿଶ אԸ. we need to write our solution as follows: ݕଵ ൌ ݔሺ ௧ሻ ሺ ݐݎܽ ݕݎܽ݊݅݃ܽ݉ܫή ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݔሺሻ ሺͳ ή ሺ ݔሻሻ ൌ ሺሺ ݔሻሻ ݕଶ ൌ ݔሺ ௧ሻ ሺ ݐݎܽ ݕݎܽ݊݅݃ܽ݉ܫή ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݔሺሻ ሺͳ ή ሺ ݔሻሻ ൌ ሺሺ ݔሻሻ Thus. (Hint: No need to find the values of ܿଵ . Given ݔଷ ݕሺଷሻ െ ʹ ݕݔᇱ ൌ ͲǤ Find the general solution ሺ݇ሺ݇ െ ͳሻ ݔାଵ ሻ ሺ݇ ݔାଵ ሻ ሺ ݔାଵ ሻ ൌ Ͳ for ݕሺݔሻ.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ݔଷ ሺ݇ሺ݇ െ ͳሻ ݔିଶ ሻ ݔଶ ሺ݇ ݔିଵ ሻ ݔሺ ݔ ሻ ൌ Ͳ 4. we use our values to substitute ݇ in our assumption which is ݕൌ ݔ : Since we have two parts (real and imaginary).

and the differences between them and the Step 5: By solving for ݕ. we obtain: 78 M. Separable Method. Example 4. then: భ ሺ௫ሻ భ ሺ௫ሻ and Higher Orders ݕᇱ ݃ሺ ݔሻ ݕൌ ܨሺ ݔሻ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͳሻ Thus. Exact Method. In addition. Kaabar 79 www. We use these methods to solve first and Step 4: Integrate both sides of ሺ͵ሻ. we obtain: ᇱ higher orders linear and non-linear differential නൣ ݕή ݁ ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ൧ ݀ ݔൌ නሺܨሺݔሻ݁ ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ሻ ݀ݔ equations.ebook3000. and substituting ܫൌ ݁ ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ previous methods in chapter 2 and chapter 3.1 Given ݔଶ ݕᇱ െ ʹ ݕݔൌ Ͷ ݔଷ Ǥ Find the Definition 4.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ܽଵ ሺ ݔሻ ᇱ ܽଶ ሺ ݔሻ ܭሺ ݔሻ Chapter 4 ሺ ܽଵ ݔ ሻ ݕ ܽଵ ݔሺ ሻ ݕൌ ܽଵ ሺ ݔሻ ܽଶ ሺ ݔሻ ܭሺ ݔሻ ݕᇱ ݕൌ Extended Methods of First ሺ ܽଵ ݔ మ ሺ௫ሻ ሻ ܽଵ ሺ ݔሻ ሺ௫ሻ Assume that ݃ሺ ݔሻ ൌ and ܨሺ ݔሻ ൌ . we obtain: ݕή ܫൌ නሺܨሺݔሻሻሺܫሻ ݀ݔ 4. the solution using Integral Factor Method is written in the following steps: Differential Equations Step 1: Multiply both sides of ሺͳሻ by letting ܫൌ ݁ ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ : In this chapter. the final solution is: ܫ ή ܨሺ ݔሻ ݀ݔ some examples of first order non-linear differential ݕൌ ܫ equations. we discuss some new methods such as ݕᇱ ݁ ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ݃ሺݔሻ ݁ݕሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ൌ ܨሺݔሻ݁ ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ᇱ Bernulli Method.1 Bernoulli Method ሺ ܨሺ ݔሻሻሺܫሻ ݀ݔ ݕൌ In this section. we give examples about these ݕή ݁ ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ൌ නሺܨሺݔሻ݁ ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ሻ ݀ݔ methods. (Hint: Use integral factor ܽଵ ሺ ݔሻ ് Ͳ is a linear differential equation of method and no need to find the value of ܿ) order 1. we start with two examples about using ܫ ܫ ή ܨሺ ݔሻ ݀ݔ integral factor to solve first order linear differential ݕൌ ܫ equations.1 Given ܽଵ ሺ ݔሻ ݕᇱ ܽଶ ሺ ݔሻ ݕൌ ܭሺ ݔሻǡ general solution for ݕሺ ݔሻ. Then.1. Dividing both sides by ܽଵ ሺ ݔሻ.com . Step 2: ݕᇱ ݁ ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ݃ሺ ݔሻ ݁ݕሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ൌ ൣ ݕή ݁ ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ൧ ǥ ሺʹሻ ᇱ Reduced to Separable Method and Reduction of Order Step 3: ൣ ݕή ݁ ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ൧ ൌ ܨሺ ݔሻ݁ ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ሺ͵ሻ Method.1. we introduce Bernulli Method to solve Thus.

we differential equation. where ݃ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ൌ ሺ௫ାଵሻ and భ ሺ௫ሻ ௫ భ ሺ௫ሻ ሺ௫ሻ ܨሺ ݔሻ ൌ ൌ ସ௫ య ൌ Ͷݔ ܭሺ ݔሻ ͷ భ ሺ௫ሻ ௫మ ܨሺ ݔሻ ൌ ൌ ܽଵ ሺݔሻ ሺ ݔ ͳሻ మ షమሻ ଵ Hence. and it is a first order non-linear differential equation. then by using definition 4. then by using definition 4. ܫൌ ݁ ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ൌ ݁ ൌ ݁ ୪୬ሺ௫ାଵሻ ൌ ሺ ݔ ͳሻ The general solution is written as follows: The general solution is written as follows: ܫ ή ܨሺ ݔሻ ݀ݔ ܫ ή ܨሺ ݔሻ ݀ݔ ݕൌ ݕൌ ܫ ܫ ͳ ͷ ଶ ή Ͷݔ݀ ݔ ሺ ݔ ͳሻ ή ሺ ݔ ͳሻ ݀ݔ ݕൌ ݔ ͳ ݕൌ ሺ ݔ ͳሻ ݔଶ Ͷ ͷ ݀ݔ ݔ݀ ݔ ݕൌ ݕൌ ሺ ݔ ͳሻ ͳ ݔଶ ͷ ݔ ܿ ݕൌ ሺ ݔ ͳሻ Ͷ ሺ ݔሻ ܿ ݕൌ ͷݔ ܿ ͳ ݕൌ ݔଶ ሺ ݔ ͳሻ ሺ ݔ ͳሻ ݕൌ Ͷ ݔଶ ሺ ݔሻ ܿ ݔଶ ହ௫ Thus.1.1.1. for some ܿ אԸ.1.1. Kaabar 81 . ܫൌ ݁ ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ൌ ݁ ି ೣௗ௫ ൌ ݁ ିଶ୪୬ሺ௫ሻ ൌ ݁ ୪୬ሺ௫ ൌ భ ሺೣశభሻ ௗ௫ ௫మ Hence. 80 M. the solution using Bernoulli method and no need to find the value of ܿ) Method is written in the following steps: Step 1: Change it to first order linear differential equation by letting ݓൌ ݕଵି . Thus. the general solution is: ݕൌ Ͷ ݔଶ ሺ ݔሻ ܿ ݔଶ for some ܿ אԸ.2 Given ݕᇱ ݃ሺ ݔሻ ݕൌ ݂ሺ ݔሻ ݕ where ݊ אԸ Example 4.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Solution: Since ݔଶ ݕᇱ െ ʹ ݕݔൌ Ͷ ݔଷ does not have Solution: Since ሺ ݔ ͳሻ ݕᇱ ݕൌ ͷ does not have constant coefficients. (Hint: Use integral factor equation of order 1. where ݃ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ൌെ ௫మ ൌ െ and ܫൌ ݁ ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ .1. Definition 4. and it is a first order non-linear constant coefficients.2 Given ሺ ݔ ͳሻ ݕᇱ ݕൌ ͷǤ Find the and ݊ ് Ͳ and ݊ ് ͳ is a non-linear differential general solution for ݕሺ ݔሻ. the general solution is: ݕൌ ሺ௫ାଵሻ ሺ௫ାଵሻ Thus. we need to use the integral factor method by letting need to use the integral factor method by letting మ ሺ௫ሻ ଶ௫ ଶ మ ሺ௫ሻ ଵ ܫൌ ݁ ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ .

and ௗ௫ ൌ െ ଶ ݕଷ ή ௗ௫ ξ௪ ݀ݓ ቀ ଵ ቁ ቀ ቁ ݃ሺ ݔሻሺͳ െ ݊ሻ ݓଵି ି ݕ ൌ ݂ ሺ ݔሻሺͳ െ ݊ሻ ݓଵି ି ݕ We substitute what we got above in ݕݔᇱ ͵ ݔଶ ݕൌ ݀ݔ Step 7: After substitution.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Step 2: Find the derivative of both sides for ݓൌ ݕଵି Thus. where in ଵ Step 6: Divide ሺ͵ሻ by ݕ as follows: ଵି ଵ this example ݊ ൌ ͵. ቀ ቁ ቀ ቁ ݀ݓ ݃ሺ ݔሻ ݓଵି ݂ ሺ ݔሻ ݓଵି ൌ Since we assumed that ݓൌ ݕଵିଷ ൌ ି ݕଶ .3 Given ݕݔᇱ ͵ ݔଶ ݕൌ ሺ ݔଶ ሻ ݕଷ Ǥ Find the ൌ ݕ ή ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺʹሻ ݀ ͳ ݔെ ݊ ݀ݔ general solution for ݕሺ ݔሻ.ebook3000. then by using definition 4. we obtain: ሺ ݔଶ ሻ ݕଷ as follows: ݀ݓ ͳ ݀ݓ ͳ ͳ ݃ሺ ݔሻሺͳ െ ݊ሻି ݕݕ ൌ ݂ሺ ݔሻሺͳ െ ݊ሻ ݕ ି ݕ ݔ൬െ ݕଷ ή ൰ ͵ ݔଶ ൬ ൰ ൌ ሺ ݔଶ ሻ ൬ ൰ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ሺͳሻ ݀ݔ ʹ ݀ݔ ξݓ ݓξݓ ݀ݓ ݃ሺ ݔሻሺͳ െ ݊ሻ ݕଵି ൌ ݂ ሺ ݔሻሺͳ െ ݊ሻ ݕି ଵ Now. and ݃ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͵ ݔଶ and ݂ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݔଶ. Kaabar 83 www. ௗ௫ ݀ݕ ͳ ݀ݓ Example 4.2. Step 5: Substitute what we got above in Solution: Since ݕݔᇱ ͵ ݔଶ ݕൌ ሺ ݔଶ ሻ ݕଷ does not have ௗ௬ constant coefficients.1. (Hint: Use Bernoulli method Step 4: Since we assumed that ݓൌ ݕଵି . and hence ݕ ൌ ݓభష . we will show how to use ݀ݔ ݀ݔ ݀ݓ ି ݀ݕ Bernoulli Method. the final solution is: as follows: ݀ݓ ሺͳ െ ݊ሻ݃ሺ ݔሻ ݓൌ ሺͳ െ ݊ሻ݂ ሺ ݔሻ ݀ݓ ݀ݕ ݀ݔ ൌ ሺͳ െ ݊ሻ ݕଵିିଵ ή In the following example. we ݕ ή ݃ሺ ݔሻ ݓଵି ൌ ݂ሺݔሻ ݓଵି ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ሺ͵ሻ ͳെ݊ ݀ݔ need to do the following by letting ݓൌ ݕଵି . and it is a first order non-linear ௗ௫ ݃ሺ ݔሻ ݕൌ ݂ሺݔሻ ݕ as follows: ͳ ݀ݓ ቀ ଵ ቁ ቀ ቁ differential equation.com . and we will explore the relationship ൌ ሺͳ െ ݊ሻ ݕή ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͳሻ ݀ݔ ݀ݔ between Bernoulli Method and Integral Factor ௗ௬ Step 3: Solve ሺͳሻ for as follows: Method. then ቀ భ ቁ ቀ ቁ and no need to find the value of ܿ) ݕൌ ݓభష . then ݀ݔ ͳ ͳ భ భ భ ͳെ݊ݕ ͳെ݊ݕ ቀ ቁ ቀ ቁ ଵ ௗ௬ ଵ ௗ௪ ݕൌݓ భష ൌݓ భషయ ൌ ି ݓమ ൌ . we divide ሺͳሻ by െ ଶ ݕݔଷ as follows: ݀ݔ ݀ݓ ݃ሺ ݔሻሺͳ െ ݊ሻ ݕଵି ൌ ݂ ሺ ݔሻሺͳ െ ݊ሻ ݕ ͳ ݀ݔ ͵ ݔଶ ൬ ൰ ሺ ଶ ሻ ଷ ݀ݓ ξ ݓ ݕ ݔ ݀ݓ ൌ ݃ሺ ݔሻሺͳ െ ݊ሻ ݕଵି ൌ ݂ ሺ ݔሻሺͳ െ ݊ሻ ݀ݔ ͳ ଷ ͳ ݀ݔ െ ݕݔ െ ݕݔଷ ʹ ʹ Step 8: We substitute ݓൌ ݕଵି in the above equation ݀ݓ ͳ as follows: ሺെʹሻ͵ ݔ൬ ൰ ି ݕଷ ൌ ሺെʹሻ ݔǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺʹሻ ݀ݔ ξݓ ݀ݓ ݃ሺ ݔሻሺͳ െ ݊ሻ ݓൌ ݂ሺ ݔሻሺͳ െ ݊ሻ ݀ݔ 82 M.1.

To solve ሺͶሻ. we solve ሺͶሻ for ݓሺݔሻ as follows: equations using a method known as Separable Method. we will solve some differential Then. The general solution for ݓሺݔሻ is written as follows: Definition 4. we substitute ݓൌ ି ݕଶ in ሺ͵ሻ as follows: for some ܿ אԸ. ݀ݓ ሺെʹሻ͵ ݓݔൌ ሺെʹሻݔ ݀ݔ 4.2 Separable Method ݀ݓ െ ݓݔൌ െͳʹ ݔǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͶሻ ݀ݔ In this section. we need to rewrite ݓൌ మ ݁ ିଷ௫ the above equation in a way that each term is మ ʹ݁ ିଷ௫ ܿ separated from the other term as follows: ݓൌ ିଷ௫ మ ିଷ௫ మ ݁ ݁ 84 M.1 The standard form of Separable ܫ ή ܨሺ ݔሻ ݀ݔ Method is written as follows: ݓൌ ܫ ሺ ݔ ݂ ݏ݉ݎ݁ݐ ݊݅ ݈݈ܣሻ݀ ݔെ ሺݕ ݂ ݏ݉ݎ݁ݐ ݊݅ ݈݈ܣሻ݀ ݕൌ Ͳ ܫ ή ሺെͳʹݔሻ ݀ݔ Note: it does not matter whether it is the above form or ݓൌ ܫ in the following form: మ ି ݁ ଷ௫ ή ሺെͳʹݔሻ ݀ݔ ሺݕ ݂ ݏ݉ݎ݁ݐ ݊݅ ݈݈ܣሻ݀ ݕെ ሺ ݔ ݂ ݏ݉ݎ݁ݐ ݊݅ ݈݈ܣሻ݀ ݔൌ Ͳ ݓൌ మ ݁ ିଷ௫ మ Example 4.2. we need to use the integral factor method: This method is called separable because we separate లೣమ Hence.1. ሺെʹሻ͵ ݕݔଵିଷ ൌ ሺെʹሻݔ ݀ݔ Thus. Kaabar 85 .2.1 Solve the following differential ʹ ି ݁ ଷ௫ ή ሺെݔሻ ݀ݔ ݓൌ ௗ௬ ௬య ݁ ିଷ௫ మ equation: ൌ ௗ௫ ሺ௫ାଷሻ మ ʹ݁ ିଷ௫ ܿ Solution: By using definition 4. we substitute ݕൌ in ሺʹሻ as follows: ݓൌʹ ξ௪ మ ݁ ିଷ௫ ݀ݓ మ ሺെʹሻ͵ݔሺݕሻି ݕଷ ൌ ሺെʹሻݔ ݓൌ ʹ ܿ݁ ଷ௫ ݀ݔ మ ݀ݓ The general solution for ݓሺݔሻ is: ݓሺ ݔሻ ൌ ʹ ܿ݁ ଷ௫ . the general solution for ݕሺݔሻ is: ݀ݓ ͳ ͳ ሺെʹሻ͵ି ݕݔଶ ൌ ሺെʹሻ ݔǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺ͵ሻ ݕሺݔሻ ൌ ൌ ݀ݔ ඥʹ ܿ݁ ଷ௫ మ ඥݓሺݔሻ Now. ܫൌ ݁ ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ൌ ݁ ି ௫ ௗ௫ ൌ ݁ ି మ ൌ ݁ ିଷ௫ మ two different terms from each other.2.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ଵ ܿ Then.

we need to do a cross multiplication for ሺͳሻ as follows: ݁ ିଷ௬ ݀ ݕൌ ݁ ଶ௫ ݀ݔ ͳ ͳ ݁ ିଷ௬ ݀ ݕെ ݁ ଶ௫ ݀ ݔൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺʹሻ ଷ ݀ ݕൌ ݀ݔ ݕ ሺ ݔ ͵ሻ Then. we will solve some differential ͳ equations using a method known as Exact Method. the general solution is : ͳ ͳ ͳ නሺି ݕଷ ሻ݀ ݕെ න ൬ ൰ ݀ ݔൌ ܿ െ ݁ ିଷ௬ െ ݁ ଶ௫ ൌ ܿ ሺ ݔ ͵ሻ ͵ ʹ ͳ െ ି ݕଶ െ ሺȁሺ ݔ ͵ሻȁሻ ൌ ܿ ʹ 4.2.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ͳ ݀ݕ ݁ ଶ௫ ݀ݕ ݕଷ ሺ ݔ ͵ሻ ൌ ݁ ଷ௬ାଶ௫ ൌ ݁ ଷ௬ ή ݁ ଶ௫ ൌ ିଷ௬ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͳሻ ൌ ൌ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͳሻ ݀ݔ ݁ ݀ ݔሺ ݔ ͵ሻ ͳ ݕଷ Now.1 The standard form of Exact Method is Solution: By using definition 4. we integrate both sides of ሺʹሻ as follows: ͳ ͳ ݀ ݕെ ݀ ݔൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺʹሻ ݕ ଷ ሺ ݔ ͵ሻ නሺ݁ ିଷ௬ ݀ ݕെ ݁ ଶ௫ ݀ ݔሻ ൌ න Ͳ Then. we need to rewrite written as follows: the above equation in a way that each term is ݀ݕ ܨ௫ ൌ െ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺͳሻ separated from the other term as follows: ݀ݔ ܨ௬ 86 M. Kaabar 87 www.com . the general solution is : In this section.ebook3000.3. this method is called the Anti-Implicit Example 4. we need to do a cross multiplication for ሺͳሻ as follows: Now.1.3 Exact Method Thus. ௗ௬ equation: ௗ௫ ൌ ݁ ଷ௬ାଶ௫ Definition 4. In െ ି ݕଶ െ ሺȁሺ ݔ ͵ሻȁሻ ൌ ܿ ʹ other words.2. we integrate both sides of ሺʹሻ as follows: නሺ݁ ିଷ௬ ሻ݀ ݕെ නሺ݁ ଶ௫ ሻ ݀ ݔൌ ܿ ͳ ͳ න ൬ ଷ ݀ ݕെ ݀ݔ൰ ൌ න Ͳ ݕ ሺ ݔ ͵ሻ ͳ ͳ െ ݁ ିଷ௬ െ ݁ ଶ௫ ൌ ܿ ͳ ͳ ͵ ʹ න൬ ൰ ݀ ݕെ න ൬ ൰ ݀ ݔൌ ܿ ݕ ଷ ሺ ݔ ͵ሻ Thus.2 Solve the following differential Derivative Method.

we need to check for the exact method by finding ݕand considering ݔas a constant. we solve ሺͳሻ to find ܨሺݔǡ ݕሻ. we first find ܨ௫ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ choose ܨ௬ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ ൌ ሺെ͵ ݔ ݕሻ and we will integrate it as by finding the first derivative with respect to ݔand follows: considering ݕas a constant as follows: ͳ ܨ௫ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ ൌ ݕଷ ݁ ௫ ͵ ݕଶ െ ͵ ݔଶ ݕ. ሺെ͵ ݔ ݕሻ݀ ݕ െሺͷ ݔ ͵ݕሻ݀ ݔൌ Ͳ Note: ܨ௫ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ is defined as the first derivative with ሺെ͵ ݔ ݕሻ݀ ݕ ሺെͷ ݔെ ͵ݕሻ݀ ݔൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͳሻ Thus.3. In other words. we find ܨ௬ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ by finding the first derivative Then. we find ܨ௬௫ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ by finding the first derivative of with respect to ݕand considering ݔas a constant as ܨ௬ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ with respect to ݔand considering ݕas a follows: ܨ௬ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ ൌ ʹݕǤ constant as follows: ௗ௬ ிೣ ଶ௫ ௫ ܨ௬௫ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ ൌ െ͵ Thus. ௗ௫ ൌ െ ி ൌ െ ଶ௬ ൌ െ ௬ .3 Solve the following differential solution will be as follows: ܨሺݔǡ ݕሻ ൌ ܿ for some constant equation: ሺെ͵ ݔ ݕሻ݀ ݕെ ሺͷ ݔ ͵ݕሻ݀ ݔൌ Ͳ ܿ אԸ. Kaabar 89 .3. the standard form for exact first Solution: First of all.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Then. ௗ௫ ൌ െ ிೣ ൌ െ ሺଷ௬ మ ೣ ା௫௬ା௫ሻ .3. ܨ௫௬ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ ൌ െ͵ Then.2 Given ݕଷ ݁ ௫ ͵ ݕݔଶ െ ݔଷ ݕݔെ ͳ͵ ൌ ͲǤ exact method. ௗ௬ Find . We first find ܨ௫௬ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ by finding the first derivative of Solution: By using definition 4. Since ܨ௫௬ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ ൌ ܨ௬௫ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ ൌ െ͵. then we can use the Example 4.3.1: considered exact if ܨ௫௬ ൌ ܨ௬௫ . we need to check for the exact order differential equation is: ܨ௬ ݀ ݕ ܨ௫ ݀ ݔൌ Ͳ. 88 M.1. and our general Example 4. and it is method as follows: We rewrite the above differential equation according to definition 4. ܨ௫௬ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ ൌ ܨ௬௫ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ as follows: ௗ௬ Example 4. from the above differential equation. න ܨ௬ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ݀ ݕൌ නሺെ͵ ݔ ݕሻ݀ ݕൌ െ͵ ݕݔ ݕଶ ܦሺ ݔሻ ǥ ሺʹሻ ʹ Then. We will Solution: By using definition 4. we first find ܨ௫ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ ܨ௫ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ with respect to ݕand considering ݔas a by finding the first derivative with respect to ݔand constant as follows: considering ݕas a constant as follows: ܨ௫ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ ൌ ʹݔ. Now. we choose either ܨ௫ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ ൌ ሺെͷ ݔെ ͵ݕሻ or ௗ௫ ܨ௬ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ ൌ ሺെ͵ ݔ ݕሻǡ and then we integrate.3. while ܨ௫ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ ൌ ሺെͷ ݔെ ͵ݕሻ and ܨ௬ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ ൌ ሺെ͵ ݔ ݕሻ ܨ௬ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ is defined as the first derivative with respect to Now. we obtain: respect to ݔand considering ݕas a constant.3. we find ܨ௬ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ by finding the first derivative ͳ ଶ with respect to ݕand considering ݔas a constant as ܨሺݔǡ ݕሻ ൌ െ͵ ݕݔ ݕ ܦሺ ݔሻ ʹ follows: ܨ௬ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ ൌ ͵ ݕଶ ݁ ௫ ݕݔ ݔǤ We need to find ܦሺݔሻ as follows: ௗ௬ ி ሺ௬ య ೣ ାଷ௬ మ ିଷ௫ మ ା௬ሻ Thus.1 Given ݔଶ ݕଶ െ Ͷ ൌ ͲǤ Find ௗ௫ .1.

Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved

Since we selected ܨ௬ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ ൌ ሺെ͵ ݔ ݕሻ previously for Solution: By using definition 4.4.1, we first let

integration, then we need to find ܨ௫ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ for ሺʹሻ as ݑൌ ͷ ݔ ݕ, and then, we need to find the first

follows: derivative of both sides of ݑൌ ͷ ݔ ݕ.

ܨ௫ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ ൌ െ͵ ݕ ܦᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺ͵ሻ ݀ݑ ݀ݕ

ൌͷ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺͳሻ

݀ݔ ݀ݔ

Now, we substitute ܨ௫ ሺݔǡ ݕሻ ൌ ሺെͷ ݔെ ͵ݕሻ in ሺ͵ሻ as ௗ௬

Now, we solve ሺͳሻ for ௗ௫ as follows:

follows:

݀ݑ݀ ݕ

ሺെͷ ݔെ ͵ݕሻ ൌ െ͵ ݕ ܦᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ െ ͷ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺʹሻ

݀ݔ݀ ݔ

ܦᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ െͷ ݔെ ͵ ݕ ͵ ݕൌ െͷ ݔǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͶሻ Then, we substitute ݑൌ ͷ ݔ ݕand ሺʹሻ in

Then, we integrate both sides of ሺͶሻ as follows: ௗ௬ ୱ୧୬ሺହ௫ା௬ሻ

ௗ௫

ൌ ௦ሺହ௫ା௬ሻିଶୱ୧୬ሺହ௫ା௬ሻ െ ͷ as follows:

න ܦᇱ ሺ ݔሻ݀ ݔൌ න െͷݔ݀ݔ ݀ݑ ሺݑሻ

െͷൌ െͷ

ͷ ݀ݔ ܿݏሺݑሻ െ ʹሺݑሻ

ܦሺݔሻ ൌ න െͷ ݔ݀ݔൌ െ ݔଶ

ʹ ݀ݑ ሺݑሻ

ൌ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺ͵ሻ

Thus, the general solution of the exact method is : ݀ݑ ݏܿ ݔሻ െ ʹሺݑሻ

ሺ

ܨሺݔǡ ݕሻ ൌ ܿ Now, we can use the separable method to solve ሺ͵ሻ as

ͳ ͷ follows:

െ͵ ݕݔ ݕଶ െ ݔଶ ൌ ܿ

ʹ ʹ By using definition 4.2.1, we need to rewrite ሺ͵ሻ in a

4.4 Reduced to Separable way that each term is separated from the other term

as follows:

Method ݀ݑ

ൌ

ሺݑሻ

ൌ

ͳ

ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͶሻ

ሺ ሻ ሺ ሻ

݀ ݑ ݏܿ ݔെ ʹሺݑሻ ܿ ݑ ݏെ ʹሺݑሻ

In this section, we will solve some differential ሺݑሻ

Now, we need to do a cross multiplication for ሺͶሻ as

equations using a method known as Reduced to

follows:

Separable Method.

ܿݏሺݑሻ െ ʹሺݑሻ

Definition 4.4.1 The standard form of Reduced to ݀ ݑൌ ͳ݀ݔ

ሺݑሻ

Separable Method is written as follows:

ௗ௬

ܿݏሺݑሻ െ ʹሺݑሻ

ൌ ݂ሺܽ ݔ ܾ ݕ ܿሻ where ܽǡ ܾ ് Ͳ. ݀ ݑെ ͳ݀ ݔൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺͷሻ

ௗ௫ ሺݑሻ

Example 4.4.1 Solve the following differential Then, we integrate both sides of ሺͷሻ as follows:

ௗ௬ ୱ୧୬ሺହ௫ା௬ሻ

equation: ൌ ௦ሺହ௫ା௬ሻିଶୱ୧୬ሺହ௫ା௬ሻ െ ͷǤ ܿݏሺݑሻ െ ʹሺݑሻ

ௗ௫ නቆ ݀ ݑെ ͳ݀ݔቇ ൌ න Ͳ

ሺݑሻ

90 M. Kaabar 91

www.ebook3000.com

**ܿݏሺݑሻ െ ʹሺݑሻ ሺ ݔ ͳሻ ሺଶሻ ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ Ͳ
**

නቆ ቇ ݀ ݑെ නሺͳሻ ݀ ݔൌ ܿ ݕሺ ݔሻ െ ൌ

ሺݑሻ ሺ ݔ ͳሻ ሺ ݔ ͳሻ ሺ ݔ ͳሻ

ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ

ܿݏሺݑሻ ʹ ሺݑሻ ͳ ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ െ ൌͲ

නቆ െ ቇ ݀ ݑെ ݔൌ ܿ ሺ ݔ ͳሻ

ሺݑሻ ሺݑሻ

െͳ

ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺͳሻ

ܿݏሺݑሻ ሺ ݔ ͳሻ

නቆ െ ʹቇ ݀ ݑെ ݔൌ ܿ

ሺݑሻ ିଵ

Now, let ܯሺ ݔሻ ൌ ሺ௫ାଵሻ , and substitute it in ሺͳሻ as

ሺȁሺݑሻȁሻ െ ʹ ݑെ ݔൌ ܿ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺሻ

follows:

Now, we substitute ݑൌ ͷ ݔ ݕin ሺሻ as follows: ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ ܯሺ ݔሻ ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳ

ሺȁሺͷ ݔ ݕሻȁሻ െ ʹሺͷ ݔ ݕሻ െ ݔൌ ܿ Hence, ݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ is written as follows:

݁ ି ெሺ௫ሻௗ௫

Thus, the general solution is : ݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ ή න ݀ݔ

ݕଵ ଶ ሺ ݔሻ

ሺȁሺͷ ݔ ݕሻȁሻ െ ʹሺͷ ݔ ݕሻ െ ݔൌ ܿ భ

ೣ

ሺೣశభሻ

In our example, ݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͳ ή ሺଵሻమ

݀ ݔൌ

4.5 Reduction of Order ౢሺೣశభሻ ଵ

ͳή ݀ ݔൌ ݁ ୪୬ሺ௫ାଵሻ ݀ ݔൌ ሺ ݔ ͳሻ ݀ ݔൌ ݔଶ ݔ.

ଵ ଶ

**Method Thus, the homogenous solution is written as follows:
**

ଵ

ݕ௨௦ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ܿଵ ܿଶ ቀଶ ݔଶ ݔቁǡ for some ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ אԸ.

In this section, we will solve differential equations

using a method called Reduction of Order Method. Example 4.5.1 Given the following differential

Definition 4.5.1 Reduction of Order Method is valid equation: ݕݔሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ ሺ ݔ ͳሻ ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ െ ሺʹ ݔ ͳሻ ݕൌ ݁ݔ௫ ,

**method only for second order differential equations, and ݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ is a solution to the associated
**

and one solution to the homogenous part must be homogenous part. Find ݕ௨௦ ሺ ݔሻ? (Hint: Find first

given. For example, given ሺ ݔ ͳሻ ݕሺଶሻ ሺ ݔሻ െ ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ Ͳǡ ݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ, and then write ݕ௨௦ ሺ ݔሻ)

and ݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͳ. To find ݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ, the differential equation Solution: By using definition 4.5.1, To find ݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ, the

must be written in the standard form (Coefficient of differential equation must be equal to zero and must

ݕሺଶሻ must be 1) as follows:

92 M. Kaabar 93

**also be written in the standard form (Coefficient of ݕሺଶሻ
**

4.6 Exercises

must be 1) as follows:

ሺ௫ାଵሻర

We divide both sides of 1. Given ሺ ݔ ͳሻ ݕᇱ ݕݔൌ ௬మ

Ǥ Find the general

ݕݔ ሺଶሻ ሺ

ݔሻ ሺ ݔ ͳሻ ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ െ ሺʹ ݔ ͳሻ ݕൌ Ͳ by ݔas follows: solution for ݕሺ ݔሻ. (Hint: Use Bernoulli method and no

ݔሺଶሻ ሺ ݔ ͳሻ ᇱ ʹ ݔ ͳ Ͳ need to find the value of ܿ)

ݕሺ ݔሻ ݕሺ ݔሻ െ ݕൌ 2. Given ݔᇱ ͵ ݔݕൌ ͵ ݕଷ Ǥ Find the general solution for

ݔ ݔ ݔ ݔ

ሺ ሻ ݕሺ ݔሻ. (Hint: Use Bernoulli method and no need to find

ݔ ͳ ʹݔ ͳ

ͳ ݕሺଶሻ ሺ ݔሻ ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ െ ݕൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺͳሻ the value of ܿ)

ݔ ݔ

ௗ௬ ଵା௬ మ

ሺ௫ାଵሻ ଵ 3. Solve the following differential equation: ൌ

Now, let ሺݔሻ ൌ ൌ ቀͳ ௫ቁ , and substitute it in ሺͳሻ ௗ௫ ଵା௫ మ

௫

ௗ௬ ଵ

as follows: 4. Solve the following differential equation: ௗ௫ ൌ ଷ௫ା௫ మ௬

**ʹ ݔ ͳ 5. Solve the following differential equation:
**

ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ ܯሺݔሻ ݕᇱ ሺ ݔሻ െ ݕൌͲ

ݔ ݀ݕ

Hence, ݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ is written as follows: ൌ ͵ ݁ݔሺ௫ାହ௬ሻ

݀ݔ

݁ ି ெሺ௫ሻௗ௫ 6. Solve the following differential equation:

ݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ ή න ݀ݔ ͳ ͵

ݕଵ ଶ ሺ ݔሻ ሺ݁ ௫ ݕ ͵ ݔݕെ ʹሻ݀ ݕ ൬ ݁ ௫ ݕଶ ݕଶ ݔଶ ൰ ݀ ݔൌ Ͳ

భ ʹ ʹ

ቀభశೣቁೣ

In example 4.5.1, ݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ή ௫

݀ ݔൌ 7. Solve the following differential equation:

ሺ ೣ ሻమ

݀ݕ ሺͷ ݔ ݕሻ

ଵ ൌ െͷ

݁ ି௫ ή ݁

୪୬ቀ ቁ

௫ ݁ ିଷ௫ ݀ݏܿ ݔሺͷ ݔ ݕሻ െ ʹሺͷ ݔ ݕሻ

௫

݁ ήන ݀ ݔൌ ݁ ௫ ή න ݀ݔ 8. Given the following differential equation:

݁ ଶ௫ ݔ

ሺ ݔ ͳሻ ݕሺଶሻ ሺݔሻ െ ݕᇱ ሺݔሻ ൌ ͳͲǡ and ݕଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͳ is a solution

షయೣ

Since it is impossible to integrate ݁ ௫ ή ݀ݔ, then it to the associated homogenous part. Find ݕ௧௨ ሺ ݔሻ?

௫

௫ షయ

is enough to write it as: ݁ ௫ ή ௧

݀ݐ.

௫ షయ

Therefore, ݕଶ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ ή ௧

݀ݐ.

**Thus, the homogenous solution is written as follows:
**

௫ షయ

ݕ௨௦ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ܿଵ ݁ ௫ ܿଶ ቀ݁ ௫ ή ݀ݐቁǡ for some

௧

ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ אԸ.

94 M. Kaabar 95

www.ebook3000.com

**Chapter 5 a) How long will it take for the temperature of the
**

engine to cool to ͳͳԬ?

**Applications of Differential b) What will be the temperature of the engine 30
**

minutes from now?

**Equations Solution: Part a: To determine how long will it take for
**

the temperature of the engine to cool to ͳͳԬ, we need

In this chapter, we give examples of three different to do the following:

applications of differential equations: temperature, Assume that ܶሺݐሻ is the temperature of engine at the

growth and decay, and water tank. In each section, we time ݐ, and ܶ is the constant outside air temperature.

give one example of each of the above applications, and Now, we need to write the differential equation for this

we discuss how to use what we have learned previously example as follows:

in this book to solve each problem. ݀ܶ

ൌ ߚ ሺܶ െ ܶ ሻ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺͳሻ

݀ݐ

**5.1 Temperature Application where ߚ is a constant.
**

From ሺͳሻ, we can write as follows:

In this section, we give an example of temperature

ܶ ᇱ ൌ ߚܶ െ ߚܶ

application, and we introduce how to use one of the ܶ ᇱ െ ߚܶ ൌ െߚܶ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺʹሻ

differential equations methods to solve it. From this example, it is given the following:

Example 5.1.1 Thomas drove his car from Pullman, ܶሺͲሻ ൌ ͳͶͶԬ, ܶሺͳͲሻ ൌ ͳ͵Ԭ, and ܶ ൌ ͳͲͶԬ

WA to Olympia, WA, and the outside air temperature From ሺʹሻ, െߚܶ is constant, and the dependent variable

was constant ͳͲͶԬ. During his trip, he took a break at is ܶ, while the independent variable is the time ݐ.

Othello, WA gas station, and then he switched off the By substituting ܶ ൌ ͳͲͶԬ in ሺʹሻ, we obtain:

engine of his car, and checked his car temperature ܶ ᇱ െ ߚܶ ൌ െͳͲͶߚ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺ͵ሻ

gauge, and it was ͳͶͶԬ. After ten minutes, Thomas Since ሺ͵ሻ is a first order linear differential equation,

checked his car temperature gauge, and it was ͳ͵Ԭ. then by using definition 4.1.1, we need to use the

96 M. Kaabar 97

we need to find the time ݐwhen ܶሺݐሻ ൌ ͳͳԬ by The general solution is: ܶሺݐሻ ൌ ͳͲͶ ܿ݁ ఉ௧ for some substituting it in ሺͺሻ as follows: ܿ אԸ. ܶሺͳͲሻ ൌ ͳͲͶ ͶͲ݁ ఉሺଵሻ Hence. we substitute ሺሻ in ሺͷሻ as follows: ܶሺݐሻ ൌ ͳͲͶ ିఉ௧ ݁ ܶሺݐሻ ൌ ͳͲͶ ͶͲ݁ ିǤଶଶଷ௧ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͺሻ ܶሺݐሻ ൌ ͳͲͶ ܿ݁ ఉ௧ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͶሻ Then. ͳ͵ ൌ ͳͲͶ ͶͲ݁ ఉሺଵሻ The general solution is written as follows: ͳ͵ െ ͳͲͶ ൌ ͶͲ݁ ఉሺଵሻ ܫ ή ܨሺݐሻ ݀ݐ ͵ʹ ൌ ͶͲ݁ ఉሺଵሻ ܶሺݐሻ ൌ ܫ ͵ʹ ݁ ఉሺଵሻ ൌ ൌ ͲǤͺ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺሻ ݁ ିఉ௧ ή ሺെͳͲͶߚሻ ݀ݐ ͶͲ ܶሺݐሻ ൌ ݁ ିఉ௧ By taking the natural logarithm for both sides of ሺሻ. ܫൌ ݁ ሺ௧ሻௗ௧ ൌ ݁ ି ఉ ௗ௧ ൌ ݁ ିఉ௧ . ͳͳ ൌ ͳͲͶ ͶͲ݁ ିǤଶଶଷሺ୲ሻ Now. we obtain: ݃ሺݐሻ ൌ െߚ and ܨሺݐሻ ൌ െͳͲͶߚ. ܶሺݐሻ ൌ ͳͲͶ ͶͲ݁ ఉ௧ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ሺͷሻ െͲǤͲʹʹ͵ሺݐሻ ൌ ݈݊ሺͲǤͲͷሻ 98 M. we need to find ܿ by substituting ܶሺͲሻ ൌ ͳͶͶԬ in ͳͳ െ ͳͲͶ ൌ ͶͲ݁ ିǤଶଶଷሺ୲ሻ ሺͶሻ as follows: ͵ ൌ ͶͲ݁ ିǤଶଶଷሺ୲ሻ ఉሺሻ ܶሺͲሻ ൌ ͳͲͶ ܿ݁ ͵ ݁ ିǤଶଶଷሺ୲ሻ ൌ ൌ ͲǤͲͷ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ሺͻሻ ͳͶͶ ൌ ͳͲͶ ܿ݁ ͶͲ ͳͶͶ ൌ ͳͲͶ ܿሺͳሻ By taking the natural logarithm for both sides of ሺͻሻ.com .ebook3000. where By substituting ܶሺͳͲሻ ൌ ͳ͵Ԭ in ሺͷሻ.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved integral factor method by letting ܫൌ ݁ ሺ௧ሻௗ௧ . Kaabar 99 www. ͳͶͶ ൌ ͳͲͶ ܿ we obtain: ܿ ൌ ͳͶͶ െ ͳͲͶ ൌ ͶͲ ݈݊൫݁ ିǤଶଶଷሺ௧ሻ ൯ ൌ ݈݊ሺͲǤͲͷሻ Thus. ିఉ௧ ሺെͳͲͶߚሻ݁ ݀ݐ we obtain: ܶሺݐሻ ൌ ݁ ିఉ௧ ݈݊൫ ݁ ఉሺଵሻ ൯ ൌ ݈݊ሺͲǤͺሻ ͳͲͶ݁ ିఉ௧ ܿ ܶሺݐሻ ൌ ߚ ሺͳͲሻ ൌ ݈݊ሺͲǤͺሻ ݁ ିఉ௧ ͳͲͶ݁ ିఉ௧ ܿ ݈ ݊ሺͲǤͺሻ ܶሺ ݐሻ ൌ ିఉ௧ ߚൌ ൌ െͲǤͲʹʹ͵ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺሻ ݁ ିఉ௧ ݁ ͳͲ ܿ Now.

000 students. it is given the following: In this section. the temperature of the engine 30 minutes from ܹ݀ now will be approximately ͳʹͶǤͶͻԬ. 5. while the the differential equations methods to solve it. Kaabar 101 .2 Growth and Decay From ሺͳሻ. we need to use separable method as at Washington State University (WSU) is proportional follows: to the square root of the number of students at any By using definition 4. we can write as follows: Application ܹ ᇱ ൌ ߚඥܹሺݐሻ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺʹሻ From this example. independent variable is the time ݐ. decay application. If the number of WSU students in 2013 was way that each term is separated from the other term 28. we need to rewrite ሺͳሻ in a time ݐ. we need to do the double number of WSU students in 2013.1 The rate change of number of students To solve ሺͳሻ. we give an example of growth and ܹሺͲሻ ൌ ʹͺǡͺ. and suppose that the number of as follows: students at WSU after one year was 32. we need to write the differential equation for this ܶሺ͵Ͳሻ ൎ ͳʹͶǤͶͻԬ example as follows: Thus.2. and ܹ ሺͳሻ ൌ ͵ʹǡͲͲͲ. ൌ ߚඥܹሺݐሻ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺͳሻ ݀ݐ where ߚ is a constant. we need to do following: the following: We assume that ݐൌ ͵Ͳ.686 students2. Example 5.1. 100 M.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ݈ ݊ሺͲǤͲͷሻ a) How long will it take to double number of WSU ݐൌ ൎ ͳͳǤͳ െͲǤͲʹʹ͵ students in 2013? Thus. the dependent variable is ܹ. ܶሺ͵Ͳሻ ൌ ͳͲͶ ͶͲ݁ ିǤଶଶଷሺଷሻ Now. the temperature of the engine will take b) What will be the number of WSU students in approximately ͳͳǤͳ minutes to cool to ͳͳԬ 2018? Part b: To determine what will be the temperature of Solution: Part a: To determine how long will it take to the engine 30 minutes from now. and then we substitute it in Assume that ܹሺݐሻ is the number of WSU students at ሺͺሻ as follows: any time ݐ.2. and we introduce how to use one of From ሺʹሻ.

the general solution is : ͵͵ͺǤͶ ߚ ଶ ଵ ܹ ሺ ݐሻ ൌ ൬ ൰ ʹܹ ଶ െ ߚ ݐൌ ܿ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͷሻ ʹ ሺ͵͵ͺǤͶሻଶ ʹሺ͵͵ͺǤͶሻߚ ߚ ଶ for some ܿ אԸ. Kaabar 103 www.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ܹ݀ ߚ Now. we need to find ܿ by substituting ܹ ሺͲሻ ൌ ʹͺǡͺ ൌ ߚඥܹሺݐሻ ൌ ଵ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺ͵ሻ ݀ݐ ܹ ିଶ in ሺሻ as follows: Now.ebook3000. we integrate both sides of ሺͶሻ as follows: ʹͺǡͺ ൌ Ͷ ଵ ܿ ଶ ൌ Ͷሺʹͺǡͺሻ න ቆ൬ܹ ିଶ ൰ ܹ݀ െ ߚ݀ݐቇ ൌ න Ͳ ܿ ൌ ඥͶሺʹͺǡͺሻ ଵ න ൬ܹ ିଶ ൰ ܹ݀ െ නሺߚሻ ݀ ݐൌ ܿ ܿ ൎ ͵͵ͺǤͶ ଷଷ଼Ǥସାఉ௧ ଶ ଵ Thus. we substitute ሺͻሻ in ሺͺሻ as follows: We square both sides of ሺሻ as follows: ͵͵ͺǤͶ ሺ͵ǡͳǤʹሻ ݐଶ ܿ ߚݐ ଶ ܹ ሺ ݐሻ ൌ ൬ ൰ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͳͲሻ ܹ ሺ ݐሻ ൌ ൬ ൰ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ሺሻ ʹ ʹ Then. we obtain: Thus. ߚ ൎ ͵ǡͳǤʹ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͻሻ ʹ Now. we rewrite ሺͷሻ as follows: ሺ͵͵ͺǤͶሻଶ ʹሺ͵͵ͺǤͶሻߚ ߚ ଶ ൌ Ͷሺ͵ʹǡͲͲͲሻ ଵ ʹሺ͵͵ͺǤͶሻߚ ߚ ଶ ൌ Ͷሺ͵ʹǡͲͲͲሻ െ ሺ͵͵ͺǤͶሻଶ ʹܹ ଶ ൌ ܿ ߚݐ ߚ ଶ ʹሺ͵͵ͺǤͶሻߚ െ ͳ͵ǡʹͷͷǤʹͳʹͶ ൌ Ͳ ଵ ܿ ߚݐ ܹଶ ൌ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺሻ Thus. ͵ʹǡͲͲͲ ൌ ቆ ቇ Ͷ Then. we need to do a cross multiplication for ሺ͵ሻ as ܿ ߚሺͲሻ ଶ follows: ܹ ሺͲሻ ൌ ൬ ൰ ʹ ଵ ܿͲ ଶ ൬ܹ ିଶ ൰ ܹ݀ ൌ ߚ݀ݐ ʹͺǡͺ ൌ ൬ ൰ ʹ ଵ ܿ ଶ ൬ܹ ିଶ ൰ ܹ݀ െ ߚ݀ ݐൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺͶሻ ʹͺǡͺ ൌ ቀ ቁ ʹ ܿଶ Then.com . ܹ ሺݐሻ ൌ ቀ ቁ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ሺͺሻ ଶ ʹܹ ଶ െ ߚ ݐൌ ܿ By substituting ܹ ሺͳሻ ൌ ͵ʹǡͲͲͲ in ሺͺሻ. we need to find the time ݐwhen 102 M.

WSU Water Tower. ݐଶ ʹሺ͵͵ͺǤͶሻሺ͵ǡͳǤʹሻ ݐെ ͳͳͶǡͶ͵ǤʹͳʹͶ ൌ Ͳ while the mixture of minerals goes out of the tank at ݐൎ ͲǤͲͲʹ years rate of 2 gallons per minute. ܯሺݐሻ is written in the following approximately ͶǤͳʹ ൈ ͳͲଵହ students in 2018. it is given the following: Example 5.3 Water Tank Application ܯሺ ݐሻ ൌ ݄ܶ݁ ܽ݉ݏ݈ܽݎ݁݊݅ܯ ݂ ݐ݊ݑ ݄ܶ݁ ܸݎ݁ݐܹܽ ݂݀݁݅݅ݎݑܲ ݂ ݁݉ݑ݈ In this section. the number of WSU students will be tank at any time ݐ. Thus. From this example.1 One of the most beautiful places at ܹሺͲሻ ൌ ͷ ܾݏ݀݊ݑ. we need to do the following: tank of WSU Water Tower at ݐൌ ͵Ͷ minutes? We assume that ݐൌ ʹͲͳͺ. the amount of ͵͵ͺǤͶ ሺ͵ǡͳǤʹሻ ݐଶ minerals is ͷ bounds. form: 5. and we introduce how to use one of the ܲ ݎ݁ݐܹܽ ݂݀݁݅݅ݎݑ ሺሺ ݁ݐܴܽ ݎ݁݊݊ܫെ ܱ݁ݐܴܽ ݎ݁ݐݑሻݐሻ differential equations methods to solve it. it will take approximately ͲǤͲͲʹ years to a) What is the amount of minerals in the tank of double the number of WSU students in 2013. ݁ݐܴܽ ݎ݁݊݊ܫൌ ͷ Ȁ. Suppose that there is a mixture ͷǡ͵ʹ ൌ ൬ ൰ ʹ of minerals containing 0. Assume thatWSU Water Tower 104 M. and Washington State University campus is known as ܱ ݁ݐܴܽ ݎ݁ݐݑൌ ʹ Ȁ.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ܹሺݐሻ ൌ ʹሺʹͺǡͺሻ ൌ ͷǡ͵ʹ by substituting it in ሺͳͲሻ as has a tank that contains initially 350 gallons of follows: purified water.3. we give an example of water tank ܹሺݐሻ ൌ ǥ ሺͳሻ application. and ܯሺݐሻ is the concentration of minerals in the Thus. we ଶ ͵͵ͺǤͶ ሺ͵ǡͳǤʹሻሺʹͲͳͺሻ need to do the following: ܹሺʹͲͳͺሻ ൌ ቆ ቇ ʹ Assume that ܹሺݐሻ is the amount of minerals at any ܹሺʹͲͳͺሻ ൎ ͶǤͳʹ ൈ ͳͲଵହ students time ݐ. Kaabar 105 . given that when ݐൌ Ͳ. WSU Water Tower at any time ?ݐ Part b: To determine what will be number of WSU b) What is the concentration of minerals in the students in 2018.2 bound of minerals per gallon ሺ͵͵ͺǤͶሻଶ ʹሺ͵͵ͺǤͶሻሺ͵ǡͳǤʹሻ ݐ ݐଶ ൌ Ͷሺͷǡ͵ʹሻ is poured into the tank at rate of 5 gallons per minute. and then we substitute it in Solution: Part a: To determine the amount of minerals ሺͳͲሻ as follows: in the tank of WSU Water Tower at any time ݐ.

we need to find ܿ by substituting ሺ͵ሻ as follows: ܹሺͲሻ ൌ ͷ bounds in ሺͷሻ as follows: ܹ ሺ ݐሻ ͵ͷͲሺͲሻ ሺͲሻଶ ܿ ܹ ᇱ ሺݐሻ ൌ ͲǤʹ ή ሺͷሻ െ ቆ ቇ ή ሺʹሻ ܹ ሺͲሻ ൌ ቆ ቇ ͵ͷͲ ʹݐ ሺ͵ͷͲ ʹሺͲሻሻ ሺ͵ͷͲ ʹሺͲሻሻ ሺ͵ͷͲ ʹሺͲሻሻ ܹ ሺ ݐሻ ܿ ܹ ᇱ ሺݐሻ ൌ ͳ െ ሺʹሻ ቆ ቇ ͷ ൌ ൬Ͳ Ͳ ൰ ͵ͷͲ ʹݐ ሺ͵ͷͲ ʹሺͲሻሻ ʹ ܿ ܹ ᇱ ሺ ݐሻ ൬ ൰ ܹ ሺݐሻ ൌ ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͶሻ ͷൌቀ ቁ ͵ͷͲ ʹݐ ͵ͷͲ ܿ ൌ ሺͷሻሺ͵ͷͲሻ ൌ ͳͷͲ Since ሺͶሻ is a first order linear differential equation. ܹ ሺ ݐሻ ൌ ቆ ቇ ሺ͵ͷͲ ʹݐሻ ሺ͵ͷͲ ʹݐሻ ሺ͵ͷͲ ʹݐሻ The general solution is written as follows: 106 M.1. we need to use the Thus.com .Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Now. ଷହ௧ ௧మ ଵହ then by using definition 4. where The amount of minerals in the tank of WSU Water ଶ ݃ሺݐሻ ൌ ቀଷହାଶ௧ ቁ and ܨሺݐሻ ൌ ͳ.1. independent variable is the time ݐ. Tower at any time ݐis: మ ቁ ௗ௧ ͵ͷͲݐ ݐଶ ͳͷͲ ܫൌ ݁ ሺ௧ሻௗ௧ ൌ ݁ ቀయఱబశమ ൌ ݁ ୪୬ሺଷହାଶ௧ሻ ൌ ሺ͵ͷͲ ʹݐሻ. we need to rewrite our previous equation for this ܫ ή ܨሺݐሻ ݀ݐ ܹሺݐሻ ൌ example by substituting what is given in the example ܫ ሺ͵ͷͲ ʹݐሻ ή ሺͳሻ ݀ݐ itself in ሺͳሻ as follows: ܹሺݐሻ ൌ ሺ͵ͷͲ ʹݐሻ ܹሺݐሻ ܹ ሺ ݐሻ ܯሺ ݐሻ ൌ ൌ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǡ ǥ ǥ ሺʹሻ ሺ͵ͷͲ ʹݐሻ ݀ݐ ሺ ሻ ͵ͷͲ ሺ ͷ െ ͵ ݐሻ ͵ͷͲ ʹݐ ܹሺݐሻ ൌ ሺ͵ͷͲ ʹݐሻ From ሺʹሻ. we can write the differential equation as ͵ͷͲ ݐ ݐଶ ܿ follows: ܹሺݐሻ ൌ ሺ͵ͷͲ ʹݐሻ ܹ݀ ൌ ͲǤʹ ή ݁ݐܴܽ ݎ݁݊݊ܫെ ܯሺݐሻ ή ܱ݁ݐܴܽ ݎ݁ݐݑ ͵ͷͲݐ ݐଶ ܿ ݀ݐ ܹ ሺ ݐሻ ൌ ቆ ቇ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ሺͷሻ ሺ͵ͷͲ ʹݐሻ ሺ͵ͷͲ ʹݐሻ ሺ͵ͷͲ ʹݐሻ ܹ݀ ܹ ሺ ݐሻ ൌ ͲǤʹ ή ሺͷሻ െ ቆ ቇ ή ሺʹሻ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺ͵ሻ The general solution is: ݀ݐ ͵ͷͲ ʹݐ ଷହ௧ ௧మ From ሺ͵ሻ. Then. Kaabar 107 www. while the ܹሺݐሻ ൌ ቀሺଷହାଶ௧ሻ ሺଷହାଶ௧ሻ ሺଷହାଶ௧ሻቁ for some ܿ אԸ. the dependent variable is ܹ. ܹ ሺݐሻ ൌ ቀሺଷହାଶ௧ሻ ሺଷହାଶ௧ሻ ሺଷହାଶ௧ሻቁ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ሺሻ integral factor method by letting ܫൌ ݁ ሺ௧ሻௗ௧ .ebook3000. we rewrite Now.

Kaabar 109 . ሺሻ ൌ ȁȁ ൌ ܽଵଵ ܽଶଶ െ ܽଵଶ ܽଶଵ אԹ. In addition. First Edition1. let אଶ ሺԹሻ where A is ʹ ൈ ʹ ܽଵଵ ܽଵଶ matrix. (Warning: this definition works only for ʹ ൈ ʹ matrices). Definition A. we do the following: 108 M. In this section. Example A.7 in my published book titled A First Course in approximately ͵ͷǤͶʹ minutes.1. we introduce step by step for finding determinant of a certain matrix. Hence. ൌ ቂܽ ܽଶଶ ቃǤ The determinant of A is ଶଵ represented by ሺሻ ȁȁ.1 Given the following matrix: ͵ ʹ ൌቂ ቃ ͷ Find the determinant of A.1 Determinant is a square matrix. we Appendices need to do the following: We substitute ݐൌ ͵Ͷ minutes in ሺሻ as follows: Review of Linear Algebra ଶ ͵ͷͲሺ͵Ͷሻ ሺ͵Ͷሻ ͳͷͲ ܹ ሺ͵Ͷሻ ൌ ቆ ቇ ൎ ͵ͷǤͶʹ ሺ͵ͷͲ ʹሺ͵Ͷሻሻ Appendix A: Determinants* Thus. In addition. Solution: Using definition A. we discuss some important properties such as invertible and non-invertible. we talk about the effect of row-operations on determinants. the concentration of minerals in the tank of *The materials of appendix A are taken from section WSU Water Tower at ݐൌ ͵Ͷ minutes is 1. Linear Algebra: Study Guide for the Undergraduate Linear Algebra Course. Given ଶ ሺԹሻ ൌ Թൈ ൌ Թൈ .Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Part b: To determine the concentration of minerals in the tank of WSU Water Tower at ݐൌ ͵Ͷ minutes.

ͳ Ͳ ʹ െ ሻ ൌ ͵ ͳ െͳ൩ ሺሻ ൌ Ͳ ʹ ͳͶ ൌ ͳǤ ͳ ʹ Ͷ ଵାଶ ͵ െͳ Thus. A is invertible For ܽଶଶ . the determinant of A is 11. second column. Thus. since ܽଶଶ is in the second row and second (non-singular) if and only if ሺሻ ് ͲǤ column. then we virtually remove the third row and Find the determinant of A. ͳ ʹ ሺെͳሻଷାଶ ܽଷଶ ቂ ቃ In this example. since ܽଵଶ is in the first row and ሺെͳሻሺʹሻ ቂ ቃ ͵ െͳ second column. ͵ െͳ ͳ ʹ Step 1: Choose any row or any column.2 Given the following matrix: ሺെͳሻ ܽଶଶ ቂ ቃ ͳ Ͷ ͳ Ͳ ʹ For ܽଷଶ .com .ebook3000. Kaabar 111 www. ͳ Ͳ ʹ ൌ ͵ ͳ െͳ൩ Solution: Since A is ͵ ൈ ͵ matrix such that ͳ ʹ Ͷ אଷ ሺԹሻ ൌ Թൈ .1 Let א ሺԹሻ. then we virtually remove the second row and second column. then we cannot use definition A. ሺെͳሻ ܽଵଶ ቂ ቃ ͳ Ͷ Result A. ൌ ͵ ͳെͳ൩ ͳ ʹ Ͷ ଶାଶ ͳ ʹ Example A. the determinant of A is 16. since ܽଷଶ is in the third row and second ൌ ͵ ͳ െͳ൩ ͳ ʹ Ͷ column. we prefer to choose the second column ͵ െͳ or the first row. Let’s choose the second column as ͵ െͳ ͳ ʹ ሺሻ ൌ ሺെͳሻଷ ሺͲሻ ቂ ቃ ሺെͳሻସ ሺͳሻ ቂ ቃ follows: ͳ Ͷ ͳ Ͷ ͳ Ͳ ʹ ͳ ʹ ൌ ͵ ͳ െͳ൩ ሺെͳሻହ ሺʹሻ ቂ ቃ ͵ െͳ ͳ ʹ Ͷ ͵ െͳ ͳ ʹ ܽଵଶ ൌ Ͳǡ ܽଶଶ ൌ ͳ ܽଷଶ ൌ ʹǤ ሺሻ ൌ ሺെͳሻሺͲሻ ቂ ቃ ሺͳሻሺͳሻ ቂ ቃ ͳ Ͷ ͳ Ͷ Step 2: To find the determinant of A. we ͵ െͳ need to use the following method to find the Step 3: Add all of them together as follows: determinant of A. 110 M. then we virtually remove the first row ሺሻ ൌ ሺെͳሻሺͲሻሺͳʹ െ െͳሻ ሺͳሻሺͳሻሺͶ െ ʹሻ ሺെͳሻሺʹሻሺെͳ and second column.1 ଷାଶ ͳ ʹ ሺെͳሻ ܽଷଶ ቂ ቃ because it is valid only for ʹ ൈ ʹ matrices. Then.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ሺሻ ൌ ȁȁ ൌ ሺ͵ሻሺሻ െ ሺʹሻሺͷሻ ൌ ʹͳ െ ͳͲ ൌ ͳͳǤ ͳ Ͳ ʹ Thus. we do the ͳ ʹ following: For ܽଵଶ . It is ሺሻ ൌ ሺെͳሻଵାଶ ܽଵଶ ቂ ቃ ሺെͳሻଶାଶ ܽଶଶ ቂ ቃ ͳ Ͷ ͳ Ͷ recommended to choose the one that has more zeros.

3 Given the following matrix: ሺܣሻ Ͷ ͵ ʹ͵ Ͷ ͵ Ͷ ͵ ʹ ͵ ʹ͵ ʹ͵ ൌቂ ቃ Ͷ Result A. the answer is Yes. there exists ିଵ according to invertible (non-singular). we use the following format that applies only for ʹ ൈ ʹ matrices: right sides of the diagonal of ݊ ൈ ݊ matrix. Definition A. Find ିଵ . ͷ ʹ ͳ ͳ െ ͷ െʹ ͷ െʹ ିଵ ൌ ቂ ቃൌ ቂ ቃ ൌ ൦ʹ͵ ʹ͵൪ Example A. and if A is invertible (non. ൌ Ͳ ʹ ͷ൩ is an Upper Triangular Matrix). ൌ ቂെܽ ܽଵଵ ቃ ሺ ܣ ሻ ଶଵ Ͳ Ͳ Ͷ ͳ ܽଶଶ െܽଵଶ c) Lower Triangular Matrix: it has all zeros on the ିଵ ൌ ቂ ܽଵଵ ቃ ܽଵଵ ܽଶଶ െ ܽଵଶ ܽଶଵ െܽଶଵ right side of the diagonal of ݊ ൈ ݊ matrix. ሺሻ ൌ ȁȁ ൌ ሺʹሻሺሻ െ ሺ͵ሻሺͶሻ ൌ ͳʹ െ ͳʹ ൌ ͲǤ There are three types of triangular matrix: Since the determinant of A is 0.1. Thus. ሺሻ ൌ ሺ ሻ. ሺ ሻିଵ ൌ ሺିଵ ሻ ). Assume that ଶଵ Ͳ Ͳ Ͷ ሺሻ ് Ͳ such that ሺሻ ൌ ܽଵଵ ܽଶଶ െ ܽଵଶ ܽଶଵ . ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Example A. the answer is No because A is non-invertible left side of the diagonal of ݊ ൈ ݊ matrix. (singular).2 Let א ሺԹሻ. Is A invertible (non-singular)? ሺሻ = multiplication of the numbers on the main Solution: Using result A. If A is an invertible (non- Solution: Using result A.4 Given the following matrix: (i. ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ିଵ ͳ ܽଶଶ െܽଵଶ (i.e. (i. ൌ Ͳ ʹ Ͳ൩ is a Diagonal Matrix). To find b) Diagonal Matrix: it has all zeros on both left and ିଵ (the inverse of A). then is also an invertible (non- ሺሻ ൌ ȁȁ ൌ ሺ͵ሻሺͷሻ െ ሺʹሻሺെͶሻ ൌ ͳͷ ͺ ൌ ʹ͵ ് ͲǤ Since the determinant of A is not 0. ͵ ʹ ൌቂ ቃ ͳ ͻ Ͷ െͶ ͷ Is A invertible (non-singular)? If Yes.1 Let א ሺԹሻ.2 Given ൌ ቂܽ ܽଶଶ ቃ.1. we do the following: diagonal of A. we do the following: singular) matrix. definition 1. (non-singular).e. then A is Thus.2 We will show that ሺ ሻିଵ ൌ ሺିଵ ሻ . then ሺሻ ് Ͳ. Kaabar 113 . then A is invertible singular) matrix.e. Then. ൌ ͷ ʹ Ͳ൩ is a Diagonal Matrix).2 as follows: singular). then A is non- a) Upper Triangular Matrix: it has all zeros on the invertible (singular).Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved The above result means that if ሺሻ ് Ͳ.7. ͳ ͵ ܽଵଵ ܽଵଶ (i. 112 M. Fact A. Then. Fact A.2 Let א ሺԹሻ be a triangular matrix. Proof of Fact A.e.

Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved We know from previous results that ିଵ ൌ .

ሺିଵ ሻ ൌ ሺ. we obtain: the determinants. . * Ri՞Rk (Interchange two rows). It has no effect on By taking the transpose of both sides.

ሺ ሻ ൌ ሺ. the effect of Column-Operations on ିଵ Then. ሻ In general.

ሻ determinants is the same as for Row-Operations. Since ሺ.

ሻ ൌ .

. then ሺିଵ ሻ ൌ .

Example A. ሺ ሻିଵ ൌ ሺ. .5 Given the following Ͷ ൈ Ͷ matrix A with Similarly.

ሻ ൌ .

if ሺሻ ൌ Ⱦ Ⱦ ǡ then ଵ Then: a) ሺሻ ൌ ሺሻ כሺሻǤ ሺሻ ൌ Ⱦ.4 Assume ݊ ൈ ݊ Ǥ Similarly. ሺ ሻିଵ ൌ ሺିଵ ሻ .e. Then. then find ሺଷ ሻ The effect of Row-Operations on determinants: Solution: Using what we have learned from the effect Suppose ןis a non-zero constant. ሺଶ ሻ ൌ ͵ כሺଵ ሻ ൌ ͵ כͺ ൌ ʹͶ because ଶ has the constant )ן. ሺሻିଵ ൌ ିଵ ିଵ Ǥ constant ןǡ ). ሺଵ ሻ ൌ ʹ כሺሻ ൌ ʹ כͶ ൌ ͺ because ଵ has the first * ןRi . ൌ Ͳ Ͷ ͳ൩ ןRi +Rk --Æ Rk d) ሺሻ ൌ ሺ ሻǤ ʹ Ͳ ͳ ଵ e) If ିଵ exists. ሺଷ ሻ ൌ െʹ כሺଶ ሻ ൌ െʹ ʹ כͶ ൌ െͶͺ i. Result A.4 (b) We will show that ʹ Ͳ ͳ ሺሻିଵ ൌ ିଵ ିଵ . * ןRi +Rk --Æ Rk (Multiply a row with a non-zero Then. some Row-Operations: 2R1 --Æ A1 3R3 --Æ A2 -2R4 --Æ A4 Thus. ͳ ʹ ͵ ͳ ʹ ͵ Similarly. Result A. ( Ͳ ്ןMultiply a row with a non-zero row of A multiplied by 2. .3 Assume ݊ ൈ ݊ with a given Assume that ሺሻ ൌ ɀ where ɀ is known. ሺߙሻ ൌ ߙ ߛ כ. ଷ b) Assume ିଵ exists and ିଵ exists. ሺሻ ൌ ͵ɀ. third row of ଵ multiplied by 3. Kaabar 115 www. then ሺሻ ൌ ߛ .e. 114 M. Let ߙ be a number. then ሺିଵ ሻ ൌ ୢୣ୲ሺሻǤ ͳ ʹ ͵ Ͳ ͳʹ ͵൩ ൌ Proof of Result A. If ሺሻ ൌ Ͷ. ሺሻ ൌ ሺሻ. and ݅ ܽ݊݀ ݇ are row of determinants on Row-Operations: numbers in the augmented matrix.com .ebook3000. ൌ Ͳ Ͷ ͳ൩ 3R2 --Æ Ͳ ͳʹ ͵൩ ൌ ʹ Ͳ ͳ ʹ Ͳ ͳ because ଷ has the fourth row of ଶ multiplied by -2. Then. c) ሺሻ ൌ ሺሻǤ ͳ ʹ ͵ i.

it is ିଵ ሺିଵ ሻ ൌ ିଵ ሺ.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved If we multiply ( ିଵ ିଵ ) by (AB). we obtain: Before reviewing the concepts of set theory.

ሻB = ିଵ ൌ .

4 (e) We will show that three sets of numbers in figure 1. ଵ ሺିଵ ሻ ൌ ୢୣ୲ሺሻ. ሺሻିଵ ൌ ିଵ ିଵ Ǥ notations of numbers and the representation of the Proof of Result A. Let’s explain some symbols and notations of set theory: ͵ אԺ means that 3 is an element of ԺǤ Since ିଵ ൌ .1. and read the Thus.4.4. Ǥ recommended to revisit section 1.

1. We start this chapter reviewing some concepts of set Solution: According to definition B.2 Find Span{(1.3)} which are In this section.2). Kaabar 117 . Span{1} = Թ. Solution: According to definition B. Algebra Course.1. then the span theory.2). and we discuss some important concepts of of the set {1} is the set of all possible linear vector spaces including span and dimension.1. then ሺିଵ ሻ ൌ ሺܫ ሻ ൌ ͳǤ ଵ ଵ ሺିଵ ሻ ൌ ሺሻ כሺିଵ ሻ ൌ ͳǤ ଶ בԺ means that ଶ is not an element of ԺǤ Thus. Example B. .(2. First Edition1. (1.1. ሺିଵ ሻ ൌ ଵ Ǥ { } means that it is a set.3)}.(2. then the span of the set {(1.2) and (2. ሺͳǡʹሻ ൌ ͳ כሺͳǡʹሻ Ͳ כሺʹǡ͵ሻ 116 M. ୢୣ୲ሺሻ {5} means that 5 is a subset of Ժ. At the end of this chapter we discuss Example B.1 Find Span{1}.2). In the combinations of the subset of {1} which is 1. the following is some possible and we give an introduction to span and vector spaces linear combinations: including some examples related to these concepts.1 Span and Vector Spaces combinations of the subsets of {(1.1.3)} is the set of all possible linear B. independence. we review some concepts of set theory.1.1 The span of a certain set is the set of in my published book titled A First Course in Linear all possible linear combinations of the subset of that Algebra: Study Guide for the Undergraduate Linear set.(2. Thus. and the set consists of Appendix B: Vector Spaces* exactly one element which is 5. *The materials of appendix B are taken from chapter 2 Definition B.3).1. other concepts such as subspace and basis. remaining sections we introduce the concept of linear Hence.

Claim: ܦൌ ܵ݊ܽሼሺͳǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǤͳሻሽ ൌ Թଶ Definition B. (i. ሺݔଵ ǡ ݕଵ ሻ ൌ ݔଵ ሺͳǡͲሻ ݕଵ ሺͲǡͳሻ ܦ אǤ a. ሼሺͳǡʹሻǡ ሺʹǡ͵ሻǡ ሺͷǡͺሻሽ אሼሺͳǡʹሻǡ ሺʹǡ͵ሻሽ.2 Թ ൌ ሼሺܽଵ ǡ ܽଶ ǡ ܽଷ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܽ ሻȁܽଵ ǡ ܽଶ ǡ ܽଷ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܽ אԹሽ ߙଵ ሺͳǡͲሻ ߙଶ ሺͲǡͳሻ ൌ ሺߙଵ ǡ ߙଶ ሻ אԹଶ is a set of all points where each point has exactly ݊ Thus. ߙܸ א ݒǤ ሺԹ ሻ ൌ ݊. (i. For every ݔଵ ǡ ݕଵ אԹ. Example B. ሺݔଵ ǡ ݕଵ ሻ אԹଶ Ǥ Definition B. the dimension Hence.1 ܵ݊ܽሼሺ͵ǡͶሻሽ ് Թଶ .2.1 We will show that ሺԹ ሻ ൌ ݊Ǥ Thus. and it is denoted by ሺܸሻ.1. 118 M. and hence b. Kaabar 119 www. Space Example B. we discuss how to find the dimension of Solution: According to definition B.4 Find Span{c} where c is a non-zero of ܸ is the number of minimum elements needed in ܸ integer. Span{0} = 0. Solution: Using definition B.2 The Dimension of Vector Hence. Given ܵ݊ܽሼݔǡ ݕሽ ݐ݁ݏሼݔǡ ݕሽǡ then Fact 2B.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ሺʹǡ͵ሻ ൌ Ͳ כሺͳǡʹሻ ͳ כሺʹǡ͵ሻ ሺͷǡͺሻ ൌ ͳ כሺͳǡʹሻ ʹ כሺʹǡ͵ሻ B.1.2. the span of the set {c} Result B. For every ߙ אԹ ܸ א ݒ. ݒଵ ݒଶ ܸ אǤ We prove the above claim. so that their ܵ ݊ܽis equal to ܸ. In this section.2.e. Proof of Result B.ebook3000. combinations of the subset of {0} which is 0.e.1. coordinates.com .1 Given a vector space ܸ.2. ܦis a subset of Թଶ ( ك ܦԹଶ ).1.3 ሺܸǡ ǡήሻ is a vector space if satisfies the following: Therefore.2. Span{c} = Թ.1. ξͳͲ ݔ ʹ݊ܽܵ א ݕሼݔǡ ݕሽ.3 Find Span{0}.1. and how it is related to what we have of the set {0} is the set of all possible linear learned in section B.1. ሺԹሻ ൌ ͳ ሺԹଶ ሻ ൌ ʹ). Definition B. is the set of all possible linear combinations of the subset of {c} which is ܿ ് Ͳ. For every ݒଵ ǡ ݒଶ ܸ א. then ݒൌ ܿଵ ݔ ܿଶ ݕfor some numbers Claim: ܨൌ ܵ݊ܽሼሺǡͷሻሽ ് Թଶ where ሺǡͷሻ אԹଶ Ǥ ܿଵ ܿଶ ). then the span vector space.1 ሺԹ ሻ ൌ ݊. Let’s assume that Proof of Fact B.1.1 We will show that ܵ݊ܽሼሺ͵ǡͶሻሽ ് Թଶ Ǥ ݊ܽܵ א ݒሼݔǡ ݕሽ.1.

Show that ݒଵ and ͵ݒଵ ݒଶ are linearly ͳ Ͳ െʹ െʹ ʹ ͳ ൩ Each point is a row-operation.3 ܵ݊ܽሼሺʹǡͳሻǡ ሺͳǡͲǤͷሻሽ ് Թଶ . in other words. linearly independent.3. we learn how to determine whether the others which means that ݒଵ and ͵ݒଵ ݒଶ are vector spaces are linearly independent or not. vectors are independent elements or not. we Definition B. Definition B. ݒଵ ሺͳ െ ͵ܿଵ ሻ ൌ ݒଶ ܿଵ Fact B.3. we say Are these vectors independent elements? ݒଵ ǡ ݒଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ݒ ܸ אare linearly dependent if at least one of Solution: First of all. Hence. we cannot find a number ߙଵ ǡ ߙଶ ݒଶ ൌ ሺെʹǡʹǡͳሻ such that ሺ͵ǡͶሻ ൌ ߙଵ ሺʹǡͲሻ and ሺʹǡͲሻ ൌ ߙଶ ሺ͵ǡͶሻ). our assumption that ݒଵ and ͵ݒଵ ݒଶ were ݒଵ ǡ ݒଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ݒ ܸ אare linearly independent if none of linearly dependent is false. none of ݒଵ and ͵ݒଵ ݒଶ is a linear combination of In this section. linearly independent.2 Given a vector space ሺܸǡ ǡήሻ. ݒଵ and ͵ݒଵ ݒଶ are them is a linear combination of the remaining ݒ Ԣݏ. we need to Example B. and hence ܵ݊ܽሼሺ͵ǡͶሻሽ ് Թଶ .3. ሺͳ െ ͵ܿଵ ሻ ݒଵ ൌ ݒଶ ܿଵ B. linearly independent. We need to independent. ݒଷ ൌ ሺെͳǡͲǡͷሻ Definition B. ݒଵ ൌ ܿଵ ሺ͵ݒଵ ݒଶ ሻ.3. (i.2 ܵ݊ܽሼሺͳǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡͳሻሽ ൌ Թଶ . independent. matrix but the leader numbers can be any non-zero number.2. Kaabar 121 . 120 M.1 Given a vector space ሺܸǡ ǡήሻ. to determine whether these ݒ Ԣ ݏis a linear combination of the others. This is a contradiction.e. Using proof by contradiction. െͳ Ͳ ͷ Solution: We will show that ݒଵ and ͵ݒଵ ݒଶ are reduce this matrix to Semi-Reduced Matrix.3 Linear Independence Thus. we obtain: We prove the above claim. ݒଵ ൌ ͵ݒଵ ܿଵ ݒଶ ܿଵ ݒଵ െ ͵ݒଵ ܿଵ ൌ ݒଶ ܿଵ Fact B. ሺ͵ǡͶሻǡ ሺʹǡͲሻ אԹ are linearly independent because Example B.2.2 Given the following vectors: we cannot write them as a linear combination of each ݒଵ ൌ ሺͳǡͲǡ െʹሻ other.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved We cannot find a number ߙ such that ሺǡͷሻ ൌ ߙሺ͵ǡͶሻ Using the distribution property and algebra.3.1 Assume ݒଵ ݒଶ are linearly write these vectors as a matrix.3 Semi-Reduced Matrix is a reduced- assume that ݒଵ and ͵ݒଵ ݒଶ are linearly dependent. we say Therefore. For some non-zero number ܿଵ .

1.ebook3000.4. we apply the Row-Reduction Method to get the ͳ െʹ Ͷ Semi-Reduced Matrix as follows: െܴଶ ܴଷ ՜ ܴଷ Ͳ Ͳ Ͷ ͺ൩ This is a Semi-Reduced Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ Ͳ െʹ ʹܴ ܴ ՜ ܴ ͳ Ͳ െʹ Matrix. write these vectors as a matrix. then the elements are dependent because we can write at least one of them as a linear combination of the Since none of the rows in the Semi-Reduced Matrix others.4. We ͳ െʹ ͺ ͳͶ need to reduce this matrix to Semi-Reduced Matrix. Reduced Matrix.com .Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Now. Given vector spaces ܸ and ܦ.1: Subspace of ܸ 122 M. Now. become zero-row.4. Kaabar 123 www. to determine whether these space. we apply the Row-Reduction Method to get the Semi-Reduced Matrix as follows: V D ͳ െʹ Ͷ ܴ ܴ ՜ܴ ͳ െʹ Ͷ ଵ ଶ ଶ െͳ ʹ Ͳ ʹ ൩ െܴ ܴ ՜ ܴ Ͳ Ͳ Ͷ ͺ൩ ଵ ଷ ଷ ͳ െʹ ͺ ͳͶ Ͳ Ͳ Ͷ ͺ Figure B. we need to to the figure 2. then according vectors are independent elements or not. ݒଶ ൌ ሺെͳǡʹǡͲǡʹሻ In addition. then the elements are independent because we cannot write at least one of them as a linear combination of the others. B. ଵ ଶ ଶ െʹ ʹ ͳ ൩ ܴଵ ܴଷ ՜ ܴଷ Ͳ ʹ െ͵൩ This is a Semi- െͳ Ͳ ͷ Ͳ Ͳ ͵ Since there is a zero-row in the Semi-Reduced Matrix. we discuss one of the most important ݒଵ ൌ ሺͳǡ െʹǡͶǡሻ concepts in linear algebra that is known as subspace. ͳ െʹ Ͷ െͳ ʹ Ͳ ʹ ൩ Each point is a row-operation.1 Subspace is a vector space but we call it a subspace because it lives inside a bigger vector Solution: First of all. Are these vectors independent elements? Definition B. (i.3 Given the following vectors: In this section.e.4 Subspace and Basis Example 2. ܦis called a subspace of ܸ).3. we give some examples explaining how to ݒଷ ൌ ሺͳǡ െʹǡͺǡͳͶሻ find the basis for subspace.

124 M. Is ܮa subspace of Թଶ ? because in this case ߙ ൌ Ͷ where ሺʹͲǡͲሻ ൌ Ͷሺͷǡͳͷሻ. Figure B. Claim: ܮൌ ܵ݊ܽሼሺͷǡͳͷሻሽ ് Թଶ where ሺͷǡͳͷሻ אԹଶ Ǥ Example B. ܮlives in Թ .1 ܮis a subspace of Թଶ if satisfies the following: Now. d. ܮhas only lines through the origin ሺͲǡͲሻ. then we obtain: ߙଵ ሺͳǡ͵ሻ ߙଶ ሺʹǡሻ ൌ ሼሺܿǡ ͵ܿ ሻȁܿ אԹሽ ൌ ܮ. and it passes through a point ሺͳǡ͵ሻ. e. because we can write ሺͳǡ͵ሻ and ሺʹǡሻ as a linear combination of each other. Part c: Yes. ܮdoes not equal to Թଶ . To show that we prove the following claim: Fact B. Thus. ܮdoes not equal to Թଶ Solution: To answer all these questions. Does ܮequal to ܵ݊ܽሼሺͲǡ͵ሻሽǫ We prove the above claim.2: Graph of ݕൌ ͵ݔ Result B.4. equation. ܮlives inside Թଶ . Part e: Yes. we can answer the given questions as follows: a.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Part b: No. ߙଵ ሺͳǡ͵ሻ ߙଶ ሺʹǡሻ ൌ ሼሺߙଵ ʹߙଶ ሻǡ ሺ͵ߙଵ ߙଶ ሻሽ ߙଵ ሺͳǡ͵ሻ ߙଶ ሺʹǡሻ ൌ ሼሺߙଵ ʹߙଶ ሻǡ ͵ሺߙଵ ʹߙଶ ሻሽ Assume ܿ ൌ ሺߙଵ ʹߙଶ ሻ.4. ଶ Part a: Yes. and ܵ݊ܽሼሺͷǡͳͷሻሽ ് Թଶ . b.1 Given a vector space ܮൌ ሼሺܿǡ ͵ܿሻȁܿ אԹሽ. according to the graph in figure 2. say ݕൌ ͵ݔ. a. ሺͲǡ͵ሻ does not belong to ܮ. Kaabar 125 . Does ܮlive in Թଶ ? It is impossible to find a number ߙ ൌ ͵ such that b.1 Every vector space is a subspace of itself.2.4. Does ܮequal to Թଶ ? ሺʹͲǡͲሻ ൌ ߙሺͷǡͳͷሻ c. ܮis a subspace of Թଶ because ܮlives inside The following figure represents the graph of the above a bigger vector space which is Թଶ . Does ܮequal to ܵ݊ܽሼሺͳǡ͵ሻǡ ሺʹǡሻሽǫ Thus.4. we need first to draw an equation from this vector space. Part d: No. ܮൌ ܵ݊ܽሼሺͳǡ͵ሻǡ ሺʹǡሻሽ.4.

4. We need to Ͳ Ͷ ͳ Now. there is no need to needed to ܵ ݊ܽthe vector space. we have infinite set of points. then Թ ൌ ܵ݊ܽሼܳଵ ǡ ܳଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܳ ሽ.3 and B.4 Assume ܦlives inside Թ . then ܦis a subspace of Թ .4. Does ܦlive in Թଷ ? Result B.2 Basis is the set of points that is is a three-dimensional equation. Is ܦa subspace of Թଷ ǫ ݇ ݊ (݊ points of the ܳ Ԣ ݏare independents). If ሺͲǡͲǡͲǡ ǥ ǡͲሻ is in learned so far from section 2.5 Assume Թ ൌ ܵ݊ܽሼܳଵ ǡ ܳଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܳ ሽ. Find a basis for ܦ. we apply the Row-Reduction Method to get the is ݊.4.2 Assume ܦlives inside Թ . Solution: Since the equation of the above vector space Definition B. Part b: No.ebook3000. a. vectors as a matrix. If we can write ܦ ݒଵ ൌ ሺͳǡ െͳǡͲሻ as a ܵ݊ܽ. Let’s assume the following: Fact B. we list the main results on Թ : reduce this matrix to Semi-Reduced Matrix. then it is not a subspace of Թ .4. If ሺͲǡͲǡͲǡ ǥ ǡͲሻ is ͳ െͳ Ͳ not in ܦ. 126 M. Kaabar 127 www. ͳ െͳ Ͳ ͳ െͳ Ͳ say ܳଵ ǡ ܳଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܳ . b.4. then it is a subspace of Թ .4.4.5 Assume ܦlives inside Թ .4.3: We need to write these ܦ. If we cannot write ܦas a ܵ݊ܽ. ʹ ʹ ͳ൩ Each point is a row-operation.4 tell us the following: In order ܦൌ ሼሺܽǡ ܾǡ ͳሻȁܽǡ ܾ אԹሽ. ݒଶ ൌ ሺʹǡʹǡͳሻ ݒଷ ൌ ሺͲǡͶǡͳሻ Fact B. to get all Թ .4.com . Thus.3 Assume ܦlives inside Թ . then ܦis not a subspace of Թ .Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Example B. we can answer the above questions immediately. Part a: To find ሺܦሻ. we check whether ݒଵ ǡ ݒଶ and ݒଷ are dependent elements or not. a.2 Given a vector space Results B.3 Choosing any ݊ independent points in Թ .4 ሺԹ ሻ ൌ ݊. then b. ʹ ʹ ͳ൩ െʹܴଵ ܴଶ ՜ ܴଶ Ͳ Ͷ ͳ൩ െܴଶ ܴଷ ՜ ܴଷ Ͳ Ͷ ͳ Ͳ Ͷ ͳ Result B. ܦlives inside Թଷ .4. Part a: Yes. we need exactly ݊ independent points. Result B. since ሺͲǡͲǡͲሻ ܦ ב.3 Let ܦൌ ܵ݊ܽሼሺͳǡ െͳǡͲሻǡ ሺʹǡʹǡͳሻǡ ሺͲǡͶǡͳሻሽ. and of Թଷ .4.2 Maximum number of independent points Now. Fact B. then ܦis not a subspace Solution: First of all.4. Semi-Reduced Matrix as follows: Result B. ܦlives inside Թଷ . Example B. draw it because it is difficult to draw it exactly. Find ሺܦሻ.4. Using what we have Fact B.

Show that ܹ is a subspace of Թଷ . Since ሺܯሻ ൌ ͵.5 Given the following: ݒଷ ൌ ሺെʹǡͲǡ͵ǡͲሻ ܹ ൌ ܵ݊ܽሼሺܽǡ െʹܽ ܾǡ െܽሻȁܽǡ ܾ אԹሽ. Kaabar 129 . ሺܯሻ ൌ ͵. ͳ െʹ ͵ Ͳ൩ Each point is a row-operation. 128 M. possible bases for ܯ: Find a basis for ܯ. We Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ െʹ Ͳ ͵ Ͳ need to reduce this matrix to Semi-Reduced Matrix. then any two independent െͳ ʹ Ͳ Ͳ points in ܦwill form a basis for ܦ. c. the following are some ܯൌ ܵ݊ܽሼሺെͳǡʹǡͲǡͲሻǡ ሺͳǡ െʹǡ͵ǡͲሻǡ ሺെʹǡͲǡ͵ǡͲሻሽ.3: We need to write these vectors as a matrix. Hence.4. Since there is a zero-row in the Semi-Reduced Matrix. Rewrite ܹ as a ܵ݊ܽ. Thus. Let’s assume the following: Another basis for ܯis ሼሺെͳǡʹǡͲǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡͲǡ͵ǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡ െͶǡ͵ǡͲሻሽ. All the three points survived in the Semi-Reduced Matrix. we apply the Row-Reduction Method to get the write at least one of them as a linear combination of Semi-Reduced Matrix as follows: the others. Thus.3 b. and ܯlives inside Թସ . then these elements are independent. ͳ െʹ ͵ ଵ ଶ ଶ Ͳ൩ െʹܴ ܴ ՜ ܴ Ͳ Ͳ ͵ Ͳ൩ ଵ ଷ ଷ െʹ Ͳ ͵ Ͳ Ͳ െͶ ͵ Ͳ Part b: ܦis a plane that passes through the origin ሺͲǡͲǡͲሻ.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ͳ െͳ Ͳ െͳ ʹ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͷ ͳ൩ This is a Semi-Reduced Matrix. Another basis for ܦis ሼሺͳǡ െͳǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡͶǡͳሻሽ. and example 2. then any three independent points in ܯfrom the above matrices will Example B. Since there is no zero-row in the Semi-Reduced Matrix.4 Given the following: form a basis for ܯ. Only two points survived in the Semi- െͳ ʹ Ͳ Ͳ ܴ ܴ ՜ܴ െͳ ʹ Ͳ Ͳ Reduced Matrix. ݒଵ ൌ ሺെͳǡʹǡͲǡͲሻ Another basis for ܯis ሼሺെͳǡʹǡͲǡͲሻǡ ሺͳǡ െʹǡ͵ǡͲሻǡ ሺെʹǡͲǡ͵ǡͲሻሽ. Basis for ܦis ሼሺͳǡ െͳǡͲሻǡ ሺʹǡʹǡͳሻሽ.4. Hence. the following െܴଶ ܴଷ ՜ ܴଷ Ͳ Ͳ ͵ Ͳ൩ This is a Semi-Reduced Ͳ െͶ Ͳ Ͳ are some possible bases for ܦ: Matrix. Find a basis for ܹ.6 It is always true that ȁݏ݅ݏܽܤȁ ൌ ݀݅݉ሺܦሻ. Using what we have learned so far from section 2. Result B. ሺܦሻ ൌ ʹ. Basis for ܯis ሼሺെͳǡʹǡͲǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡͲǡ͵ǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡ െͶǡͲǡͲሻሽ. ݒଶ ൌ ሺͳǡ െʹǡ͵ǡͲሻ Example B. then these elements are dependent because we can Now. Solution: We have infinite set of points. We check if ݒଵ ǡ ݒଶ and ݒଷ are dependent elements.4.4. a. Since ሺܦሻ ൌ ʹ.

then If ߙ ൌ െʹ.6 ሺܹሻ ܰ ݁݁ݎܨ ݂ݎܾ݁݉ݑെ ܸܽݏ݈ܾ݁ܽ݅ݎǤ ݒସ ൌ ሺͲǡͲǡͲǡ ߨ ሻ Example B. To find ሺܹሻ.4. then it is easy to rewrite ܹ as a ܵ ݊ܽas follows: ݒଵ ൌ ሺʹǡ͵ǡͲǡͶሻ ݒଶ ൌ ሺͲǡͷǡͳǡͳሻ ܹ ൌ ܵ݊ܽሼሺͳǡ െʹǡ െͳሻǡ ሺͲǡͳǡͲሻሽǤ ݒଷ ൌ ሺͲǡͲǡʹǡ͵ሻ Fact B. and ܹ lives ܪൌ ܵ݊ܽሼሺܽଶ ǡ ͵ܾ ܽǡ െʹܿǡ ܽ ܾ ܿሻȁܽǡ ܾǡ ܿ אԹሽ. we conclude that ܪis not a subspace of Թସ .6 Given the following: Thus. and ܽ ൌ ͳǡ ܾ ൌ ܿ ൌ Ͳ.4.com . we check for independency: We already have the ʹ ͵ Ͳ Ͷ ͳ െʹ െͳ Semi-Reduced Matrix: ቂ ቃǤ Thus. then ሺܹሻ.4. and ܪlives combination of the free variables ܽ and ܾ.ebook3000. Since it is impossible to write each coordinate of ܪas a Part b: To find a basis for ܹ. െܽ ൌ െͳ ή ܽ Ͳ ή ܾ We assume that ݓൌ ሺͳǡͳǡͲǡͳሻ ܪ א. then െʹ ή ݓൌ െʹ ή ሺͳǡͳǡͲǡͳሻ ൌ ሺെʹǡ െʹǡͲǡ െʹሻ ܪ ב. Is ܪa subspace of Թସ ? Part a: We write each coordinate of ܹ as a linear Solution: We have infinite set of points. We try write each coordinate of ܪas a linear combination of the free variables ܽǡ ܾ and ܿ. Ͳ ͷ ͳ ͳ Note: ߨ is a number. OFF GAME) with the free variables ܽ ܾǤ Example B. the basis for ܹ is ሼሺͳǡ െʹǡ െͳሻǡ ሺͲǡͳǡͲሻሽ. Kaabar 131 www. Since it is possible to write each coordinate of ܹ as a linear combination of the free variables ܽ and ܾ. we first need to find linear combination of the free variables ܽǡ ܾ and ܿ.7 Form a basis for Թସ . inside Թସ . let’s play a game called (ON.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Solution: We have infinite set of points. and then we form a Ͷ ൈ Ͷ matrix Ͳ ͳ ሺͲǡͳǡͲሻ with four independent rows as follows: Now. the basis for Թସ ൌ ሼݒଵ ǡ ݒଶ ǡ ݒଷ ǡ ݒସ ሽ. Ͳ ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ʹ ͵ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ߨ Hence. ܽ ൌͳήܽͲήܾ ܽଶ ൌ ݎܾ݁݉ݑܰ ݀݁ݔ݅ܨή ܽ ݎܾ݁݉ݑܰ ݀݁ݔ݅ܨή ܾ ݎܾ݁݉ݑܰ ݀݁ݔ݅ܨή ܿ െʹܽ ܾ ൌ െʹ ή ܽ ͳ ή ܾ ܽଶ is not a linear combination of ܽǡ ܾ and ܿ. and 130 M. ሺܹሻ ൌ ʹ. inside Թଷ . Let’s assume the following: Part b: Since we found the basis for ܹ. we conclude that ܹ is a subspace of Թଷ . ܽ ܾ ܲݐ݊݅ Solution: We just need to select any random four ͳ Ͳ ሺͳǡ െʹǡ െͳሻ independent points.

and ܦlives inside Թସ . example: Solution: We need to add two more points to the given The First Way: Let’s assume the following: one so that all four points are independent. We have to write Example B.8 Form a basis for Թସ that contains the Is ሺͳǡͳǡʹǡʹሻ ?ܦ א following two independent points: Solution: We have infinite set of points. and then a basis for ܦ. ͳ ൌ ߙଵ െ ߙଶ Ͳ ή ߙଷ Now. ݒସ ൌ ሺͲǡͲǡͲǡͳͲͲͲሻ This is a random point.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ܵ݊ܽሼݒଵ ǡ ݒଶ ǡ ݒଷ ǡ ݒସ ሽ ൌ Թସ .9 Given the following: ݒଵ ǡ ݒଶ ݒଷ as a matrix. There are two different to solve this ሺͲǡʹǡͳǡͶሻ ሺͲǡ െʹǡ͵ǡ െͳͲሻ. Yes: ሺͳǡͳǡʹǡʹሻ ܦ אǤ The Second Way (Recommended): We first need to find ሼሺͲǡʹǡͳǡͶሻ ǡ ሺͲǡ െʹǡ͵ǡ െͳͲሻǡ ሺ͵ǡͲǡͷǡ͵Ͳሻǡ ሺͲǡͲǡͲǡͳͲͲͲሻሽ. we need to write these vectors as a matrix. the basis for Թସ is Hence. 132 M. Ͳ ʹ ͳ Ͷ Answer: Yes but we need to solve the following system Ͳ െʹ ͵ െͳͲ of linear equations: Each point is a row-operation.4. ߙଵ ൌ ߙଶ ൌ ߙଷ ൌ ͳ Thus. Kaabar 133 . Let’s ݒଵ ൌ ሺͳǡͳǡͳǡͳሻ assume the following: ݒଶ ൌ ሺെͳǡ െͳǡͲǡͲሻ ݒଵ ൌ ሺͲǡʹǡͳǡͶሻ ݒଷ ൌ ሺͲǡͲǡͳǡͳሻ ݒଶ ൌ ሺͲǡ െʹǡ͵ǡ െͳͲሻ We start asking ourselves the following question: ݒଷ ൌ ሺͲǡͲǡͶǡ െሻ This is a random point. We Ͳ Ͳ Ͷ െ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳͲͲͲ ͳ ൌ ߙଵ െ ߙଶ Ͳ ή ߙଷ need to reduce this matrix to Semi-Reduced Matrix.4. we apply the Row-Reduction Method to get the ʹ ൌ ߙଵ ߙଷ Semi-Reduced Matrix as follows: Ͳ ʹ ͳ Ͷ Ͳ ʹ ͳ Ͷ ʹ ൌ ߙଵ ߙଷ Ͳ െʹ ͵ െͳͲ ܴ ܴ ՜ ܴ ͵ Ͳ ͷ ͵Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͷ െ ଵ ଶ ଶ Ͳ Ͳ Ͷ െ Using what we have learned from chapter 1 to solve Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳͲͲͲ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳͲͲͲ the above system of linear equations. ݀݅݉ሺܦሻ. ܦൌ ܵ݊ܽሼሺͳǡͳǡͳǡͳሻǡ ሺെͳǡ െͳǡͲǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡͲǡͳǡͳሻሽ Example B. we obtain: This is a Semi-Reduced Matrix. Question: Can we find ߙଵ ǡ ߙଶ and ߙଷ such that ሺͳǡͳǡʹǡʹሻ ൌ ߙଵ ή ݒଵ ߙଶ ή ݒଶ ߙଷ ή ݒଷ ? Then.

In ʹ ൌ ߙଵ ߙଶ addition. Thus. We start with an then these elements are dependent. ሺܦሻ ൌ ʹ. which is linear transformation. Basis for ܦis ሼሺͳǡͳǡͳǡͳሻǡ ሺͲǡͲǡͳǡͳሻሽ.ebook3000. we introduce the homogeneous Matrix.com . we have learned in chapter B. Thus.2.1 Null Space and Rank Answer: Yes: In this section. We Ͳ Ͳ ͳ ͳ need to reduce this matrix to Semi-Reduced Matrix. we explain how to find row space and column ʹ ൌ ߙଵ ߙଶ space.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ െͳ െͳ Ͳ Ͳ൩ Each point is a row-operation. First Edition1. and one of the most important topics in linear algebra ܦൌ ܵ݊ܽሼሺͳǡͳǡͳǡͳሻǡ ሺͲǡͲǡͳǡͳሻሽ.1 and C. we study Thus. introduction to null space and rank. 134 M. Hence. At the end of this Now. െܴଶ ܴଷ ՜ ܴଷ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ ͳ൩ This is a Semi-Reduced Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ In this chapter. ߙଵ ൌ ߙଶ ൌ ߙଷ ൌ ͳ. Yes: ሺͳǡͳǡʹǡʹሻ ܦ אǤ Definition C. Kaabar 135 www. Question: Can we find ߙଵ ǡ ߙଶ and ߙଷ such that ሺͳǡͳǡʹǡʹሻ ൌ ߙଵ ή ሺͳǡͳǡͳǡͳሻ ߙଶ ή ሺͲǡͲǡͳǡͳሻ? C.1. we first give an introduction to ͳ ൌ ߙଵ homogeneous systems. and their relation to sections C. and we discuss how they are related to what Since there is a zero-row in the Semi-Reduced Matrix. we apply the Row-Reduction Method to get the Semi-Reduced Matrix as follows: Systems* ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ *The materials of appendix C are taken from chapter 3 െͳ െͳ Ͳ Ͳ൩ ܴଵ ܴଶ ՜ ܴଶ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ ͳ൩ in my published book titled A First Course in Linear Ͳ Ͳ ͳ ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ ͳ Algebra: Study Guide for the Undergraduate Linear ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ Algebra Course.1 Homogeneous System is a ݉ ൈ ݊ system of linear equations that has all zero constants. we ask ourselves the following question: chapter we discuss how to find range and kernel. systems. Appendix C: Homogenous Now. Then. and we discuss how to find the ͳ ൌ ߙଵ null space and rank of homogeneous systems.

136 M. Fact C. ݉ۍ ې ۍ ې ݓ ێ ଶ ଶ ۑͲێ ۑ Result C. we obtain: ݉ ൈ ݊ can be written as ݉ଵ ݓଵ Ͳ ሼሺܽଵ ǡ ܽଶ ǡ ܽଷ ǡ ܽସ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܽ ȁܽଵ ǡ ܽଶ ǡ ܽଷ ǡ ܽସ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܽ אԹሽ. say ܣis a set solutions to the above system.1 If ܯଵ ൌ ሺ݉ଵ ǡ ݉ଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ݉ ሻ is a solution. and it is equal to the ݉ۏۉ ݓۏ ے ےͲۏ یے ݉ଵ ݓଵ Ͳ number of variables.1. this solution can be viewed as a point of Թ (here ۑ ێ ۑ ێ ۑ ێ Now. is a subspace of Թ . ۑڭێ ۑ ڭ ێ ݔۏ ےͲۏ ے Fact C.e. ݉ଵ ݓଵ Ͳ ݉ ۍଶ ې ݓۍଶ ېͲۍ ې Then. We will show that of all solutions to the homogeneous system. Then. then ߙ ܯൌ ሺߙ݉ଵ ǡ ߙ݉ଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ߙ݉ ሻ is a solution. We ݉ ێ ܥଷ ݓଷ ۑൌ ۑͲێ ݔଵ ێ ڭ ۑڭێ ۑ Ͳ ݔ ۍଶ ېͲۍ ې ݉ۏ ݓ ےͲۏ ے ۑ ێ ۑ ێ write it in the matrix-form: ݔ ێ ܥଷ ۑൌ ۑͲێwhere ܥis a Thus. the set of all solutions in this system ߙ אԹ. and it is denoted by ݈݈ܰݑሺܣሻ or ܰሺܣሻ. Kaabar 137 .2 The only system where the solutions form a Proof of Result C.1. ܯ ܹ is a solution.1 The solution of a homogeneous system By taking ܥas a common factor. using algebra: ܯ ܹ ൌ ݉ ێ ܥଷ ۑ ݓێ ܥଷ ۑൌ ۑͲێ is Թସ ) : ሺͲǡͲǡͲǡͲሻ ۑ ڭ ێ ۑڭێ ۑ ڭ ێ ݉ۏ ے ݓۏ ےͲۏ ے Result C.1.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved (i.2 Null Space of a matrix. ܯଵ ൌ ሺ݉ଵ ǡ ݉ଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ݉ ሻ and ܹଵ ൌ ሺݓǡ ݓଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ݓ ሻ are two Definition C.2 All solutions of a homogeneous system ۑ ڭ ێ ۑ ڭ ێ ۑڭێ ݉ ൈ ݊ form a subset of Թ . the following is an example of homogeneous ܯ ܹ is a solution.1.3 Given a homogeneous system ݉ ൈ ݊.1. and coefficient.3 We assume that vector space is the homogeneous system. We write them in the matrix-form: ʹݔଵ ݔଶ െ ݔଷ ݔସ ൌ Ͳ ݉ଵ Ͳ ݓଵ Ͳ system): ൝ ଵ ͷݔଶ ͵ݔଷ Ͷݔସ ൌ Ͳ ͵ݔ ݉ ۍଶ ې Ͳ ۍ ې ݓۍଶ ېͲۍ ې ۑ ێ ۑ ێ ۑ ێ ۑ ێ െݔଶ ݔଷ െ ݔସ ൌ Ͳ ݉ ێ ܥଷ ۑൌ ۑͲێand ݓێଷ ۑൌ ۑͲێ ۑڭێ ۑ ڭ ێ ۑڭێ ۑ ڭ ێ Imagine we have the following solution to the ݉ ۏ ے Ͳ ۏ ے ݓۏ ےͲۏ ے homogeneous system: ݔଵ ൌ ݔଶ ൌ ݔଷ ൌ ݔସ ൌ Ͳ.1.1. ݉ ۍଶ ݓ ۍ ېଶ ې ېͲۍ ۑ ێ ۊ ۑ ێ ۑ ێۇ ݉ ێۈ ܥଷ ۑ ݓ ێଷ ۋۑൌ ۑͲێ Result C.

by ܴܽ݊݇ሺܣሻ. ݔଵ ൌ െͶݔଷ െ ݔହ e.ebook3000.1. Free variables are ݔଷ and ݔହ . we need to ݔସ ൌ Ͳ find the solution of ܣas follows: Thus. ݔହ אԹሽ. and it is denoted solve systems of linear equations use Row-Operation Method. Then. ݔଶ ൌ െʹݔଷ െ ʹݔହ Solution: Part a: To find the null space of ܣ. Step 3: Read the solution for the above system of linear Example C. Find ܴܽ݊݇ሺܣሻ. ͳ Ͳ Ͷ Ͳ ͳͲ ൭Ͳ ͳ ʹ Ͳ ʹอͲ൱ This is a Completely-Reduced Definition C. ݔଶ ʹݔଷ ʹݔହ ൌ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ Ͳ ݔସ ൌ Ͳ a. and make all constants’ terms zeros.1.1. say ܣis the ൭Ͳ ͳ ʹ Ͳ ʹ อͲ൱ ܴଶ ܴଵ ՜ ܴଵ ܵ ݊ܽof independent rows of ܣ. say ܣis the number Step 2: Apply what we have learned from chapter 1 to of independent rows or columns of ܣ. ͳ െͳ ʹ Ͳ െͳ ݔଵ Ͷݔଷ ݔହ ൌ Ͳ ܣൌ Ͳ ͳ ʹ Ͳ ʹ ൩. say ܣis the Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ ͲͲ ܵ ݊ܽof independent columns of ܣ.2. ݔହ אԹ. ͳ െͳ ʹ Ͳ െͳ Ͳ Definition C. b.1 Given the following ͵ ൈ ͷ matrix: equations after using Row-Operation. Find ݈݈ܰݑሺܣሻ. Step 1: Write the above matrix as an Augmented- ݈݈ܰݑሺܣሻ ൌ ሼሺെͶݔଷ െ ݔହ ǡ െʹݔଷ െ ʹݔହ ǡ ݔଷ ǡ Ͳǡ ݔହ ሻȁݔଷ . c. ͳ െͳ ʹ Ͳ െͳ Ͳ Part b: It is always true that ൭Ͳ ͳ ʹ Ͳ ʹ อͲ൱ ݀݅݉൫݈݈ܰݑሺܣሻ൯ ൌ ݀݅݉൫ܰሺܣሻ൯ ൌ ݄ܶ݁ ܰݏ݈ܾ݁ܽ݅ݎܸܽ ݁݁ݎܨ ݂ ݎܾ݁݉ݑ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Here. ݊݉ݑ݈ܥሺܣሻ.4 Row Space of a matrix. Kaabar 139 www. 138 M. the solution of the above homogeneous system is as follows: d.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Definition C. Assuming that ݔଷ .com .3 Rank of a matrix. and it is denoted by Matrix. ݀݅݉൫݈݈ܰݑሺܣሻ൯ ൌ ʹ. Matrix. and it is denoted by Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ܴݓሺܣሻ. Rewrite ݈݈ܰݑሺܣሻ as ܵ݊ܽ. according to definition 3.5 Column Space of a matrix. Find ݀݅݉ሺ݈݈ܰݑሺܣሻሻ.1.1. Find ܴݓሺܣሻ.

ܰ ݈݈ݑሺܣሻ ൌ ܵ݊ܽሼሺെͶǡ െʹǡͳǡͲǡͲሻǡ ሺെͳǡ െʹǡͲǡͲǡͳሻሽ.1. We meaning of ܴݓሺܣሻ ൌ ܵ݊ܽሼݏݓܴ ݐ݊݁݀݊݁݁݀݊ܫሽ “lives” already did that in part a. Thus. ܴܽ݊݇ ሺܣሻ ൌ ͵Ǥ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ܴ ܴ ՜ܴ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ଵ ଶ ଶ െͳ െͳ െͳ Ͳ ʹ൩ ͵൩ Part e: To find the row space of matrix ܣ. Find ܴݓሺܤሻ. we need to Result C. Then. The geometric change matrix ܤto the Semi-Reduced Matrix. say ܣis the Result C. b.1.1. The geometric dimension of the null space of ܣ. Kaabar 141 . we just need to change matrix ܤto the Semi-Reduced Matrix as change matrix ܣto the Semi-Reduced Matrix. we need to locate the inside Թ .5 Let ܣbe ݉ ൈ ݊ matrix. c. This is a Semi-Reduced Matrix. Then. Now. we need to Part d: To find the rank of matrix ܣ. and it is denoted by meaning of ݊݉ݑ݈ܥሺܣሻ ൌ ܵ݊ܽሼݏ݊݉ݑ݈ܥ ݐ݊݁݀݊݁݁݀݊ܫሽ ݀݅݉ሺ݈݈ܰݑሺܣሻሻ or ݀݅݉ሺܰሺܣሻሻ. Find ܴܽ݊݇ሺܤሻ.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Definition C. Thus.1. ܴݓሺܤሻ ൌ ܵ݊ܽሼሺͳǡͳǡͳǡͳǡͳሻǡ ሺͲǡͲǡͲǡͳǡ͵ሻሽǤ ܴܽ݊݇ሺܣሻ ݀݅݉൫ܰ ሺܣሻ൯ ൌ ݊ ൌ ܰܣ ݂ ݏ݊݉ݑ݈ܥ ݂ ݎܾ݁݉ݑ. Result C.1. independent rows.1. columns in the Semi-Reduced Matrix of ܤthat contain the leaders. we just need ܴଵ ܴଷ ՜ ܴଷ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ to write the ܵ ݊ܽof independent rows. Thus.2 Given the following ͵ ൈ ͷ matrix: ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ݔଷ ݔହ ܲݐ݊݅ ܤൌ െͳ െͳ െͳ Ͳ ʹ൩. and then we should locate them to the original matrix ܤ. Part b: To find the column space of ܤ.4 Let ܣbe ݉ ൈ ݊ matrix. Part c: We first need to find a basis for ݈݈ܰݑሺܣሻ as Result C. Find ݊݉ݑ݈ܥሺܤሻ. The basis for ݈݈ܰݑሺܣሻ ൌ ሼሺെͶǡ െʹǡͳǡͲǡͲሻǡ ሺെͳǡ െʹǡͲǡͲǡͳሻሽ. follows: To find a basis for ݈݈ܰݑሺܣሻ. “lives” inside Թ .7 Let ܣbe ݉ ൈ ݊ matrix. Solution: Part a: To find the row space of ܤ. ͳ Ͳ ሺെͶǡ െʹǡͳǡͲǡͲሻ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ ሺെͳǡ െʹǡͲǡͲǡͳሻ a. Thus. We follows: already did that in part a. called (ON-OFF GAME) with the free variables ݔଷ and ݔହ Ǥ Example C.6 The nullity of a matrix.6 Let ܣbe ݉ ൈ ݊ matrix. To find the row space ܴݓሺܣሻ ൌ ܵ݊ܽሼሺͳǡ െͳǡʹǡͲǡ െͳሻǡ ሺͲǡͳǡʹǡͲǡʹሻǡ ሺͲǡͲǡͲǡͳǡͲሻሽǤ of matrix ܤ. we play a game ܴܽ݊݇ሺܣሻ ൌ ݀݅݉൫ܴݓሺܣሻ൯ ൌ ݀݅݉ሺ݊݉ݑ݈ܥሺܣሻሻ. 140 M. we just need to write the ܵ ݊ܽof It is also a subspace of Թହ .

Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ ʹ (i. ቂ ቃ ሺͳǡʹǡ͵ǡͲǡͳǡͳሻ ).2. ͵ ݔ ʹ ܲ אଶ .e. change matrix ܣto the Semi-Reduced Matrix.com . we need to know the x ܲସ ൌ ܵ݁ ݁݁ݎ݃݁݀ ݂ ݏ݈ܽ݅݉݊ݕ݈ ݈݈ܽ ݂ ݐ൏ Ͷ (i. ݊݉ݑ݈ܥሺܤሻ ൌ ܵ݊ܽሼሺͳǡ െͳǡͲሻǡ ሺͳǡͲǡͲሻሽ. The algebraic expression of polynomials is in the Thus. ͳͲ ܲ אଶ . Ͳ ܲ אଶ .Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ͳ ʹ ͵ (i. C.ebook3000.2.e. following mathematical facts: ͵ͳ ݔଶ Ͷ ܲ אସ ). At the end of this section we x ܲଶ ൌ ܵ݁ ݁݁ݎ݃݁݀ ݂ ݏ݈ܽ݅݉݊ݕ݈ ݈݈ܽ ݂ ݐ൏ ʹ (i. Result C.2 Թଶൈଷ is equivalent to Թ as a vector space. we just need to ܽ ǡ ܽିଵ ܽଵ are coefficients. ξ͵ξܲ ב ݔଶ ). following from: ܽ ݔ ܽିଵ ݔିଵ ڮ ܽଵ ݔଵ ܽ Part c: To find the rank of matrix ܤ. ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ െͳ െͳ െͳ Ͳ ʹ൩ Matrix ܤ After knowing the above facts. We ݊ ݊ െ ͳ are exponents that must be positive already did that in part a. Ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ ͵൩ Semi-Reduced Matrix Fact C.3 Թଷൈଶ is equivalent to Թ as a vector space. 142 M. we introduce Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ polynomials as follows: Each remaining columns is a linear combination of the ܲ ൌ ܵ݁ ݁݁ݎ݃݁݀ ݂ ݏ݈ܽ݅݉݊ݕ݈ ݈݈ܽ ݂ ݐ൏ ݊Ǥ first and fourth columns.1 ܲ is a vector space. x If ܲሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͵. Fact C. then ݀݁݃൫ܲ ሺ ݔሻ൯ ൌ Ͳ. Fact C.2.e. Kaabar 143 www. and we explain how they are similar to Թ as vector spaces.2. Before discussing polynomials. We start this section with an introduction to We list the following examples of polynomials: polynomials.2 Linear Transformation The degree of polynomial is determined by the highest power (exponent). ܴܽ݊݇ሺܣሻ ൌ ݀݅݉൫ܴݓሺܤሻ൯ ൌ ݀݅݉ሺ݊݉ݑ݈ܥሺܤሻሻ ൌ ʹǤ ܽ is a constant term.1 Թൈ ൌ Թൈ ൌ ܯൈ ሺԹሻ is a vector space.e. Thus. integers whole numbers. x ξ ݔ ͵ is not a polynomial. ξ͵ ܲ אଶ but discuss a new concept called linear transformation. ͵ Ͳ൩ ሺͳǡʹǡ͵ǡͲǡͳǡͳሻ ).

Solution: Part a: We know that these polynomial live Result C. to this question is NO.2. and as a vector space ܲଷ is the same as Թଷ . Find a checking for dependency in part a. Kaabar 145 .2. Choose one particular point. Are these polynomials independent? Part b: Since there are only 2 vectors survived after b. Let ܦൌ ܵ݊ܽሼ͵ ݔଶ െ ʹǡ െͷݔǡ ݔଶ െ ͳͲ ݔെ Ͷሽ. ܲଷ ൌ ܵ݊ܽሼͳǡ ݔǡ ʹݔሽ).e. we apply the Row-Reduction Method to get the Թ .4 By using proof by contradiction. it is dependent. we need to write these vectors as a matrix. Thus. (i. we obtain: 144 M. ܽ ܽଵ ݔଵ ڮ ܽିଵ ݔିଵ ՞ ሺܽ ǡ ܽଵ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܽିଵ ሻ. then the basis for ሺͲǡ െͷǡͲሻ ՞ െͷݔ. then ݒଵ ǡ ݒଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ݒ are independent. െͷ ݔൌ Ͳ െ ͷ ݔ Ͳ ݔଶ ՞ ሺͲǡ െͷǡͲሻ Note: The word “unique” in result 3. According ݇ ൏ ݊.1 Given the following polynomials: then these elements are dependent.2 ܲ is a vector space. Our assumption means that to reduce this matrix to Semi-Reduced Matrix. and it is the same as െʹ Ͳ ͵ െʹ Ͳ ͵ Թ .2.2. െʹ Ͳ ͵ Result C. Example C. ݁݁ݎ݃݁ܦ ݂ ݄ܿܽܧ൏ ͵ሽ.4 means that ݔଶ െ ͳͲ ݔെ Ͷ ൌ െͶ െ ͳͲ ݔ ݔଶ ՞ ሺെͶǡ െͳͲǡሻ there is only one value for each of ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܿ .2. Proof of Result C.2. If ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܿ are unique. െʹ Ͳ ͵ we assume that ݒଵ ൌ ߙଶ ݒଶ ߙଷ ݒଷ ڮ ߙ ݒ where Ͳ െͷ Ͳ൩ Each point is a row-operation. Since there is a zero-row in the Semi-Reduced Matrix. Now. the answer ͵ ݔଶ െ ʹǡ െͷݔǡ ݔଶ െ ͳͲ ݔെ Ͷ.3 ݀݅݉ሺܲ ሻ ൌ ݊Ǥ െʹܴଶ ܴଷ ՜ ܴଷ Ͳ െͷ Ͳ൩ This is a Semi-Reduced Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Fact C. We need െͶ െͳͲ ߙଶ ǡ ߙଷ ǡ ǥ ǡ ߙ are constants.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Fact C. a. say ܳ. we need to make each polynomial ܳ ൌ ܿଵ ݒଵ ܿଶ ݒଶ ڮ ܿ ݒ where ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܿ are equivalent to Թ as follows: ͵ ݔଶ െ ʹ ൌ െʹ Ͳ ݔ ͵ ݔଶ ՞ ሺെʹǡͲǡ͵ሻ constants. basis for ܦ.2. Using algebra.4 Թଶൈଷ ൌ ܯଶൈଷ ሺԹሻ as a vector space same as Then. (i. Ͳ െͷ Ͳ൩ െʹܴଵ ܴଷ ՜ ܴଷ Ͳ െͷ Ͳ൩ െͶ െͳͲ Ͳ െͳͲ Ͳ Note: The above form is in an ascending order. Semi-Reduced Matrix as follows: Result C.4 Given ݒଵ ǡ ݒଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ݒ points in Թ where in ܲଷ .2.5 ܲଷ ൌ ܵ݊ܽሼ͵ ݏ݈ܽ݅݉݊ݕ݈ܲ ݐ݊݁݀݊݁݁݀݊ܫǡ ܽ݊݀ Matrix.2. such that to result 3.e.2.

Then. ݒଵ ǡ ݒଶ ܸ אand ߙ אԹ. ܶ൫ሺͳǡͳሻ൯ ൌ ሺ͵ሺͳሻ ͳǡͳǡ െͳሻ ൌ ሺͶǡͳǡ െͳሻ.2. a. and ߙ אԹ. This is a contradiction. 146 M. ܶ is not a linear transformation. ݒଵ ǡ ݒଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ݒ are linearly independent. ܶ൫ሺܽଵ ǡ ܽଶ ሻ൯ ൌ ሺ͵ܽଵ ܽଶ ǡ ܽଶ ǡ െܽଵ ሻ. Solution: Part a: Since 13 is not a linear combination of ݔଵ ǡ ݔଶ ݔଷ . If ܶ൫ሺݔଵ ǡ ݔଶ ǡ ݔଷ ሻ൯ ൌ ሺെ͵ݔଷ ݔଵ ǡ െͳͲݔଶ ǡ ͳ͵ǡ െݔଷ ሻ. Part b: Since ܶ൫ሺܽଵ ǡ ܽଶ ሻ൯ ൌ ሺ͵ܽଵ ܽଶ ǡ ܽଶ ǡ െܽଵ ሻ. a linear transformation? then ܽଵ ൌ ܽଶ ൌ ͳ. we start from the Right-Hand-Side (RHS): Result C. ܶ a linear transformation? b. Part c: Proof: We assume that ݒଵ ൌ ሺܽଵ ǡ ܽଶ ሻ. Then. Example C.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ܳ ൌ ܿଵ ߙଶ ݒଶ ܿଵ ߙଷ ݒଷ ڮ ܿଵ ߙ ݒ ܿଶ ݒଶ ڮ ܿ ݒ . ൌ ሺ͵ߙܽଵ ߙܽଶ ͵ܾଵ ܾଶ ǡ ߙܽଶ ܾଶ ǡ െߙܽଵ െ ܾଵ ሻ Linear Transformation: Thus. Hence. Therefore. then ܽଵ ൌ ͳ ܽଶ ൌ Ͳ. Example C. our ߙݒଵ ݒଶ ൌ ሺߙܽଵ ܾଵ ǡ ߙܽଶ ܾଶ ሻ assumption that ݒଵ ǡ ݒଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ݒ were linearly ܶሺߙݒଵ ݒଶ ሻ ൌ ܶሺሺߙܽଵ ܾଵ ǡ ߙܽଶ ܾଶ ሻሻ ܶሺߙݒଵ ݒଶ ሻ ൌ ሺ͵ߙܽଵ ͵ܾଵ ߙܽଶ ܾଶ ǡ ߙܽଶ ܾଶ ǡ െߙܽଵ െ ܾଵ ሻ dependent is false. we start from the Left- others which means that they are linearly Hand-Side (LHS): independent.com . Kaabar 147 www. Find ܶሺሺͳǡͲሻሻ. Using algebra. Show that ܶ is a linear transformation. ሺ͵ǡͲǡ െͳሻ.2 Given ܶǣ Թଶ ՜ Թଷ where Թଶ is a domain and Թଷ is a co-domain. We will show that ܶ is a linear Ͳݒଵ Ǥ Thus.2. there exists unique ߙܶሺݒଵ ሻ ܶሺݒଶ ሻ ൌ ߙሺ͵ܽଵ ܽଶ ǡ ܽଶ ǡ െܽଵ ሻ ሺ͵ܾଵ ܾଶ ǡ ܾଶ ǡ െܾଵ ሻ number ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܿ such that ܳ ൌ ܿଵ ݒଵ ܿଶ ݒଶ ڮ ൌ ሺ͵ߙܽଵ ߙܽଶ ǡ ߙܽଶ ǡ െߙܽଵ ሻ ሺ͵ܾଵ ܾଶ ǡ ܾଶ ǡ െܾଵ ሻ ܿ ݒ . ܶ is a linear transformation if for every Result C. ܶ is a linear transformation.2. ܳ ൌ ሺܿଵ ߙଶ ܿଶ ሻݒଶ ሺܿଵ ߙଷ ܿଷ ሻݒଷ ڮ ሺܿଵ ߙ ܿ ሻݒ ݒଶ ൌ ሺܾଵ ǡ ܾଶ ሻ.2.1 ܶǣ ܸ ՜ ܹ where ܸ is a domain and ܹ is a co-domain.6 Given ܶǣ Թ ՜ Թ . Thus. is c. a. we have the following: ܶሺሺܽଵ ǡ ܽଶ ǡ ܽଷ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܽ ሻሻ ൌ Each coordinate is a linear ܶሺߙݒଵ ݒଶ ሻ ൌ ߙܶሺݒଵ ሻ ܶሺݒଶ ሻ. Now. Thus. Find ܶሺሺͳǡͳሻሻ. ܶ is a linear transformation. If ܶ൫ሺݔଵ ǡ ݔଶ ǡ ݔଷ ሻ൯ ൌ ሺെ͵ݔଷ ݔଵ ǡ െͳͲݔଶ ǡ Ͳǡ െݔଷ ሻ.2. Definition C.5 Assume ݒଵ ǡ ݒଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ݒ are independent and ߙܶሺݒଵ ሻ ܶሺݒଶ ሻ ൌ ߙܶሺܽଵ ǡ ܽଶ ሻ ܶሺܾଵ ǡ ܾଶ ሻ ܳ ݊ܽܵ אሼݒଵ ǡ ݒଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ݒ ሽ. is ܶ Solution: Part a: Since ܶ൫ሺܽଵ ǡ ܽଶ ሻ൯ ൌ ሺ͵ܽଵ ܽଶ ǡ ܽଶ ǡ െܽଵ ሻ.3 Given ܶǣ Թଷ ՜ Թସ where Թଷ is a domain and Թସ is a co-domain. ܶ൫ሺͳǡͲሻ൯ ൌ ሺ͵ሺͳሻ ͲǡͲǡ െͳሻ ൌ Part b: Since 0 is a linear combination of ݔଵ ǡ ݔଶ ݔଷ . none of them is a linear combination of the transformation. Thus. Thus.ebook3000. combination of the ܽ Ԣݏ. b.

8 Find the standard basis for ܲଷ . Example C. There exists unique numbers ܿଵ and ܿଶ such that ሺ͵ǡͷሻ ൌ ܿଵ ሺʹǡͲሻ ܿଶ ሺെͳǡͳሻ. we obtain: Example C. These two points are independent because of the following: Solution: The standard basis for Թଷ is the rows of ܫଷ .11 Let ܶǣ Թଶ ՜ Թଷ be a linear Example C.6 Find the standard basis for Թ . ܯଶൈଶ ሺԹሻ. ͷ ൌ ܿଶ Now. Example C.4 Given ܶǣ Թଶ ՜ Թଷ where Թଶ is a domain Example C. Solution: The given points are ሺʹǡͲሻ and ሺെͳǡͳሻ.2.7 Find the standard basis for Թଷ . If ܶሺ ݔሻ ൌ ͳͲݔ. Find ܶሺ͵ǡͷሻ.9 Find the standard basis for ܲସ . ሺെͳǡͳሻ. ͵ ൌ ʹܿଵ െ ܿଶ Solution: The standard basis for ܲଷ is ሼͳǡ ݔǡ ݔଶ ሽ.2. transformation such that Solution: The standard basis for Թଶ is the rows of ܫଶ .2. ܯଶൈଶ ሺԹሻ ൌ Թସ as a vector space where standard basis Example C. Hence. ܶ is a linear transformation. ܶ is not a linear transformation.2.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Example C. then the standard basis for Թଶ is Ͳ ͳ ሼሺͳǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡͳሻሽ. then the standard basis for Թଷ is Ͳ Ͳ ͳ Every point in Թଶ is a linear combination of ሺʹǡͲሻ and ሼሺͳǡͲǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡͳǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡͲǡͳሻሽ. ܶሺ͵ǡͷሻ ൌ ܶሺͶሺʹǡͲሻ ͷሺെͳǡͳሻሻ 148 M. Kaabar 149 . we substitute ܿଶ ൌ ͷ in ͵ ൌ ʹܿଵ െ ܿଶ . is ܶ a ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ linear transformation? for Թଶൈଶ ൌ ܯଶൈଶ ሺԹሻ is the rows of ܫସ ൌ Ͳ ͳ Ͳ Ͳthat Ͳ Ͳ ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ Solution: Since it is a linear combination of ܽଵ such are represented by ʹ ൈ ʹ matrices.2.10 Find the standard basis for Թଶൈଶ ൌ and Թଷ is a co-domain. that ߙܽଵ ൌ ͳͲݔ.2. If ܶ൫ሺܽଵ ǡ ܽଶ ሻ൯ ൌ ሺܽଵ ଶ ܽଶ ǡ െܽଶ ሻ. is ܶ a linear transformation? Solution: The standard basis for Թଶൈଶ ൌ ܯଶൈଶ ሺԹሻ is Solution: Since ܽଵ ଶ ܽଶ is not a linear combination of ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ሼቂ ቃǡቂ ቃǡቂ ቃǡቂ ቃሽ because Թଶൈଶ ൌ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ ܽଵ ܽଶ . Hence. ሺ͵ǡͷሻ ൌ ͶሺʹǡͲሻ ͷሺെͳǡͳሻ.2.2. ଶ Example C. ͵ ൌ ʹܿଵ െ ͷ ܿଵ ൌ Ͷ Solution: The standard basis for ܲସ is ሼͳǡ ݔǡ ݔଶ ǡ ݔଷ ሽ.5 Given ܶǣ Թ ՜ Թ. ܶሺʹǡͲሻ ൌ ሺͲǡͳǡͶሻ ͳ Ͳ ܶሺെͳǡͳሻ ൌ ሺʹǡͳǡͷሻ Since ܫଶ ൌ ቂ ቃ. Hence. ʹ Ͳ ͳ ʹ Ͳ ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ቂ ቃ ܴ ܴଶ ՜ ܴଶ ቂ ቃ െͳ ͳ ʹ ଵ Ͳ ͳ Since ܫଷ ൌ Ͳ ͳ Ͳ൩.

c.3. The first. Find ܴܽ݊݃݁ሺܶሻ. Then. the ܶሺͷሻ ൌ ܶሺͷ ή ͳሻ ൌ ͷܶሺͳሻ ൌ ͷሺ͵ሻ ൌ ͳͷ. Find the Standard Matrix Representation. points in the domain that have image which equals to ݔଷ the origin point.3 Range is the column space of standard Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ matrix representation.2 that the standard C. This െͷ Ͳ Ͳ means that ݎ݁ܭሺܶሻ ൌ ܰܶ ݂ ݁ܿܽܵ ݈݈ݑ.1 Given ܶǣ Թଷ ՜ Թସ where Թଷ is a domain represent ܶሺݒଵ ሻǡ ܶሺݒଶ ሻ ܶሺݒଷ ሻ.3 Kernel and Range basis for domain (here is Թଷ ) is ሼሺͳǡͲǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡͳǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡͲǡͳሻሽ. ܯൌ Ͳ ʹ ͳ This is the Standard Matrix െͳ Ͳ Ͳ Definition C. 150 M. Solution: Since it is a linear transformation. If it is not a linear Standard Matrix Representation.1 Given ܶǣ Թ ՜ Թ where Թ is a Now. Standard Matrix follows: Representation is a ݉ ൈ ݊ matrix. let’s call it ܯ. Example C. and it is denoted by ܴܽ݊݃݁ሺܶሻ. we substitute each point of the standard basis for domain in ܶ൫ሺݔଵ ǡ ݔଶ ǡ ݔଷ ሻ൯ ൌ ሺെͷݔଵ ǡ ʹݔଶ ݔଷ ǡ െݔଵ ǡ Ͳሻ as domain and Թ is a co-domain. ܶሺ͵ǡͷሻ ൌ ሺͳͲǡͻǡͶͳሻ. here is transformation. we discuss how to find the standard ݒଵ ൌ ሺͳǡͲǡͲሻ matrix representation. and Թସ is a co-domain. Representation. Find ݎ݁ܭሺܶሻ.3. Find ܶሺሺ͵ǡʹǡͳሻሻ.3. Thus. Find ܶሺͷሻ. Ͷ ൈ ͵.3.1. ݒଷ ൌ ሺͲǡͲǡͳሻ Definition C.com . b. and we give examples of how to ݒଶ ൌ ሺͲǡͳǡͲሻ find kernel and range. second and third columns Example C. then it is impossible to find ܶሺͷሻ. then Solution: Part a: According to definition 3. We know from section 3.3.ebook3000. ܶ൫ሺͲǡͳǡͲሻ൯ ൌ ሺͲǡʹǡͲǡͲሻ Definition C. Kaabar 151 www. Kernel is a set of all ݔଵ ݔ Our goal is to find ܯso that ܶ൫ሺݔଵ ǡ ݔଶ ǡ ݔଷ ሻ൯ ൌ ܯ ଶ ൩.2 Given ܶǣ Թ ՜ Թ where Թ is a ܶ൫ሺͲǡͲǡͳሻ൯ ൌ ሺͲǡͳǡͲǡͲሻ domain and Թ is a co-domain.12 Let ܶǣ Թ ՜ Թ be a linear d. We assume the following: In this section. This means that it is ܶ൫ሺͳǡͲǡͲሻ൯ ൌ ሺെͷǡͲǡ െͳǡͲሻ ݀݅݉ሺ ܥെ ݊݅ܽ݉ܦሻ ൈ ݀݅݉ሺ݊݅ܽ݉ܦሻ matrix.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ܶሺ͵ǡͷሻ ൌ ͶܶሺʹǡͲሻ ͷܶሺെͳǡͳሻ ܶ൫ሺݔଵ ǡ ݔଶ ǡ ݔଷ ሻ൯ ൌ ሺെͷݔଵ ǡ ʹݔଶ ݔଷ ǡ െݔଵ ǡ Ͳሻ ܶሺ͵ǡͷሻ ൌ ͶሺͲǡͳǡͶሻ ͷሺʹǡͳǡͷሻ ൌ ሺͳͲǡͻǡͶͳሻ a.2. and it is denoted by ݎ݁ܭሺܶሻ. transformation such that ܶሺͳሻ ൌ ͵.

then we need to find ܰሺܯሻ as the original matrix as follows: follows: െͷ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ Ͳ ͲͲ ͳ ቌ Ͳ ʹ ͳቮ ቍ െ ܴଵ ቌ Ͳ ʹ ͳቮͲቍ ܴଵ ܴଷ ՜ ܴଷ Ͳ ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ െͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͷ െͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͲͲ Ͳ Ͳ ͲͲ ቌͲ ͳ ͲǤͷቮͲቍ Completely-Reduced Matrix Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ 152 M. we need to read the above െͳ Ͳ Ͳ matrix as follows: ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ െͷ Ͳ Ͳ െͳͷ ݔଵ ൌ Ͳ ͳ ܶ൫ሺ͵ǡʹǡͳሻ൯ ൌ ͵ ή ʹ ή ͳ ή ൌ ͷ Ͳ ʹ ͳ ݔଶ ݔଷ ൌ Ͳ െͳ Ͳ Ͳ െ͵ ʹ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͲൌͲ െͳͷ ͲൌͲ ͷ is equivalent to ሺെͳͷǡͷǡ െ͵ǡͲሻ. we need to locate the columns െͳ Ͳ Ͳ ݔ Ͳ ଷ in the Completely-Reduced Matrix in part c that Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ contain the leaders. By letting ݔଷ ൌ ͳ. and ଵ ݔଵ Ͳ ݏ݅ݏܽܤൌ ሼሺͲǡ െ ǡ ͳሻሽ ଶ following: ܯ ଶ ൩ ൌ Ͳ ݔ ଵ Thus. ݔଵ ൌ Ͳ and ݔଶ ൌ െ ଶ ݔଷ . Hence. ܶ൫ሺ͵ǡʹǡͳሻ൯ ൌ ሺെͳͷǡͷǡ െ͵ǡͲሻ. Thus. ݎ݁ܭሺܶሻ is a set of ܰሺܯሻ ൌ ሼሺͲǡ െ ଶ ݔଷ ǡ ݔଷ ሻȁݔଷ אԹሽ. ଵ co-domain. Kaabar 153 . ݎ݁ܭሺܶሻ ൌ ܰሺ ܯሻ ൌ ܵ݊ܽሼሺͲǡ െ ǡ ͳሻሽ. ଵ Part c: According to definition 3. This lives in the To write the solution. and then we should locate them to Since ݎ݁ܭሺܶሻ ൌ ݈݈ܰݑሺܯሻ.3. we obtain: Hence. ݔଷ Ͳ ଶ Ͳ െͷ Ͳ Ͳ ݔଵ Ͳ Part d: According to definition 3. all points in the domain that have imageൌ ሺͲǡͲǡͲǡͲሻ. Now. then Ͳ ʹ ͳ ቮ ቍ ܴ ቌͲ ͳ ͲǤͷቮͲቍ This is a Completely- Ͳ ଵ ቌ ݔଷ Ͳ Ͳ ͲͲ ଶ ଶ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ െͷ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͲͲ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͵ ܶ൫ሺ͵ǡʹǡͳሻ൯ ൌ Ͳ ʹ ͳ ʹ൩ Reduced Matrix.3. Now.3. ܶ൫ሺݔଵ ǡ ݔଶ ǡ ݔଷ ሻ൯ ൌ ሺͲǡͲǡͲǡͲሻ. This means the ܰݕݐ݈݈݅ݑሺܯሻ ൌ ܰ ݏ݈ܾ݁ܽ݅ݎܸܽ ݁݁ݎܨ ݂ ݎܾ݁݉ݑൌ ͳ. we need to assume that െ͵ Ͳ ݔଷ אԹ ሺ݈ܾ݁ܽ݅ݎܸܽ ݁݁ݎܨሻ. ܴܽ݊݃݁ሺܶሻ is the Ͳ ʹ ͳ ݔଶ ൩ ൌ Ͳ column space of ܯ.2.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ݔଵ ͳ Ͳ ͲͲ ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ሻ൯ ݔ Part b: Since ൫ሺݔଵ ǡ ݔଶ ǡ ݔଷ ൌ ܯ ଶ ൩ .

3 Given ܶǣ Թ ՜ Թ where Թ is a domain and Թ is a co-domain.3. as follows: ͳ representation. if we Result C. ܴܽ݊݃݁ሺܶሻ ൌ ܵ݊ܽሼሺെͷǡͲǡ െͳǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡʹǡͲǡͲሻሽ. We also know that ଶ ܴܽ݊݃݁ሺܶሻ ൌ ܵ݊ܽሼܯ ݂ݏ݊݉ݑ݈ܥ ݐ݊݁݀݊݁݁݀݊ܫሽ. In Result C. ݀݅݉൫ܴܽ݊݃݁ሺܶሻ൯ ൌ ܴܽ݊݇ሺܯሻ = ݏ݅ݏܽܤൌ ሼെ ݔሽ ʹ Number of Independent Columns. a.ebook3000.4 Given ܶǣ Թ ՜ Թ where Թ is a domain linearly transform from a third degree polynomial to a and Թ is a co-domain. Then. ଵ Thus. ଵ Example C. and െͳ Ͳ ͲͲ Ͳ Ͳ ͲͲ ݂ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ܽ ܽଵ ܲ א ݔଶ . ݔൌͲ ܽଵ ܽ െ Ͳ ൌ Ͳ Result C. ܶ ݎ݁ܭሻ ൌ ܵ݊ܽሼെ ଶ ݔሽ.2 Given ܶǣ Թ ՜ Թ where Թ is a domain addition. Then.3. Then.3. Kaabar 155 www.3. representation.3. ଵ ݔൌͳ Thus. we can also find basis by letting ܽଵ be any and Թ is a co-domain. then the range will be ܲଶ . For example. 154 M. Let ܯbe a standard matrix ܽ ൌ െ ଶభ భ representation. ݀݅݉൫ݎ݁ܭሺܶሻ൯ ൌ ܰݕݐ݈݈݅ݑሺܯሻ. say ܽଵ ൌ ͳ. ሺ Result C. Let ܯbe a standard matrix second degree polynomial. ݀݅݉ሺݎ݁ܭሺܶሻ ൌ ͳ because there is one free variable.com . we set equation of ܶ ൌ Ͳ. b. Hence. Find ܴܽ݊݃݁ሺܶሻ. Find ݎ݁ܭሺܶሻ. ܶሺ݂ሺݔሻሻ ൌ ሺܽ ܽଵ ݔሻ݀ ݔൌ ܽ ݔ ଶభ ݔଶ ቚ ൌͲ Thus. because we linearly transform from a second degree polynomial to a real number. ݀݅݉൫ܴܽ݊݃݁ሺܶሻ൯ ݀݅݉ሺݎ݁ܭሺܶሻሻ ൌ ݀݅݉ሺ݊݅ܽ݉ܦሻ.2 Given ܶǣ ܲଶ ՜ Թ.1 Given ܶǣ Թ ՜ Թ where Թ is a domain ʹ and Թ is a co-domain. Let ܯbe a standard matrix real number not equal to zero.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Solution: ଵ ݔൌͳ െͷ Ͳ ͲͲ Part a: ܶሺʹ ݔെ ͳሻ ൌ ሺʹ ݔെ ͳሻ݀ ݔൌ ݔଶ െ ݔቚ ൌ ͲǤ ݔൌͲ ቌͲ ʹ ͳቮͲቍ Orignial Matrix Part b: To find ݎ݁ܭሺܶሻ. ܶሺ݂ ሺ ݔሻሻ ൌ ݂ሺ ݔሻ݀ ݔis a linear transformation. ܴܽ݊݃݁ሺܶሻ ൌ Թ representation. Then. ݎ݁ܭሺܶሻ ൌ ሼെ ܽଵ ݔȁܽଵ אԹሽ. Let ܯbe a standard matrix Part c: It is very easy to find range here. Find ܶሺʹ ݔെ ͳሻ. c.

Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises This page intentionally left blank 1.3 Exercises 1. ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ାଷሻర ቅ ൌ ଶ ݔଶ ݁ ିଷ௫ ݔଷ ݁ ିଷ௫ ଶ 5. ࣦ ିଵ ቄ మ ቅ ௦ ାସ ൌ ܷሺ ݔെ Ͷሻ ሺʹ ݔെ ͺሻ ଷ ଵ ͳ 15. ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ ࣦെͳ ቄ ʹݏሺ ʹݏͳሻቅ ଶ௦ ସ௦ 19. ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ െͶ݁െ͵ݔ ସ ଵ ଵ 9. we obtain: ݕሺݔሻ ൌ ܹሺݔሻ െ ͵ܷሺ ݔെ ͷሻܹ ሺ ݔെ ͷሻ െ ʹܷሺ ݔെ ͷሻܹሺ ݔെ ͷሻ షయೣ 17. ݓሺݐሻ ൌ ͳ ʹݐand ݄ሺݐሻ ൌ ʹݐ 2. ࣦ൛ܷሺ ݔെ ʹሻ݁͵ ݔൟ ൌ ݏെ͵ ௦݁െͶݔ 13. Then. ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మି௦ାଵଷቅ ൌ ݁ ଷ௫ ሺʹݔሻ 7. ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ିଵሻమሺ௦ାଷሻቅ ൌ ସ ݁ ௫ ݁ݔ௫ ସ ݁ ିଷ௫ లషమೞ 11. ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦మାସሻమቅ ൌ ሺ௦మ ାସሻమ 21. ݕ௨௦ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ܿଵ ݁ ି௫ ܿଶ ି ݁ݔ௫ for some ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ אԸ 3. Assume ܹሺ ݔሻ ൌ െ ଼ ଷ ݁ ݔ ʹͶ ݁െͺ ݔ.7 Exercises ଵ ଵ ସ௫ ଷ 1. Kaabar 157 . ݕ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ሺܿଵ ܿଶ ݔ ܿଷ ݔଶ ܿସ ݁ ௫ ሻ ሺܽ ܽଵ ݔ ܽଶ ݔଶ ሻ ݔଷ for some ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ܿଷ ǡ ܿସ ǡ ܽ ǡ ܽଵ ǡ ܽଶ אԸ 156 M. ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ିସሻర ቅ ൌ ݁ ݔ ௦ାହ ଵ 3.

6 Exercises Determinants. ݕ௨௦ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ܿଵ ܿଶ ݔቀ ଶ ሺݔሻቁ మ య ξଷ ܿଷ ݔమ ቀ ଶ ሺݔሻቁfor some ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ܿଷ אԸ C 5. 9 3.ebook3000.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved 5. 78 3. It is impossible to describe ݕ௧௨ ሺ ݔሻ A 3. 74 because the degrees of ݕᇱ and ݕᇱᇱ are not equal to each Constant Coefficients. ି݊ܽݐଵ ሺݕሻ െ ି݊ܽݐଵ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ܿ for some ܿ אԸ Dimension of Vector Spaces. ݕ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ሺܿଵ ܿଶ ݔ ܿଷ ݁ ௫ ሻ ͲǤͲͷ ሺʹݔሻ Index ͲǤͳ ሺʹݔሻ for some ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ܿଷ אԸ 7.3 Exercises Applications of Differential Equations.com . 123 య ξଷ Bernoulli Method. D 4. 109 య 1. ȁሺͷ ݔ ݕሻȁ െ ʹሺͷ ݔ ݕሻ െ ݔൌ ܿ for some ܿ אԸ Exact Method. 96 భ 1. Kaabar 159 www. 119 ଵ 5. It is impossible to use Cauchy-Euler Method Cauchy-Euler Method. 46 differential equation. ݕ௨௦ ሺ ݔሻ ൌ ݁ ିమ௫ ቂܿଵ ቀ ξଵହ ଶ ݔቁ ܿଶ ቀ ξଵହ ଶ ݔቁቃfor B some ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ אԸ Basis. െ ହ ݁ ିହ௬ െ ͵ ݁ݔ௫ ͵݁ ௫ ൌ ܿ for some ܿ אԸ E 7. ݕሺ ݔሻ ൌ ඥሺ ݔ ͳሻଷ ሺ ݔ ͳሻܿ݁ ିଷ௫ Differential Equations. 87 G Growth and Decay Applications. 100 158 M. 51 other when you substitute them in the given Cramer’s Rule.

150 Undetermined Coefficients Method. Kaabar 161 . 33 R Reduced to Separable Method. 142 Water Tank Application. 9 Variation Method. 123 I T Initial Value Problems (IVP). 60 L V Laplace Transforms. 67 Linear Equations. 27 Inverse Laplace Transforms. 45 Linear Independence. 85 Subspace. 24 Temperature Application. 104 N Null Space and Rank. 120 W Linear Transformations. 96 K U Kernel and Range. 51 Separable Method. 92 160 M. 135 P Properties of Laplace Transforms. 90 Reduction of Order Method.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved H S Homogenous Linear Differential Equations (HLDE).

Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Bibliography [1] Kaabar. http://about. Charleston. Kaabar 163 www.K. Accessed 01 Jan 2015 162 M. M.com .ebook3000. CreateSpace.edu/about/facts.wsu.aspx (2015).: A First Course in Linear Algebra: Study Guide for the Undergraduate Linear Algebra Course. SC (2014) This page intentionally left blank [2] Quick Facts.

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