You are on page 1of 84

See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.

net/publication/270453774

A Friendly Introduction to Differential Equations

Book · January 2015
DOI: 10.13140/2.1.4168.4806

CITATIONS READS

0 1,672

1 author:

Mohammed K A Kaabar
Riverside Community College District
13 PUBLICATIONS 2 CITATIONS

SEE PROFILE

All content following this page was uploaded by Mohammed K A Kaabar on 06 January 2015.

The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file. All in-text references underlined in blue are added to the original document
and are linked to publications on ResearchGate, letting you access and read them immediately.

www.ebook3000.com

Digital Proofer

A Friendly Introduct... A Friendly Introduction to
Differential Equations
Authored by Mohammed K A Kaabar

6.69" x 9.61" (16.99 x 24.41 cm)
Black & White on White paper
164 pages

ISBN-13: 9781506004532
ISBN-10: 1506004539

Please carefully review your Digital Proof download for formatting,
grammar, and design issues that may need to be corrected.

We recommend that you review your book three times, with each time
focusing on a different aspect.

Check the format, including headers, footers, page
1 numbers, spacing, table of contents, and index.

2 Review any images or graphics and captions if applicable.

3 Read the book for grammatical errors and typos.

Once you are satisfied with your review, you can approve your proof
and move forward to the next step in the publishing process.

To print this proof we recommend that you scale the PDF to fit the size
of your printer paper.

Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved

About the Author
Mohammed Kaabar has a Bachelor of Science in
Theoretical Mathematics from Washington State
University, Pullman, WA. He is a graduate student in
A Friendly Introduction to Applied Mathematics at Washington State University,
Pullman, WA, and he is a math tutor at the Math
Differential Equations Learning Center (MLC) at Washington State
University, Pullman. He is the author of A First
Course in Linear Algebra Book, and his research
interests are applied optimization, numerical analysis,
differential equations, linear algebra, and real
analysis. He was invited to serve as a Technical
Program Committee (TPC) member in many
conferences such as ICECCS 14, ENCINS 15, eQeSS
15, SSCC 15, ICSoEB 15, CCA 14, WSMEAP 14,
EECSI 14, JIEEEC 13 and WCEEENG 12. He is an
online instructor of two free online courses in
numerical analysis: Introduction to Numerical
Analysis and Advanced Numerical Analysis at Udemy
Inc, San Francisco, CA. He is a former member of
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
(IEEE), IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society,
IEEE Consultants Network, IEEE Smart Grid
Community, IEEE Technical Committee on RFID,
IEEE Life Sciences Community, IEEE Green ICT
Community, IEEE Cloud Computing Community,
IEEE Internet of Things Community, IEEE Committee
on Earth Observations, IEEE Electric Vehicles
Community, IEEE Electron Devices Society, IEEE
Communications Society, and IEEE Computer Society.
He also received several educational awards and
certificates from accredited institutions. For more
information about the author and his free online
courses, please visit his personal website:
http://www.mohammed-kaabar.net.

2 M. Kaabar 3

www.ebook3000.com

Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved

Table of Contents 4 Extended Methods of First and Higher Orders
Differential Equations 78
Introduction 6
4.1 Bernoulli Method………………….….....………78
1 The Laplace Transform 9
4.2 Separable Method…..…..................................85
1.1 Introduction to Differential Equations..…........9
4.3 Exact Method………..…..................................87
1.2 Introduction to the Laplace Transforms……..14
4.4 Reduced to Separable Method…..…...............90
1.3 Inverse Laplace Transforms……….…….........24
4.5 Reduction of Order Method……...…...............92
1.4 Initial Value Problems……..……………..........27
4.6 Exercises……………………………………….....95
1.5 Properties of Laplace Transforms……….……33
1.6 Systems of Linear Equations……….………....45
1.7 Exercises……………………………………..…...49 5 Applications of Differential Equations 96
5.1 Temperature Application……........................96
5.2 Growth and Decay Application…..………....100
2 Systems of Homogeneous Linear Differential 5.3 Water Tank Application…………….....…….104
Equations (HLDE) 51
2.1 HLDE with Constant Coefficients..................51 Appendices 109
2.2 Method of Undetermined Coefficients…….…60 A Determinants…………………….......................109
2.3 Exercises…………………………………….…...65 B Vector Spaces…………….………..………….....116
C Homogenous Systems…...…………….....…….135

3 Methods of First and Higher Orders Differential Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises 157
Equations 67
3.1 Variation Method……………………………….67 Index 159
3.2 Cauchy-Euler Method………..…………..……74
3.3 Exercises……………………………………..….76 Bibliography 163

4 M. Kaabar 5

I wrote five chapters: The Laplace 1 Transform. and they left it at the end of their books. Methods of First and Higher Orders Ͳ Differential Equations.wsu. Systems of Homogenous Linear Differential ࣦሼ݂ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻሽ ൌ න ݁ ି௦௧ ݂ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ݀‫ݐ‬ Equations (HLDE). I have noticed that some students have difficulty to understand some concepts of 7 ݁ ି௕௦ ݁ ି௕௦ laplace transforms because most authors of differential ࣦሼܷሺ‫ ݐ‬െ ܾሻሽ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቊ ቋ ൌ ܷሺ‫ ݐ‬െ ܾሻ ‫ݏ‬ ‫ݏ‬ equations books did not start with laplace transforms as a 8 ࣦ൛݂ ሺ௠ሻ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻൟ ൌ ‫ ݏ‬௠ ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫ ݏ‬௠ିଵ ݂ሺͲሻ െ ‫ ݏ‬௠ିଶ ݂ ᇱ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫ ڮ‬െ ݂ ሺ௠ିଵሻ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ first chapter. According to my ࣦ ିଵ ሼ݁ ି௕௦ ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻሽ ൌ ݂ ሺ‫ ݐ‬െ ܾሻܷሺ‫ ݐ‬െ ܾሻ experience as a math tutor. Kaabar 7 www. please email your comments to integer mohammed. In conclusion. Extended Methods of First and 2 ͳ ࣦሼ‫ ݐ‬௠ ሽ ൌ ௠Ǩ where m is a Higher Orders Differential Equations. then: ௉ area of differential equations. applied 6 ࣦሼ݄ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻܷሺ‫ ݐ‬െ ܾሻሽ ൌ ݁ ି௕௦ ࣦሼ݄ሺ‫ ݐ‬൅ ܾሻሽ mathematics. and my only lovely 13-year old ଴ brother who is sick.kaabar@email. I would appreciate ࣦሼߜሺ‫ ݐ‬െ ܾሻሽ ൌ ݁ ି௕௦ 12 ࣦሼߜሺ‫ݐ‬ሻሽ ൌ ͳ to consider this book as a milestone for developing more math books that can serve our mathematical society in the 13 Assume that ݂ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ is periodic with period ܲ. and electric circuits II. I also added exercises at the end of each chapter above to let students practice additional sets of number) 3 ܿ ‫ݏ‬ problems other than examples. I decided to start with a different approach by where m is a positive integer choosing laplace transforms to be in the first chapter of this ௗ ೘ிሺ௦ሻ ௗ ೘ிሺ௦ሻ 9 ࣦሼ‫ ݐ‬௠ ݂ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻሽሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ሺെͳሻ௠ ࣦ ିଵ ቄ ቅ ൌ ሺെͳሻ௠ ‫ ݐ‬௠ ݂ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ௗ௦ ೘ ௗ௦ ೘ book. and they can also check ࣦሼ•‹ ܿ‫ݐ‬ሽ ൌ ࣦሼ…‘• ܿ‫ݐ‬ሽ ൌ ଶ ‫ݏ‬ଶ ൅ ܿଶ ‫ ݏ‬൅ ܿଶ their solutions to some of these exercises by looking at “Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises” section at the end of 4 ͳ ࣦሼ݁ ௕௧ ሽ ൌ this book. and I want to spend every dollar in his 11 ௧ heath care.1: Laplace Transform 6 M. my mother. I would also like to give a special thanks to all ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ࣦ ቐන ݂ ሺ߰ሻ݀߰ቑ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ሼ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ή ‫ ܪ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻሽ ൌ ݂ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ‫݄ כ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ administrators and professors of mathematics at WSU for ‫ݏ‬ ଴ their educational support.ebook3000.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Introduction Table of Laplace Transform λ In this book. and other students who want to review 5 ࣦሼ݁ ௕௧ ݂ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻሽ ൌ ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ȁ‫ ݏ‬՜ ‫ ݏ‬െ ܾ ࣦ ିଵ ሼ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ȁ‫ ݏ‬՜ ‫ ݏ‬െ ܾ ሽ ൌ ܾ݁‫݂ ݐ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ some concepts of differential equations before studying courses such as partial differential equations. If you have any comments related to the contents of where m is a positive where m is a positive integer this book.1. ௧ 10 I wish to express my gratitude and appreciation to ࣦሼ݂ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ‫݄ כ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻሽ ൌ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ή ‫ܪ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ݂ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ‫݄ כ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ න ݂ሺ߰ሻ݄ሺ‫ ݐ‬െ ߰ሻ݀߰ my father. This book is a very useful for college students who ‫ݏ‬െܾ studied Calculus II.com .edu. and Applications of ࣦሼͳሽ ൌ ௦ ೘శభ ‫ݏ‬ positive integer (whole Differential Equations. Therefore. ͳ ࣦሼ݂ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻሽ ൌ න ݁ ି௦௧ ݂ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ݀‫ݐ‬ ͳ െ ݁ ି௉௦ Mohammed K A Kaabar ଴ Table 1.

Finally. 1. Then. and we will find the order of differential equations. We cover in the remaining sections an important concept known as the laplace transforms of derivatives. we define the laplace transforms. we start with an introduction to Differential Equations (DEs) including linear DEs. Kaabar 9 .1 Introductions to Differential Equations In this section. we are going to discuss how to determine whether the differential equation is linear or nonlinear. 8 M. and we mention some properties of laplace transforms. and the order of DEs.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Chapter 1 This page intentionally left blank The Laplace Transform In this chapter. dependent variables. and we give some examples of Initial Value Problems (IVPs). nonlinear DEs. independent variables. we will show the purpose of differential equations. we learn how to solve systems of linear equations (LEs) using Cramer’s Rule. At the end of this section. In addition. we discuss the inverse laplace transforms.

c) What is the order of this differential equation? Example 1. we need to introduce the following definition: a) Find ‫ݕ‬. Example 1.3 The order of differential equation is b) Determine whether ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൌ ͳͷ‫ ݔ‬is a linear the highest derivative in the equation (i.2 Given that ‫ ݖ‬ᇱᇱᇱ ൅ ʹ‫ ݖ‬ᇱᇱ ൅ ‫ ݖ‬ᇱ ൌ ʹ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ൅ ʹʹ. the order of ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൌ ͳͷ‫ ݔ‬is 1. Solution: Part a: To find ‫ݕ‬. Since the dependent variable ‫ ݕ‬and all its derivatives are to the dependent variable can be written in terms of power 1. 10 M. Why? Using definition 1. Thus. the general solution is the following: determine whether ‫ ݖ‬ᇱᇱᇱ ൅ ʹ‫ ݖ‬ᇱᇱ ൅ ‫ ݖ‬ᇱ ൌ ʹ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ൅ ʹʹ is a ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͹Ǥͷ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ܿ where ܿ is constant. (Hint: Find the general solution of ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ) Definition 1.1.1 Given that ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൌ ͳͷ‫ݔ‬.2 as follows: and ‫ ݔ‬is called independent variable because it is Since the dependent variable ‫ ݖ‬and all its derivatives independent from ‫ݕ‬.e. equation is linear. equation.1. we have the following: dependent and independent variables where the ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͹Ǥͷ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ܿ where ܿ is constant.ebook3000. are to the power 1. differential equation or nonlinear differential equation. then this differential equation is Part b: To determine whether ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൌ ͳͷ‫ ݔ‬is a linear linear.1. we need to find the general a) Determine whether ‫ ݖ‬ᇱᇱᇱ ൅ ʹ‫ ݖ‬ᇱᇱ ൅ ‫ ݖ‬ᇱ ൌ ʹ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ൅ ʹʹ is solution of ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ by taking the integral of both sides as a linear differential equation or nonlinear follows: differential equation. Part c: To find the order of this differential equation. and ‫ ݔ‬is called independent ଵହ ‫ ݂ ׬‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ).1.1.1. then to ଶ ͹Ǥͷ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ܿ. differential equation if it has two types of variables: According to the above question. equation.1.2.1. Part b: To find the order of ‫ ݖ‬ᇱᇱᇱ ൅ ʹ‫ ݖ‬ᇱᇱ ൅ ‫ ݖ‬ᇱ ൌ ʹ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ൅ ʹʹ. because it depends on ‫ݔ‬. this differential independent variable.1. the differential equation Definition 1.com . Otherwise. Kaabar 11 www. This means that ‫ݕ‬ linear differential equation or nonlinear differential is called dependent variable because it depends on ‫ݔ‬.2 The differential equation is called and with a simple example about differential equation.3 which implies that the order is 3 because the highest derivative is 3.3.1 A mathematical equation is called is nonlinear. Why? න ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ݀‫ ݕ‬ൌ න ͳͷ‫ݔ݀ ݔ‬ b) What is the order of this differential equation? Since ‫ ݕ ׬‬ᇱ ݀‫ ݕ‬ൌ ‫ ݕ‬because the integral of derivative Solution: Part a: Since ‫ ݖ‬is called dependent variable function is the original function itself (In general. then ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ‫ͳ ׬‬ͷ‫ ݔ݀ ݔ‬ൌ ‫ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ܿ ൌ variable because it is independent from ‫ݖ‬.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved let’s start with the definition of differential equation Definition 1. linear if the dependent variable and all its derivatives are to the power 1. then using definition 1. we need to use definition 1. The order of differential equation or nonlinear differential ‫ ݕ‬ᇱᇱᇱ ൅ ͵‫ ݕ‬ᇱᇱ ൅ ʹ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൌ ͳʹ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ʹʹ is 3). we need to introduce the following definition: we use definition 1.

Step 1: ݄ is a dependent variable. section: Step 2: Since ݄ and all its derivatives are to the power Example 1. we need to use definition 1.1. linear differential equation or nonlinear differential we use definition 1. the above differential equation is a linear Since the dependent variable ݉ and all its derivatives differential equation of order 3. Why? 1.1. Kaabar 13 . and ‫ ݔ‬is called independent in terms of ‫ݔ‬. then the above differential equation is linear. differential equations: We need to apply what we have learned from the ‫ ݖ‬ሺ௠ሻ is the ݉th derivative of ‫ݖ‬. Solution: To determine whether it is a linear The following are some useful notations about differential equation or nonlinear differential equation. is a linear differential equation or nonlinear Step 2: Since ܾ and all its derivatives are to the power differential equation. ʹ‫ܾݔ‬ሺଷሻ ൅ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻܾሺଶሻ ൅ ͵ܾ ൌ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ݁ ௫ .5 Given that is nonlinear. and ‫ ݔ‬is an a) Determine whether ݉ሺସሻ ൅ ሺ͵݉ᇱᇱ ሻଷ െ ݉ ൌ ξ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳ independent variable. Solution: Part a: Since ݉ is called dependent variable Step 4: Assume that ‫ ܥ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ݁ ௫ Ǥ Then.1.1. are not to the power 1.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Example 1. then this differential equation Example 1.3 Given that ݉ሺସሻ ൅ ሺ͵݉ᇱᇱ ሻଷ െ ݉ ൌ ξ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳ.4 Given that 1. variable because it is independent from ݉. b) What is the order of this differential equation? Step 3: Coefficients of ܾ and all its derivatives are in terms of the independent variable ‫ݔ‬. 12 M. previous examples in the following five steps: ‫ ݖ‬௠ is the ݉th power of ‫ݖ‬.1.2 as follows: Thus. Solution: To determine whether it is a linear (Hint: Do not confuse between ݉ሺସሻ and ݉ସ because differential equation or nonlinear differential equation. equation. then the above differential equation is linear. Determine whether it Step 3: Coefficients of ݄ and all its derivatives are in is a linear differential equation or nonlinear terms of the independent variable ‫ݓ‬. and ‫ ݓ‬is an The following two examples are a summary of this independent variable. 4 because the highest derivative is 4. then to Step 5: Our purpose from the above differential determine whether ݉ሺସሻ ൅ ሺ͵݉ᇱᇱ ሻଷ െ ݉ ൌ ξ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳ is a equation is to find a solution where ܾ can be written in linear differential equation or nonlinear differential term of ‫ݔ‬. ‫ ܥ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ must be because it depends on ‫ݔ‬. differential equation. ሺ‫ ݓ‬ଶ ൅ ͳሻ݄ሺସሻ െ ͵‫݄ݓ‬ᇱ ൌ ‫ ݓ‬ଶ ൅ ͳǤ Determine whether it is a Part b: To find the order of ݉ሺସሻ ൅ ሺ͵݉ᇱᇱ ሻଷ െ ݉ ൌ ξ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳ. while ݉ସ means We need to apply what we have learned from the the fourth power of m). ݉ሺସሻ means the fourth derivative of ݉.3 which implies that the order is equation. previous examples in the following five steps: Step 1: ܾ is a dependent variable.

1 section 2.1 Using definition 1. we substitute ‫׬‬଴ ሺͳሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀‫ݔ‬ differential equation of order 4.1.1. we need to look at table Definition 1. Step 5: Our purpose from the above differential Step 3: λ equation is to find a solution where ݄ can be written in ࣦሼͳሽ ൌ නሺͳሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀‫ݔ‬ term of ‫ݓ‬. ௕ ଵ ଵ ଵ of the laplace transforms in general. we need Step 1: We write the general definition of laplace to do the following steps: transform as follows: λ Step 1: We write the general definition of laplace ࣦሼ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ න ݂ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀‫ݔ‬ transform as follows: λ Ͳ ࣦሼ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ න ݂ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀‫ݔ‬ Ͳ 14 M.ebook3000. do the following steps: Solution: To find ࣦሼ݁ ଻௫ ሽ using definition 1. find ࣦሼͳሽ.2.2.2. Fact 1.1 is helpful to find laplace transforms. ௠ Solution: To find ࣦሼͳሽ using definition 1. ݂ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͳ because ࣦሼ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ be in terms of ‫ݓ‬. denoted by ࣦ . and after that we can find the limit of ௕ In this section.1. 1. To check if our answer is right. Ͳ Thus. the above differential equation is a linear ஶ By the definition of integral. ଵ ଵ function.2 Introductions to the ௕ Step 4: We need to find Ž‹௕՜ஶ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௫ ݀‫ ݔ‬as follows: It is easier to find what it is inside the above box Laplace Transforms ௕ ቀ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௫ ݀‫ ݔ‬ቁ. is 1. According to table ଵ defined in general as follows: 1. we are going to introduce the definition ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௫ ݀‫ݔ‬. we can conclude our example with the ࣦሼ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ න ݂ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀‫ݔ‬ following fact: Ͳ Example 1.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Step 4: Assume that ‫ ܥ‬ሺ‫ݓ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ݓ‬ଶ ൅ ͳǤ Then. ࣦሼͳሽ. and we will show how the table ଵ ଵ ଵ Ž‹ ቀെ ௦ ݁ ି௦௕ ൅ ௦ ቁ ൌ ௦ ™Š‡”‡ ‫ ݏ‬൐ ͲǤ ௕՜ஶ 1. ௕ with Ž‹௕՜ஶ ‫׬‬଴ ሺͳሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀‫ݔ‬. ‫ ܥ‬ሺ‫ݓ‬ሻ must Step 2: Here in this example. find ࣦሼ݁ ଻௫ ሽ.2. Thus.1 the laplace transform.1. Kaabar 15 www.1. we found ࣦሼͳሽ ൌ ௦ which is the same λ answer we got.1 ࣦሼܽ݊‫ݐ݊ܽݐݏ݊݋ܿ ݕ‬ǡ ‫݉ ݕܽݏ‬ሽ ൌ ௦ .2.1.2.1 at the beginning of this book.2. we will give several examples about Step 5: We need find the limit of െ ௦ ݁ ି௦௕ ൅ ௦ as follows: the laplace transforms. and how can we Thus.2 Using definition 1. ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௫ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ െ ௦ ݁ ି௦௫ ቚ ௫ୀ௕ ௫ୀ଴ ൌ െ ௦ ݁ ି௦௕ ൅ ௦ ݁ ି௦ሺ଴ሻ ൌ ଵ ଵ use this definition to find the laplace transform of any െ ௦ ݁ ି௦௕ ൅ ௦ .1.com .2. Then. we need to Example 1.

4 Find ‫ ݔ͵ ׬‬ଶ •‹ሺͶ‫ݔ‬ሻ݀‫ݔ‬.1 at the beginning of this book. Kaabar 17 . ‫ ݔ ׬‬ଷ ݁ ଶ௫ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ ଶ ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ݁ ଶ௫ െ ସ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ݁ ଶ௫ ൅ ସ ‫ ݁ݔ‬ଶ௫ െ ଼ ݁ ଶ௫ ൅ ‫ܥ‬.1 section 4. ݂ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ଻௫ because Then. we substitute ͵‫ ݔ‬ଶ ଵ ଶ௫ ݁ ஶ ௕ ଶ ‫׬‬଴ ሺ݁͹‫ ݔ‬ሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀‫ݔ‬ with Ž‹௕՜ஶ ‫׬‬଴ ሺ݁͹‫ ݔ‬ሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀‫ݔ‬. stop integrating when the corresponding row is zero. and we ࣦሼ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼ݁ ଻௫ ሽ.2. ௕ ௕ ଵ Table 1.2. The Step 3: following table shows the table method to find ‫ ݔ ׬‬ଷ ݁ ଶ௫ ݀‫ݔ‬: λ ࣦሼ݁ ଻௫ ሽ ൌ නሺ݁ ଻௫ ሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀‫ݔ‬ Derivatives Part Integration Part Ͳ ‫ݔ‬ଷ ݁ ଶ௫ By the definition of integral. and the other one for integrations of ݁ ଶ௫ . we need to create two columns: one for derivatives of ‫ ݔ‬ଷ . Now. According to table In conclusion. and we stop known as the table method than using integration by parts. we need to create two columns: one for derivatives Example 1. The following table shows the table method to find In the table method.2.1: Table Method for ‫ ݔ ׬‬ଷ ݁ ଶ௫ ݀‫ݔ‬ Thus. ‫׬‬ሺ‫ ݈ܽ݅݉݋݊ݕ݈݋݌‬ሻ•‹ሺܽ‫ݔ‬ሻ݀‫ݔ‬. The following examples are two examples about finding the integrals to review some concepts that will help us finding Solution: To find ‫ ݔ͵ ׬‬ଶ •‹ሺͶ‫ݔ‬ሻ݀‫ݔ‬.1. we can always use the table method to ଵ 1. it is easier to use a method we need to keep deriving ͵‫ ݔ‬ଶ till we get zero. Solution: To find ‫ ݔ ׬‬ଷ ݁ ଶ௫ ݀‫ݔ‬. we need to look at table Thus. followed by negative ଵ ሺ଻ି௦ሻ௕ ଵ ሺ଻ି௦ሻሺ଴ሻ ଵ ሺ଻ି௦ሻ௕ ଵ sign.3 Find ‫ ݔ ׬‬ଷ ݁ ଶ௫ ݀‫ݔ‬. from the above table 1.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Step 2: Here in this example. and so on as we can see in the above table 1.1. In the table method.2.1. and after that we can find the limit of ଵ Ͳ ݁ ଶ௫ ௕ ଵ଺ ‫׬‬଴ ሺ݁͹‫ ݔ‬ሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀‫ݔ‬. ௕ ͸‫ݔ‬ ͳ ଶ௫ Step 4: We need to find Ž‹௕՜ஶ ‫׬‬଴ ሺ݁͹‫ ݔ‬ሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀‫ݔ‬ as follows: ݁ Ͷ ଵ ଶ௫ It is easier to find what it is inside the above box ͸ ݁ ଼ ௕ ቀ‫׬‬଴ ሺ݁͹‫ ݔ‬ሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀‫ ݔ‬ቁ. 1. ‫ ݔ͵ ׬‬ଶ •‹ሺͶ‫ݔ‬ሻ݀‫ݔ‬: 16 M. we need to keep deriving ‫ ݔ‬ଷ till we get zero. Then. integrating when the corresponding row is zero.2. ‫׬‬଴ ሺ݁͹‫ ݔ‬ሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ሺ଻ି௦ሻ௫ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ ሺ଻ି௦ሻ ݁ ሺ଻ି௦ሻ௫ ቚ ௫ୀ௕ ௫ୀ଴ ൌ We always start with positive sign. ሺ଻ି௦ሻ ݁ െ ሺ଻ି௦ሻ ݁ ൌ ሺ଻ି௦ሻ ݁ െ ሺ଻ି௦ሻ . we can find ‫ ݔ ׬‬ଷ ݁ ଶ௫ ݀‫ ݔ‬as ଵ ଵ Step 5: We need find the limit of ሺ଻ି௦ሻ ݁ ሺ଻ି௦ሻ௕ െ ሺ଻ି௦ሻ as follows: ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ follows: න ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ݁ ଶ௫ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ݁ ଶ௫ െ ሺ͵ሻ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ݁ ଶ௫ ൅ ሺ͸ሻ‫ ݁ݔ‬ଶ௫ െ ሺ͸ሻ݁ ଶ௫ ൅ ‫ܥ‬ ଵ ଵ ଵ ଵ ʹ Ͷ ͺ ͳ͸ Ž‹ ቀ ݁ ሺ଻ି௦ሻ௕ െ ሺ଻ି௦ሻቁ ൌ െ ሺ଻ି௦ሻ ൌ ሺ௦ି଻ሻ ™Š‡”‡ ‫ ݏ‬൐ ͹Ǥ ௕՜ஶ ሺ଻ି௦ሻ ଵ ଷ ଷ ଷ To check if our answer is right. table method than using integration by parts. it is easier to use the the laplace transforms.1. and the other one for integrations of •‹ሺͶ‫ݔ‬ሻ. of ͵‫ ݔ‬ଶ . Example 1. we found ࣦሼ݁ ଻௫ ሽ ൌ ௦ି଻ which is the same find integrals like ‫׬‬ሺ‫ ݈ܽ݅݉݋݊ݕ݈݋݌‬ሻ݁ ௔௫ ݀‫ ݔ‬and answer we got.

‫׬‬଴ ሺ‫ ʹݔ‬ሻ݁െ‫ ݔ݀ ݔݏ‬ൌ െ ‫݁ ʹݔ ݏ‬ െ ‫݁ݔ‬ െ ݁ ቚ ௫ୀ௕ ௫ୀ଴ ൌ λ ‫ʹݏ‬ ‫͵ݏ‬ Step 3: ࣦሼ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሽ ൌ ‫ Ͳ׬‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀‫ݔ‬ ͳ െ‫ܾݏ‬ ʹ െ‫ܾݏ‬ ʹ െ‫ܾݏ‬ ʹ ቀ െ ܾʹ ݁ െ ܾ݁ െ ݁ ൅ ͵ቁ . ‫ݏ‬ଶ ଵ ି௦௫ ଷଶ Ͳ െ ௦య ݁ Example 1.5 Using definition 1. followed by negative sign. from the above table 1.2. and the other one for as follows: integrations of ݁ ି௦௫ .2. Kaabar 19 www. ‫ݏ‬ ‫ʹݏ‬ ‫͵ݏ‬ ‫ݏ‬ 18 M. Step 1: We write the general definition of laplace Now.2.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ஶ Derivatives Part Integration Part By the definition of integral. The following table shows the ͳ ͳ table method to find ‫׬‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀‫ݔ‬: ൌ െ ሺ͵ሻ‫ ݔ‬ଶ …‘•ሺͶ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ൬െ ൰ ͸‫‹• ݔ‬ሺͶ‫ ݔ‬ሻ Ͷ ͳ͸ Derivatives Part Integration Part ͳ ൅ ൬ ൰ ͸ …‘•ሺͶ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ‫ܥ‬ ‫ݔ‬ଶ ݁ ି௦௫ ͸Ͷ ଵ ʹ‫ݔ‬ െ ݁ ି௦௫ ௦ ଷ ଷ Thus. and so on as we can see in the above table 1. we need We always start with positive sign. In the table method. ‫׬‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ െ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ݁ ି௦௫ െ ‫ି ݁ݔ‬௦௫ െ ݁ ି௦௫ ൅ ‫ܥ‬. ଵ ͸‫ݔ‬ െ ସ …‘•ሺͶ‫ݔ‬ሻ ௕ Step 4: We need to find Ž‹௕՜ஶ ‫׬‬଴ ሺ‫ ʹݔ‬ሻ݁െ‫ ݔ݀ ݔݏ‬as follows: ͸ ͳ It is easier to find what it is inside the above box െ •‹ሺͶ‫ݔ‬ሻ ௕ ͳ͸ ቀ‫׬‬଴ ሺ‫ ʹݔ‬ሻ݁െ‫ ݔ݀ ݔݏ‬ቁ. we need to keep deriving ‫ ݔ‬ଶ till we get zero.3. and we stop integrating when the න ͵‫ ݔ‬ଶ •‹ሺͶ‫ݔ‬ሻ݀‫ݔ‬ corresponding row is zero.1. ‫ ݔ͵ ׬‬ଶ •‹ሺͶ‫ݔ‬ሻ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ െ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ …‘•ሺͶ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ‫‹• ݔ‬ሺͶ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ʹ ͳ ି௦௫ ସ ଼ ݁ ଷ …‘•ሺͶ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ‫ܥ‬. we need to create two Now.2.2. and so on as we can see in the above table 1. we substitute ‫׬‬଴ ሺ‫ ʹݔ‬ሻ݁െ‫ݔ݀ ݔݏ‬ ͵‫ ݔ‬ଶ •‹ሺͶ‫ݔ‬ሻ ௕ with Ž‹௕՜ஶ ‫׬‬଴ ሺ‫ ʹݔ‬ሻ݁െ‫ݔ݀ ݔݏ‬. ݂ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ݔ‬because ଶ follows: ௕ ͳ െ‫ݔݏ‬ ʹ െ‫ݔݏ‬ ʹ െ‫ݔݏ‬ ࣦሼ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሽ. we can find ‫ ݔ͵ ׬‬ଶ •‹ሺͶ‫ݔ‬ሻ݀‫ݔ‬ columns: one for derivatives of ‫ ݔ‬ଶ . we need to find ‫׬‬଴ ሺ‫ ʹݔ‬ሻ݁െ‫ ݔ݀ ݔݏ‬using the table We always start with positive sign.2.3: Table Method for ‫׬‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀‫ݔ‬ Solution: To find ࣦሼ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሽ using definition 1.ebook3000.3.2. we need to evaluate the above integral from 0 to ܾ as Step 2: Here in this example. method.2. followed by negative to do the following steps: sign.2: Table Method for ‫ ݔ͵ ׬‬ଶ •‹ሺͶ‫ݔ‬ሻ݀‫ݔ‬ ௕ Now. find ࣦሼ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሽ. Then.com . Table 1. from the above table 1. ࣦሼ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ න ݂ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀‫ݔ‬ ௦ ௦మ ௦య Ͳ Now.1. Table 1. we can find ‫ ݔ͵ ׬‬ଶ •‹ሺͶ‫ݔ‬ሻ݀‫ݔ‬ transform as follows: as follows: λ ଵ ଶ ଶ Thus. and after that we can find the limit of ଵ Ͳ …‘•ሺͶ‫ݔ‬ሻ ଺ସ ௕ ‫׬‬଴ ሺ‫ ʹݔ‬ሻ݁െ‫ݔ݀ ݔݏ‬.2.2.2.

Step 1: We look at the transform table (table 1. we have the following: Solution: To find ࣦሼ•‹ሺͷ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ using table 1.2.2. ݂ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ because Step 1: We look at the transform table (table 1.1. Step 4: We change what we got from step 3 to make it look like ࣦሼ•‹ሺͷ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ as follows: Solution: To find ࣦሼ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሽ using definition 1. find ࣦሼ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሽ.1. we need to ࣦሼ•‹ ͷ‫ݔ‬ሽ ൌ ହ ൌ ହ .1. we need to look at table ࣦሼ…‘•ሺെͺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ൌ .1. λ Step 2: We look at which section in table 1. ଼ a) ࣦሼ݃ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ‫ܩ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ (i.1. we substitute ‫׬‬଴ ሺ‫ݕ‬Ԣ ሻ݁െ‫ݔ݀ ݔݏ‬ ௕ with Ž‹௕՜ஶ ‫׬‬଴ ሺ‫ݕ‬Ԣ ሻ݁െ‫ݔ݀ ݔݏ‬. λ ࣦሼ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ න ݂ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀‫ݔ‬ Solution: To find ࣦሼ…‘•ሺെͺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ using table 1. Then.1. find ࣦሼ•‹ሺͷ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ. ࣦሼ•‹ ͷ‫ݔ‬ሽ ൌ ௦మ ାହమ ൌ ௦మ ାଶହ. 20 M.6 Using table 1. do the following steps: ௦ మାହమ ௦ మ ାଶହ ହ ହ Step 1: We write the general definition of laplace Thus.1). ࣦሼ…‘•ሺെͺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ௦మ ାሺି଼ሻమ ൌ ௦మ ା଺ସ.1.1. Step 2: We look at which section in table 1.2. transform as follows: Example 1.1 c) ࣦሼ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ‫݃ ט‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ‫ ܩ ט‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻǤ d) ࣦሼ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ή ݃ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ is not necessary equal to ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ή ‫ ܩ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻǤ (Section 3 at the left side) as follows: ܿ ࣦሼ•‹ ܿ‫ݐ‬ሽ ൌ ‫ݏ‬ଶ ൅ ܿଶ Example 1.2.1.e.1.1 ଶ ଶ ଶ (Section 3 at the right side) as follows: ܾ݁ ି௦௕ െ ݁ ି௦௕ ൅ య ቁ as follows: ‫ݏ‬ ௦మ ௦య ௦ െ‫ܾݏ‬ െ‫ܾݏ‬ െ‫ܾݏ‬ ࣦሼ…‘• ܿ‫ݐ‬ሽ ൌ Ž‹ ቀെ ܾʹ ݁ ͳ െ ʹ ܾ݁ െ ʹ ݁ ʹ ʹ ൅ ͵ ቁ ൌ Ž‹ ቀͲ ൅ ͵ ቁ ൌ ‫ݏ‬ଶ ൅ ܿଶ ௕՜ஶ ‫ݏ‬ ‫ʹݏ‬ ‫͵ݏ‬ ‫ݏ‬ ௕՜ஶ ‫ݏ‬ Step 4: We change what we got from step 3 to make it ʹ ™Š‡”‡ ‫ ݏ‬൐ ͲǤ look like ࣦሼ…‘•ሺെͺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ as follows: ‫͵ݏ‬ ௦ ௦ To check if our answer is right. According to table ௦ Thus.1. we need Ͳ to do the following steps: Step 2: Here in this example. find ࣦሼ…‘•ሺെͺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ. ࣦሼͺሽ ൌ ௦ ൌ ‫ܩ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ where ݃ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͺ).1 Assume that ܿ is a constant.1. We will give some important mathematical results ௦య about laplace transforms. By the definition of integral.2. Kaabar 21 .1 contains b) ࣦ൛ܿ ή ݃ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻൟ ൌ ܿ ή ࣦሼ݃ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ܿ ή ‫ ܩ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻǤ ‫ ݊݅ݏ‬function. ࣦሼ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሽ.1. Example 1. ௦ ଶǨ 1.1.8 Using definition 1.1). and ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ.1.7 Using table 1.1 section 2 at the right side.1. we need to (Hint: ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ƒ† ‫ܩ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ are the laplace transforms of ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ and do the following steps: ݃ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻǡ respectively). Result 1.2.1 contains Step 3: ࣦሼ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሽ ൌ ‫ Ͳ׬‬ሺ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሻ݁ ି௦௫ ݀‫ݔ‬ ஶ ܿ‫ ݏ݋‬function.1. ௦ మ ାሺି଼ሻమ ௦ మ ା଺ସ 1. ݃ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ are functions.1. we found ࣦሼ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሽ ൌ ௦మశభ ൌ ଶ which is the same answer we got.1 at the beginning of this book.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ଵ Step 5: We need find the limit of ቀെ ௦ ܾଶ ݁ ି௦௕ െ Step 3: We write down what we get from table 1. Step 3: We write down what we get from table 1.

then using result 1. Then. and ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ is a ௕ λ function where ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ is the laplace transform of ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ. we obtain the following: Result 1.1. Now. and ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ is Ž‹ න ‫ݕ‬Ԣ ݁െ‫ ݔ݀ ݔݏ‬ൌ Ž‹ ‫݁ݕ‬െ‫ ݔݏ‬െ Ž‹ න ‫ݕ‬ሺെ‫݁ݏ‬െ‫ ݔݏ‬ሻ ݀‫ݔ‬ ௕՜ஶ ௕՜ஶ ௕՜ஶ the laplace transform of ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ. we need to use integration by parts ௕ as follows: න ‫ݕ‬Ԣ ݁െ‫ ݔ݀ ݔݏ‬ൌ ሺͲ െ ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻሻ ൅ ‫ܻݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ‫ ݑ‬ൌ ݁െ‫ݔݏ‬ ݀‫ ݒ‬ൌ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ݀‫ݔ‬ ଴ ௕ ݀‫ ݑ‬ൌ െ‫݁ݏ‬െ‫ݔ݀ ݔݏ‬ ‫ ݒ‬ൌ ‫ ݒ݀ ׬‬ൌ ‫ ݕ ׬‬ᇱ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ ‫ݕ‬ න ‫ݕ‬Ԣ ݁െ‫ ݔ݀ ݔݏ‬ൌ ‫ܻݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻ න ‫ ݒ݀ݑ‬ൌ ‫ ݒݑ‬െ න ‫ݑ݀ݒ‬ ଴ න ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ݁ ି௦௫ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ ‫ି ݁ݕ‬௦௫ െ න ‫ݕ‬ሺെ‫ି ݁ݏ‬௦௫ ሻ ݀‫ݔ‬ Thus. ௕՜ஶ ௕՜ஶ ଴ Ͳ 22 M.1.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ௕ ௕ Step 4: We need to find Ž‹௕՜ஶ ‫׬‬଴ ‫ݕ‬Ԣ ݁െ‫ ݔ݀ ݔݏ‬as follows: න ‫ݕ‬Ԣ ݁െ‫ ݔ݀ ݔݏ‬ൌ Ž‹ ሺ‫ݕ‬ሺܾሻ݁െ‫ ܾݏ‬െ ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻሻ ൅ ‫ܻݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ It is easier to find what it is inside the above box ௕՜ஶ ௕ ଴ ቀ‫׬‬଴ ‫ݕ‬Ԣ ݁െ‫ ݔ݀ ݔݏ‬ቁ. ଴ Ͳ ௕ λ For more information about this result.ebook3000.2. ଴ Ͳ ௕ λ Because ‫׬‬଴ ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫݁ݏ‬ ି௦௫ ሻ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ Ž‹ ‫ݕ ׬‬ሺെ‫ି ݁ݏ‬௦௫ ሻ ݀‫ݔ‬. you will find the following: ஶ Since we have‫׬‬଴ ‫ି ݁ݕ‬௦௫ ݀‫ݔ‬. If you ௕՜ஶ ௕՜ஶ ଴ Ͳ look at it. we have the following: ࣦሼ݂ܿሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ࣦܿሼ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ܿ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ.2. Kaabar 23 www. λ ൫‫׬‬଴ ‫ି ݁ݕ‬௦௫ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ ܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ൯. Ž‹ න ‫ݕ‬Ԣ ݁െ‫ ݔ݀ ݔݏ‬ൌ Ž‹ ሺ‫݁ݕ‬െ‫ ܾݏ‬െ ‫݁ݕ‬െ‫ݏ‬ሺͲሻ ሻ ൅ න ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫݁ݏ‬െ‫ ݔݏ‬ሻ ݀‫ݔ‬ d) ࣦ൛݂ ሺସሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻൟ ൌ ‫ ݏ‬ସ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫ ݏ‬ଷ ݂ ሺͲሻ െ ‫ ݏ‬ଶ ݂ ᇱ ሺͲሻ െ ‫ ݂ݏ‬ᇱᇱ ሺͲሻ െ ௕՜ஶ ௕՜ஶ ݂ ᇱᇱᇱ ሺͲሻ.2. Ž‹ න ‫݁ ݕ‬ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ Ž‹ ‫݁ݕ‬ ൅ න ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫݁ݏ‬െ‫ ݔݏ‬ሻ ݀‫ݔ‬ ௕՜ஶ ௕՜ஶ ‫ݔ‬ൌͲ b) ࣦሼ݂ ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ࣦ൛݂ ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻൟ ൌ ‫ ݏ‬ଶ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫݂ݏ‬ሺͲሻ െ ݂ ᇱ ሺͲሻ. we can find the limit as follows: ௕ ܾ We conclude this example with the following results: Result 1.2 Assume that ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ is a function. and after that we can find the limit of ௕ ௕ ‫׬‬଴ ‫ݕ‬Ԣ ݁െ‫ݔ݀ ݔݏ‬.com . we have the ଴ Ͳ ௕ λ following: Ԣ െ‫ݔݏ‬ െ‫ ݔݏ‬ȁ ‫ݔ‬ൌܾ a) ࣦሼ݂ ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ࣦ൛݂ ሺଵሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻൟ ൌ ‫ ܨݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ݂ሺͲሻ.3 Assume that ܿ is a constant.1 ࣦ൛݂ ሺ௠ሻ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻൟ ൌ ‫ ݏ‬௠ ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫ ݏ‬௠ିଵ ݂ሺͲሻ െ ‫ ݏ‬௠ିଶ ݂ ᇱ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫ ڮ‬െ ݂ ሺ௠ିଵሻ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ. it is Ž‹ න ‫݁ ݕ‬ Ԣ െ‫ݔݏ‬ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ Ž‹ ൫‫ݕ‬ሺܾሻ݁ െ‫ܾݏ‬ െ ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻ݁ െ‫ݏ‬ሺͲሻ ൯ ൅ ‫ ݏ‬න ‫݁ݕ‬ െ‫ݔݏ‬ ݀‫ݔ‬ recommended to look at section 8 in table 1. ࣦሼ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሽ ൌ ‫ܻݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻ. c) ࣦሼ݂ ᇱᇱᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ࣦ൛݂ ሺଷሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻൟ ൌ ‫ ݏ‬ଷ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫ ݏ‬ଶ ݂ ሺͲሻ െ ‫ ݂ݏ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻ െ ܾ՜λ ଴ ௕ λ ݂ ᇱᇱ ሺͲሻ. Ž‹ න ‫ݕ‬Ԣ ݁െ‫ ݔ݀ ݔݏ‬ൌ Ž‹ ሺ‫ݕ‬ሺܾሻ݁െ‫ ܾݏ‬െ ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻሻ ൅ ‫ ݏ‬න ‫݁ݕ‬െ‫ݔ݀ ݔݏ‬ Then. න ‫ݕ‬Ԣ ݁െ‫ ݔ݀ ݔݏ‬ൌ ൫‫ݕ‬ሺܾሻ݁െ‫ݏ‬ሺஶሻ െ ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻ൯ ൅ ‫ܻݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ௕ ଴ To find ‫׬‬଴ ‫ݕ‬Ԣ ݁െ‫ݔ݀ ݔݏ‬.

1.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ௦ Since ࣦ൛…‘• ξʹ‫ ݐ‬ൟ ൌ ௦మ ାሺξଶሻమ .1 Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄ ௦ ቅ.2 Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄ మ ቅ.3. then this laplace transforms. then this means that ௦ ࣦ ିଵ ቄ ቅ ൌ …‘• ξʹ‫ݐ‬. ݂ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻǡ ƒ† ݃ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻǡ ”‡•’‡…–‹˜‡Ž›. ‫ ݏ‬൅ ܿଶ ଶ ௦ ௦ ௦ మ ାଶ is an equivalent to ௦మ ାሺξଶሻమ 24 M.1. ࣦ ିଵ ቄ ௦ ቅ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቄ͵Ͷ ቀ௦ ቁቅ.1 Assume that ܿ is a constant.1 The inverse laplace transform. the inverse ଵ ଵ Since ࣦሼ݁ ି଼௧ ሽ ൌ ௦ା଼ . ଷସ ଵ a) ࣦ ିଵ ሼܿ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻሽ ൌ ࣦܿ ିଵ ሼ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻሽ ൌ ݂ܿሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ. ௦ ାଶ ହ ଵ Solution: Using definition 1. ࣦሼ݁ ௕௧ ሽ ൌ ௦ି௕ . ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మାସቅ ൌ ͷࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మାସቅ.3 Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మାଽቅ.3. ଵ by ࣦ ିଵ ǡ is defined as a reverse laplace transform.1. ࣦ ିଵ ቄଵ௦ቅ we need ݁ ି଼௧ . function where ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ƒ† ‫ܩ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ are the laplace transforms of ଷସ Example 1.3.1.1 and the left side of section 3 in table 1. (i.3.1 and the right side of Solution: Using result 1. and to find the inverse laplace transform. we need ‫ݏ‬ ௖ ௖ ࣦሼ…‘• ܿ‫ݐ‬ሽ ൌ to make it look like ௦మ ା௖ మ because ࣦሼ•‹ ܿ‫ݐ‬ሽ ൌ ௦మ ା௖ మ.1.4 Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦ା଼ቅ. section 3 in table 1. suppose that ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ is a function where is an equivalent to ௦ିሺି଼ሻ ௦ା଼ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ is the laplace transform of ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ. Solution: First of all. ିଷ Transforms Solution: Using definition 1.5 Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మାସቅ.3.1.1.1. means that ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మାଽቅ ൌ •‹ሺെ͵‫ݐ‬ሻ. we will discuss how to find the inverse ࣦሼ•‹ ܿ‫ݐ‬ሽ ൌ ‫ݏ‬ଶ ൅ ܿଶ ିଷ ିଷ laplace transforms of different types of mathematical is an equivalent to ௦మ ାሺିଷሻమ ௦ మ ାଽ functions. ଵ ଵ For example.3. the answer is 34.1 and table 1. Example 1. and ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ is a equals to ௦ ǡ in this case the answer is 1).1. ିଷ Definition 1. to think which function has a laplace transform that ଵ Result 1. Then.1 to refer to the ିଷ Since ࣦሼ•‹ሺെ͵ሻ‫ݐ‬ሽ ൌ ࣦሼ•‹ሺെ͵‫ݐ‬ሻሽ ൌ ௦మ ାሺିଷሻమ . Now. ݃ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻǤ ௦ ହ Example 1. b) ࣦ ିଵ ሼ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ‫ ܩ ט‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻሽ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ሼ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻሽ ‫ି ࣦ ט‬ଵ ሼ‫ܩ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻሽ ൌ ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ‫ט‬ Using definition 1.1.1 and section 4 in table about which function has a laplace transform that 1. we find the following: ܿ In this section. then this means that ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦ା଼ቅ ൌ laplace transform is ࣦ ିଵ ሼ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻሽ ൌ ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ. denoted Example 1.3.1. we find the following: ଵ equals to the function in the inverse laplace transform.3.e. 1.3.1.3. we need to think Solution: Using definition 1. and we will use table 1. Kaabar 25 . we find the following: by using the left side of section 3 in table 1.3.3.3 Inverse Laplace ௦ మାଶ Example 1.

Definition 1. and this type of mathematical problems ௦ మାଽ ௦ మ ାଽ ଷ ௦ మାଽ ௦ మାଽ ଵ Since ଷ ࣦሼ•‹ሺ͵‫ݐ‬ሻሽ ൅ ͵ࣦሼ…‘•ሺ͵‫ݐ‬ሻሽ ൌ ቀ௦మାଽ ൅ ௦మ ାଽቁ .3.1 Find the largest interval on the ‫ ݔ‬െ ܽ‫ݏ݅ݔ‬ ௫ିଷ ଵ ଷ௦ ଵ so that ௫ାଶ ‫ ݕ‬ሺଷሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ʹ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ξ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͷ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͹ has ࣦ ିଵ ቄ మାଽቅ ൅ ࣦ ିଵ ቄ మାଽቅ ൌ ଷ •‹ሺ͵‫ݐ‬ሻ ൅ ͵ …‘•ሺ͵‫ݐ‬ሻ. ହ •‹ሺʹ‫ݐ‬ሻ. 26 M. Now. ௦ మା௖ ௦ మା௖ మ ௦ మ ା௖ unique which means that there exists exactly one ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ Therefore. Kaabar 27 www.1.com .1. Solution: Using definition 1.3. we do the following: ͹ࣦ ିଵ ቄଶ௦ିଷ ቅ ൌ ͹ࣦ ିଵ ቊ ଵ ଵ ቋൌ (IVP).7 Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మାଽ ቅ.4. ܽ௡ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻǡ ܽ௡ିଵ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻǡ ǥ ǡ ܽ଴ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻǡ ‫ܭ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ are continuous on ‫ܫ‬.1.3 to find the largest interval on ଻ ିଵ ቊ ଵ ࣦ ቋ. ௠Ǩ ହ ହ ହ ଶ ହ ࣦሼ‫ ݐ‬௠ ሽ ൌ ೘శభ where ݉ is a positive integer. differential equations known as Initial Value Problems ௦ି௕ Therefore. Now. and we will use it with what we have learned య ଶቀ௦ି ቁ మ from sections 1.6 Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄଶ௦ିଷቅ.1 and the right side of ଶ ଶ section 2 in table 1. then by ଵ ଷ௦ is called Initial Value Problems (IVP).1. this means that ࣦ ିଵ ቄଶ௦ିଷ ቅ ൌ ଶ ݁ మ௧ . by using Suppose that ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݓ‬ሻǡ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݓ‬ሻǡ ǥ ǡ ‫ ݕ‬ሺ௡ିଵሻ ሺ‫ݓ‬ሻ for some ‫ܫ א ݓ‬.8 Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦ర ቅ.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ହ ଵ ହ ଶ Therefore. ଶ ଻ Example 1. we need to make it In this section. ଶ ቀ௦ି ቁ య మ the x-axis. and Example 1.1. Given ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺͷሻ ൌ ͳͲǡ ‫ݕ‬ሺͷሻ ൌ ʹǡ ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺͷሻ ൌ െͷ. Assume that ܽ௡ ሺ݉ሻ ് Ͳ for every definition 1. Example 1.1. then this means that ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦ర ቅ ൌ ‫ ݐ‬ଷ . then by using ቀ௦ି ቁ మ ଻ ଻ య ܽ଴ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ܭ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ.3. this means that ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మାଽ ቅ ൌ ଵାଷ௦ Example 1.1. we find the following: and ௦మାସ is an equivalent to ௦ మ ାሺଶሻమ .3.3. we will introduce the main theorem of ଵ ଵ look like because ࣦሼ݁ ௕௧ ሽ ൌ ௦ି௕. we need to make it look like ௦మ ା௖ మ ௦ ௖ ௦ Then. using definition 1.1 Given ܽ௡ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ‫ ݕ‬ሺ௡ሻ ൅ ܽ௡ିଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ ݕ‬ሺ௡ିଵሻ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬൅ య య ଻ ௧ ଻ ௧ ଻ ଵ ଻ Since ଶ ࣦ ቄ݁ ቅ ൌ ࣦ ቄଶ ݁ ቅ ൌ ଶ ቆమ మ య ቇ ൌ ଶ௦ିଷ . ௖ section 3 in table 1. ௦ Since ଶ ࣦሼ•‹ሺʹሻ‫ݐ‬ሽ ൌ ࣦ ቄଶ •‹ሺʹ‫ݐ‬ሻቅ ൌ ଶ ቀ௦మ ାሺଶሻమቁ ൌ ௦మ ାସ . ࣦ ିଵ ቄଶ௦ିଷቅ ൌ ͹ࣦ ିଵ ቄଶ௦ିଷቅ. by using section 4 in table 1. ௦ ௦ ଺ a solution.3. in terms of ‫ݔ‬.3. we do the following: ࣦ ିଵ ቄ ଵ ൅ ଷ௦ ଵ ቅ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቄ ଵሺଷሻ ቅ ൅ ͵ࣦ ିଵ ቄ ௦ ቅ.3.1. ଵାଷ௦ ଵ ଷ௦ Solution: ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మାଽ ቅ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మାଽ ൅ ௦మ ାଽቅ.4.1. ଵାଷ௦ ݉‫ܫא‬ where ‫ܫ‬ is some interval.2 and 1.ebook3000. we do the following: ଶ ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺʹሻ ௦మାସቅ ൌ ଶ ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మାସቅ. ଻ ଵ 1. the solution to the differential equations is and మ because ࣦሼ•‹ ܿ‫ݐ‬ሽ ൌ ƒ† ࣦሼ…‘• ܿ‫ݐ‬ሽ ൌ మ . this means that ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మାସ ቅ ൌ ଷǨ ଺ ଺ Since ࣦሼ‫ ݐ‬ଷ ሽ ൌ ௦యశభ ൌ ௦ర .1.4 Initial Value Problems Solution: Using result 1. then by ଺ ଷǨ ௦ర is an equivalent to ௦యశభ ହ using definition 1.

ܽ଴ ሺ ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ has a solution which is continuous ௫ାଷ ܽଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ξ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳ has a solution which is continuous on everywhere (Ը) except ‫ ݔ‬ൌ െ͵. we need to determine the interval of each coefficient above as follows: coefficient above as follows: ܽଷ ሺ ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ௫ିଷ has a solution which is continuous ܽଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ʹ‫ ݔ‬െ ͵ሻ ൌ ሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ͳሻሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͵ሻ has a solution ௫ାଶ which is continuous everywhere (Ը) except ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ͳ and everywhere (Ը) except ‫ ݔ‬ൌ െʹ ƒ† ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ͵Ǥ ‫ ݔ‬ൌ െ͵. we need to find the domain for the solution of the above differential equation in 28 M.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Solution: Finding largest interval on the ‫ ݔ‬െ ܽ‫ݏ݅ݔ‬ Solution: Finding largest interval on the ‫ ݔ‬െ ܽ‫ݏ݅ݔ‬ means that we need to find the domain for the solution means that we need to find the domain for the solution of the above differential equation in other words we of the above differential equation in other words we need to find for what values of ‫ ݔ‬the solution of the need to find for what values of ‫ ݔ‬the solution of the above differential equation holds. the interval ሾെͳǡ λሻ. ܽଶ ሺ ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ʹ has a solution which is continuous ଵ everywhere (Ը). Thus.2 Find the largest interval on the ‫ ݔ‬െ ܽ‫ݏ݅ݔ‬ ଵ so that ሺ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ʹ‫ ݔ‬െ ͵ሻ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͳͲ has a Solution: ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ is a linear differential ௫ାଷ solution. Example 1. we also suppose the following: ‫ݔ‬െ͵ ܽଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ʹ‫ ݔ‬െ ͵ሻ ܽଷ ሺ ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ݔ‬൅ʹ ܽଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ ܽଶ ሺ ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ʹ ͳ ܽ଴ ሺ ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܽଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ξ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳ ‫ݔ‬൅͵ ‫ܭ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͷ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͹ ‫ܭ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͳͲ Now.4. the largest interval on the ‫ ݔ‬െ ܽ‫ ݏ݅ݔ‬is ሺ͵ǡ λሻ.4. the largest interval on the ‫ ݔ‬െ ܽ‫ ݏ݅ݔ‬is ሺͳǡ λሻ. First.3 Solve the following Initial Value Problem (IVP): ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ.4. Given ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ ͵. we need to determine the interval of each Now. everywhere (Ը).1. Given ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺʹሻ ൌ ͳͲǡ ‫ݕ‬ሺʹሻ ൌ Ͷ. Example 1. ‫ܭ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͳͲ has a solution which is continuous ‫ܭ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͷ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͹ has a solution which is continuous everywhere (Ը). Therefore. we also suppose the following: Using definition 1. Kaabar 29 . equation of order 1.1. we do the following: following: ௫ିଷ ଵ ௫ାଶ ‫ ݕ‬ሺଷሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ʹ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ξ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͷ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͹ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ʹ‫ ݔ‬െ ͵ሻ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ௫ାଷ ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͳͲ Using definition 1.4. we do the above differential equation holds. Thus. Therefore.

other words we need to find for what values of ‫ ݔ‬the ܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͵ሻ ൌ ͵ solution of the above differential equation holds.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved other words we need to find for what values of ‫ ݔ‬the ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͵݁ ିଷ௫ (It is written in terms of ‫ ݔ‬instead of ‫ݐ‬ solution of the above differential equation holds. and ‫ܻݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻ ൅ ͵ܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ͳ. 30 M. ܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ሺ௦ାଷሻ ଷ Therefore. Example 1. ᇱ ࣦሼ‫ ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൅ ͵ࣦሼ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ Ͳ because (ࣦሼͲሽ ൌ Ͳ). we need to find the inverse laplace Using definition 1. we will find ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ by finding the derivative of Using definition 1. ܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͵ሻ ൌ ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻ Solution: ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ is a linear differential We substitute ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ ͵ because it is given in the equation of order 2. First. we need to find the domain for the solution of the above differential equation in question itself.1.2.1.1 section 4.4.com .ebook3000. because we need it in terms of ‫)ݔ‬. we do the following: ͳ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ Then. to check our solution if it is right. we do the following: ͳ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ To find a solution. Problem (IVP): ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ. Kaabar 31 www. Therefore.2. we also suppose the following: transform as follows: ܽଶ ሺ ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͳ ࣦ ିଵ ሼܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻሽ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ ͵ ቅ ͳ ൌ ͵ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ‫ݏ‬൅͵ሻቅ and we use table ܽଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ ‫ݏ‬൅͵ሻ ܽ଴ ሺ ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͵ 1.1. we also suppose the following: what we got above (‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͵݁ ିଷ௫ ሻ as follows: ܽଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͳ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ሺ͵݁ ିଷ௫ ሻᇱ ൌ ሺ͵ሻሺെ͵ሻ݁ ିଷ௫ ൌ െͻ݁ ିଷ௫ . our solution is correct which is ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͵݁ ିଷ௫ and ᇱ ࣦሼ‫ ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൅ ࣦሼ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼͲሽ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ െͻ݁ ିଷ௫ . Given ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ Ͳ. െͻ݁ ିଷ௫ in Now. ‫ ܭ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ The domain of solution is ሺെλǡ λሻ. we need to take the laplace transform for െͻ݁ ିଷ௫ ൅ ͵ሺ͵݁ ିଷ௫ ሻ ൌ െͻ݁ ିଷ௫ ൅ ሺͻ݁ ିଷ௫ ሻ ൌ Ͳ both sides as follows Thus.4. we ‫ ܭ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ substitute what we got from ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͵݁ ିଷ௫ and ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ The domain of solution is ሺെλǡ λሻ. ܽ଴ ሺ ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͵ Finally. to find the solution of the above differential ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ as follows: equation.4.4 Solve the following Initial Value ൫‫ܻݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻ൯ ൅ ͵ܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ from result 1.

we will find ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ by finding the derivative of section 5 in table 1.1. ଵ ‫ ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ •‹ሺξ͵ ‫ݔ‬ሻ (It is written in terms of ‫ ݔ‬instead of Example 1. we ଶ ᇱ ‫ܻ ݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫ݕݏ‬ሺͲሻ െ ‫ ݕ‬ሺͲሻ ൅ ͵ܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ substitute what we got from ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ and ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ in ܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻሺ‫ ݏ‬ଶ ൅ ͵ሻ ൌ ‫ݕݏ‬ሺͲሻ ൅ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻ ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ as follows: We substitute ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ Ͳ. table 1. to check our solution if it is right.2.5. to find the solution of the above differential ͳ ͳ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ൬ •‹ሺξ͵ ‫ݔ‬ሻ൰ ൌ ൫ξ͵൯ …‘•൫ξ͵ ‫ݔ‬൯ ൌ …‘•൫ξ͵ ‫ݔ‬൯ equation. ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ࣦሼ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ሽ. Thus.2. and ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ͳ because it is െξ͵ •‹൫ξ͵‫ݔ‬൯ ൅ ξ͵ ‫݊݅ݏ‬൫ξ͵ ‫ݔ‬൯ ൌ Ͳ given in the question itself. we obtain: ଵ ࣦሼ݁ ௕௫ ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ȁ‫ ݏ‬՜ ‫ ݏ‬െ ܾ what we got above ቀ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ •‹ሺξ͵ ‫ݔ‬ሻቁ as follows: ξଷ Let ܾ ൌ ͵. ξଷ ‫ ݐ‬because we need it in terms of ‫)ݔ‬. and ݂ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ͵ݔ‬. we need to take the laplace transform for ξ͵ ξ͵ both sides as follows Now. 32 M. our solution is correct which is ଶ ܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͵ሻ ൌ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻሺͲሻ ൅ ͳ ‫ ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ଵ •‹ሺξ͵ ‫ݔ‬ሻ and ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ െξ͵ •‹൫ξ͵‫ݔ‬൯.5 Properties of Laplace ܻ ሺ‫ ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ଶ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͵ሻ To find a solution. Finally.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ᇱ Now. Solution: By using shifting property at the left side of Then. We start with some examples of shifting property. Kaabar 33 . and convolution.1 Find ࣦሼ݁ ଷ௫ ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ሽ. we discuss several properties of laplace ͳ ͳ ͳ transforms such as shifting.1. ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ൫…‘•൫ξ͵ ‫ݔ‬൯൯ ൌ െξ͵ •‹൫ξ͵‫ݔ‬൯ ሺ‫ ݏ‬ଶ ܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫ݕݏ‬ሺͲሻ െ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻሻ ൅ ͵ܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ from result 1.1 at the left side of section 3.1. we need to find the inverse laplace Transforms transform as follows: In this section. we will find ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ by finding the derivative of ࣦሼ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൅ ࣦሼ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼͲሽ what we got above as follows: ᇱ ࣦሼ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൅ ͵ࣦሼ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ Ͳ because (ࣦሼͲሽ ൌ Ͳ). ࣦ ିଵ ሼܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻሽ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ൜൫ ‫ ʹݏ‬൅͵൯ ൠ ൌ ξ͵ ࣦ ିଵ ൝ ʹ ൡ and we use ൬‫ ʹݏ‬൅ሺξ͵ሻ ൰ periodic function. unit step function. ξଷ ଶ ܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͵ሻ ൌ Ͳ ൅ ͳ ܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻሺ‫ ݏ‬ଶ ൅ ͵ሻ ൌ ͳ ͳ 1.

1.com .3 Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ିଶሻమ ାସ ቅ. ሺ௦ሻర By using shifting property at the right side of section 5 Now. ‫ݏ‬ ‫ݏ‬൅ʹെʹ ‫ݏ‬൅ʹ ʹ Hence. ‫ܨ‬ଵ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ‫ݏ‬െʹሻʹ ൅Ͷ ቅ.2 Find ࣦሼ݁ ିଶ௫ •‹ሺͶ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ. Thus.ebook3000. ௦ Thus. we need to substitute ‫ ݏ‬with ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹ as follows: ‫ݏ‬ ͳ െʹ Ͷ ࣦെͳ ቊ ͵ ቋ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቊ ʹ ቋ ൅ ࣦെͳ ቊ ቋ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻ͵ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻଶ ൅ ͳ͸ ସ By using shifting property at the right side of section 5 Thus.1.5. in table 1. we need to substitute ‫ ݏ‬with ‫ ݏ‬െ ͵ as follows: in table 1.5. ሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹሻଶ ൅ Ͷ ሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹሻଶ ൅ Ͷ 34 M. ࣦሼ݁ ଷ௫ ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ሽ ൌ ሺ௦ିଷሻర ൌ ሺ௦ିଷሻర. we need Let ܾ ൌ െʹ. ௦ ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ିଶሻమ ାସ ቅ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ሼ‫ܨ‬ଵ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ȁ‫ ݏ‬՜ ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹ ሽ ൅ ࣦ ିଵ ሼ‫ܨ‬ଶ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ȁ‫ ݏ‬՜ ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹ ሽ Example 1. we obtain: ௦ Example 1. ࣦሼ݁ ଷ௫ ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ሽ ൌ ࣦሼ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ሽ ȁ‫ ݏ‬՜ ‫ ݏ‬െ ͵ ൌ ሺ௦ሻయశభ ȁ‫ ݏ‬՜ ‫ ݏ‬െ ͵ ൌ ‫ݏ‬ ‫ݏ‬െʹ ʹ ࣦെͳ ൜ ൠ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ൜ ൠ ൅ ࣦെͳ ൜ ൠ ሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹሻʹ ൅ Ͷ ሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹሻ ଶ ൅ Ͷ ሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹሻʹ ൅ Ͷ ଷǨ ȁ‫ ݏ‬՜ ‫ ݏ‬െ ͵.4 Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ାଶሻయ ቅ.1. and ‫ܨ‬ଶ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ାଶሻయ ቅ. and ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ •‹ሺͶ‫ݔ‬ሻ. we need Let ܾ ൌ െʹ. we obtain: ͵Ǩ ͸ ࣦ ିଵ ሼ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ȁ‫ ݏ‬՜ ‫ ݏ‬െ ܾ ሽ ൌ ݁ ௕௫ ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ͵ሻସ ሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ͵ሻସ ‫ݏ‬െʹ ʹ ଷǨ ଺ Let ܾ ൌ ʹ. to do the following: ࣦ ିଵ ቄ ௦ ቅ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ሼ‫ܨ‬ଵ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ȁ‫ ݏ‬՜ ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹ ሽ ൅ ࣦ ିଵ ሼ‫ܨ‬ଶ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ȁ‫ ݏ‬՜ ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹ ሽ ሺ௦ାଶሻయ ‫ݏ‬ ‫ݏ‬െʹ൅ʹ ࣦ ିଵ ൜ ൠ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ൜ ൠ ௦ ሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹሻ ൅ Ͷ ଶ ሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹሻଶ ൅ Ͷ Thus. and ‫ܨ‬ଶ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ‫ݏ‬െʹሻʹ ൅Ͷ ቅ.1. ࣦሼ݁ ௕௫ ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ȁ‫ ݏ‬՜ ‫ ݏ‬െ ܾ Solution: Since we have a shift such as ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹ.5 Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మିସ ቅ. we obtain: Example 1.1. ࣦሼ݁ ିଶ௫ •‹ሺͶ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼ•‹ሺͶ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ȁ‫ ݏ‬՜ ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ൜ ൠ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ൜ ൠ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ൜ െ ൠ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻଷ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻଷ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻଷ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻଷ Ͷ ‫ݏ‬ ‫ݏ‬൅ʹ െʹ ȁ‫ ݏ‬՜ ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹ ࣦെͳ ቊ ቋ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቊ ቋ ൅ ࣦെͳ ቊ ቋ ‫ ݏ‬ଶ ൅ ͳ͸ ͵ ͵ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻ͵ Now. ࣦ ିଵ ሼ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ȁ‫ ݏ‬՜ ‫ ݏ‬െ ܾ ሽ ൌ ݁ ௕௫ ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ଵ ିଶ Solution: Since we have a shift such as ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹ. ‫ܨ‬ଵ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ାଶሻమ ቅ.1.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ଷǨ Hence.5. ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ିଶሻమ ାସ ቅ ൌ ݁ ଶ௫ …‘•ሺʹ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ݁ ଶ௫ •‹ሺʹ‫ݔ‬ሻǤ Solution: By using shifting property at the left side of ௦ section 5 in table 1. Kaabar 35 www. ࣦሼ݁ ିଶ௫ •‹ሺͶ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ሺ௦ାଶሻమାଵ଺ . to do the following: ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ࣦሼ•‹ሺͶ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ.5. ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ାଶሻయ ቅ ൌ ݁ ିଶ௫ ‫ ݔ‬െ ݁ ିଶ௫ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ Ǥ ‫ݏ‬െʹ ʹ ଵ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ൜ ൅ ൠ Example 1.

ࣦሼ‫ ݁ݔ‬௫ ሽ ൌ ሺെͳሻଵ ‫ ܨ‬ሺଵሻ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ െ‫ ܨ‬ሺଵሻ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ to finish it. value of ܽ. we need to do the following: Example 1.6 Find ࣦሼ‫ ݁ݔ‬௫ ሽ. we will introduce a new property from table 1. in this case. ͳ ͳ ͳ െͶ Solution: By using the left side of section 9 in table ࣦ ିଵ ൜ ൠ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቐ Ͷ ൅ ቑ ‫ݏ‬ଶ െ Ͷ ሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹሻ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻ 1. and substitute ‫ ݏ‬ൌ ʹ in ሺ௦ିଶሻሺ௦ାଶሻ to find the that we first need to find the laplace transform of ݂ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. and and then we need to find the first derivative of the ଵ result from the laplace transform.1. Now.1 (‫ ݔ‬଴ ൌ ͳሻ. we obtain: ͳ ͳ ݀ ௠ ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ͳ െ ࣦሼ‫ ݐ‬௠ ݂ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻሽሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ሺെͳሻ௠ ൌ ሺെͳሻ௠ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ௠ሻ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ Ͷ Ͷ ቑ ݀‫ ݏ‬௠ ࣦെͳ ൜ ʹ ൠ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቐ ቑ ൅ ࣦെͳ ቐ ‫ ݏ‬െͶ ሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹሻ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻ where ࣦሼ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ. ሺ௦ିଶሻሺ௦ାଶሻ ᇱ ଵ ଵ ‫ ܨ‬ሺଵሻ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ܨ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ሺࣦሼ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽሻᇱ ൌ ሺࣦሼ݁ ௫ ሽሻᇱ ൌ ቀ ቁ ൌെ ଵ ଵ ௦ିଵ ሺ௦ିଵሻమ Thus. we cover the original. we obtain: ͳ ܽ ܾ ݀ ௠ ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ൅ ࣦሼ‫ ݐ‬௠ ݂ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻሽሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ሺെͳሻ௠ ൌ ሺെͳሻ௠ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ௠ሻ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹሻሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻ ሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹሻ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻ ݀‫ ݏ‬௠ It is easier to use a method known as cover method where ࣦሼ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ. we cover the original. 2. Since the numerator has a polynomial of degree 0 Now.1. we need to find ‫ ܨ‬ሺଵሻ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ as follows: This means ଵ say ሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹሻ. Š—•ǡ ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦ మିସ ቅ ൌ ସ ݁ ଶ௫ െ ସ ݁ ିଶ௫ . and ݂ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ •‹ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ.1. Thus. substitute ‫ ݏ‬ൌ െʹ in to find the value of ܾ. and the denominator a polynomial of degree in the following two examples.1. than using the traditional method that takes long time Hence.7 Find ࣦሼ‫ ݔ‬ଶ •‹ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ. ܽ ൌ and ܾ ൌ െ .5. This implies that ସ ସ ଵ Thus.5. then this means the degree of numerator is less than Example 1.1. Kaabar 37 . Now. Then. we need Solution: By using the left side of section 9 in table to use the partial fraction as follows: 1. the degree of denominator. ࣦሼ‫ ݁ݔ‬௫ ሽ ൌ ሺെͳሻଵ ‫ ܨ‬ሺଵሻ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ െ‫ ܨ‬ሺଵሻ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ െ ቀെ ሺ௦ିଵሻమ ቁ ൌ ͳ ͳ ͳ െ ൌ ൅ Ͷ Ͷ ଵ ሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹሻሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻ ሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹሻ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻ ሺ௦ିଵሻమ . say ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻ.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ଵ ଵ ଵ ଵ ଵ Solution: ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మିସ ቅ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ିଶሻሺ௦ାଶሻ ቅ. ࣦሼ‫ ݔ‬ଶ •‹ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ሺെͳሻଶ ‫ ܨ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ܨ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ࣦെͳ ൜ ʹ ൠ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ൜ ൠ െ ࣦെͳ ൜ ൠ ‫ ݏ‬െͶ Ͷ ሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹሻ Ͷ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻ 36 M. In the cover method. ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ Hence. and ݂ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ .

and ‫Ͳ ݕ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ ቀ ቁ ൌ ሺ௦ మାଵሻమ ሺ௦ మାଵሻర because it is given in the question itself. ଵ ሺ௦ మ ାଵሻర ሺ‫ ݏ‬ଶ ܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ Ͳ െ Ͳሻ ൅ ͷሺ‫ܻݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ Ͳሻ ൅ ͸ܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ௦ Example 1. ͳ ܽ ܾ ܿ ൌ ൅ ൅ ‫ݏ‬ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͵ሻሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻ ‫ ݏ‬ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͵ሻ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻ Now. ܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻሺ‫ ݏ‬ଶ ൅ ͷ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͸ሻ ൌ ௦ ଵ Solution: ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͷ‫ ݕ‬ሺଵሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͸‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͳ is a linear ͳ ͳ ܻ ሺ‫ ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ൌ differential equation of order 2. Therefore. we need to take the laplace transform for we cover the original.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Now. ିଶሺ௦ మାଵሻమା଼௦ మሺ௦ మ ାଵሻ Thus. we need ‫ ܭ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͳ to use the partial fraction as follows: The domain of solution is ሺെλǡ λሻ. we need to find ‫ ݏ‬ሺ‫ ݏ‬ଶ ൅ ͷ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͸ሻ ‫ݏ‬ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͵ሻሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻ the domain for the solution of the above differential To find a solution. Thus.com .1. First. we do the following: ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ሼܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻሽ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቄ ቅ ‫ݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬൅͵ሻሺ‫ݏ‬൅ʹሻ ͳ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͷ‫ ݕ‬ሺଵሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͸‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͳ Since the numerator has a polynomial of degree 0 Using definition 1.2.5.2. Kaabar 39 www. result from the laplace transform. we also suppose the following: ܽଶ ሺ ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͳ (‫ ݔ‬଴ ൌ ͳሻ. ଵ ଵ ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ ݏ‬ଶ ܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫ݕݏ‬ሺͲሻ െ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻሻ ൅ ͷሺ‫ܻݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻሻ ൅ ͸ܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ܨ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ܨ‬ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ሺࣦሼ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽሻᇱᇱ ൌ ሺࣦሼ•‹ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽሻᇱᇱ ൌ ቀ ቁ ൌ ௦ ௦ మାଵ ᇱሺ ିଶ௦ ᇱ ିଶሺ௦ మ ାଵሻమା଼௦ మ ሺ௦ మ ାଵሻ from result 1. In the cover method. We substitute ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ Ͳ. 38 M. we use the cover method. equation.4. Given ௦ ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ Ͳ.8 Solve the following Initial Value ଵ ‫ ݏ‬ଶ ܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൅ ͷ‫ܻݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൅ ͸ܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ Problem (IVP): ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͷ‫ ݕ‬ሺଵሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͸‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͳ. ࣦሼ‫ ݔ‬ଶ •‹ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ . in this case. ͳ ࣦሼ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൅ ͷࣦሼ‫ ݕ‬ሺଵሻ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሽ ൅ ͸ࣦሼ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ‫ݏ‬ and then we need to find the second derivative of the ͳ because ቀࣦሼͳሽ ൌ ‫ ݏ‬ቁ. we need to find the inverse laplace equation in other words we need to find for what transform as follows: values of ‫ ݔ‬the solution of the above differential ͳ equation holds. We cover the original. and substitute ‫ ݏ‬ൌ Ͳ in both sides as follows ଵ ௦ሺ௦ାଷሻሺ௦ାଶሻ to find the value of ܽ. to find the solution of the above differential Now. we need to find ‫ ܨ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ as follows: This means ࣦሼ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൅ ࣦሼͷ‫ ݕ‬ሺଵሻ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሽ ൅ ࣦሼ͸‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼͳሽ that we first need to find the laplace transform of ݂ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. say ‫ݏ‬. then this means the degree of numerator is less than ܽ଴ ሺ ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͸ the degree of denominator.ebook3000. and the denominator a polynomial of degree ܽଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͷ 3.

5. then by ݂ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͵൫ܷሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ͳሻ െ ܷሺ‫ ݔ‬െ Ͷሻ൯ using definition 1. the value of ܾ.1.12 Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄ ቅ. ‫ݏ‬ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͵ሻሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻ ‫ ݏ‬ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͵ሻ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻ ௦ ௘ షమೞ െͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ Example 1. ܾ ൌ and ܿ ൌ െ . ൌ .1.5. Then. ܷ݊݅‫݊݋݅ݐܿ݊ݑܨ ݌݁ݐܵ ݐ‬. we do the following: Solution: Since ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ͺ is between ܽ ൌ ͹ and λ. Then. ࣦሼܷሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ͵ሻሽ ൌ ௘ షయೞ . Unit Step Function is ௘ షమೞ Ͳ ݂݅ Ͳ ൑ ‫ ݔ‬൏ ʹ Thus.5. This implies that ଺ ଷ ଶ Example 1.10 Find ܷሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ͵ሻȁ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ͳ. Thus. and substitute ‫ ݏ‬ൌ െ͵ in ௦ሺ௦ାଷሻሺ௦ାଶሻ to find Example 1.5. b) ܷሺ‫ ݔ‬െ λሻ ൌ Ͳ for every Ͳ ൑ ‫ ݔ‬൑ λ. we obtain: ௦ሺ௦ାଷሻሺ௦ାଶሻ ଵ ଵ ଵ ܷሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ͵ሻȁ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ͳ ൌ ܷ ሺͳ െ ͹ሻ ൌ Ͳ.1. ൅ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻሺܷሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ͳͲሻ െ ͲሻǤ 40 M. we obtain: ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ ݂݅ ͳͲ ൑ ‫ ݔ‬൏ λ a) ܷሺ‫ ݔ‬െ Ͳሻ ൌ ܷሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͳ for every Ͳ ൑ ‫ ݔ‬൑ λ.5.5. then by and substitute ‫ ݏ‬ൌ െʹ in ଵ to find the value of using definition 1. we cover the original.5.1.9 Find ܷሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ͹ሻȁ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ͺ.13 Given ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ቐ െ‫ݔ‬ ݂݅ Ͷ ൑ ‫ ݔ‬൏ ͳͲ Result 1. say ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻ. ࣦ ൜ ൠ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ൜ ൠ ൅ ࣦെͳ ൜ ൠ ௦ ‫ݏ‬ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͵ሻሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻ ͸ ‫ݏ‬ ͵ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͵ሻ Solution: By using the right side of section 7 in table ͳ ͳ െ ࣦെͳ ൜ ൠ 1.1. we need to do the following: ݁ ି௕௦ ࣦሼܷሺ‫ ݐ‬െ ܾሻሽ ൌ ͳ ͳ ͳ ‫ݏ‬ ͳ ͸ ͵ െʹ ିଵ ቊ ିଵ ቋൌࣦ ቐ ൅ ቑ ࣦ ൅ Thus. Solution: Since ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ͳ is between 0 and ൌ ͵ .1. Solution: To re-write ݂ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ in terms of Example 1.5. we obtain: ൅ ሺെ‫ ݔ‬ሻ൫ܷሺ‫ ݔ‬െ Ͷሻ െ ܷሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ͳͲሻ൯ ܷሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ͹ሻȁ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ͺ ൌ ܷ ሺͺ െ ͹ሻ ൌ ͳ. ࣦ ିଵ ቄ ቅ ൌ ܷሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ʹሻ ൌ ൜ Ͳ ݂݅ Ͳ ൑ ‫ ݔ‬൏ ܽ ௦ ͳ ݂݅ ʹ ൑ ‫ ݔ‬൏ λ defined as follows: ܷሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ܽሻ ൌ ൜ ͵ ݂݅ ͳ ൑ ‫ ݔ‬൏ Ͷ ͳ ݂݅ ܽ ൑ ‫ ݔ‬൏ λ Example 1. Kaabar 41 .11 Find ࣦሼܷሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ͵ሻሽ.1 Given ܽ ൒ Ͳ.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ଵ say ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͵ሻ. Rewrite ݂ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ in terms of ܷ݊݅‫݊݋݅ݐܿ݊ݑܨ ݌݁ݐܵ ݐ‬. ࣦ ିଵ ቊ ቋ ൌ ܷሺ‫ ݐ‬െ ܾሻ ‫ݏ‬ Definition 1. ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ െʹ Solution: By using the left side of section 7 in table ൌ͸ ൅ ͵ ൅ ‫ݏ‬ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͵ሻሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻ ‫ݏ‬ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͵ሻ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻ 1. we obtain: Now.1 Given ܽ ൐ Ͳ. we obtain: ʹ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻ ଵ ଵ ଵ ଵ ݁ ି௕௦ Š—•ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦ሺ௦ାଷሻሺ௦ାଶሻቅ ൌ ଺ ൅ ଷ ݁ ିଷ௫ െ ଶ ݁ ିଶ௫ .5. ܿ.

௫ ଵ Thus.1. Kaabar 43 www. Example 1.2 and section 10 in ൅ ሺͻ ൅ ͳሻሺܷሺͻ െ ͳͲሻ െ Ͳሻ table 1.3 ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ is a periodic function on ሾͲǡ λሻ if Solution: By using the upper side of section 6 in table ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ has a period ܲ such that ݂ ሺܾሻ ൌ ݂ሺܾ െ ܲሻ for every 1.5.1.2 Convolution.16 Given ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ is periodic on ሾͲǡ λሻ such that the first period of ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ is given by the following Hence.2 ࣦሼ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ‫݄ כ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼ݄ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ‫݂ כ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ Since we need find the 8th period. ௫ ݂ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ‫݄ כ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ න ݂ሺ߰ሻ݄ሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ߰ሻ݀߰ Solution: Part a: By using section 13 in table 1.ebook3000. b) Suppose ܲ ൌ ͺ.1. our unit step functions are correct. we obtain: ௫ ݂ሺͻሻ ൌ ͵ሺͳ െ ͳሻ ൅ ሺെͻሻሺͳ െ Ͳሻ ൅ ሺͳͲሻሺͲ െ Ͳሻ ͳ ͳ ࣦ ൝න ‫݊݅ݏ‬ሺ߰ሻ݀߰ൡ ൌ ࣦሼͳ ‫‹• כ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼͳሽ ή ࣦሼ•‹ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ή ‫ ݏ‬ሺ‫ ݏ‬ଶ ൅ ͳሻ ݂ሺͻሻ ൌ ͵ሺͲሻ ൅ ሺെͻሻሺͳሻ ൅ ሺͳͲሻሺͲሻ ଴ ݂ሺͻሻ ൌ Ͳ ൅ ሺെͻሻሺͳሻ ൅ Ͳ ൌ െͻǤ ͳ ൌ ‫ݏ‬ሺ‫ ݏ‬ଶ൅ ͳሻ Thus. ൜ ௦ ௦ െʹ ݂݅ ʹ ൑ ‫ ݔ‬൏ ͺ Definition 1.2 to find ௫ ࣦ൛‫׬‬଴ ‫݊݅ݏ‬ሺ߰ሻ݀߰ൟ.5.14 Find ࣦሼ‫ܷݔ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ʹሻሽ. ͳ െ ݁ ି௉௦ ଴ Result 1. (Note: do not ௉ ͳ ࣦሼ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ න ݁ ି௦௧ ݂ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ݀‫ݔ‬ confuse between multiplication and convolution). follows: We choose ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ͻ. we need to check our unit step functions as Result 1. ࣦ൛‫׬‬଴ ‫݊݅ݏ‬ሺ߰ሻ݀߰ൟ ൌ ௦ሺ௦మାଵሻ. we ଴ obtain: where ݂ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ and ݄ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ are functions.1. and we can apply what we got above as follows: of this result left as an exercise 16 in section 1.3 ࣦሼ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ή ݄ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ് ࣦሼ݄ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ή ࣦሼ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ.5.5. we obtain: ܾ ൒ ܲ. Find ݂ሺͳͲሻ.5. Find ݂ሺ͵Ͳሻ. ࣦሼ݄ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻܷሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ܾሻሽ ൌ ݁ ି௕௦ ࣦሼ݄ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ܾሻሽ where ܾ ൌ ʹ.1.15 Use definition 1.5. Example 1. and ݄ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ݔ‬. 42 M. then this means that ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ή ‫ܪ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ where ݂ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ and ݄ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ are functions. as follows: c) Suppose ܲ ൌ ͺ.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Now. Definition 1. denoted by ‫כ‬ǡ is defined a) Find the 8th period of this function.5.1. (The proof ܲ ൌ ͺ.7).5. ݂ሺͻሻ ൌ ͵൫ܷ ሺͻ െ ͳሻ െ ܷሺͻ െ Ͷሻ൯ ൅ ሺെͻሻ൫ܷሺͻ െ Ͷሻ െ ܷሺͻ െ ͳͲሻ൯ Solution: By using definition 1. ࣦሼ‫ܷݔ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ʹሻሽ ൌ ݁ ିଶ௦ ࣦሼ݄ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ʹሻሽ ൌ ݁ ିଶ௦ ࣦሼ‫ ݔ‬൅ ʹሽ ൌ piece-wise continuous function: ଵ ଶ ͵ ݂݅ Ͳ ൑ ‫ ݔ‬൏ ʹ ݁ ିଶ௦ ቀ మ ൅ ቁ. Example 1.com .5.

ࣦሼ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ න ݁ ି௦௧ ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ න ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ݁ ି௦௧ ݀‫ݔ‬ ͳ െ ݁ ି଼௦ ͳ െ ݁ ି଼௦ Solution: By using the right side of section 12 in table ଴ ଴ Using the given first period function. we obtain: Definition 1. Kaabar 45 . ߜ ൏ ݆ ൏ ݅ is chosen arbitrary. such as initial value problems (IVP).3. we discuss how ݂ሺͳͶሻ ൌ ݂ሺͳͶ െ ͺሻ ൌ ݂ ሺ͸ሻ ൌ െʹ from the given first to use what we have learned from previous sections period function. we obtain: 1.5. 44 M. differential equations. First Edition1. Then.5.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ଼ ଼ ͳ ͳ Example 1.6 Systems of Linear ൌ ቎͵ න ݁ ି௦௧ ݀‫ ݔ‬െ ʹ න ݁ ି௦௧ ݀‫ݔ‬቏ ͳ െ ݁ ି଼௦ ͳ ͵ ଴ ଶ ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ʹ ʹ ି௦௧ ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ͺ Equations ൌ ൤െ ݁ ି௦௧ ฬ ൅ ݁ ฬ ൨ ͳ െ ݁ ି଼௦ ‫ݏ‬ ‫ݔ‬ൌͲ ‫ݏ‬ ‫ݔ‬ൌʹ Most of the materials of this section are taken from ͳ ͵ ʹ ൌ ି଼௦ ൤െ ሺ݁ ିଶ௧ െ ͳሻ ൅ ሺ݁ ି଼௧ െ ݁ ିଶ௧ ሻ൨ section 1. ࣦሼ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ න ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ݁ ି௦௧ ݀‫ݔ‬ ͳ െ ݁ ି଼௦ ଴ ͳ ଶ ଼ 1. Ͳ ݂݅ Ͳ ൑ ‫ ݐ‬൏ ሺ݅ െ ݆ሻ Let  ൌ  be the matrix form of the given system: ‫ͳۓ‬ ‫ݔ‬ଵ ܽଵ ߜ௝ ሺ‫ ݐ‬െ ݅ ሻ ൌ ݂݅ ሺ݅ െ ݆ሻ ൑ ‫ ݐ‬൏ ሺ݅ ൅ ݆ሻ ‫ ݔ ۍ‬ଶ ‫ܽ ۍ ې‬ଶ ‫ې‬ ‫݆ʹ۔‬ ‫ۑ ێ ۑ ێ‬ ‫Ͳە‬ ‫ ݐ‬൒ ሺ݅ ൅ ݆ሻ  ‫ ݔ ێ‬ଷ ‫ ۑ‬ൌ ‫ܽ ێ‬ଷ ‫ۑ‬ ߜ௝ ሺ‫ ݐ‬െ ݅ ሻ is called Dirac Delta Function.3. very important to give a review from linear algebra Part c: By using definition 1.4 Suppose that ݅ ൐ Ͳ is fixed.17 Find ࣦሼߜሺ‫ ݐ‬൅ ͳʹሻሽ. we obtain: in Linear Algebra: Study Guide for the Undergraduate ݂ሺͳͲሻ ൌ ݂ሺͳͲ െ ͺሻ ൌ ݂ ሺʹሻ ൌ െʹ from the given first Linear Algebra Course.1. we obtain: about Cramer’s rule.1. because it is period function.8 in my published book titled A First Course ͳെ݁ ‫ݏ‬ ‫ݏ‬ Part b: By using definition 1. ࣦሼߜሺ‫ ݐ‬൅ ͳʹሻሽ ൌ ݁ଵଶ௦ . ‫ۑڭێ ۑڭێ‬ ‫ ݔ ۏ‬௡ ‫ܽ ۏ ے‬௡ ‫ے‬ Result 1.6. and Cramer’s rule to solve systems of linear equations.1 Given ݊ ൈ ݊ system of linear equations.5. and how to use Definition 1. In this section.5. we obtain: ࣦሼߜሺ‫ ݐ‬െ ܾሻሽ ൌ ݁ ି௕௦ ଼ ͳ Thus.5. and how some concepts of linear ݂ሺ͵Ͳሻ ൌ ݂ሺ͵Ͳ െ ͺሻ ൌ ݂ ሺʹʹሻǤ algebra can be used to solve some problems in ݂ሺʹʹሻ ൌ ݂ሺʹʹ െ ͺሻ ൌ ݂ሺͳͶሻ.4 ߜ ሺ‫ ݐ‬െ ݅ ሻ ൌ Ž‹௜՜଴శ ߜ௝ ሺ‫ ݐ‬െ ݅ ሻ.

‫ ݏ‬ଶ ܰ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ Ͷ‫ܯ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹ. we need to take the laplace transform †‡– ൥ͳ ‫ͳ ڭ‬൩ of both sides for each of the above two equations. we write ʹ ൈ ʹ system in the form Thus. For ‫ʹ ݊݋݅ݐܽݑݍܧ‬ǣ We take the laplace transform of both ʹ ͹ ‫ݔ‬ଵ ͳ͵ sides: ቂ ቃቂ ቃ ൌ ቂ ቃ െͳͲ ͵ ‫ݔ‬ଶ െͶ ࣦሼ݊ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻሽ ൅ ࣦሼʹ݉Ԣ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼͷ݁ʹ‫ ݐ‬ሽ ʹ ͹ Since W in this form is ቂ ቃ. then െͳͲ ͵ ࣦሼ݊ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻሽ ൅ ʹࣦሼ݉Ԣ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻሽ ൌ ͷࣦሼ݁ʹ‫ ݐ‬ሽ †‡–ሺሻ ൌ ሺʹ ή ͵ሻ െ ൫͹ ή ሺെͳͲሻ൯ ൌ ͸ െ ሺെ͹Ͳሻ ൌ ͹͸ ് ͲǤ ͷ ܰሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൅ ʹ൫‫ ܯݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ݉ሺͲሻ൯ ൌ The solutions for this system of linear equations are: ‫ݏ‬െʹ 46 M.  ൌ  according to definition 1.ebook3000.com . Kaabar 47 www. we substitute what is given in this question to equations using Cramer’s Rule: obtain the following: ʹ‫ݔ‬ଵ ൅ ͹‫ݔ‬ଶ ൌ ͳ͵ ൜ െͳͲ‫ݔ‬ଵ ൅ ͵‫ݔ‬ଶ ൌ െͶ ሺ‫ ݏ‬ଶ ܰሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹሻ െ Ͷ‫ܯ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ Solution: First of all. the solutions are ‫ݔ‬ଵ ൌ ଻଺ ƒ† ‫ݔ‬ଶ ൌ ଵଶଶ Ǥ ଻଺ linear equations are: Example 1.1.6.1 Solve the following system of linear Now.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved The system has a unique solution if and only if ͳ͵ ͹ ͳ͵ ͹ †‡– ቂ ቃ †‡– ቂ ቃ ‫ݔ‬ଵ ൌ െͶ ͵ ൌ െͶ ͵ ൌ ͸͹ †‡–ሺሻ ് Ͳ.6. ͹ ܽ௡ ͵ ‫ݔ‬ଶ ൌ For ‫ͳ ݊݋݅ݐܽݑݍܧ‬ǣ We take the laplace transform of both †‡–ሺሻ sides: ͳ ͵ ܽଵ ࣦሼ݊ԢԢ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻሽ ൅ ࣦሼെͶ݉ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼͲሽ †‡– ൥ͳ ʹ ‫ ڭ‬൩ ͹ Ͷ ܽ௡ ࣦሼ݊ԢԢ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻሽ െ Ͷࣦሼ݉ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼͲሽ ‫ݔ‬ଷ ൌ †‡–ሺሻ ሺ‫ ݏ‬ଶ ܰሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫݊ݏ‬ሺͲሻ െ ݊ᇱ ሺͲሻሻ െ Ͷ‫ܯ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ Example 1.2 Solve for ݊ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ and ݉ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ: ܽଵ ͵ Ͷ ݊ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ െ Ͷ݉ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ‫ͳ ݊݋݅ݐܽݑݍܧ‬ †‡– ൥ ‫ͳ ʹ ڭ‬൩ ൜ ܽ௡ Ͷ ͵ ݊ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൅ ʹ݉ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ͷ݁ ଶ௧ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ‫ʹ ݊݋݅ݐܽݑݍܧ‬ ‫ݔ‬ଵ ൌ Given that ݊ሺͲሻ ൌ ͳǡ ݊ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ʹǡ ƒ† ݉ሺͲሻ ൌ ͳǤ †‡–ሺሻ ͳ ܽଵ Ͷ Solution: First.6. the solutions for the system of †‡–ሺሻ ͹͸ ͹͸ ͹ Ͷ ͵ ଺଻ Thus. Cramer’s Rule tells us how to †‡–ሺሻ ͹͸ ͹͸ find ‫ݔ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݔ‬ଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ‫ݔ‬௡ as follows: ʹ ͳ͵ ʹ ͳ͵ †‡– ቂ ቃ †‡– ቂ ቃ ͳʹʹ ͳ ͵ Ͷ ‫ݔ‬ଶ ൌ െͳͲ െͶ ൌ െͳͲ െͶ ൌ Let W = ൥ͳ ʹ ͳ൩ Then.

Given ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ൜ ଶ௫ Further. ݊ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ࣦെͳ ሼܰሺ‫ݏ‬ሻሽ ൌ ࣦെͳ ቄ ቅ ൌ ݁ ଶ௧ . we substitute what is given in this question to ݊ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ Ͷ݁ ଶ௧ ݊ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ െ Ͷ݉ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ ՜ ݉ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ൌ ൌ ݁ ଶ௧ Ǥ obtain the following: Ͷ Ͷ Thus. ‫ݏ‬െʹ Now. Solve the following Initial Value Problem (IVP): ͳ ʹ‫ݏ‬ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ Ͷ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Now. ௦ାହ 2. ݊ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ʹ݁ ଶ௧ . we can find ݉ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ as follows: 48 M. ଵ Hence. Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄଷ௦ିଵ଴ቅ. ௦ ݁െͶ‫ݔ‬ 13. From what we got from Equation 1 and Equation 2. Ͷ ݂݅ Ͳ ൑ ‫ ݔ‬൏ ͵ ௦ିଶ 12. ቐ ʹ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͳ ܰሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൅ ʹ‫ܯݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ଶ 5. we use Cramer’s rule as follows: ହ 6. ହ ‫ ݏ‬ଶ ܰሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ Ͷ‫ܯ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹ 4. Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మ ି଻௦ି଼ቅ. Given ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ െͶ. Solve the following Initial Value Problem (IVP): ʹ‫ݏ‬ ൅ ‫ݏ‬െʹ ܰ ሺ‫ ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ݏ‬െʹ ൌ ͳ ʹ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͸‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ. Find ࣦሼܷ ቀ‫ ݔ‬െ ʹ ቁ •‹ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ.7 Exercises ܰሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൅ ʹ‫ ܯݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ൅ʹ ൌ ‫ݏ‬െʹ ‫ݏ‬െʹ ଵ଴ 1. Given ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ ʹ. ൌ ൌ ሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹሻሺʹ‫ ݏ‬ଷ ൅ Ͷሻ ‫ݏ‬െʹ 11. We need to find the second derivative of ݊ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ. Find ࣦሼܷሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ʹሻ݁͵‫ ݔ‬ሽ. ሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹሻሺʹ‫ ݏ‬ଶ ൅ Ͷ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൅ ͺ‫ ݏ‬൅ Ͷ ସ ൌ 9. ଶ †‡– ቂ‫ݏ‬ െͶቃ ʹ‫ ݏ‬ଷ ൅ Ͷ 8. Kaabar 49 . and ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ Ͳ. we can use one of the given equations to find ݁ ݂݅ ͵ ൑ ‫ ݔ‬൏ λ ݉ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ as follows: ݊ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ െ Ͷ݉ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ Rewrite ݂ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ in terms of ܷ݊݅‫݊݋݅ݐܿ݊ݑܨ ݌݁ݐܵ ݐ‬. Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄ ௦మ ାସ ቅ. ݊ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ Ͷ݁ ଶ௧ Ǥ Now. ݉ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ଶ௧ Ǥ ͷ ܰሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൅ ʹሺ‫ܯݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ͳሻ ൌ ‫ݏ‬െʹ ͷ ʹ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͳ 1. Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ାଷሻర ቅ. ଶ௦ାଵ Thus. Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మ ି଺௦ାଵଷቅ. Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ିସሻర ቅ. ሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹሻሺʹ‫ ݏ‬ଷ ൅ Ͷሻ ߨ ʹ‫ ݏ‬ଷ ൅ Ͷ‫ ݏ‬ଶ െ Ͷ‫ ݏ‬ଶ െ ͺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͺ‫ ݏ‬൅ Ͷ ͳ 10. we ௦ାହ need to find ܰሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ and ‫ܯ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ as follows: 3. ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹ െͶ †‡– ቈʹ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͳ ቉ ʹ‫ ݏ‬ଶ ൅ Ͷ‫ ݏ‬ͺ‫ ݏ‬൅ Ͷ 7. Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ିଵሻమሺ௦ାଷሻቅ. ܰሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൅ ʹ‫ܯݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ௦ିଶ . Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ିଵሻమାଵ଺ቅ.

we discuss how to find the ‫ ݕ‬ሺଷሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ൅‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܷ ሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ͵ሻǤ Given ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ general solution of HLDE. linear differential equations (HLDE) with constant 17. we introduce a new method called Undetermined ௫ 18. we start introducing the homogeneous 16. Solve the following Initial Value Problem (IVP): ‫ ݕ‬ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ൅͵‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ Ͷ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݂ሺͲሻ.1 Homogeneous System is defined as a (Hint: Use laplace transform to solve this problem) ݉ ൈ ݊ system of linear equations that has all zero constants. In this chapter. Find ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦మାସሻమቅ. we discuss how to find the general 21. ൞ Ͳ ‫ ݓ‬ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൅ ݄ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ Ͷ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ‫ʹ ݊݋݅ݐܽݑݍܧ‬ To give an introduction about HLDE.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved 14. Solve the following Initial Value Problem (IVP): Linear Differential ‫ ݕ‬ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ൅͹‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ͺ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ where ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ൜ ͵ ݂݅ Ͳ ൑ ‫ ݔ‬൏ ͷ Equations (HLDE) െʹ ݂݅ ͷ ൑ ‫ ݔ‬൏ λ ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ Ͳ.5. Ͳ. In addition.1. (i. Kaabar 51 www. *Definition 2. Coefficient Method. Solve the following Initial Value Problem (IVP): coefficients. Solve for ‫ݎ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ and ݇ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ: ‫ ݎ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ െ ʹ݇ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ Ǥ ‫ͳ ݊݋݅ݐܽݑݍܧ‬ ൜ ᇱᇱ ‫ ݎ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ െ ʹ݇ ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ‫ʹ ݊݋݅ݐܽݑݍܧ‬ Coefficients Given that ݇ሺͲሻ ൌ ͳǡ ‫ ݎ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ʹǡ ƒ† ‫ݎ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ ͲǤ In this section.e.com . At the end of this chapter. 2. ିଷ௦ ௧ 22. Prove result 1. 15. the following is an example of 50 M. Solve for ‫ݓ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ and ݄ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ: ‫ݐ‬ solution of the homogeneous linear differential ‫ ݓ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ െ න ݄ሺ߰ሻ݀߰ ൌ ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ‫ͳ ݊݋݅ݐܽݑݍܧ‬ equations (HLDE) with constant coefficients. Find ࣦ൛‫׬‬଴ ܿ‫ݏ݋‬ሺʹ߰ሻ݁ሺ͵‫ݔ‬൅ʹటሻ ݀߰ൟ. ଶ௦ 19. it is important to Given that ‫ݓ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ ͳǡ ‫ ݓ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ݄ሺͲሻ ൌ ͲǤ start with the definition of homogeneous system.1 HLDE with Constant 20.2. Find ݂ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ such that ݂ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ൅ ‫׬‬଴ ݂ሺ߰ሻ݀߰.ebook3000. Given Chapter 2 ͳ ݂݅ Ͳ ൑ ‫ ݔ‬൏ ͵ ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ቄ Ͳ ܱ‫݁ݏ݅ݓݎ݄݁ݐ‬ Systems of Homogeneous ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ Ͳ.

1. *Definition 2.1 in my Example 2. In addition.1. since the highest ܽ଴ ሺ ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͷ derivative is 3. In Solution: Since the above differential equation has a addition.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ʹܽ ൅ ܾ െ ܿ ൅ ݀ ൌ Ͳ Thus. For the order homogeneous differential equation. we do the following: homogeneous differential equation.1. it is linear because the dependent variable ‫ݕ‬ zero constant. Example 2.2 Describe the following differential Solution: ʹ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ Ͷ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ is a homogeneous linear differential equation of order 1.4) equation of order 2. is a non-homogeneous differential equation. For the order of this Thus.1. derivatives are to the power 1.1 is taken from section 3. it is ʹ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ Ͷ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ linear because the dependent variable ‫ ݕ‬and all its Using definition 1. we need to find equation: ͵‫ ݕ‬ሺଷሻ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻെʹ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͹‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ.1.1. derivative is 2.1. then according to definition 2. First. then according to definition 2. Given: ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ͳǤ (Hint: Use the concepts of section 1. the domain for the solution of the above differential Solution: Since the above differential equation has a equation in other words we need to find for what zero constant. Study Guide for the Undergraduate Linear Algebra Course. Solution: Since the above differential equation has a Example 2. Thus. For the order of this ܽଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ʹ homogeneous differential equation. it is a and all its derivatives are to the power 1. then the order is 2. since linear because the dependent variable ‫ ݕ‬and all its the highest derivative is 2.1. Kaabar 53 .1.4 Find the general solution the following ‫ݕ‬ ᇱᇱ ሺ ᇱ ‫ ݔ‬ሻ൅͵‫ ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ is a homogeneous linear differential Initial Value Problem (IVP): ʹ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ Ͷ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ.1. since the highest linear differential equation of order 2.1 Describe the following differential nonzero constant. First Edition1. it is a values of ‫ ݔ‬the solution of the above differential equation holds. In addition.4. then the order is 2.1. 52 M.1. it is of this non-homogeneous differential equation. Therefore. we also suppose the following: derivatives are to the power 1. ͵‫ ݕ‬ሺଷሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻെʹ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͹‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ is a homogeneous homogeneous system): ൝͵ܽ ൅ ͷܾ ൅ ͵ܿ ൅ Ͷ݀ ൌ Ͳ െܾ ൅ ܿ െ ݀ ൌ Ͳ linear differential equation of order 3. Example 2.3 Describe the following differential published book titled A First Course in Linear Algebra: equation: ͵‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻെʹ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͳʹ. then the order is 3. ͵‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻെʹ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͳʹ is a non-homogeneous homogeneous differential equation. it ᇱᇱ ሺ ᇱ equation: ‫ ݔ ݕ‬ሻ൅͵‫ ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ. then according to definition 2. ‫ ܭ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ The domain of solution is ሺെλǡ λሻ.

ܿ ൌ ͳ. ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௞௫ Result 2. ᇱ ࣦሼʹ‫ ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൅ ࣦሼͶ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ ࣦሼͲሽ Example 2. Then. Since ܻ ሺ‫ ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ൌ ൌ ʹ‫ ݏ‬൅ Ͷ ʹሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹሻ ‫ ݏ‬൅ ʹ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ െ Ͷ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ is HLDE with constant coefficients. to find the solution of the above differential Result 2. say ݂ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻǡ ݂ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻǡ ǥ ǡ ݂௡ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻǤ ݁ ௞௫ ሺ݇ ଶ െ Ͷሻ ൌ Ͳ ሺ௡ሻ b) Every solution of ݉ଵ ‫ݕ‬ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ݉ଶ ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ is of ݁ ௞௫ ሺ݇ െ ʹሻሺ݇ ൅ ʹሻ ൌ Ͳ the form: ܿଵ ݂ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ܿଶ ݂ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬൅ ܿ௡ ݂௡ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. the general solution ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܿ݁ ିଶ௫ ǡ for some as follows: constant ܿ. ʹሺ‫ܻݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻሻ ൅ Ͷܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ from result 1.5 Given ‫ ݕ‬ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ െ Ͷ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳǡ ʹࣦሼ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൅ Ͷࣦሼ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሽ ൌ Ͳ because (ࣦሼͲሽ ൌ Ͳ).2.ebook3000. Then. ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ଶ௫ 54 M.2. we will find the first and second derivatives Thus. (Hint: Use results 2. we need transform as follows: to find ݇.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Now. ݇ ൌ ʹ ‫ ݇ ݎ݋‬ൌ െʹ.1.1 Assume that ݉ଵ ‫ ݕ‬ሺ௡ሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ݉ଶ ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ is a ‫ ݕ‬ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇ ଶ ݁ ௞௫ homogeneous linear differential equation of order ݊ Now.1 and 2. ‫ݕ‬ଶ ൌ ݁ ௞మ ௫ . Here.1. for Thus. …. ‫ ݕ‬ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ െ Ͷ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ as follows: a) ݉ଵ ‫ ݕ‬ሺ௡ሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ݉ଶ ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ must have exactly ݊ ݇ ଶ ݁ ௞௫ െ Ͷ݁ ௞௫ ൌ Ͳ independent solutions. ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ Ͷǡ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ͳͲǤ Find the general solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. we need to take the laplace transform for ‫ݕ‬௡ ൌ ݁ ௞೙௫ are independent if and only if ݇ଵ ǡ ݇ଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ݇௡ are both sides as follows distinct real numbers. substitute ݇ in our assumption which is ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ௞௫ : at ݇ ൌ ʹ.4 ʹ ʹ ͳ (laplace transform approach) to solve it. ͳ ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ሼܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻሽ ൌ ࣦ ିଵ ቄ‫ݏ‬൅ʹቅ ൌ ݁ ିଶ௫ Ǥ First of all. we ܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻሺʹ‫ ݏ‬൅ Ͷሻ ൌ ʹሺͳሻ will use a different approach from example 2. Kaabar 55 www. In this example. we need to find the inverse laplace then we will do the following: Let ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ௞௫ .2) ᇱ ʹ‫ܻݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ʹ‫ ݕ‬ሺͲሻ ൅ Ͷܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ Solution: ‫ ݕ‬ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ െ Ͷ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ is a homogeneous linear ܻሺ‫ݏ‬ሻሺʹ‫ ݏ‬൅ Ͷሻ ൌ ʹ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻ differential equation of order 2. To find a solution. equation. we substitute ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ௞௫ and ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௞௫ in with constant coefficients ݉ଵ and ݉ଶ . we use our values to some constants ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܿ௡ .2 Assume that ‫ݕ‬ଵ ൌ ݁ ௞భ ௫ .1.com .1.1.1.

Kaabar 57 . then ʹܿଵ െ ʹܿଶ ൌ ͳͲ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺʹሻ ݁ ௞௫ ሺ݇ሺ݇ െ ʹሻሺ݇ െ ͵ሻሻ ൌ Ͳ From ሺͳሻ and ሺʹሻ.1. Example 2. we need to find derivatives as follows: the values of ܿଵ ƒ† ܿଶ as follows: ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௞௫ at ‫ ݔ‬ൌ Ͳ. the general solution is: substitute ݇ in our assumption which is ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ௞௫ : ‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͶǤͷ݁ ଶ௫ െ ͲǤͷ݁ ିଶ௫ . for some ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ‫ א‬Ը. using result 2. Then. for some ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ܿଷ ‫ א‬Ը.1. ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ଶ௫ Find the general solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. at ݇ ൌ Ͳ. ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ିଶ௫ constant coefficients. and Since ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ Ͷ. the general solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ௞௫ . ‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢ ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ʹܿଵ ݁ ଶሺ଴ሻ െ ʹܿଶ ݁ ିଶሺ଴ሻ ݇ ଷ ݁ ௞௫ െ ͷ݇ ଶ ݁ ௞௫ ൅ ͸݇݁ ௞௫ ൌ Ͳ ‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢ ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ʹܿଵ ݁ ଴ െ ʹܿଶ ݁ ଴ ݁ ௞௫ ሺ݇ ଷ െ ͷ݇ ଶ ൅ ͸݇ሻ ൌ Ͳ ‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢ ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ʹܿଵ െ ʹܿଶ ݁ ௞௫ ሺ݇ሺ݇ ଶ െ ͷ݇ ൅ ͸ሻሻ ൌ Ͳ Since ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ͳͲ. and in this example.1. we substitute ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௞௫ .1. second. is: ‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܿଵ ݁ ଶ௫ ൅ ܿଶ ݁ ିଶ௫ .7 Given ‫ ݕ‬ሺହሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ‫ ݕ‬ሺସሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ʹ‫ ݕ‬ሺଷሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͲǤ Since ‫ ݕ‬ሺଷሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ͷ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͸‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ is HLDE with 56 M.1 and 2. and third ݄‫ ݋݉݋‬denotes to homogeneous).1.1. Now. we use our values to Thus.2. ܿଵ ൌ ͶǤͷ and ܿଶ ൌ െͲǤͷ. ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ሺ଴ሻ௫ ൌ ͳ Example 2. ݇ ൌ Ͳǡ ݇ ൌ ʹ ‫ ݇ ݎ݋‬ൌ ͵. the general solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ the values of ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ƒ† ܿଷ ) is: ‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܿଵ ൅ ܿଶ ݁ ଶ௫ ൅ ܿଷ ݁ ଷ௫ . (Note: First of all.6 Given ‫ ݕ‬ሺଷሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ͷ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͸‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͲǤ at ݇ ൌ ʹ. we will find the first.1. ‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢ ሺͲሻ ൌ ܿଵ ݁ ଶሺ଴ሻ ൅ ܿଶ ݁ ିଶሺ଴ሻ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇ ଶ ݁ ௞௫ ‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢ ሺͲሻ ൌ ܿଵ ݁ ଴ ൅ ܿଶ ݁ ଴ ‫ ݕ‬ሺଷሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇ ଷ ݁ ௞௫ ‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢ ሺͲሻ ൌ ܿଵ ൅ ܿଶ Now. then ܿଵ ൅ ܿଶ ൌ Ͷ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͳሻ ‫ ݕ‬ሺଷሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇ ଷ ݁ ௞௫ in ‫ ݕ‬ሺଷሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ͷ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͸‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ as ‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ʹܿଵ ݁ ଶ௫ െ ʹܿଶ ݁ ିଶ௫ follows: at ‫ ݔ‬ൌ Ͳ. using result 2. homogeneous linear differential equation of order 3. we need to find ݇. Thus. then we will do the following: Let Hence. no need to find Thus. (Hint: Use results at ݇ ൌ ͵. ‫ ݕ‬ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇ ଶ ݁ ௞௫ .1. ‫ݕ‬ଷ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ଷ௫ 2. Solution: ‫ ݕ‬ሺଷሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ͷ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͸‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ is a (Note: ݄‫ ݋݉݋‬denotes to homogeneous).Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved at ݇ ൌ െʹ.

and in this example. ݁ ௞௫ ሺ݇ ହ െ ݇ ସ െ ʹ݇ ଷ ሻ ൌ Ͳ Example 2. the general solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௞௫ is: ‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܿଵ ൅ ܿଶ ‫ ݔ‬൅ ܿଷ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ܿସ ݁ ଶ௫ ൅ ܿହ ݁ ି௫ .8 Given ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ଷ௫ ǡ ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ିଷ௫ ǡ ƒ† ‫ ݕ‬ሺହሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇ ହ ݁ ௞௫ ‫ݕ‬ଷ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ Ǥ Are ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻǡ ‫ݕ‬ଷ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻǡ ƒ† ‫ݕ‬ଷ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ independent? Now. ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ௞௫ . and ‫ ݔ‬ଶ . third. Thus. at ݇ ൌ െͳ.1 and 2.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Find the general solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. Kaabar 59 www. second. we need to find ݇. ሺସሻ ସ ௞௫ ‫ݕ‬ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇ ݁ Example 2.1. no need to find at ݇ ൌ Ͳ. fourth.1. ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻǡ ‫ݕ‬ଷ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻǡ ƒ† ‫ݕ‬ଷ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ are ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ௞௫ : dependent (not independent). (Hint: Use results at ݇ ൌ Ͳ.9 Given ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ሺ௫ାଷሻ ǡ ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ଷ ǡ ƒ† ݁ ௞௫ ሺ݇ ଷ ሺ݇ ଶ െ ݇ െ ʹሻሻ ൌ Ͳ ‫ݕ‬ଷ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ Ǥ Are ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻǡ ‫ݕ‬ଷ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻǡ ƒ† ‫ݕ‬ଷ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ independent? ݁ ௞௫ ሺ݇ ଷ ሺ݇ െ ʹሻሺ݇ ൅ ͳሻሻ ൌ Ͳ Solution: We can write ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ as a linear combination of Thus. Then.2.1.ebook3000. ‫ݕ‬ସ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ଶ௫ First of all. ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ሺ଴ሻ௫ ൌ ͳ 2. for some ‫ ݕ‬ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇ ଶ ݁ ௞௫ ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ܿଷ ǡ ܿସ ǡ ܿହ ‫ א‬Ը.com . means ܽ ή ͳ ൅ ܾ ή ‫ ݔ‬൅ ܿ ή ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൌ Ͳ) Since ‫ ݕ‬ሺହሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ‫ ݕ‬ሺସሻ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ െ ʹ‫ ݕ‬ሺଷሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ is HLDE with In other words ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼͳǡ ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሽ is the set of all linear constant coefficients. ‫ݕ‬ଷ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ሺ଴ሻ௫ ൌ ͳ ή ‫ ݔ‬ଶ Solution: ‫ ݕ‬ሺହሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ‫ ݕ‬ሺସሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ʹ‫ ݕ‬ሺଷሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ is a because ݇ ଷ ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼͳǡ ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሽ ൌ Ͳ (Note: ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼͳǡ ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሽ ൌ Ͳ homogeneous linear differential equation of order 5. ‫ ݕ‬ሺସሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇ ସ ݁ ௞௫ . we use ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ and ‫ݕ‬ଷ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ as follows: our values to substitute ݇ in our assumption which is ݁ ሺ௫ାଷሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ ή ݁ ଷ . at ݇ ൌ ʹ. then we will do the following: Let combinations of ͳ. ‫ݕ‬ହ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ି௫ and fifth derivatives as follows: Thus. Solution: We cannot write ‫ݕ‬ଷ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ as a linear and ‫ ݕ‬ሺଷሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇ ଷ ݁ ௞௫ in ‫ ݕ‬ሺହሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ‫ ݕ‬ሺସሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ʹ‫ ݕ‬ሺଷሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ combination of ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ and ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ as follows: as follows: ݁ ௫ ് ሺ‫ݎܾ݁݉ݑܰ ݀݁ݔ݅ܨ‬ሻ ή ݁ ଷ௫ ൅ ሺ‫ݎܾ݁݉ݑܰ ݀݁ݔ݅ܨ‬ሻ ή ݁ ିଷ௫ ݇ ହ ݁ ௞௫ െ ݇ ସ ݁ ௞௫ െ ʹ݇ ଷ ݁ ௞௫ ൌ Ͳ Thus. we will find the first.1. we substitute ‫ ݕ‬ሺହሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇ ହ ݁ ௞௫ . ‫ݔ‬.1. 58 M. ݇ ൌ Ͳǡ ݇ ൌ Ͳǡ ݇ ൌ Ͳǡ ݇ ൌ ʹ ‫ ݇ ݎ݋‬ൌ െͳ. ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻǡ ‫ݕ‬ଷ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻǡ ƒ† ‫ݕ‬ଷ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ are independent. using result 2. (Note: ݄‫ ݋݉݋‬denotes to ‫ ݕ‬ሺଷሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇ ଷ ݁ ௞௫ homogeneous). ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ሺ଴ሻ௫ ൌ ͳ ή ‫ݔ‬ the values of ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ܿଷ ǡ ܿସ ƒ† ܿହ) at ݇ ൌ Ͳ.1.

denotes to homogeneous). (Hint: No need to find the follows: Since ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ equals ‫ݔ‬. fourth.1 Given ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ ͳǤ Find Step 2: We need to find the particular solution as the general solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ.1. it is a homogeneous linear We substitute ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܾ in ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ݔ‬. we will find a our assumption which is ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ௞௫ : general solution consisting of homogeneous solution at ݇ ൌ െ͵. Now. Kaabar 61 . Example 2.1 to combine it with what we ݇݁ ௞௫ ൅ ͵݁ ௞௫ ൌ Ͳ will learn from section 2. we need to find ܽ and ܾ as follows: letting ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ equal to zero as follows: ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܾ ᇱሺ ‫ ݔ ݕ‬ሻ ൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ.1. then the value of ܿଵ ) particular solution should be in the following form: Solution: Since ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ݔ‬does not have a ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݔ‬because ‫ ݔ‬is a polynomial of the constant coefficient. differential equation of order 1. In this method. Thus. Step 1: We need to find the homogeneous solution by Now. we use our value to substitute ݇ in coefficients method. and the general form for first degree undetermined coefficients method as follows: polynomial is ܽ ൅ ܾ‫ݔ‬. we will find the first. we need to find ݇. ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ሺିଷሻ௫ ൌ ݁ ିଷ௫ and particular solution together. ݇ ൌ െ͵.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Let ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ௞௫ . second. we substitute ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௞௫ in ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ as In this section. then we will do the following: 60 M. for some ܿଵ ‫ א‬Ը.2.2 in order to find the general ݁ ௞௫ ሺ݇ ൅ ͵ሻ ൌ Ͳ solution using a method known as undetermined Thus. third.2 Method of Undetermined First of all. Then. and fifth derivatives as follows: Coefficients ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௞௫ Now. then we need to use the first degree. using result 2. ܾ ൅ ͵ሺܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ݔ‬ Since ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ is a HLDE with constant ܾ ൅ ͵ܽ ൅ ͵ܾ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ‫ݔ‬ coefficients. 2. (Note: ݄‫݋݉݋‬ undetermined coefficient method. we discuss how to use what we have follows: learned from section 2. the general solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ We give the following examples to introduce the is: ‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܿଵ ݁ ିଷ௫ .

݇ ൌ െ͵. second. we need to find ݇.com . we get: ܽ ൌ െ ଽ and ܾ ൌ ଷ .1. Then.ebook3000. ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ െ ൅ ‫ݔ‬. third. (Note: ݄‫݋݉݋‬ Solution: In this example.2.1.2 Given ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ିଷ௫ ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ ͳǤ at ݇ ൌ െ͵. ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ሺିଷሻ௫ ൌ ݁ ିଷ௫ Find the general solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. ଽ ଷ our assumption which is ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ௞௫ : Example 2. fourth. it is a homogeneous linear ሾሺܽ݁ ିଷ௫ ሻ െ ͵ሺܽ‫ି ݁ݔ‬ଷ௫ ሻሿ ൅ ͵ሺܽ݁ ିଷ௫ ሻ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ݁ ିଷ௫ differential equation of order 1. the general solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ find the value of ܿଵ ) is: ‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܿଵ ݁ ିଷ௫ . using result 2. we will have the same denotes to homogeneous). Now. ܾ ൅ ͵ܽ ൅ ͵ܾ ൌ ͳ and fifth derivatives as follows: Ͷܾ ൅ ͵ܽ ൌ ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺʹሻ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௞௫ ଵ ଵ From ሺͳሻ and ሺʹሻ. we substitute ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௞௫ in ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ as ଵ Thus.1. Kaabar 63 www. Now. at ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ͳ.2. ‫ݕ‬௚௘௡௘௥௔௟ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܿଵ ݁ ିଷ௫ ൅ ቀെ ൅ ‫ݔ‬ቁ.1 but Step 2: We need to find the particular solution as the only difference is the particular solution. Since ‫ ݔ ݕ‬ሻ ൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ does not have a ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ሺܽ݁ ିଷ௫ ሻ‫ݔ‬ constant coefficient. we use our value to substitute ݇ in ଵ ଵ Thus.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved at ‫ ݔ‬ൌ Ͳ. then the repeat some steps in case you did not read example particular solution should be in the following form: ᇱሺ ିଷ௫ 2. for some ܿଵ ‫ א‬Ը. (Hint: No need to Thus. 62 M. we need to find ܽ as follows: undetermined coefficients method as follows: ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ሺܽ݁ ିଷ௫ ሻ െ ͵ሺܽ‫ି ݁ݔ‬ଷ௫ ሻ Step 1: We need to find the homogeneous solution by We substitute ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ሺܽ݁ ିଷ௫ ሻ െ ͵ሺܽ‫ି ݁ݔ‬ଷ௫ ሻ in letting ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ equal to zero as follows: ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ିଷ௫ . we obtain: ܾ ൅ ͵ܽ ൅ ሺ͵ܾሻሺͳሻ ൌ ͳ First of all. then we will do the following: ܾ ൅ ͵ܽ ൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺͳሻ Let ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ௞௫ . we obtain: ܾ ൅ ͵ܽ ൅ ሺ͵ܾሻሺͲሻ ൌ Ͳ Since ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ is a HLDE with constant ܾ ൅ ͵ܽ ൅ Ͳ ൌ Ͳ coefficients. We will follows: Since ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ equals ݁ ିଷ௫ . we will find the first. ᇱሺ ‫ ݔ ݕ‬ሻ ൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ.2. homogeneous solution as we did in example 2. then we need to use the Now. ଵ follows: ଽ ଷ ݇݁ ௞௫ ൅ ͵݁ ௞௫ ൌ Ͳ Step 3: We need to find the general solution as follows: ݁ ௞௫ ሺ݇ ൅ ͵ሻ ൌ Ͳ ‫ݕ‬௚௘௡௘௥௔௟ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ Thus.

and we write it as: ‫ݕ‬௚௘௡௘௥௔௟ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݔ‬൅ ܿ‫ ݔ‬ଶ . (Hint: Use results 2.2.1 and 2.3 Given ‫ݕ‬ ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ͹‫ݕ‬ ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ݔ‬Ǥ Describe 1. Given ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ʹ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͲǤ Find the general ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ but do not find it.1. Given ‫ ݕ‬ሺସሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ‫ ݕ‬ሺଷሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͵‫ ݔ‬ଶ Ǥ Find the general By using result 2. we obtain the following: In this example. Result 2.4 Given ‫ݕ‬ ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ͹‫ݕ‬ ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͵Ǥ Describe solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. we obtain the following: ܿଵ ǡ ƒ† ܿଶ ) ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ൌ ሾܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݔ‬൅ ܿ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሿ‫ ݔ‬ଷ . we obtain the following: solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ.1. ିଷ௫ ሻ ିଷ௫ Thus. (Hint: No need to find the value of ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ൌ ሾܽሿ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ൌ ܽ‫ ݔ‬ଷ Ǥ ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ܿଷ ǡ ƒ† ܿସ ) 64 M. Thus. ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ሺͳ݁ ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ‫݁ݔ‬ Ǥ Solution: To describe ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ. ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ƒ† ܿଷ ) Solution: To describe ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ. Then. ‫ݕ‬௚௘௡௘௥௔௟ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܿଵ ݁ ିଷ௫ ൅ ‫ି ݁ݔ‬ଷ௫ Ǥ ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ൌ ሾܽ ൅ ܾ‫ ݔ‬൅ ܿ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሿ݁ ௫ . we look at •‹ሺ͵‫ݔ‬ሻ. we do the following: 3.2.1.2. and then we multiply it by ݁ ௫ .Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ܽ݁ ିଷ௫ ൌ ݁ ିଷ௫ Example 2.2. equation. Solution: To describe ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ. solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. then the general solution is always written as: ‫ݕ‬௚௘௡௘௥௔௟ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢௚௘௡௘௢௨௦ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ. we look at ‫ ݔ‬ଶ . we do the following: ‫ݓ‬.2 Suppose that you have a linear differential ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ൌ ሾܽ •‹ሺ͵‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ܾ•‹ሺ͵‫ݔ‬ሻሿ݁ ௫ .2. say ݉. we do the following: and in this exercise.2. Result 2.2. Kaabar 65 .1.2. and this Describe ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ but do not find it. (Hint: No need to find the value of ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ but do not find it.2. 2.6 Given ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ •‹ሺ͵‫ݔ‬ሻ݁ ௫ Ǥ equation with the least derivative. ሺܽ •‹ሺ͵‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ܾ•‹ሺ͵‫ݔ‬ሻሻ. 2. Given ‫ ݕ‬ሺଷሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͵‫ݔ‬Ǥ Find the general ሺସሻ ሺ ሺଷሻ ሺ Example 2.1 Suppose that you have a linear differential Example 2. no need to find the values of By using result 2.5 Given ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ݁ ௫ Ǥ Describe ܽൌͳ ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ but do not find it. and we write it as: ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ൌ ሾܲ‫ݓ ݁݁ݎ݃݁ܦ ݂݋ ݈ܽ݅݉݋݊ݕ݈݋‬ሿ‫ ݔ‬௠ . differential equation equals to a polynomial of degree Solution: To describe ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ. and then we multiply it by ݁ ௫ .3 Exercises ሺସሻ ሺ ሺଷሻ ሺ ଶ Example 2. we do the following: Step 3: We need to find the general solution as follows: In this example.

Given ‫ ݕ‬ሺଷሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ •‹ሺʹ‫ݔ‬ሻǤ Find the general Methods of First and solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. to solve first and higher orders differential equations. we introduce two new methods called Variation Method and Cauchy-Euler Method in order but do not find it. Then. Definition 3. Given ‫ ݕ‬ሺଷሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ Ǥ Find the general solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. మ 7. Given ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ Ǥ Describe ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ In this chapter. For the homogeneous solution. (Hint: No need to find the value of ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ƒ† ܿଷ ) Higher Orders Differential 6. Given ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ͵‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͵‫‹•ݔ‬ሺͷ‫ݔ‬ሻǤ Describe Equations ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ but do not find it. we give several examples about these methods.1 Variation Method In this section. 3. Assume that ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ and ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ are independent solution to the homogeneous solution. In addition.ebook3000. the particular solution using Variation Method is written as: 66 M. Kaabar 67 www.1 Given ܽଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ൅ ܽଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൌ ‫ܭ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ is a linear differential equation of order 2. we discuss how to find the particular solution using Variation Method.1. and the difference between them and the previous methods in chapter 2. it will be similar to what we learned in chapter 2.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved 4.com . (Hint: No need to find the value of Chapter 3 ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ƒ† ܿଷ ) 5.

Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݄ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ݄ଶ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ. ଵ Solution: Since ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ൅ ͵‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൌ does not have a constant Thus. Kaabar 69 . as follows: Step 2: We need to find the particular solution using Step 1: We need to find the homogeneous solution by ଵ definition 3. we will find the first and second derivatives ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଵ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଶ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܽଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ as follows: Definition 3. To find differential equation of order 2. for some coefficient. ሺଶሻ ᇱ ௫ letting ‫ݕ‬ ൅ ͵‫ ݕ‬equal to zero as follows: then the particular solution should be in the following ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ൅ ͵‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൌ Ͳ. ݄ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ and ݄ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. we need to solve the following two equations: 68 M. To find ݄ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ Since ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ൅ ͵‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൌ Ͳ is a HLDE with constant and ݄ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. Then. we substitute ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௞௫ and ‫ ݕ‬ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇ ଶ ݁ ௞௫ in using Variation Method is written as: ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ൅ ͵‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൌ Ͳ as follows: ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݄ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ݄ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ݄ଷ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଷ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. Assume that ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻǡ ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ and ‫ݕ‬ଷ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ are independent solution to the ‫ ݕ‬ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇ ଶ ݁ ௞௫ homogeneous solution. (Hint: No need to find the values of at ݇ ൌ െ͵. ݇ ଶ ݁ ௞௫ ൅ ͵݇݁ ௞௫ ൌ Ͳ To find ݄ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻǡ ݄ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ and ݄ଷ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ.1.1. the particular solution Now. ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ሺିଷሻ௫ ൌ ݁ ିଷ௫ ܿଵ and ܿଶ ) Notice that ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ and ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ are independent. Then.1. it is a homogeneous linear form: ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݄ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ݄ଶ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. we use our values to ‫ ܭ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ݄ଵ ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ݄ଶ ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ݄ଷ ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଷ ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ substitute ݇ in our assumption which is ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ௞௫ : ܽଷ ሺ ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ଵ Example 3. then we need to use the variation method ܿଵ ƒ† ܿଶ ‫ א‬Ը. the general homogenous ௫ solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ is: ‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܿଵ ൅ ܿଶ ݁ ିଷ௫ .2 Given ܽଷ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ ݕ‬൅ ‫ ڮ‬൅ ܽଵ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൌ ‫ܭ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ is ሺଷሻ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௞௫ a linear differential equation of order 3. we need to solve the following two coefficients. we need to solve the following three equations: ݁ ௞௫ ሺ݇ ଶ ൅ ͵݇ሻ ൌ Ͳ ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ݄ଷ ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଷ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ ݁ ௞௫ ሺ݇ሺ݇ ൅ ͵ሻሻ ൌ Ͳ ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଵ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଶ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ݄ଷ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଷ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ Thus.1. (Note: ݄‫ ݋݉݋‬denotes to homogeneous).1. then we will do the following: equations: Let ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ௞௫ . we need to find ݇. ݇ ൌ Ͳ and ݇ ൌ െ͵. ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ ‫ ܭ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ First of all. Now.1 as follows: Since ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ൅ ͵‫ ݕ‬ᇱ equals . ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ሺ଴ሻ௫ ൌ ݁ ଴ ൌ ͳ solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ.1 Given ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ൅ ͵‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൌ ௫ Ǥ Find the general at ݇ ൌ Ͳ. using result 2.

then we need to use the variation ͳ method as follows: ᇱ ᇱ ିଷ௫ ሻ ݄ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺͳሻ ൅ ݄ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺ݁ ൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺͳሻ Step 1: We need to find the homogeneous solution by ͳ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺെ͵݁ ିଷ௫ ሻ ൌ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺʹሻ letting ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ൅ ͸‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൅ ͺ‫ ݕ‬equal to zero as follows: ‫ݔ‬ ଵ By solving ሺͳሻ and ሺʹሻ. (Hint: No need to find the solution form as follows: values of ܿଵ and ܿଶ ) ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺͳሻ ൅ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺ݁ ିଷ௫ ሻ ൌ Ͳ ͳ Solution: Since ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ൅ ͸‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൅ ͺ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ݁ ିସ௫ does not have a ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺͲሻ ൅ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺെ͵݁ ିଷ௫ ሻ ൌ ‫ݔ‬ constant coefficient. we will find the first and second derivatives ଵ Since it is possible to integrate ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ଷ௫ to find ݄ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. ‫ ݔ‬൐ Ͳ. we need to find ݇. ଷ௫ ଷ௫ ଵ Since ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ൅ ͸‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൅ ͺ‫ ݕ‬ൌ Ͳ is a HLDE with constant ᇱ ଷ௫ Since it is impossible to integrate ݄ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ െ ଷ௫ ݁ to coefficients.ebook3000. ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ଷ௫ ሺ݁ ିଷ௫ ሻ ൌ . ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ െ ଷ௫ ݁ ଷ௫ and ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ൅ ͸‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൅ ͺ‫ ݕ‬ൌ Ͳ. ௫ ଵ ݄ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫׬‬଴ െ ଷ௧ ݁ ଷ௧ ݀‫ݐ‬.com . ‫ݕ‬௚௘௡௘௥௔௟ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ሺܿଵ ൅ ܿଶ ݁ ିଷ௫ ሻ ൅ ሺŽȁ‫ ݔ‬ȁሻ ൅ ܽଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ଷ ᇱ ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͳ ------Æ ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ ௫ ଵ ݁ ିଷ௫ ቀ‫׬‬଴ െ ଷ௧ ݁ ଷ௧ ݀‫ݐ‬ቁǡ for some ܿଵ ƒ† ܿଶ ‫ א‬ԸǤ ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ିଷ௫ ------Æ ‫ݕ‬ଶ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ െ͵݁ ିଷ௫ Example 3. we substitute‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ௞௫ ǡ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௞௫ and Thus. ଷ௫ Now. Now. Kaabar 71 www. First of all.1.2 Given ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ൅ ͸‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൅ ͺ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ݁ ିସ௫ Ǥ Find the Now. as follows: ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇݁ ௞௫ then we do the following: ଵ ଵ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇ ଶ ݁ ௞௫ ݄ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫׬‬ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ ଷ ሺŽȁ‫ ݔ‬ȁሻ. it is a homogeneous linear ଵ ଵ differential equation of order 2. we substitute what we got above in the particular general solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ ‫ݕ‬௚௘௡௘௥௔௟ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ‫ ܭ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ଵ ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଵ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଶ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Thus. then it is enough to write as: Let ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ௞௫ . then we will do the following: find ݄ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. we write the particular solution as follows: ‫ ݕ‬ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݇ ଶ ݁ ௞௫ in ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ൅ ͸‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൅ ͺ‫ ݕ‬ൌ Ͳ as follows: ௫ ͳ ͳ ݇ ଶ ݁ ௞௫ ൅ ͸݇݁ ௞௫ ൅ ͺ݁ ௞௫ ൌ Ͳ ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ሺŽȁ‫ ݔ‬ȁሻ ൅ ݁ ିଷ௫ ቌන െ ݁ ଷ௧ ݀‫ݐ‬ቍ ͵ ͵‫ݐ‬ ଴ ݁ ௞௫ ሺ݇ ଶ ൅ ͸݇ ൅ ͺሻ ൌ Ͳ Step 3: We need to find the general solution as follows: ݁ ௞௫ ሺሺ݇ ൅ ʹሻሺ݇ ൅ Ͷሻሻ ൌ Ͳ 70 M.

ͳ ൬ ݁ ିଶ௫ ൰ ሺ݁ ିଶ௫ ሻ ൅ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺ݁ ିସ௫ ሻ ൌ Ͳ Step 2: We need to find the particular solution using ʹ definition 3. (Note: ݄‫ ݋݉݋‬denotes to By substituting ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ in ሺͳሻ to find ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ as follows: homogeneous). the general homogenous െͶ݁ ି଺௫ ൅ ʹ݁ ି଺௫ െʹ݁ ି଺௫ ͳ solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ is: ‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܿଵ ݁ ିଶ௫ ൅ ܿଶ ݁ ିସ௫ . we use our values to By solving ሺͳሻ and ሺʹሻ.1. then we do the following: ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ ଵ ݄ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ି ݁ ׬‬ଶ௫ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ െ ݁ ିଶ௫ . ଶ ଶ Now. for ൌ ݁ ିଶ௫ ʹ some ܿଵ ƒ† ܿଶ ‫ א‬Ը.1. ‫ݕ‬௚௘௡௘௥௔௟ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ሺܿଵ ݁ ିଶ௫ ൅ ܿଶ ݁ ିସ௫ ሻ ൅ ቀെ ସ ݁ ିଶ௫ ሺ݁ ିଶ௫ ሻ െ ݄ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺെʹ݁ ሻ ൅ ݄ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺെͶ݁ ିସ௫ ሻ ൌ ݁ ିସ௫ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺʹሻ ିଶ௫ ଵ ଶ ‫ݔ‬ሺ݁ ିସ௫ ሻቁǡ for some ܿଵ ƒ† ܿଶ ‫ א‬ԸǤ 72 M. we substitute ݇ in our assumption which is ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ௞௫ : obtain: at ݇ ൌ െʹ. we substitute what we got above in the particular Thus. we need to solve the following two equations: ݄ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ.1.1 as follows: Since ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ൅ ͸‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൅ ͺ‫ ݕ‬equals ͳ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ െ ݁ ିସ௫ . ଵ ଶ ସ ‫ ܭ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଵ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଶ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ଵ ܽଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ Since it is possible to integrate ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ െ ଶ to find ିଶ௫ ᇱ ିଶ௫ ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ------Æ ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ െʹ݁ ݄ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. then the particular solution should be in the ʹ following form: ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݄ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ݄ଶ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. using result 2. then we do the following: ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ିସ௫ ------Æ ‫ݕ‬ଶ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ െͶ݁ ିସ௫ ଵ ଵ ݄ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ׬‬െ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ െ ‫ݔ‬. ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ሺିଶሻ௫ ൌ ݁ ିଶ௫ ଴ ୢୣ୲൤ షరೣ ௘ షరೣ ൨ ᇱ ௘ ିସ௘ షరೣ ݄ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ݔ‬ଵ ൌ షమೣ ௘ షరೣ ቃ at ݇ ൌ െͶ. Then.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Thus. Kaabar 73 . and using Cramer’s rule. െ݁ ି଼௫ െ݁ ି଼௫ ൌ ൌ Thus. ݇ ൌ െʹ and ݇ ൌ െͶ. ଵ Since it is possible to integrate ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ଶ ݁ ିଶ௫ to find To find ݄ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ and ݄ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. we write the particular solution as follows: solution form as follows: ͳ ͳ ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺ݁ ିଶ௫ ሻ ൅ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺ݁ ିସ௫ ሻ ൌ Ͳ ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ െ ݁ ିଶ௫ ሺ݁ ିଶ௫ ሻ െ ‫ݔ‬ሺ݁ ିସ௫ ሻ Ͷ ʹ ݁ ିସ௫ ݄ଵ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺെʹ݁ ିଶ௫ ሻ ൅ ݄ଶ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺെͶ݁ ିସ௫ ሻ ൌ Step 3: We need to find the general solution as follows: ͳ ‫ݕ‬௚௘௡௘௥௔௟ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ᇱ ିଶ௫ ሻ ᇱ ିସ௫ ሻ ݄ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺ݁ ൅ ݄ଶ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሺ݁ ൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ሺͳሻ ଵ ᇱ ᇱ Thus. ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ሺିସሻ௫ ൌ ݁ ିସ௫ ୢୣ୲ቂ ௘ షమೣ ିଶ௘ ିସ௘ షరೣ Notice that ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ and ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ are independent.

we general solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. we will show how to use Cauchy-Euler Thus.2 Cauchy-Euler Method ‫ ݔ‬௞ିଵ ሺሺ݇ െ ͳሻሺ݇ െ ͳሻሻ ൌ Ͳ In this section. then we need to use the Cauchy- as follows: Euler method by letting ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ‫ ݔ‬௞ . for some ܿଵ ƒ† ܿଶ ‫ א‬Ը. Example 3. we will find the first. ݇ ൌ ͳ and ݇ ൌ ͳ. (Hint: No need to find the Euler method by letting ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ‫ ݔ‬௞ . ‫ݕ‬ଶ ൌ ‫ ݔ‬ଵ ൌ ‫ ݔ‬ή Žሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ as follows: In the above case. Then.1 Given ‫ ݕݔ‬ሺଶሻ െ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൅ ௫ ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ͲǤ Find the had a repeating for ‫ݔ‬. and after substitution ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൌ ݇‫ ݔ‬௞ିଵ all terms must be of the same degree as follows: ‫ ݕ‬ᇱᇱ ൌ ݇ሺ݇ െ ͳሻ‫ ݔ‬௞ିଶ First of all.2. we multiplied ‫ ݔ‬by Žሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ because we ଵ Example 3. values of ܿଵ and ܿଶ ) Thus.com . we start with some examples at ݇ ൌ ͳ. ‫ݕ‬ଵ ൌ ‫ ݔ‬ଵ ൌ ‫ݔ‬ To introduce this method. Kaabar 75 www.2 Given ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ െ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൅ ‫ ݕݔ‬ൌ ͲǤ Find the constant coefficients. then we need to use the Cauchy- general solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. we will find the first and second derivatives constant coefficients. (Hint: No need to find the should multiply any repeating by natural logarithm. and in Cauchy-Euler Method. we substitute ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ‫ ݔ‬௞ ǡ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൌ ݇‫ ݔ‬௞ିଵ .Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ‫ ݔ‬௞ିଵ ሺ݇ ଶ െ ʹ݇ ൅ ͳሻ ൌ Ͳ 3.ebook3000.2. the general solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ is: ଵ Solution: Since ‫ ݕݔ‬ሺଶሻ െ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൅ ௫ ‫ ݕ‬ൌ Ͳ does not have ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܿଵ ‫ ݔ‬൅ ܿଶ ‫݈݊ݔ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ. second and third Now. at ݇ ൌ ͳ. we substitute ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ‫ ݔ‬௞ ǡ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൌ ݇‫ ݔ‬௞ିଵ and ଵ derivatives as follows: ‫ ݕ‬ᇱᇱ ൌ ݇ሺ݇ െ ͳሻ‫ ݔ‬௞ିଶ in ‫ ݕݔ‬ሺଶሻ െ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൅ ‫ ݕ‬ൌ Ͳ as follows: ௫ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൌ ݇‫ ݔ‬௞ିଵ ͳ ‫݇ݔ‬ሺ݇ െ ͳሻ‫ ݔ‬௞ିଶ െ ݇‫ ݔ‬௞ିଵ ൅ ‫ ݔ‬௞ ൌ Ͳ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱᇱ ൌ ݇ሺ݇ െ ͳሻ‫ ݔ‬௞ିଶ ‫ݔ‬ ݇ሺ݇ െ ͳሻ‫ ݔ‬௞ିଵ െ ݇‫ ݔ‬௞ିଵ ൅ ‫ ݔ‬௞ିଵ ൌ Ͳ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱᇱᇱ ൌ ݇ሺ݇ െ ͳሻሺ݇ െ ʹሻ‫ ݔ‬௞ିଷ ‫ ݔ‬௞ିଵ ሺ݇ሺ݇ െ ͳሻ െ ݇ ൅ ͳሻ ൌ Ͳ Now. and after substitution values of ܿଵ and ܿଶ ) all terms must be of the same degree as follows: Solution: Since ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ൅ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൅ ‫ ݕݔ‬ൌ Ͳ does not have First of all. we use our values to Method to find the general solution for differential substitute ݇ in our assumption which is ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ‫ ݔ‬௞ : equations that do not have constant coefficients. and ‫ ݔ‬௞ିଵ ሺ݇ ଶ െ ݇ െ ݇ ൅ ͳሻ ൌ Ͳ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱᇱ ൌ ݇ሺ݇ െ ͳሻ‫ ݔ‬௞ିଶ in ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ൅ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൅ ‫ ݕݔ‬ൌ Ͳ as follows: 74 M.

Kaabar 77 . then by using the Cauchy-Euler Method. (Hint: No need to find the values of ܿଵ . (Hint: No need to find the values of ܿଵ and ܿଶ ) 2. Given ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ൅ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൌ ʹ‫ ݔ‬ଶ Ǥ Is it possible to find the general solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ using Cauchy-Euler Method? Thus.3 Exercises 1. Given ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ‫ ݕ‬ሺଷሻ ൅ ‫ ݕݔ‬ᇱ ൌ ͲǤ Find the general solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. the general solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ is: ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܿଵ …‘•ሺŽሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሻ ൅ ܿଶ •‹ሺŽሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሻ. ܿଶ and ܿଷ ) ‫ ݔ‬௞ାଵ ሺ݇ ଶ െ ݇ ൅ ݇ ൅ ͳሻ ൌ Ͳ ‫ ݔ‬௞ାଵ ሺ݇ ଶ ൅ ͳሻ ൌ Ͳ 5. ݇ ൌ േξͳ ൌ േ݅ ൌ Ͳ േ ሺͳሻሺ݅ሻ. Given ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ൅ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൅ Ͷ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ͲǤ Find the general solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ. Why? Then. 3. (Hint: No need to find the values of ܿଵ and ܿଶ ) 3. Given ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ൅ ͷ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൅ ͹‫ ݕ‬ൌ ͲǤ Find the general solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ. ܿଶ and ܿଷ ) 76 M. for some ܿଵ ƒ† ܿଶ ‫ א‬Ը. we need to write our solution as follows: ‫ݕ‬ଵ ൌ ‫ ݔ‬ሺ௥௘௔௟ ௣௔௥௧ሻ …‘•ሺ‫ ݐݎܽ݌ ݕݎܽ݊݅݃ܽ݉ܫ‬ή Žሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ݔ‬ሺ଴ሻ …‘•ሺͳ ή Žሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሻ ൌ …‘•ሺŽሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሻ ‫ݕ‬ଶ ൌ ‫ ݔ‬ሺ௥௘௔௟ ௣௔௥௧ሻ •‹ሺ‫ ݐݎܽ݌ ݕݎܽ݊݅݃ܽ݉ܫ‬ή Žሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ݔ‬ሺ଴ሻ •‹ሺͳ ή Žሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሻ ൌ •‹ሺŽሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሻ Thus. (Hint: No need to find the values of ܿଵ . Given ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ‫ ݕ‬ሺଷሻ െ ʹ‫ ݕݔ‬ᇱ ൌ ͲǤ Find the general solution ሺ݇ሺ݇ െ ͳሻ‫ ݔ‬௞ାଵ ሻ ൅ ሺ݇‫ ݔ‬௞ାଵ ሻ ൅ ሺ‫ ݔ‬௞ାଵ ሻ ൌ Ͳ for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ሺ݇ሺ݇ െ ͳሻ‫ ݔ‬௞ିଶ ሻ ൅ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሺ݇‫ ݔ‬௞ିଵ ሻ ൅ ‫ݔ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬௞ ሻ ൌ Ͳ 4. we use our values to substitute ݇ in our assumption which is ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ‫ ݔ‬௞ : Since we have two parts (real and imaginary).

and the differences between them and the Step 5: By solving for ‫ݕ‬. we obtain: 78 M. Separable Method. Example 4. then: ௔భ ሺ௫ሻ ௔భ ሺ௫ሻ and Higher Orders ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൅ ݃ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͳሻ Thus. Exact Method. In addition. Kaabar 79 www. We use these methods to solve first and Step 4: Integrate both sides of ሺ͵ሻ. we obtain: ᇱ higher orders linear and non-linear differential නൣ‫ ݕ‬ή ݁ ‫ ׬‬௚ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ൧ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ නሺ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ݁ ‫ ׬‬௚ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ሻ ݀‫ݔ‬ equations.ebook3000. and substituting ‫ ܫ‬ൌ ݁ ‫ ׬‬௚ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ previous methods in chapter 2 and chapter 3.1 Given ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ െ ʹ‫ ݕݔ‬ൌ Ͷ‫ ݔ‬ଷ Ǥ Find the Definition 4.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ܽଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ᇱ ܽଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ‫ ܭ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ Chapter 4 ሺ ܽଵ ‫ݔ‬ ሻ ‫ ݕ‬൅ ܽଵ ‫ݔ‬ሺ ሻ ‫ݕ‬ൌ ܽଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ܽଶ ሺ ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ‫ ܭ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ‫ݕ‬ᇱ ൅ ‫ݕ‬ൌ Extended Methods of First ሺ ܽଵ ‫ݔ‬ ௔మ ሺ௫ሻ ሻ ܽଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ௄ሺ௫ሻ Assume that ݃ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ and ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ . we obtain: ‫ ݕ‬ή ‫ ܫ‬ൌ නሺ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሻሺ‫ܫ‬ሻ ݀‫ݔ‬ 4. the solution using Integral Factor Method is written in the following steps: Differential Equations Step 1: Multiply both sides of ሺͳሻ by letting ‫ ܫ‬ൌ ݁ ‫ ׬‬௚ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ : In this chapter. the final solution is: ‫ ܫ ׬‬ή ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ݀‫ݔ‬ some examples of first order non-linear differential ‫ݕ‬ൌ ‫ܫ‬ equations. we discuss some new methods such as ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ݁ ‫ ׬‬௚ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ൅ ݃ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ‫ ׬ ݁ݕ‬௚ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ൌ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ݁ ‫ ׬‬௚ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ᇱ Bernulli Method.1 Bernoulli Method ‫׬‬ሺ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሻሺ‫ܫ‬ሻ ݀‫ݔ‬ ‫ݕ‬ൌ In this section. we give examples about these ‫ ݕ‬ή ݁ ‫ ׬‬௚ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ൌ නሺ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ݁ ‫ ׬‬௚ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ሻ ݀‫ݔ‬ methods. (Hint: Use integral factor ™Š‡”‡ ܽଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ് Ͳ is a linear differential equation of method and no need to find the value of ܿ) order 1. we start with two examples about using ‫ܫ‬ ‫ ܫ ׬‬ή ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ݀‫ݔ‬ integral factor to solve first order linear differential ‫ݕ‬ൌ ‫ܫ‬ equations.1 Given ܽଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൅ ܽଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ‫ ܭ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻǡ general solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. Then.1. Dividing both sides by ܽଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ.com . Step 2: ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ݁ ‫ ׬‬௚ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ൅ ݃ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ ׬ ݁ݕ‬௚ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ൌ ൣ‫ ݕ‬ή ݁ ‫ ׬‬௚ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ൧ ǥ ሺʹሻ ᇱ Reduced to Separable Method and Reduction of Order Step 3: ൣ‫ ݕ‬ή ݁ ‫ ׬‬௚ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ൧ ൌ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ݁ ‫ ׬‬௚ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ሺ͵ሻ Method.1. we introduce Bernulli Method to solve Thus.

we differential equation. where ݃ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ൌ ሺ௫ାଵሻ and ௔భ ሺ௫ሻ ௫ ௔భ ሺ௫ሻ ௄ሺ௫ሻ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ௔ ൌ ସ௫ య ൌ Ͷ‫ݔ‬ ‫ ܭ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ͷ భ ሺ௫ሻ ௫మ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ൌ ܽଵ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ మ షమሻ ଵ Hence. and it is a first order non-linear differential equation. then by using definition 4. then by using definition 4. ‫ ܫ‬ൌ ݁ ‫ ׬‬௚ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ൌ ݁ ൌ ݁ ୪୬ሺ௫ାଵሻ ൌ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ The general solution is written as follows: The general solution is written as follows: ‫ ܫ ׬‬ή ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ݀‫ݔ‬ ‫ ܫ ׬‬ή ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ݀‫ݔ‬ ‫ݕ‬ൌ ‫ݕ‬ൌ ‫ܫ‬ ‫ܫ‬ ͳ ͷ ‫ ׬‬ଶ ή Ͷ‫ݔ݀ ݔ‬ ‫׬‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ ή ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ ݀‫ݔ‬ ‫ݕ‬ൌ ‫ݔ‬ ͳ ‫ݕ‬ൌ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ ‫ݔ‬ଶ Ͷ ‫ ׬‬ͷ ݀‫ݔ‬ ‫ݔ݀ ݔ ׬‬ ‫ݕ‬ൌ ‫ݕ‬ൌ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ ͳ ‫ݔ‬ଶ ͷ‫ ݔ‬൅ ܿ ‫ݕ‬ൌ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ Ͷ Žሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ܿ ‫ݕ‬ൌ ͷ‫ݔ‬ ܿ ͳ ‫ݕ‬ൌ ൅ ‫ݔ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ ‫ ݕ‬ൌ Ͷ‫ ݔ‬ଶ Žሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ܿ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ହ௫ ௖ Thus.1.1.1. for some ܿ ‫ א‬Ը.1.1. Kaabar 81 . ‫ ܫ‬ൌ ݁ ‫ ׬‬௚ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ൌ ݁ ‫ି ׬‬ೣௗ௫ ൌ ݁ ିଶ୪୬ሺ௫ሻ ൌ ݁ ୪୬ሺ௫ ൌ భ ‫׬‬ሺೣశభሻ ௗ௫ ௫మ Hence. 80 M. the solution using Bernoulli method and no need to find the value of ܿ) Method is written in the following steps: Step 1: Change it to first order linear differential equation by letting ‫ ݓ‬ൌ ‫ ݕ‬ଵି௡ . Thus. the general solution is: ‫ ݕ‬ൌ Ͷ‫ ݔ‬ଶ Žሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ܿ‫ ݔ‬ଶ for some ܿ ‫ א‬Ը.2 Given ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൅ ݃ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ݂ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ ݕ‬௡ where ݊ ‫ א‬Ը Example 4.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Solution: Since ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ െ ʹ‫ ݕݔ‬ൌ Ͷ‫ ݔ‬ଷ does not have Solution: Since ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൅ ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ͷ does not have constant coefficients. (Hint: Use integral factor equation of order 1. where ݃ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ൌെ ௫మ ൌ െ and ‫ ܫ‬ൌ ݁ ‫ ׬‬௚ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ .1. Definition 4. and it is a first order non-linear constant coefficients.2 Given ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൅ ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ͷǤ Find the and ݊ ് Ͳ and ݊ ് ͳ is a non-linear differential general solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. the general solution is: ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ሺ௫ାଵሻ ൅ ሺ௫ାଵሻ Thus. we need to use the integral factor method by letting need to use the integral factor method by letting ௔మ ሺ௫ሻ ଶ௫ ଶ ௔మ ሺ௫ሻ ଵ ‫ ܫ‬ൌ ݁ ‫ ׬‬௚ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ .

and ௗ௫ ൌ െ ଶ ‫ ݕ‬ଷ ή ௗ௫ ξ௪ ݀‫ݓ‬ ቀ ଵ ቁ ቀ ௡ ቁ ൅ ݃ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺͳ െ ݊ሻ‫ ݓ‬ଵି௡ ‫ି ݕ‬௡ ൌ ݂ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺͳ െ ݊ሻ‫ ݓ‬ଵି௡ ‫ି ݕ‬௡ We substitute what we got above in ‫ ݕݔ‬ᇱ ൅ ͵‫ ݔ‬ଶ ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ݀‫ݔ‬ Step 7: After substitution.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Step 2: Find the derivative of both sides for ‫ ݓ‬ൌ ‫ ݕ‬ଵି௡ Thus. where in ଵ Step 6: Divide ሺ͵ሻ by ‫ ݕ‬௡ as follows: ଵି௡ ଵ ௡ this example ݊ ൌ ͵. ቀ ቁ ቀ ቁ ݀‫ݓ‬ ݃ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ ݓ‬ଵି௡ ݂ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ ݓ‬ଵି௡ ൅ ൌ Since we assumed that ‫ ݓ‬ൌ ‫ ݕ‬ଵିଷ ൌ ‫ି ݕ‬ଶ .3 Given ‫ ݕݔ‬ᇱ ൅ ͵‫ ݔ‬ଶ ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ሺ͸‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሻ‫ ݕ‬ଷ Ǥ Find the ൌ ‫ݕ‬௡ ή ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺʹሻ ݀‫ ͳ ݔ‬െ ݊ ݀‫ݔ‬ general solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ.ebook3000. then by using definition 4. we obtain: ሺ͸‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሻ‫ ݕ‬ଷ as follows: ݀‫ݓ‬ ͳ ݀‫ݓ‬ ͳ ͳ ൅ ݃ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺͳ െ ݊ሻ‫ି ݕݕ‬௡ ൌ ݂ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺͳ െ ݊ሻ‫ ݕ‬௡ ‫ି ݕ‬௡ ‫ ݔ‬൬െ ‫ ݕ‬ଷ ή ൰ ൅ ͵‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൬ ൰ ൌ ሺ͸‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሻ ൬ ൰ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ሺͳሻ ݀‫ݔ‬ ʹ ݀‫ݔ‬ ξ‫ݓ‬ ‫ ݓ‬ξ‫ݓ‬ ݀‫ݓ‬ ൅ ݃ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺͳ െ ݊ሻ‫ ݕ‬ଵି௡ ൌ ݂ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺͳ െ ݊ሻ‫ ݕ‬௡ି௡ ଵ Now. and ݃ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͵‫ ݔ‬ଶ and ݂ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͸‫ ݔ‬ଶ. Kaabar 83 www. ௗ௫ ݀‫ݕ‬ ͳ ݀‫ݓ‬ Example 4.2. Step 5: Substitute what we got above in Solution: Since ‫ ݕݔ‬ᇱ ൅ ͵‫ ݔ‬ଶ ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ሺ͸‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሻ‫ ݕ‬ଷ does not have ௗ௬ constant coefficients.1. (Hint: Use Bernoulli method Step 4: Since we assumed that ‫ ݓ‬ൌ ‫ ݕ‬ଵି௡ . and hence ‫ ݕ‬௡ ൌ ‫ ݓ‬భష೙ . we will show how to use ݀‫ݔ‬ ݀‫ݔ‬ ݀‫ݓ‬ ି௡ ݀‫ݕ‬ Bernoulli Method. the final solution is: as follows: ݀‫ݓ‬ ൅ ሺͳ െ ݊ሻ݃ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ ݓ‬ൌ ሺͳ െ ݊ሻ݂ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ݀‫ݓ‬ ݀‫ݕ‬ ݀‫ݔ‬ ൌ ሺͳ െ ݊ሻ‫ ݕ‬ଵି௡ିଵ ή In the following example. we ‫ݕ‬௡ ή ൅ ݃ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ ݓ‬ଵି௡ ൌ ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ‫ ݓ‬ଵି௡ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ሺ͵ሻ ͳെ݊ ݀‫ݔ‬ need to do the following by letting ‫ ݓ‬ൌ ‫ ݕ‬ଵି௡ . and it is a first order non-linear ௗ௫ ൅ ݃ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ‫ ݕ‬௡ as follows: ͳ ݀‫ݓ‬ ቀ ଵ ቁ ቀ ௡ ቁ differential equation.com . and we will explore the relationship ൌ ሺͳ െ ݊ሻ‫ ݕ‬ή ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͳሻ ݀‫ݔ‬ ݀‫ݔ‬ between Bernoulli Method and Integral Factor ௗ௬ Step 3: Solve ሺͳሻ for as follows: Method. then ቀ భ ቁ ቀ ೙ ቁ and no need to find the value of ܿ) ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ‫ ݓ‬భష೙ . then ݀‫ݔ‬ ͳ ௡ ͳ ௡ భ భ భ ͳെ݊‫ݕ‬ ͳെ݊‫ݕ‬ ቀ ቁ ቀ ቁ ଵ ௗ௬ ଵ ௗ௪ ‫ݕ‬ൌ‫ݓ‬ భష೙ ൌ‫ݓ‬ భషయ ൌ ‫ି ݓ‬మ ൌ . we divide ሺͳሻ by െ ଶ ‫ ݕݔ‬ଷ as follows: ݀‫ݔ‬ ݀‫ݓ‬ ൅ ݃ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺͳ െ ݊ሻ‫ ݕ‬ଵି௡ ൌ ݂ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺͳ െ ݊ሻ‫ ݕ‬଴ ͳ ݀‫ݔ‬ ͵‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൬ ൰ ሺ ଶ ሻ ଷ ݀‫ݓ‬ ξ ‫ݓ‬ ͸‫ݕ ݔ‬ ݀‫ݓ‬ ൅ ൌ ൅ ݃ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺͳ െ ݊ሻ‫ ݕ‬ଵି௡ ൌ ݂ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺͳ െ ݊ሻ ݀‫ݔ‬ ͳ ଷ ͳ ݀‫ݔ‬ െ ‫ݕݔ‬ െ ‫ ݕݔ‬ଷ ʹ ʹ Step 8: We substitute ‫ ݓ‬ൌ ‫ ݕ‬ଵି௡ in the above equation ݀‫ݓ‬ ͳ as follows: ൅ ሺെʹሻ͵‫ ݔ‬൬ ൰ ‫ି ݕ‬ଷ ൌ ሺെʹሻ͸‫ ݔ‬ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺʹሻ ݀‫ݔ‬ ξ‫ݓ‬ ݀‫ݓ‬ ൅ ݃ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺͳ െ ݊ሻ‫ ݓ‬ൌ ݂ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሺͳ െ ݊ሻ ݀‫ݔ‬ 82 M.1.

To solve ሺͶሻ. we solve ሺͶሻ for ‫ݓ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ as follows: equations using a method known as Separable Method. we will solve some differential Then. The general solution for ‫ݓ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ is written as follows: Definition 4. we substitute ‫ ݓ‬ൌ ‫ି ݕ‬ଶ in ሺ͵ሻ as follows: for some ܿ ‫ א‬Ը. ݀‫ݓ‬ ൅ ሺെʹሻ͵‫ ݓݔ‬ൌ ሺെʹሻ͸‫ݔ‬ ݀‫ݔ‬ 4.2 Separable Method ݀‫ݓ‬ െ ͸‫ ݓݔ‬ൌ െͳʹ‫ ݔ‬ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͶሻ ݀‫ݔ‬ In this section. we need to rewrite ‫ݓ‬ൌ మ ݁ ିଷ௫ the above equation in a way that each term is మ ʹ݁ ିଷ௫ ܿ separated from the other term as follows: ‫ ݓ‬ൌ ିଷ௫ మ ൅ ିଷ௫ మ ݁ ݁ 84 M.1 The standard form of Separable ‫ ܫ ׬‬ή ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ݀‫ݔ‬ Method is written as follows: ‫ݓ‬ൌ ‫ܫ‬ ሺ‫ ݔ ݂݋ ݏ݉ݎ݁ݐ ݊݅ ݈݈ܣ‬ሻ݀‫ ݔ‬െ ሺ‫ݕ ݂݋ ݏ݉ݎ݁ݐ ݊݅ ݈݈ܣ‬ሻ݀‫ ݕ‬ൌ Ͳ ‫ ܫ ׬‬ή ሺെͳʹ‫ݔ‬ሻ ݀‫ݔ‬ Note: it does not matter whether it is the above form or ‫ݓ‬ൌ ‫ܫ‬ in the following form: మ ‫ି ݁ ׬‬ଷ௫ ή ሺെͳʹ‫ݔ‬ሻ ݀‫ݔ‬ ሺ‫ݕ ݂݋ ݏ݉ݎ݁ݐ ݊݅ ݈݈ܣ‬ሻ݀‫ ݕ‬െ ሺ‫ ݔ ݂݋ ݏ݉ݎ݁ݐ ݊݅ ݈݈ܣ‬ሻ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ Ͳ ‫ݓ‬ൌ మ ݁ ିଷ௫ మ Example 4.2. we need to use the integral factor method: This method is called separable because we separate లೣమ Hence.1. ൅ ሺെʹሻ͵‫ ݕݔ‬ଵିଷ ൌ ሺെʹሻ͸‫ݔ‬ ݀‫ݔ‬ Thus. Kaabar 85 .2.1 Solve the following differential ʹ ‫ି ݁ ׬‬ଷ௫ ή ሺെ͸‫ݔ‬ሻ ݀‫ݔ‬ ‫ݓ‬ൌ ௗ௬ ௬య ݁ ିଷ௫ మ equation: ൌ ௗ௫ ሺ௫ାଷሻ మ ʹ݁ ିଷ௫ ൅ ܿ Solution: By using definition 4. we substitute ‫ ݕ‬ൌ in ሺʹሻ as follows: ‫ ݓ‬ൌʹ൅ ξ௪ మ ݁ ିଷ௫ ݀‫ݓ‬ మ ൅ ሺെʹሻ͵‫ݔ‬ሺ‫ݕ‬ሻ‫ି ݕ‬ଷ ൌ ሺെʹሻ͸‫ݔ‬ ‫ ݓ‬ൌ ʹ ൅ ܿ݁ ଷ௫ ݀‫ݔ‬ మ ݀‫ݓ‬ The general solution for ‫ݓ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ is: ‫ ݓ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ʹ ൅ ܿ݁ ଷ௫ . the general solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ is: ݀‫ݓ‬ ͳ ͳ ൅ ሺെʹሻ͵‫ି ݕݔ‬ଶ ൌ ሺെʹሻ͸‫ ݔ‬ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺ͵ሻ ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ൌ ݀‫ݔ‬ ඥʹ ൅ ܿ݁ ଷ௫ మ ඥ‫ݓ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ Now. ‫ ܫ‬ൌ ݁ ‫ ׬‬௚ሺ௫ሻௗ௫ ൌ ݁ ‫଺ି ׬‬௫ ௗ௫ ൌ ݁ ି మ ൌ ݁ ିଷ௫ మ two different terms from each other.2.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ଵ ܿ Then.

we need to do a cross multiplication for ሺͳሻ as follows: ݁ ିଷ௬ ݀‫ ݕ‬ൌ ݁ ଶ௫ ݀‫ݔ‬ ͳ ͳ ݁ ିଷ௬ ݀‫ ݕ‬െ ݁ ଶ௫ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺʹሻ ଷ ݀‫ ݕ‬ൌ ݀‫ݔ‬ ‫ݕ‬ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͵ሻ Then. we will solve some differential ͳ equations using a method known as Exact Method. the general solution is : ͳ ͳ ͳ නሺ‫ି ݕ‬ଷ ሻ݀‫ ݕ‬െ න ൬ ൰ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ ܿ െ ݁ ିଷ௬ െ ݁ ଶ௫ ൌ ܿ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͵ሻ ͵ ʹ ͳ െ ‫ି ݕ‬ଶ െ Žሺȁሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͵ሻȁሻ ൌ ܿ ʹ 4.2.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ͳ ݀‫ݕ‬ ݁ ଶ௫ ݀‫ݕ‬ ‫ݕ‬ଷ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͵ሻ ൌ ݁ ଷ௬ାଶ௫ ൌ ݁ ଷ௬ ή ݁ ଶ௫ ൌ ିଷ௬ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͳሻ ൌ ൌ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͳሻ ݀‫ݔ‬ ݁ ݀‫ ݔ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͵ሻ ͳ ‫ݕ‬ଷ Now.1 The standard form of Exact Method is Solution: By using definition 4. we integrate both sides of ሺʹሻ as follows: ͳ ͳ ݀‫ ݕ‬െ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺʹሻ ‫ݕ‬ ଷ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͵ሻ නሺ݁ ିଷ௬ ݀‫ ݕ‬െ ݁ ଶ௫ ݀‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ න Ͳ Then. we need to rewrite written as follows: the above equation in a way that each term is ݀‫ݕ‬ ‫ܨ‬௫ ൌ െ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺͳሻ separated from the other term as follows: ݀‫ݔ‬ ‫ܨ‬௬ 86 M. Kaabar 87 www.com . the general solution is : In this section.ebook3000.3. this method is called the Anti-Implicit Example 4. we need to do a cross multiplication for ሺͳሻ as follows: Now.1.3 Exact Method Thus. ௗ௬ equation: ௗ௫ ൌ ݁ ଷ௬ାଶ௫ Definition 4. In െ ‫ି ݕ‬ଶ െ Žሺȁሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͵ሻȁሻ ൌ ܿ ʹ other words.2. we integrate both sides of ሺʹሻ as follows: නሺ݁ ିଷ௬ ሻ݀‫ ݕ‬െ නሺ݁ ଶ௫ ሻ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ ܿ ͳ ͳ න ൬ ଷ ݀‫ ݕ‬െ ݀‫ݔ‬൰ ൌ න Ͳ ‫ݕ‬ ሺ ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͵ሻ ͳ ͳ െ ݁ ିଷ௬ െ ݁ ଶ௫ ൌ ܿ ͳ ͳ ͵ ʹ න൬ ൰ ݀‫ ݕ‬െ න ൬ ൰ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ ܿ ‫ݕ‬ ଷ ሺ ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͵ሻ Thus.2 Solve the following differential Derivative Method.

we need to check for the exact method by finding ‫ ݕ‬and considering ‫ ݔ‬as a constant. we solve ሺͳሻ to find ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ. we first find ‫ܨ‬௫ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ choose ‫ܨ‬௬ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ൌ ሺെ͵‫ ݔ‬൅ ‫ݕ‬ሻ and we will integrate it as by finding the first derivative with respect to ‫ ݔ‬and follows: considering ‫ ݕ‬as a constant as follows: ͳ ‫ܨ‬௫ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ݕ‬ଷ ݁ ௫ ൅ ͵‫ ݕ‬ଶ െ ͵‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ݕ‬. ሺെ͵‫ ݔ‬൅ ‫ݕ‬ሻ݀‫ ݕ‬൅ െሺͷ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሻ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ Ͳ Note: ‫ܨ‬௫ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ is defined as the first derivative with ሺെ͵‫ ݔ‬൅ ‫ݕ‬ሻ݀‫ ݕ‬൅ ሺെͷ‫ ݔ‬െ ͵‫ݕ‬ሻ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͳሻ Thus.3. In other words. we find ‫ܨ‬௬ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ by finding the first derivative Then. we find ‫ܨ‬௬௫ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ by finding the first derivative of with respect to ‫ ݕ‬and considering ‫ ݔ‬as a constant as ‫ܨ‬௬ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ with respect to ‫ ݔ‬and considering ‫ ݕ‬as a follows: ‫ܨ‬௬ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ൌ ʹ‫ݕ‬Ǥ constant as follows: ௗ௬ ிೣ ଶ௫ ௫ ‫ܨ‬௬௫ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ൌ െ͵ Thus. ௗ௫ ൌ െ ி ൌ െ ଶ௬ ൌ െ ௬ .3 Solve the following differential solution will be as follows: ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ൌ ܿ for some constant equation: ሺെ͵‫ ݔ‬൅ ‫ݕ‬ሻ݀‫ ݕ‬െ ሺͷ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͵‫ݕ‬ሻ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ Ͳ ܿ ‫ א‬Ը. Kaabar 89 .3. the standard form for exact first Solution: First of all.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Then. ௗ௫ ൌ െ ிೣ ൌ െ ሺଷ௬ మ ௘ ೣ ା଺௫௬ା௫ሻ .3. ‫ܨ‬௫௬ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ൌ െ͵ Then.2 Given ‫ ݕ‬ଷ ݁ ௫ ൅ ͵‫ ݕݔ‬ଶ െ ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ൅ ‫ ݕݔ‬െ ͳ͵ ൌ ͲǤ exact method. ௗ௬ Find . We first find ‫ܨ‬௫௬ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ by finding the first derivative of Solution: By using definition 4. ೤ Since ‫ܨ‬௫௬ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ܨ‬௬௫ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ൌ െ͵. then we can use the Example 4.3.1: considered exact if ‫ܨ‬௫௬ ൌ ‫ܨ‬௬௫ . we need to check for the exact order differential equation is: ‫ܨ‬௬ ݀‫ ݕ‬൅ ‫ܨ‬௫ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ Ͳ. ೤ 88 M.1. and our general Example 4. and it is method as follows: We rewrite the above differential equation according to definition 4. ‫ܨ‬௫௬ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ܨ‬௬௫ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ as follows: ௗ௬ Example 4. from the above differential equation. න ‫ܨ‬௬ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ݀‫ ݕ‬ൌ නሺെ͵‫ ݔ‬൅ ‫ݕ‬ሻ݀‫ ݕ‬ൌ െ͵‫ ݕݔ‬൅ ‫ ݕ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ܦ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ǥ ሺʹሻ ʹ Then. We will Solution: By using definition 4. we first find ‫ܨ‬௫ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ‫ܨ‬௫ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ with respect to ‫ ݕ‬and considering ‫ ݔ‬as a by finding the first derivative with respect to ‫ ݔ‬and constant as follows: considering ‫ ݕ‬as a constant as follows: ‫ܨ‬௫ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ൌ ʹ‫ݔ‬. Now. we choose either ‫ܨ‬௫ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ൌ ሺെͷ‫ ݔ‬െ ͵‫ݕ‬ሻ or ௗ௫ ‫ܨ‬௬ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ൌ ሺെ͵‫ ݔ‬൅ ‫ݕ‬ሻǡ and then we integrate.3. while ‫ܨ‬௫ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ൌ ሺെͷ‫ ݔ‬െ ͵‫ݕ‬ሻ and ‫ܨ‬௬ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ൌ ሺെ͵‫ ݔ‬൅ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ‫ܨ‬௬ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ is defined as the first derivative with respect to Now. we obtain: respect to ‫ ݔ‬and considering ‫ ݕ‬as a constant.3. we find ‫ܨ‬௬ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ by finding the first derivative ͳ ଶ with respect to ‫ ݕ‬and considering ‫ ݔ‬as a constant as ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ൌ െ͵‫ ݕݔ‬൅ ‫ ݕ‬൅ ‫ܦ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ʹ follows: ‫ܨ‬௬ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ൌ ͵‫ ݕ‬ଶ ݁ ௫ ൅ ͸‫ ݕݔ‬൅ ‫ݔ‬Ǥ We need to find ‫ܦ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ as follows: ௗ௬ ி ሺ௬ య௘ ೣ ାଷ௬ మ ିଷ௫ మ ା௬ሻ Thus.1 Given ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ ݕ‬ଶ െ Ͷ ൌ ͲǤ Find ௗ௫ .1.

Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved

Since we selected ‫ܨ‬௬ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ൌ ሺെ͵‫ ݔ‬൅ ‫ݕ‬ሻ previously for Solution: By using definition 4.4.1, we first let
integration, then we need to find ‫ܨ‬௫ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ for ሺʹሻ as ‫ ݑ‬ൌ ͷ‫ ݔ‬൅ ‫ݕ‬, and then, we need to find the first
follows: derivative of both sides of ‫ ݑ‬ൌ ͷ‫ ݔ‬൅ ‫ݕ‬.
‫ܨ‬௫ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ൌ െ͵‫ ݕ‬൅ ‫ܦ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺ͵ሻ ݀‫ݑ‬ ݀‫ݕ‬
ൌͷ൅ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺͳሻ
݀‫ݔ‬ ݀‫ݔ‬
Now, we substitute ‫ܨ‬௫ ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ൌ ሺെͷ‫ ݔ‬െ ͵‫ݕ‬ሻ in ሺ͵ሻ as ௗ௬
Now, we solve ሺͳሻ for ௗ௫ as follows:
follows:
݀‫ݑ݀ ݕ‬
ሺെͷ‫ ݔ‬െ ͵‫ݕ‬ሻ ൌ െ͵‫ ݕ‬൅ ‫ܦ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ െ ͷ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺʹሻ
݀‫ݔ݀ ݔ‬
‫ܦ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ െͷ‫ ݔ‬െ ͵‫ ݕ‬൅ ͵‫ ݕ‬ൌ െͷ‫ ݔ‬ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͶሻ Then, we substitute ‫ ݑ‬ൌ ͷ‫ ݔ‬൅ ‫ ݕ‬and ሺʹሻ in
Then, we integrate both sides of ሺͶሻ as follows: ௗ௬ ୱ୧୬ሺହ௫ା௬ሻ
ௗ௫
ൌ ௖௢௦ሺହ௫ା௬ሻିଶୱ୧୬ሺହ௫ା௬ሻ െ ͷ as follows:
න ‫ܦ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ න െͷ‫ݔ݀ݔ‬ ݀‫ݑ‬ •‹ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ
െͷൌ െͷ
ͷ ݀‫ݔ‬ ܿ‫ݏ݋‬ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ െ ʹ•‹ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ
‫ܦ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ න െͷ‫ ݔ݀ݔ‬ൌ െ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ
ʹ ݀‫ݑ‬ •‹ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ
ൌ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺ͵ሻ
Thus, the general solution of the exact method is : ݀‫ݑ ݏ݋ܿ ݔ‬ሻ െ ʹ•‹ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ

‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ൌ ܿ Now, we can use the separable method to solve ሺ͵ሻ as
ͳ ͷ follows:
െ͵‫ ݕݔ‬൅ ‫ ݕ‬ଶ ൅ െ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൌ ܿ
ʹ ʹ By using definition 4.2.1, we need to rewrite ሺ͵ሻ in a
4.4 Reduced to Separable way that each term is separated from the other term
as follows:

Method ݀‫ݑ‬

•‹ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ

ͳ
ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͶሻ
ሺ ሻ ሺ ሻ
݀‫ ݑ ݏ݋ܿ ݔ‬െ ʹ•‹ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ ܿ‫ ݑ ݏ݋‬െ ʹ•‹ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ
In this section, we will solve some differential •‹ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ
Now, we need to do a cross multiplication for ሺͶሻ as
equations using a method known as Reduced to
follows:
Separable Method.
ܿ‫ݏ݋‬ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ െ ʹ•‹ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ
Definition 4.4.1 The standard form of Reduced to ݀‫ ݑ‬ൌ ͳ݀‫ݔ‬
•‹ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ
Separable Method is written as follows:
ௗ௬
ܿ‫ݏ݋‬ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ െ ʹ•‹ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ
ൌ ݂ሺܽ‫ ݔ‬൅ ܾ‫ ݕ‬൅ ܿሻ where ܽǡ ܾ ് Ͳ. ݀‫ ݑ‬െ ͳ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺͷሻ
ௗ௫ •‹ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ
Example 4.4.1 Solve the following differential Then, we integrate both sides of ሺͷሻ as follows:
ௗ௬ ୱ୧୬ሺହ௫ା௬ሻ
equation: ൌ ௖௢௦ሺହ௫ା௬ሻିଶୱ୧୬ሺହ௫ା௬ሻ െ ͷǤ ܿ‫ݏ݋‬ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ െ ʹ•‹ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ
ௗ௫ නቆ ݀‫ ݑ‬െ ͳ݀‫ݔ‬ቇ ൌ න Ͳ
•‹ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ

90 M. Kaabar 91

www.ebook3000.com

Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved

ܿ‫ݏ݋‬ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ െ ʹ•‹ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ ሺଶሻ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ Ͳ
නቆ ቇ ݀‫ ݑ‬െ නሺͳሻ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ ܿ ‫ ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ െ ൌ
•‹ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ
‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ
ܿ‫ݏ݋‬ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ ʹ •‹ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ ͳ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ൌͲ
නቆ െ ቇ ݀‫ ݑ‬െ ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ܿ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ
•‹ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ •‹ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ
െͳ
‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺͳሻ
ܿ‫ݏ݋‬ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ
නቆ െ ʹቇ ݀‫ ݑ‬െ ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ܿ
•‹ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ ିଵ
Now, let ‫ܯ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ሺ௫ାଵሻ , and substitute it in ሺͳሻ as
Žሺȁ•‹ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻȁሻ െ ʹ‫ ݑ‬െ ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ܿ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺ͸ሻ
follows:
Now, we substitute ‫ ݑ‬ൌ ͷ‫ ݔ‬൅ ‫ ݕ‬in ሺ͸ሻ as follows: ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ‫ܯ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ
Žሺȁ•‹ሺͷ‫ ݔ‬൅ ‫ݕ‬ሻȁሻ െ ʹሺͷ‫ ݔ‬൅ ‫ݕ‬ሻ െ ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ܿ Hence, ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ is written as follows:
݁ ‫ି ׬‬ெሺ௫ሻௗ௫
Thus, the general solution is : ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ή න ݀‫ݔ‬
‫ݕ‬ଵ ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ
Žሺȁ•‹ሺͷ‫ ݔ‬൅ ‫ݕ‬ሻȁሻ െ ʹሺͷ‫ ݔ‬൅ ‫ݕ‬ሻ െ ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ܿ భ
‫׬‬ ೏ೣ
௘ ሺೣశభሻ
In our example, ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͳ ή ‫׬‬ ሺଵሻమ
݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ
4.5 Reduction of Order ௘ ౢ౤ሺೣశభሻ ଵ
ͳή‫׬‬ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ ‫ ݁ ׬‬୪୬ሺ௫ାଵሻ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ ‫׬‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ݔ‬.
ଵ ଶ

Method Thus, the homogenous solution is written as follows:

‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢௚௘௡௢௨௦ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܿଵ ൅ ܿଶ ቀଶ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ݔ‬ቁǡ for some ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ‫ א‬Ը.
In this section, we will solve differential equations
using a method called Reduction of Order Method. Example 4.5.1 Given the following differential

Definition 4.5.1 Reduction of Order Method is valid equation: ‫ ݕݔ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ሺʹ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ‫଻ ݁ݔ‬௫ ,

method only for second order differential equations, and ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ is a solution to the associated
and one solution to the homogenous part must be homogenous part. Find ‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢௚௘௡௢௨௦ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ? (Hint: Find first

given. For example, given ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ െ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ Ͳǡ ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ, and then write ‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢௚௘௡௢௨௦ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ)
and ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͳ. To find ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ, the differential equation Solution: By using definition 4.5.1, To find ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ, the
must be written in the standard form (Coefficient of differential equation must be equal to zero and must
‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ must be 1) as follows:

92 M. Kaabar 93

Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved

also be written in the standard form (Coefficient of ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ
4.6 Exercises
must be 1) as follows:
ሺ௫ାଵሻర
We divide both sides of 1. Given ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ൅ ‫ ݕݔ‬ൌ ௬మ
Ǥ Find the general
‫ݕݔ‬ ሺଶሻ ሺ
‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ െ ሺʹ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ‫ ݕ‬ൌ Ͳ by ‫ ݔ‬as follows: solution for ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. (Hint: Use Bernoulli method and no
‫ ݔ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ ᇱ ʹ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳ Ͳ need to find the value of ܿ)
‫ ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ‫ ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ െ ‫ݕ‬ൌ 2. Given ‫ ݔ‬ᇱ ൅ ͵‫ ݔݕ‬ൌ ͵‫ ݕ‬ଷ Ǥ Find the general solution for
‫ݔ‬ ‫ݔ‬ ‫ݔ‬ ‫ݔ‬
ሺ ሻ ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ. (Hint: Use Bernoulli method and no need to find
‫ݔ‬ ൅ ͳ ʹ‫ݔ‬ ൅ ͳ
ͳ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ െ ‫ ݕ‬ൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺͳሻ the value of ܿ)
‫ݔ‬ ‫ݔ‬
ௗ௬ ଵା௬ మ
ሺ௫ାଵሻ ଵ 3. Solve the following differential equation: ൌ
Now, let ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ൌ ቀͳ ൅ ௫ቁ , and substitute it in ሺͳሻ ௗ௫ ଵା௫ మ

ௗ௬ ଵ
as follows: 4. Solve the following differential equation: ௗ௫ ൌ ଷ௫ା௫ మ௬

ʹ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳ 5. Solve the following differential equation:
‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ ‫ܯ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ െ ‫ݕ‬ൌͲ
‫ݔ‬ ݀‫ݕ‬
Hence, ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ is written as follows: ൌ ͵‫ ݁ݔ‬ሺ௫ାହ௬ሻ
݀‫ݔ‬
݁ ‫ି ׬‬ெሺ௫ሻௗ௫ 6. Solve the following differential equation:
‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ή න ݀‫ݔ‬ ͳ ͵
‫ݕ‬ଵ ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ሺ݁ ௫ ‫ ݕ‬൅ ͵‫ ݔݕ‬െ ʹሻ݀‫ ݕ‬൅ ൬ ݁ ௫ ‫ ݕ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ ݕ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൰ ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ Ͳ
భ ʹ ʹ
‫׬‬ቀభశೣቁ೏ೣ
In example 4.5.1, ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ή ‫׬‬ ௫ ௘
݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ 7. Solve the following differential equation:
ሺ௘ ೣ ሻమ
݀‫ݕ‬ •‹ሺͷ‫ ݔ‬൅ ‫ݕ‬ሻ
ଵ ൌ െͷ
݁ ି௫ ή ݁
୪୬ቀ ቁ
௫ ݁ ିଷ௫ ݀‫ݏ݋ܿ ݔ‬ሺͷ‫ ݔ‬൅ ‫ݕ‬ሻ െ ʹ•‹ሺͷ‫ ݔ‬൅ ‫ݕ‬ሻ

݁ ήන ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ ݁ ௫ ή න ݀‫ݔ‬ 8. Given the following differential equation:
݁ ଶ௫ ‫ݔ‬
ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ‫ ݕ‬ሺଶሻ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͳͲǡ and ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͳ is a solution
௘ షయೣ
Since it is impossible to integrate ݁ ௫ ή ‫׬‬ ݀‫ݔ‬, then it to the associated homogenous part. Find ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ?

௫ ௘ షయ೟
is enough to write it as: ݁ ௫ ή ‫׬‬଴ ௧
݀‫ݐ‬.
௫ ௘ షయ೟
Therefore, ‫ݕ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ௫ ή ‫׬‬଴ ௧
݀‫ݐ‬.

Thus, the homogenous solution is written as follows:
௫ ௘ షయ೟
‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢௚௘௡௢௨௦ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܿଵ ݁ ௫ ൅ ܿଶ ቀ݁ ௫ ή ‫׬‬଴ ݀‫ݐ‬ቁǡ for some

ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ‫ א‬Ը.

94 M. Kaabar 95

www.ebook3000.com

Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved

Chapter 5 a) How long will it take for the temperature of the
engine to cool to ͳͳ͹Ԭ?

Applications of Differential b) What will be the temperature of the engine 30
minutes from now?

Equations Solution: Part a: To determine how long will it take for
the temperature of the engine to cool to ͳͳ͹Ԭ, we need
In this chapter, we give examples of three different to do the following:
applications of differential equations: temperature, Assume that ܶሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ is the temperature of engine at the
growth and decay, and water tank. In each section, we time ‫ݐ‬, and ܶ଴ is the constant outside air temperature.
give one example of each of the above applications, and Now, we need to write the differential equation for this
we discuss how to use what we have learned previously example as follows:
in this book to solve each problem. ݀ܶ
ൌ ߚ ሺܶ െ ܶ଴ ሻ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺͳሻ
݀‫ݐ‬

5.1 Temperature Application where ߚ is a constant.
From ሺͳሻ, we can write as follows:
In this section, we give an example of temperature
ܶ ᇱ ൌ ߚܶ െ ߚܶ଴
application, and we introduce how to use one of the ܶ ᇱ െ ߚܶ ൌ െߚܶ଴ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺʹሻ
differential equations methods to solve it. From this example, it is given the following:
Example 5.1.1 Thomas drove his car from Pullman, ܶሺͲሻ ൌ ͳͶͶԬ, ܶሺͳͲሻ ൌ ͳ͵͸Ԭ, and ܶ଴ ൌ ͳͲͶԬ
WA to Olympia, WA, and the outside air temperature From ሺʹሻ, െߚܶ଴ is constant, and the dependent variable
was constant ͳͲͶԬ. During his trip, he took a break at is ܶ, while the independent variable is the time ‫ݐ‬.
Othello, WA gas station, and then he switched off the By substituting ܶ଴ ൌ ͳͲͶԬ in ሺʹሻ, we obtain:
engine of his car, and checked his car temperature ܶ ᇱ െ ߚܶ ൌ െͳͲͶߚ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺ͵ሻ
gauge, and it was ͳͶͶԬ. After ten minutes, Thomas Since ሺ͵ሻ is a first order linear differential equation,
checked his car temperature gauge, and it was ͳ͵͸Ԭ. then by using definition 4.1.1, we need to use the

96 M. Kaabar 97

we need to find the time ‫ ݐ‬when ܶሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ͳͳ͹Ԭ by The general solution is: ܶሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ͳͲͶ ൅ ܿ݁ ఉ௧ for some substituting it in ሺͺሻ as follows: ܿ ‫ א‬Ը. ܶሺͳͲሻ ൌ ͳͲͶ ൅ ͶͲ݁ ఉሺଵ଴ሻ Hence. we substitute ሺ͹ሻ in ሺͷሻ as follows: ܶሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ͳͲͶ ൅ ିఉ௧ ݁ ܶሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ͳͲͶ ൅ ͶͲ݁ ି଴Ǥ଴ଶଶଷ௧ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͺሻ ܶሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ͳͲͶ ൅ ܿ݁ ఉ௧ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͶሻ Then. ͳ͵͸ ൌ ͳͲͶ ൅ ͶͲ݁ ఉሺଵ଴ሻ The general solution is written as follows: ͳ͵͸ െ ͳͲͶ ൌ ͶͲ݁ ఉሺଵ଴ሻ ‫ ܫ ׬‬ή ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ݀‫ݐ‬ ͵ʹ ൌ ͶͲ݁ ఉሺଵ଴ሻ ܶሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ܫ‬ ͵ʹ ݁ ఉሺଵ଴ሻ ൌ ൌ ͲǤͺ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺ͸ሻ ‫݁׬‬ ିఉ௧ ή ሺെͳͲͶߚሻ ݀‫ݐ‬ ͶͲ ܶሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ିఉ௧ By taking the natural logarithm for both sides of ሺ͸ሻ. ‫ ܫ‬ൌ ݁ ‫ ׬‬௚ሺ௧ሻௗ௧ ൌ ݁ ‫ି ׬‬ఉ ௗ௧ ൌ ݁ ିఉ௧ . ͳͳ͹ ൌ ͳͲͶ ൅ ͶͲ݁ ି଴Ǥ଴ଶଶଷሺ୲ሻ Now. we obtain: ݃ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ െߚ and ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ െͳͲͶߚ. ܶሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ͳͲͶ ൅ ͶͲ݁ ఉ௧ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ሺͷሻ െͲǤͲʹʹ͵ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ݈݊ሺͲǤͲ͹ͷሻ 98 M. we need to find ܿ by substituting ܶሺͲሻ ൌ ͳͶͶԬ in ͳͳ͹ െ ͳͲͶ ൌ ͶͲ݁ ି଴Ǥ଴ଶଶଷሺ୲ሻ ሺͶሻ as follows: ͵ ൌ ͶͲ݁ ି଴Ǥ଴ଶଶଷሺ୲ሻ ఉሺ଴ሻ ܶሺͲሻ ൌ ͳͲͶ ൅ ܿ݁ ͵ ݁ ି଴Ǥ଴ଶଶଷሺ୲ሻ ൌ ൌ ͲǤͲ͹ͷ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ሺͻሻ ͳͶͶ ൌ ͳͲͶ ൅ ܿ݁ ଴ ͶͲ ͳͶͶ ൌ ͳͲͶ ൅ ܿሺͳሻ By taking the natural logarithm for both sides of ሺͻሻ.com .ebook3000. where By substituting ܶሺͳͲሻ ൌ ͳ͵͸Ԭ in ሺͷሻ.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved integral factor method by letting ‫ ܫ‬ൌ ݁ ‫ ׬‬௚ሺ௧ሻௗ௧ . Kaabar 99 www. ͳͶͶ ൌ ͳͲͶ ൅ ܿ we obtain: ܿ ൌ ͳͶͶ െ ͳͲͶ ൌ ͶͲ ݈݊൫݁ ି଴Ǥ଴ଶଶଷሺ௧ሻ ൯ ൌ ݈݊ሺͲǤͲ͹ͷሻ Thus. ିఉ௧ ‫׬‬ሺെͳͲͶߚሻ݁ ݀‫ݐ‬ we obtain: ܶሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ିఉ௧ ݈݊൫ ݁ ఉሺଵ଴ሻ ൯ ൌ ݈݊ሺͲǤͺሻ ͳͲͶ݁ ିఉ௧ ൅ ܿ ܶሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ߚ ሺͳͲሻ ൌ ݈݊ሺͲǤͺሻ ݁ ିఉ௧ ͳͲͶ݁ ିఉ௧ ܿ ݈ ݊ሺͲǤͺሻ ܶሺ‫ ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ൅ ିఉ௧ ߚൌ ൌ െͲǤͲʹʹ͵ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺ͹ሻ ݁ ିఉ௧ ݁ ͳͲ ܿ Now.

000 students. it is given the following: In this section. the temperature of the engine 30 minutes from ܹ݀ now will be approximately ͳʹͶǤͶͻԬ. 5. while the the differential equations methods to solve it. Kaabar 101 .2 Growth and Decay From ሺͳሻ. we need to use separable method as at Washington State University (WSU) is proportional follows: to the square root of the number of students at any By using definition 4. we can write as follows: Application ܹ ᇱ ൌ ߚඥܹሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺʹሻ From this example. independent variable is the time ‫ݐ‬. decay application. If the number of WSU students in 2013 was way that each term is separated from the other term 28. we need to rewrite ሺͳሻ in a time ‫ݐ‬. we need to do the double number of WSU students in 2013.1 The rate change of number of students To solve ሺͳሻ. we give an example of growth and ܹሺͲሻ ൌ ʹͺǡ͸ͺ͸. and suppose that the number of as follows: students at WSU after one year was 32. we need to write the differential equation for this ܶሺ͵Ͳሻ ൎ ͳʹͶǤͶͻԬ example as follows: Thus.2. and ܹ ሺͳሻ ൌ ͵ʹǡͲͲͲ. ൌ ߚඥܹሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺͳሻ ݀‫ݐ‬ where ߚ is a constant. we need to do following: the following: We assume that ‫ ݐ‬ൌ ͵Ͳ.686 students2. Example 5.1. 100 M.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ݈ ݊ሺͲǤͲ͹ͷሻ a) How long will it take to double number of WSU ‫ݐ‬ൌ ൎ ͳͳ͸Ǥͳ͸ ‹—–‡• െͲǤͲʹʹ͵ students in 2013? Thus. the dependent variable is ܹ. ܶሺ͵Ͳሻ ൌ ͳͲͶ ൅ ͶͲ݁ ି଴Ǥ଴ଶଶଷሺଷ଴ሻ Now. the temperature of the engine will take b) What will be the number of WSU students in approximately ͳͳ͸Ǥͳ͸ minutes to cool to ͳͳ͹Ԭ 2018? Part b: To determine what will be the temperature of Solution: Part a: To determine how long will it take to the engine 30 minutes from now. and then we substitute it in Assume that ܹሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ is the number of WSU students at ሺͺሻ as follows: any time ‫ݐ‬.2. and we introduce how to use one of From ሺʹሻ.

the general solution is : ͵͵ͺǤ͹Ͷ ൅ ߚ ଶ ଵ ܹ ሺ‫ ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ൬ ൰ ʹܹ ଶ െ ߚ‫ ݐ‬ൌ ܿ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͷሻ ʹ ሺ͵͵ͺǤ͹Ͷሻଶ ൅ ʹሺ͵͵ͺǤ͹Ͷሻߚ ൅ ߚ ଶ for some ܿ ‫ א‬Ը. Kaabar 103 www.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ܹ݀ ߚ Now. we need to find ܿ by substituting ܹ ሺͲሻ ൌ ʹͺǡ͸ͺ͸ ൌ ߚඥܹሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ଵ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺ͵ሻ ݀‫ݐ‬ ܹ ିଶ in ሺ͹ሻ as follows: Now.ebook3000. we integrate both sides of ሺͶሻ as follows: ʹͺǡ͸ͺ͸ ൌ Ͷ ଵ ܿ ଶ ൌ Ͷሺʹͺǡ͸ͺ͸ሻ න ቆ൬ܹ ିଶ ൰ ܹ݀ െ ߚ݀‫ݐ‬ቇ ൌ න Ͳ ܿ ൌ ඥͶሺʹͺǡ͸ͺ͸ሻ ଵ න ൬ܹ ିଶ ൰ ܹ݀ െ නሺߚሻ ݀‫ ݐ‬ൌ ܿ ܿ ൎ ͵͵ͺǤ͹Ͷ ଷଷ଼Ǥ଻ସାఉ௧ ଶ ଵ Thus. we substitute ሺͻሻ in ሺͺሻ as follows: We square both sides of ሺ͸ሻ as follows: ͵͵ͺǤ͹Ͷ ൅ ሺ͸͵ǡ͸͸ͳǤʹ͸ሻ‫ ݐ‬ଶ ܿ ൅ ߚ‫ݐ‬ ଶ ܹ ሺ‫ ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ൬ ൰ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͳͲሻ ܹ ሺ‫ ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ൬ ൰ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǥ ሺ͹ሻ ʹ ʹ Then. we obtain: Thus. ߚ ൎ ͸͵ǡ͸͸ͳǤʹ͸ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͻሻ ʹ Now. we rewrite ሺͷሻ as follows: ሺ͵͵ͺǤ͹Ͷሻଶ ൅ ʹሺ͵͵ͺǤ͹Ͷሻߚ ൅ ߚ ଶ ൌ Ͷሺ͵ʹǡͲͲͲሻ ଵ ʹሺ͵͵ͺǤ͹Ͷሻߚ ൅ ߚ ଶ ൌ Ͷሺ͵ʹǡͲͲͲሻ െ ሺ͵͵ͺǤ͹Ͷሻଶ ʹܹ ଶ ൌ ܿ ൅ ߚ‫ݐ‬ ߚ ଶ ൅ ʹሺ͵͵ͺǤ͹Ͷሻߚ െ ͳ͵ǡʹͷͷǤʹͳʹͶ ൌ Ͳ ଵ ܿ ൅ ߚ‫ݐ‬ ܹଶ ൌ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺ͸ሻ Thus. ͵ʹǡͲͲͲ ൌ ቆ ቇ Ͷ Then. we need to do a cross multiplication for ሺ͵ሻ as ܿ ൅ ߚሺͲሻ ଶ follows: ܹ ሺͲሻ ൌ ൬ ൰ ʹ ଵ ܿ൅Ͳ ଶ ൬ܹ ିଶ ൰ ܹ݀ ൌ ߚ݀‫ݐ‬ ʹͺǡ͸ͺ͸ ൌ ൬ ൰ ʹ ଵ ܿ ଶ ൬ܹ ିଶ ൰ ܹ݀ െ ߚ݀‫ ݐ‬ൌ Ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺͶሻ ʹͺǡ͸ͺ͸ ൌ ቀ ቁ ʹ ܿଶ Then.com . ܹ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ቀ ቁ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ሺͺሻ ଶ ʹܹ ଶ െ ߚ‫ ݐ‬ൌ ܿ By substituting ܹ ሺͳሻ ൌ ͵ʹǡͲͲͲ in ሺͺሻ. we need to find the time ‫ ݐ‬when 102 M.

WSU Water Tower. ‫ ݐ‬ଶ ൅ ʹሺ͵͵ͺǤ͹Ͷሻሺ͸͵ǡ͸͸ͳǤʹ͸ሻ‫ ݐ‬െ ͳͳͶǡ͹Ͷ͵ǤʹͳʹͶ ൌ Ͳ while the mixture of minerals goes out of the tank at ‫ ݐ‬ൎ ͲǤͲͲʹ͸͸ years rate of 2 gallons per minute. ‫ܯ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ is written in the following approximately ͶǤͳʹ͸ ൈ ͳͲଵହ students in 2018. it is given the following: Example 5.3 Water Tank Application ‫ ܯ‬ሺ‫ ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ݄ܶ݁ ܽ݉‫ݏ݈ܽݎ݁݊݅ܯ ݂݋ ݐ݊ݑ݋‬ ݄ܶ݁ ܸ‫ݎ݁ݐܹܽ ݂݀݁݅݅ݎݑܲ ݂݋ ݁݉ݑ݈݋‬ In this section. the number of WSU students will be tank at any time ‫ݐ‬. Thus. From this example.1 One of the most beautiful places at ܹሺͲሻ ൌ ͷ ܾ‫ݏ݀݊ݑ݋‬. we need to do the following: tank of WSU Water Tower at ‫ ݐ‬ൌ ͵Ͷ minutes? We assume that ‫ ݐ‬ൌ ʹͲͳͺ. the amount of ͵͵ͺǤ͹Ͷ ൅ ሺ͸͵ǡ͸͸ͳǤʹ͸ሻ‫ ݐ‬ଶ minerals is ͷ bounds. form: 5. and we introduce how to use one of the ܲ‫ ݎ݁ݐܹܽ ݂݀݁݅݅ݎݑ‬൅ ሺሺ‫ ݁ݐܴܽ ݎ݁݊݊ܫ‬െ ܱ‫݁ݐܴܽ ݎ݁ݐݑ‬ሻ‫ݐ‬ሻ differential equations methods to solve it. it will take approximately ͲǤͲͲʹ͸͸ years to a) What is the amount of minerals in the tank of double the number of WSU students in 2013. ‫ ݁ݐܴܽ ݎ݁݊݊ܫ‬ൌ ͷ ‰ƒŽŽ‘•Ȁ‹—–‡. Suppose that there is a mixture ͷ͹ǡ͵͹ʹ ൌ ൬ ൰ ʹ of minerals containing 0. Assume thatWSU Water Tower 104 M. and Washington State University campus is known as ܱ‫ ݁ݐܴܽ ݎ݁ݐݑ‬ൌ ʹ ‰ƒŽŽ‘•Ȁ‹—–‡.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ܹሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ʹሺʹͺǡ͸ͺ͸ሻ ൌ ͷ͹ǡ͵͹ʹ by substituting it in ሺͳͲሻ as has a tank that contains initially 350 gallons of follows: purified water.3. we give an example of water tank ܹሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ǥ ሺͳሻ application. and ‫ܯ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ is the concentration of minerals in the Thus. we ଶ ͵͵ͺǤ͹Ͷ ൅ ሺ͸͵ǡ͸͸ͳǤʹ͸ሻሺʹͲͳͺሻ need to do the following: ܹሺʹͲͳͺሻ ൌ ቆ ቇ ʹ Assume that ܹሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ is the amount of minerals at any ܹሺʹͲͳͺሻ ൎ ͶǤͳʹ͸ ൈ ͳͲଵହ students time ‫ݐ‬. Kaabar 105 . given that when ‫ ݐ‬ൌ Ͳ. WSU Water Tower at any time ‫?ݐ‬ Part b: To determine what will be number of WSU b) What is the concentration of minerals in the students in 2018.2 bound of minerals per gallon ሺ͵͵ͺǤ͹Ͷሻଶ ൅ ʹሺ͵͵ͺǤ͹Ͷሻሺ͸͵ǡ͸͸ͳǤʹ͸ሻ‫ ݐ‬൅ ‫ ݐ‬ଶ ൌ Ͷሺͷ͹ǡ͵͹ʹሻ is poured into the tank at rate of 5 gallons per minute. and then we substitute it in Solution: Part a: To determine the amount of minerals ሺͳͲሻ as follows: in the tank of WSU Water Tower at any time ‫ݐ‬.

we need to find ܿ by substituting ሺ͵ሻ as follows: ܹሺͲሻ ൌ ͷ bounds in ሺͷሻ as follows: ܹ ሺ‫ ݐ‬ሻ ͵ͷͲሺͲሻ ሺͲሻଶ ܿ ܹ ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ͲǤʹ ή ሺͷሻ െ ቆ ቇ ή ሺʹሻ ܹ ሺͲሻ ൌ ቆ ൅ ൅ ቇ ͵ͷͲ ൅ ʹ‫ݐ‬ ሺ͵ͷͲ ൅ ʹሺͲሻሻ ሺ͵ͷͲ ൅ ʹሺͲሻሻ ሺ͵ͷͲ ൅ ʹሺͲሻሻ ܹ ሺ‫ ݐ‬ሻ ܿ ܹ ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ͳ െ ሺʹሻ ቆ ቇ ͷ ൌ ൬Ͳ ൅ Ͳ ൅ ൰ ͵ͷͲ ൅ ʹ‫ݐ‬ ሺ͵ͷͲ ൅ ʹሺͲሻሻ ʹ ܿ ܹ ᇱ ሺ‫ ݐ‬ሻ ൅ ൬ ൰ ܹ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ͳ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺͶሻ ͷൌቀ ቁ ͵ͷͲ ൅ ʹ‫ݐ‬ ͵ͷͲ ܿ ൌ ሺͷሻሺ͵ͷͲሻ ൌ ͳ͹ͷͲ Since ሺͶሻ is a first order linear differential equation. ܹ ሺ‫ ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ቆ ൅ ൅ ቇ ሺ͵ͷͲ ൅ ʹ‫ݐ‬ሻ ሺ͵ͷͲ ൅ ʹ‫ݐ‬ሻ ሺ͵ͷͲ ൅ ʹ‫ݐ‬ሻ The general solution is written as follows: 106 M.1. we need to use the Thus.com .Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Now. ଷହ଴௧ ௧మ ଵ଻ହ଴ then by using definition 4. where The amount of minerals in the tank of WSU Water ଶ ݃ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ቀଷହ଴ାଶ௧ ቁ and ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ͳ.1. independent variable is the time ‫ݐ‬. Tower at any time ‫ ݐ‬is: మ ቁ ௗ௧ ͵ͷͲ‫ݐ‬ ‫ݐ‬ଶ ͳ͹ͷͲ ‫ ܫ‬ൌ ݁ ‫ ׬‬௚ሺ௧ሻௗ௧ ൌ ݁ ‫׬‬ቀయఱబశమ೟ ൌ ݁ ୪୬ሺଷହ଴ାଶ௧ሻ ൌ ሺ͵ͷͲ ൅ ʹ‫ݐ‬ሻ. we need to rewrite our previous equation for this ‫ ܫ ׬‬ή ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ݀‫ݐ‬ ܹሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ example by substituting what is given in the example ‫ܫ‬ ‫׬‬ሺ͵ͷͲ ൅ ʹ‫ݐ‬ሻ ή ሺͳሻ ݀‫ݐ‬ itself in ሺͳሻ as follows: ܹሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ሺ͵ͷͲ ൅ ʹ‫ݐ‬ሻ ܹሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ܹ ሺ‫ ݐ‬ሻ ‫ ܯ‬ሺ‫ ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ൌ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ǡ ǥ ǥ ሺʹሻ ‫׬‬ሺ͵ͷͲ ൅ ʹ‫ݐ‬ሻ ݀‫ݐ‬ ሺ ሻ ͵ͷͲ ൅ ሺ ͷ െ ͵ ‫ݐ‬ሻ ͵ͷͲ ൅ ʹ‫ݐ‬ ܹሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ሺ͵ͷͲ ൅ ʹ‫ݐ‬ሻ From ሺʹሻ. we can write the differential equation as ͵ͷͲ‫ ݐ‬൅ ‫ ݐ‬ଶ ൅ ܿ follows: ܹሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ሺ͵ͷͲ ൅ ʹ‫ݐ‬ሻ ܹ݀ ൌ ͲǤʹ ή ‫ ݁ݐܴܽ ݎ݁݊݊ܫ‬െ ‫ܯ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ή ܱ‫݁ݐܴܽ ݎ݁ݐݑ‬ ͵ͷͲ‫ݐ‬ ‫ݐ‬ଶ ܿ ݀‫ݐ‬ ܹ ሺ‫ ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ቆ ൅ ൅ ቇ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ሺͷሻ ሺ͵ͷͲ ൅ ʹ‫ݐ‬ሻ ሺ͵ͷͲ ൅ ʹ‫ݐ‬ሻ ሺ͵ͷͲ ൅ ʹ‫ݐ‬ሻ ܹ݀ ܹ ሺ‫ ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ͲǤʹ ή ሺͷሻ െ ቆ ቇ ή ሺʹሻ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ ሺ͵ሻ The general solution is: ݀‫ݐ‬ ͵ͷͲ ൅ ʹ‫ݐ‬ ଷହ଴௧ ௧మ ௖ From ሺ͵ሻ. Then. Kaabar 107 www. while the ܹሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ቀሺଷହ଴ାଶ௧ሻ ൅ ሺଷହ଴ାଶ௧ሻ ൅ ሺଷହ଴ାଶ௧ሻቁ for some ܿ ‫ א‬Ը. the dependent variable is ܹ. ܹ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ቀሺଷହ଴ାଶ௧ሻ ൅ ሺଷହ଴ାଶ௧ሻ ൅ ሺଷହ଴ାଶ௧ሻቁ Ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ Ǥ Ǥ ሺ͸ሻ integral factor method by letting ‫ ܫ‬ൌ ݁ ‫ ׬‬௚ሺ௧ሻௗ௧ .ebook3000. we rewrite Now.

Kaabar 109 . †‡–ሺሻ ൌ ȁȁ ൌ ܽଵଵ ܽଶଶ െ ܽଵଶ ܽଶଵ ‫ א‬Թ. In addition. First Edition1. let  ‫ א‬ଶ ሺԹሻ where A is ʹ ൈ ʹ ܽଵଵ ܽଵଶ matrix. (Warning: this definition works only for ʹ ൈ ʹ matrices). Definition A. we do the following: 108 M. In this section. Example A.7 in my published book titled A First Course in approximately ͵ͷǤͶʹ minutes.1. we introduce step by step for finding determinant of a certain matrix. Hence.  ൌ ቂܽ ܽଶଶ ቃǤ The determinant of A is ଶଵ represented by †‡–ሺሻ ‘” ȁȁ.1 Given the following matrix: ͵ ʹ ൌቂ ቃ ͷ ͹ Find the determinant of A.1 Determinant is a square matrix. we Appendices need to do the following: We substitute ‫ ݐ‬ൌ ͵Ͷ minutes in ሺ͸ሻ as follows: Review of Linear Algebra ଶ ͵ͷͲሺ͵Ͷሻ ൅ ሺ͵Ͷሻ ൅ ͳ͹ͷͲ ܹ ሺ͵Ͷሻ ൌ ቆ ቇ ൎ ͵ͷǤͶʹ ሺ͵ͷͲ ൅ ʹሺ͵Ͷሻሻ Appendix A: Determinants* Thus. In addition. Solution: Using definition A. we discuss some important properties such as invertible and non-invertible. we talk about the effect of row-operations on determinants. the concentration of minerals in the tank of *The materials of appendix A are taken from section WSU Water Tower at ‫ ݐ‬ൌ ͵Ͷ minutes is 1. Linear Algebra: Study Guide for the Undergraduate Linear Algebra Course. Given ଶ ሺԹሻ ൌ Թ૛ൈ૛ ൌ Թ૛ൈ૛ .Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Part b: To determine the concentration of minerals in the tank of WSU Water Tower at ‫ ݐ‬ൌ ͵Ͷ minutes.

ͳ Ͳ ʹ െ ͸ሻ  ൌ ൥͵ ͳ െͳ൩ †‡–ሺሻ ൌ Ͳ ൅ ʹ ൅ ͳͶ ൌ ͳ͸Ǥ ͳ ʹ Ͷ ଵାଶ ͵ െͳ Thus. A is invertible For ܽଶଶ . the determinant of A is 11. second column. Thus. since ܽଶଶ is in the second row and second (non-singular) if and only if †‡–ሺሻ ് ͲǤ column. then we virtually remove the third row and Find the determinant of A. ͳ ʹ ൅ ሺെͳሻଷାଶ ܽଷଶ †‡– ቂ ቃ In this example. since ܽଵଶ is in the first row and ൅ ሺെͳሻሺʹሻ†‡– ቂ ቃ ͵ െͳ second column. ͵ െͳ ͳ ʹ Step 1: Choose any row or any column.2 Given the following matrix: ሺെͳሻ ܽଶଶ †‡– ቂ ቃ ͳ Ͷ ͳ Ͳ ʹ For ܽଷଶ .com .ebook3000. Kaabar 111 www. ͳ Ͳ ʹ  ൌ ൥͵ ͳ െͳ൩ Solution: Since A is ͵ ൈ ͵ matrix such that ͳ ʹ Ͷ  ‫ א‬ଷ ሺԹሻ ൌ Թ૜ൈ૜ .1 Let  ‫ א‬௡ ሺԹሻ. then we virtually remove the second row and second column. then we cannot use definition A. ሺെͳሻ ܽଵଶ †‡– ቂ ቃ ͳ Ͷ Result A.  ൌ ൥͵ ͳെͳ൩ ͳ ʹ Ͷ ଶାଶ ͳ ʹ Example A. the determinant of A is 16. since ܽଷଶ is in the third row and second  ൌ ൥͵ ͳ െͳ൩ ͳ ʹ Ͷ column. we prefer to choose the second column ͵ െͳ or the first row. Let’s choose the second column as ͵ െͳ ͳ ʹ †‡–ሺሻ ൌ ሺെͳሻଷ ሺͲሻ†‡– ቂ ቃ ൅ ሺെͳሻସ ሺͳሻ†‡– ቂ ቃ follows: ͳ Ͷ ͳ Ͷ ͳ Ͳ ʹ ͳ ʹ  ൌ ൥͵ ͳ െͳ൩ ൅ ሺെͳሻହ ሺʹሻ†‡– ቂ ቃ ͵ െͳ ͳ ʹ Ͷ ͵ െͳ ͳ ʹ ܽଵଶ ൌ Ͳǡ ܽଶଶ ൌ ͳ ƒ† ܽଷଶ ൌ ʹǤ †‡–ሺሻ ൌ ሺെͳሻሺͲሻ†‡– ቂ ቃ ൅ ሺͳሻሺͳሻ†‡– ቂ ቃ ͳ Ͷ ͳ Ͷ Step 2: To find the determinant of A. we ͵ െͳ need to use the following method to find the Step 3: Add all of them together as follows: determinant of A. 110 M. then we virtually remove the first row †‡–ሺሻ ൌ ሺെͳሻሺͲሻሺͳʹ െ െͳሻ ൅ ሺͳሻሺͳሻሺͶ െ ʹሻ ൅ ሺെͳሻሺʹሻሺെͳ and second column.1 ଷାଶ ͳ ʹ ሺെͳሻ ܽଷଶ †‡– ቂ ቃ because it is valid only for ʹ ൈ ʹ matrices. Then.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved †‡–ሺሻ ൌ ȁȁ ൌ ሺ͵ሻሺ͹ሻ െ ሺʹሻሺͷሻ ൌ ʹͳ െ ͳͲ ൌ ͳͳǤ ͳ Ͳ ʹ Thus. we do the ͳ ʹ following: For ܽଵଶ . It is †‡–ሺሻ ൌ ሺെͳሻଵାଶ ܽଵଶ †‡– ቂ ቃ ൅ ሺെͳሻଶାଶ ܽଶଶ †‡– ቂ ቃ ͳ Ͷ ͳ Ͷ recommended to choose the one that has more zeros.

3 Given the following matrix: †‡–ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ Ͷ ͵ ʹ͵ Ͷ ͵ Ͷ ͵ ʹ ͵ ʹ͵ ʹ͵ ൌቂ ቃ Ͷ ͸ Result A. the answer is Yes. there exists ିଵ according to invertible (non-singular). we use the following format that applies only for ʹ ൈ ʹ matrices: right sides of the diagonal of ݊ ൈ ݊ matrix. Definition A. Find ିଵ . ͷ ʹ ͳ ͳ െ ͷ െʹ ͷ െʹ ିଵ ൌ ቂ ቃൌ ቂ ቃ ൌ ൦ʹ͵ ʹ͵൪ Example A. and if A is invertible (non.  ൌ ൥Ͳ ʹ ͷ൩ is an Upper Triangular Matrix).  ൌ ቂെܽ ܽଵଵ ቃ ሺ †‡– ‫ܣ‬ ሻ ଶଵ Ͳ Ͳ Ͷ ͳ ܽଶଶ െܽଵଶ c) Lower Triangular Matrix: it has all zeros on the ିଵ ൌ ቂ ܽଵଵ ቃ ܽଵଵ ܽଶଶ െ ܽଵଶ ܽଶଵ െܽଶଵ right side of the diagonal of ݊ ൈ ݊ matrix. †‡–ሺሻ ൌ ȁȁ ൌ ሺʹሻሺ͸ሻ െ ሺ͵ሻሺͶሻ ൌ ͳʹ െ ͳʹ ൌ ͲǤ There are three types of triangular matrix: Since the determinant of A is 0.1. Thus. †‡–ሺሻ ൌ †‡–ሺ୘ ሻ. ሺ୘ ሻିଵ ൌ ሺିଵ ሻ୘ ). Assume that ଶଵ Ͳ Ͳ Ͷ †‡–ሺሻ ് Ͳ such that †‡–ሺሻ ൌ ܽଵଵ ܽଶଶ െ ܽଵଶ ܽଶଵ . ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Example A. the answer is No because A is non-invertible left side of the diagonal of ݊ ൈ ݊ matrix. (singular).2 Let  ‫ א‬௡ ሺԹሻ. Is A invertible (non-singular)? †‡–ሺሻ = multiplication of the numbers on the main Solution: Using result A. If A is an invertible (non- Solution: Using result A.4 Given the following matrix: (i. ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ିଵ ͳ ܽଶଶ െܽଵଶ (i.e. (i.  ൌ ൥Ͳ ʹ Ͳ൩ is a Diagonal Matrix). To find b) Diagonal Matrix: it has all zeros on both left and ିଵ (the inverse of A). then ୘ is also an invertible (non- †‡–ሺሻ ൌ ȁȁ ൌ ሺ͵ሻሺͷሻ െ ሺʹሻሺെͶሻ ൌ ͳͷ ൅ ͺ ൌ ʹ͵ ് ͲǤ Since the determinant of A is not 0. ͵ ʹ ൌቂ ቃ ͳ ͻ Ͷ െͶ ͷ Is A invertible (non-singular)? If Yes.1 Let  ‫ א‬௡ ሺԹሻ.2 Given  ൌ ቂܽ ܽଶଶ ቃ.1. we do the following: diagonal of A. we do the following: singular) matrix. definition 1. (non-singular).e. then A is Thus.2 We will show that ሺ୘ ሻିଵ ൌ ሺିଵ ሻ୘ . then †‡–ሺሻ ് Ͳ. Kaabar 113 . then A is invertible singular) matrix.e. Then.  ൌ ൥ͷ ʹ Ͳ൩ is a Diagonal Matrix).2 as follows: singular). then A is non- a) Upper Triangular Matrix: it has all zeros on the invertible (singular).Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved The above result means that if †‡–ሺሻ ് Ͳ.7. ͳ ͹ ͵ ܽଵଵ ܽଵଶ (i. 112 M. Fact A. Then. Fact A.2 Let  ‫ א‬௡ ሺԹሻ be a triangular matrix. Proof of Fact A.e.

Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved We know from previous results that ିଵ ൌ .

ሺିଵ ሻ୘ ൌ ሺ. we obtain: the determinants.௡ . * Ri՞Rk (Interchange two rows). It has no effect on By taking the transpose of both sides.

ሺ ሻ  ൌ ሺ. the effect of Column-Operations on ିଵ ୘ ୘ ୘ Then.௡ ሻ୘ In general.

௡ ሻ determinants is the same as for Row-Operations. Since ሺ.

௡ ሻ୘ ൌ .

௡ . then ሺିଵ ሻ୘ ୘ ൌ .

Example A. ሺ୘ ሻିଵ ୘ ൌ ሺ.௡ .5 Given the following Ͷ ൈ Ͷ matrix A with Similarly.

௡ ሻ୘ ൌ .

if †‡–ሺሻ ൌ Ⱦ ™Š‡”‡ Ⱦ ‹• ‘™ǡ then ଵ Then: a) †‡–ሺሻ ൌ †‡–ሺሻ ‫–‡† כ‬ሺሻǤ †‡–ሺሻ ൌ Ⱦ.4 Assume  ƒ†  ƒ”‡ ݊ ൈ ݊ ƒ–”‹…‡•Ǥ Similarly. ሺ୘ ሻିଵ ൌ ሺିଵ ሻ୘ .e. Then. then find †‡–ሺଷ ሻ The effect of Row-Operations on determinants: Solution: Using what we have learned from the effect Suppose ‫ ן‬is a non-zero constant. †‡–ሺଶ ሻ ൌ ͵ ‫–‡† כ‬ሺଵ ሻ ൌ ͵ ‫ כ‬ͺ ൌ ʹͶ because ଶ has the constant ‫)ן‬. ሺሻିଵ ൌ  ିଵ ିଵ Ǥ constant ‫ן‬ǡ ƒ† ƒ†† ‹– –‘ ƒ‘–Š‡” ”‘™). †‡–ሺଵ ሻ ൌ ʹ ‫–‡† כ‬ሺሻ ൌ ʹ ‫ כ‬Ͷ ൌ ͺ because ଵ has the first * ‫ן‬Ri .  ൌ ൥Ͳ Ͷ ͳ൩ ‫ן‬Ri +Rk --Æ Rk d) †‡–ሺሻ ൌ †‡–ሺ୘ ሻǤ ʹ Ͳ ͳ ଵ e) If ିଵ exists. †‡–ሺଷ ሻ ൌ െʹ ‫–‡† כ‬ሺଶ ሻ ൌ െʹ ‫ʹ כ‬Ͷ ൌ െͶͺ i. Result A.4 (b) We will show that ʹ Ͳ ͳ ሺሻିଵ ൌ  ିଵ ିଵ . * ‫ן‬Ri +Rk --Æ Rk (Multiply a row with a non-zero Then. some Row-Operations:  2R1 --Æ A1 3R3 --Æ A2 -2R4 --Æ A4 Thus. ͳ ʹ ͵ ͳ ʹ ͵ Similarly. Result A. ‫( Ͳ ്ן‬Multiply a row with a non-zero row of A multiplied by 2.௡ .3 Assume  ‹• ݊ ൈ ݊ ƒ–”‹š with a given Assume that †‡–ሺሻ ൌ ɀ where ɀ is known. †‡–ሺߙሻ ൌ ߙ ௡ ‫ߛ כ‬. ଷ b) Assume ିଵ exists and  ିଵ exists. †‡–ሺሻ ൌ ͵ɀ. third row of ଵ multiplied by 3. Kaabar 115 www. then †‡–ሺሻ ൌ ߛ .e. 114 M. Let ߙ be a number. then †‡–ሺିଵ ሻ ൌ ୢୣ୲ሺ୅ሻǤ ͳ ʹ ͵ ൥Ͳ ͳʹ ͵൩ ൌ  Proof of Result A. If †‡–ሺሻ ൌ Ͷ. †‡–ሺሻ ൌ †‡–ሺሻ. and ݅ ܽ݊݀ ݇ are row of determinants on Row-Operations: numbers in the augmented matrix.com .ebook3000.  ൌ ൥Ͳ Ͷ ͳ൩ 3R2 --Æ ൥Ͳ ͳʹ ͵൩ ൌ  ʹ Ͳ ͳ ʹ Ͳ ͳ because ଷ has the fourth row of ଶ multiplied by -2. Then. c) †‡–ሺሻ ൌ †‡–ሺሻǤ ͳ ʹ ͵ i.

it is  ିଵ ሺିଵ ሻ ൌ  ିଵ ሺ.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved If we multiply ( ିଵ ିଵ ) by (AB). we obtain: Before reviewing the concepts of set theory.

௡ ሻB =  ିଵ  ൌ .

4 (e) We will show that three sets of numbers in figure 1. ଵ †‡–ሺିଵ ሻ ൌ ୢୣ୲ሺ୅ሻ. ሺሻିଵ ൌ  ିଵ ିଵ Ǥ notations of numbers and the representation of the Proof of Result A. Let’s explain some symbols and notations of set theory: ͵ ‫ א‬Ժ means that 3 is an element of ԺǤ Since ିଵ ൌ .1. and read the Thus.4.4.௡ Ǥ recommended to revisit section 1.

1. We start this chapter reviewing some concepts of set Solution: According to definition B.2 Find Span{(1.3)} which are In this section.2). Kaabar 117 . Span{1} = Թ. Solution: According to definition B. Algebra Course.1. then the span theory.2). and we discuss some important concepts of of the set {1} is the set of all possible linear vector spaces including span and dimension.1. then †‡–ሺିଵ ሻ ൌ †‡–ሺ‫ܫ‬௡ ሻ ൌ ͳǤ ଵ ଵ †‡–ሺିଵ ሻ ൌ †‡–ሺሻ ‫–‡† כ‬ሺିଵ ሻ ൌ ͳǤ ଶ ‫ ב‬Ժ means that ଶ is not an element of ԺǤ Thus. Example B.௡ .(2. First Edition1. (1.1. †‡–ሺିଵ ሻ ൌ ଵ Ǥ { } means that it is a set.3)}.(2. then the span of the set {(1.2) and (2. ሺͳǡʹሻ ൌ ͳ ‫ כ‬ሺͳǡʹሻ ൅ Ͳ ‫ כ‬ሺʹǡ͵ሻ 116 M. ୢୣ୲ሺ୅ሻ {5} means that 5 is a subset of Ժ. At the end of this chapter we discuss Example B.1 Find Span{1}.2). In the combinations of the subset of {1} which is 1. the following is some possible and we give an introduction to span and vector spaces linear combinations: including some examples related to these concepts.1 Span and Vector Spaces combinations of the subsets of {(1.1.3)} is the set of all possible linear B. independence. we review some concepts of set theory.1.1 The span of a certain set is the set of in my published book titled A First Course in Linear all possible linear combinations of the subset of that Algebra: Study Guide for the Undergraduate Linear set.(2. Thus. and the set consists of Appendix B: Vector Spaces* exactly one element which is 5. *The materials of appendix B are taken from chapter 2 Definition B.3).1. other concepts such as subspace and basis. remaining sections we introduce the concept of linear Hence.

Claim: ‫ ܦ‬ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼሺͳǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǤͳሻሽ ൌ Թଶ Definition B. (i. ሺ‫ݔ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሻ ൌ ‫ݔ‬ଵ ሺͳǡͲሻ ൅ ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሺͲǡͳሻ ‫ܦ א‬Ǥ a. ሼሺͳǡʹሻǡ ሺʹǡ͵ሻǡ ሺͷǡͺሻሽ ‫ƒ’ א‬ሼሺͳǡʹሻǡ ሺʹǡ͵ሻሽ.2 Թ௡ ൌ ሼሺܽଵ ǡ ܽଶ ǡ ܽଷ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܽ௡ ሻȁܽଵ ǡ ܽଶ ǡ ܽଷ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܽ௡ ‫ א‬Թሽ ߙଵ ሺͳǡͲሻ ൅ ߙଶ ሺͲǡͳሻ ൌ ሺߙଵ ǡ ߙଶ ሻ ‫ א‬Թଶ is a set of all points where each point has exactly ݊ Thus. ߙ‫ܸ א ݒ‬Ǥ †‹ሺԹ௡ ሻ ൌ ݊. (i. For every ‫ݔ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݕ‬ଵ ‫ א‬Թ. Example B. ሺ‫ݔ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݕ‬ଵ ሻ ‫ א‬Թଶ Ǥ Definition B. the dimension Hence.1 ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼሺ͵ǡͶሻሽ ് Թଶ .2.1 We will show that †‹ሺԹ௡ ሻ ൌ ݊Ǥ Thus. and it is denoted by †‹ሺܸሻ.1. 118 M. and hence b. Kaabar 119 www. Space Example B. we discuss how to find the dimension of Solution: According to definition B.4 Find Span{c} where c is a non-zero of ܸ is the number of minimum elements needed in ܸ integer. Span{0} = 0. Solution: Using definition B.2 The Dimension of Vector Hence. Given ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሽƒ† ‫ ݐ݁ݏ‬ሼ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሽǡ then Fact 2B.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ሺʹǡ͵ሻ ൌ Ͳ ‫ כ‬ሺͳǡʹሻ ൅ ͳ ‫ כ‬ሺʹǡ͵ሻ ሺͷǡͺሻ ൌ ͳ ‫ כ‬ሺͳǡʹሻ ൅ ʹ ‫ כ‬ሺʹǡ͵ሻ B.1.2. the span of the set {c} Result B. For every ߙ ‫ א‬Թ ƒ† ‫ܸ א ݒ‬. ‫ݒ‬ଵ ൅ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ‫ܸ א‬Ǥ We prove the above claim. so that their ܵ‫ ݊ܽ݌‬is equal to ܸ. In this section.2.e. Proof of Result B.ebook3000. combinations of the subset of {0} which is 0.e.1. coordinates.com .1 Given a vector space ܸ.2. ‫ ܦ‬is a subset of Թଶ (‫ ك ܦ‬Թଶ ).1.3 ሺܸǡ ൅ǡήሻ is a vector space if satisfies the following: Therefore.2. Span{c} = Թ.1. ξͳͲ‫ ݔ‬൅ ʹ‫݊ܽ݌ܵ א ݕ‬ሼ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሽ.3 Find Span{0}.1. and how it is related to what we have of the set {0} is the set of all possible linear learned in section B.1. †‹ሺԹሻ ൌ ͳ ƒ† †‹ሺԹଶ ሻ ൌ ʹ). Definition B. is the set of all possible linear combinations of the subset of {c} which is ܿ ് Ͳ. For every ‫ݒ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ‫ܸ א‬. then ‫ ݒ‬ൌ ܿଵ ‫ ݔ‬൅ ܿଶ ‫ ݕ‬for some numbers Claim: ‫ ܨ‬ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼሺ͸ǡͷሻሽ ് Թଶ where ሺ͸ǡͷሻ ‫ א‬Թଶ Ǥ ܿଵ ƒ† ܿଶ ). then the span vector space.1 †‹ሺԹ௡ ሻ ൌ ݊. Let’s assume that Proof of Fact B.1.1 We will show that ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼሺ͵ǡͶሻሽ ് Թଶ Ǥ ‫݊ܽ݌ܵ א ݒ‬ሼ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሽ.1.

Show that ‫ݒ‬ଵ and ͵‫ݒ‬ଵ ൅ ‫ݒ‬ଶ are linearly ͳ Ͳ െʹ ൥െʹ ʹ ͳ ൩ Each point is a row-operation.3 ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼሺʹǡͳሻǡ ሺͳǡͲǤͷሻሽ ് Թଶ . in other words. linearly independent.3. we learn how to determine whether the others which means that ‫ݒ‬ଵ and ͵‫ݒ‬ଵ ൅ ‫ݒ‬ଶ are vector spaces are linearly independent or not. vectors are independent elements or not. we Definition B. Definition B. ‫ݒ‬ଵ ሺͳ െ ͵ܿଵ ሻ ൌ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ܿଵ Fact B.3. we say Are these vectors independent elements? ‫ݒ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ‫ݒ‬௡ ‫ ܸ א‬are linearly dependent if at least one of Solution: First of all. Hence. we cannot find a number ߙଵ ǡ ߙଶ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ൌ ሺെʹǡʹǡͳሻ such that ሺ͵ǡͶሻ ൌ ߙଵ ሺʹǡͲሻ and ሺʹǡͲሻ ൌ ߙଶ ሺ͵ǡͶሻ). our assumption that ‫ݒ‬ଵ and ͵‫ݒ‬ଵ ൅ ‫ݒ‬ଶ were ‫ݒ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ‫ݒ‬௡ ‫ ܸ א‬are linearly independent if none of linearly dependent is false. none of ‫ݒ‬ଵ and ͵‫ݒ‬ଵ ൅ ‫ݒ‬ଶ is a linear combination of In this section. linearly independent.2 Given a vector space ሺܸǡ ൅ǡήሻ. ‫ݒ‬ଵ and ͵‫ݒ‬ଵ ൅ ‫ݒ‬ଶ are them is a linear combination of the remaining ‫ݒ‬௜ Ԣ‫ݏ‬. we need to Example B. and hence ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼሺ͵ǡͶሻሽ ് Թଶ .3. ሺͳ െ ͵ܿଵ ሻ ‫ݒ‬ଵ ൌ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ܿଵ B. linearly independent. We need to independent. ‫ݒ‬ଷ ൌ ሺെͳǡͲǡͷሻ Definition B. ‫ݒ‬ଵ ൌ ܿଵ ሺ͵‫ݒ‬ଵ ൅ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ሻ.3. (i.2 ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼሺͳǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡͳሻሽ ൌ Թଶ . independent. matrix but the leader numbers can be any non-zero number.2. Kaabar 121 . 120 M.1 Given a vector space ሺܸǡ ൅ǡήሻ. to determine whether these ‫ݒ‬௜ Ԣ‫ ݏ‬is a linear combination of the others. This is a contradiction.e. Using proof by contradiction. െͳ Ͳ ͷ Solution: We will show that ‫ݒ‬ଵ and ͵‫ݒ‬ଵ ൅ ‫ݒ‬ଶ are reduce this matrix to Semi-Reduced Matrix.3 Linear Independence Thus. we obtain: We prove the above claim. ‫ݒ‬ଵ ൌ ͵‫ݒ‬ଵ ܿଵ ൅ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ܿଵ ‫ݒ‬ଵ െ ͵‫ݒ‬ଵ ܿଵ ൌ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ܿଵ Fact B. ሺ͵ǡͶሻǡ ሺʹǡͲሻ ‫ א‬Թ are linearly independent because Example B.2.2 Given the following vectors: we cannot write them as a linear combination of each ‫ݒ‬ଵ ൌ ሺͳǡͲǡ െʹሻ other.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved We cannot find a number ߙ such that ሺ͸ǡͷሻ ൌ ߙሺ͵ǡͶሻ Using the distribution property and algebra.3.1 Assume ‫ݒ‬ଵ ƒ† ‫ݒ‬ଶ are linearly write these vectors as a matrix.3 Semi-Reduced Matrix is a reduced- assume that ‫ݒ‬ଵ and ͵‫ݒ‬ଵ ൅ ‫ݒ‬ଶ are linearly dependent. we say Therefore. For some non-zero number ܿଵ .

1.ebook3000.4. we apply the Row-Reduction Method to get the ͳ െʹ Ͷ ͸ Semi-Reduced Matrix as follows: െܴଶ ൅ ܴଷ ՜ ܴଷ ൥Ͳ Ͳ Ͷ ͺ൩ This is a Semi-Reduced Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ Ͳ െʹ ʹܴ ൅ ܴ ՜ ܴ ͳ Ͳ െʹ Matrix. write these vectors as a matrix. then the elements are dependent because we can write at least one of them as a linear combination of the Since none of the rows in the Semi-Reduced Matrix others.4. We ͳ െʹ ͺ ͳͶ need to reduce this matrix to Semi-Reduced Matrix. Reduced Matrix.com .Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Now. Given vector spaces ܸ and ‫ܦ‬.1: Subspace of ܸ 122 M. Now. become zero-row.4. Kaabar 123 www. to determine whether these space. we apply the Row-Reduction Method to get the Semi-Reduced Matrix as follows: V D ͳ െʹ Ͷ ͸ ܴ ൅ܴ ՜ܴ ͳ െʹ Ͷ ͸ ଵ ଶ ଶ ൥െͳ ʹ Ͳ ʹ ൩ െܴ ൅ ܴ ՜ ܴ ൥Ͳ Ͳ Ͷ ͺ൩ ଵ ଷ ଷ ͳ െʹ ͺ ͳͶ Ͳ Ͳ Ͷ ͺ Figure B. we need to to the figure 2. then according vectors are independent elements or not. ‫ݒ‬ଶ ൌ ሺെͳǡʹǡͲǡʹሻ In addition. then the elements are independent because we cannot write at least one of them as a linear combination of the others. B. ଵ ଶ ଶ ൥െʹ ʹ ͳ ൩ ൥ ܴଵ ൅ ܴଷ ՜ ܴଷ Ͳ ʹ െ͵൩ This is a Semi- െͳ Ͳ ͷ Ͳ Ͳ ͵ Since there is a zero-row in the Semi-Reduced Matrix. we discuss one of the most important ‫ݒ‬ଵ ൌ ሺͳǡ െʹǡͶǡ͸ሻ concepts in linear algebra that is known as subspace. ͳ െʹ Ͷ ͸ ൥െͳ ʹ Ͳ ʹ ൩ Each point is a row-operation.1 Subspace is a vector space but we call it a subspace because it lives inside a bigger vector Solution: First of all. Are these vectors independent elements? Definition B. (i.3 Given the following vectors: In this section.e.4 Subspace and Basis Example 2. ‫ ܦ‬is called a subspace of ܸ).3. we give some examples explaining how to ‫ݒ‬ଷ ൌ ሺͳǡ െʹǡͺǡͳͶሻ find the basis for subspace.

124 M. Is ‫ ܮ‬a subspace of Թଶ ? because in this case ߙ ൌ Ͷ where ሺʹͲǡ͸Ͳሻ ൌ Ͷሺͷǡͳͷሻ. Figure B. Claim: ‫ ܮ‬ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼሺͷǡͳͷሻሽ ് Թଶ where ሺͷǡͳͷሻ ‫ א‬Թଶ Ǥ Example B. ‫ ܮ‬lives in Թ .1 ‫ ܮ‬is a subspace of Թଶ if satisfies the following: Now. d. ‫ ܮ‬has only lines through the origin ሺͲǡͲሻ. then we obtain: ߙଵ ሺͳǡ͵ሻ ൅ ߙଶ ሺʹǡ͸ሻ ൌ ሼሺܿǡ ͵ܿ ሻȁܿ ‫ א‬Թሽ ൌ ‫ܮ‬. and it passes through a point ሺͳǡ͵ሻ. e. because we can write ሺͳǡ͵ሻ and ሺʹǡ͸ሻ as a linear combination of each other. Part c: Yes. ‫ ܮ‬does not equal to Թଶ . To show that we prove the following claim: Fact B. Thus. ‫ ܮ‬does not equal to Թଶ Solution: To answer all these questions. Does ‫ ܮ‬equal to ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼሺͲǡ͵ሻሽǫ We prove the above claim.2: Graph of ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ͵‫ݔ‬ Result B.4. equation. ‫ ܮ‬lives inside Թଶ . Part e: Yes. we can answer the given questions as follows: a.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Part b: No. ߙଵ ሺͳǡ͵ሻ ൅ ߙଶ ሺʹǡ͸ሻ ൌ ሼሺߙଵ ൅ ʹߙଶ ሻǡ ሺ͵ߙଵ ൅ ͸ߙଶ ሻሽ ߙଵ ሺͳǡ͵ሻ ൅ ߙଶ ሺʹǡ͸ሻ ൌ ሼሺߙଵ ൅ ʹߙଶ ሻǡ ͵ሺߙଵ ൅ ʹߙଶ ሻሽ Assume ܿ ൌ ሺߙଵ ൅ ʹߙଶ ሻ.4. ଶ Part a: Yes. and ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼሺͷǡͳͷሻሽ ് Թଶ . b.1 Given a vector space ‫ ܮ‬ൌ ሼሺܿǡ ͵ܿሻȁܿ ‫ א‬Թሽ. according to the graph in figure 2. say ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ͵‫ݔ‬. a. ሺͲǡ͵ሻ does not belong to ‫ܮ‬. Kaabar 125 . Does ‫ ܮ‬live in Թଶ ? It is impossible to find a number ߙ ൌ ͵ such that b.1 Every vector space is a subspace of itself.2.4. Does ‫ ܮ‬equal to Թଶ ? ሺʹͲǡ͸Ͳሻ ൌ ߙሺͷǡͳͷሻ c. ‫ ܮ‬is a subspace of Թଶ because ‫ ܮ‬lives inside The following figure represents the graph of the above a bigger vector space which is Թଶ . Does ‫ ܮ‬equal to ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼሺͳǡ͵ሻǡ ሺʹǡ͸ሻሽǫ Thus.4. we need first to draw an equation from this vector space. Part d: No. ‫ ܮ‬ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼሺͳǡ͵ሻǡ ሺʹǡ͸ሻሽ.4.

4. We need to Ͳ Ͷ ͳ Now. there is no need to needed to ܵ‫ ݊ܽ݌‬the vector space. we have infinite set of points. then Թ௡ ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼܳଵ ǡ ܳଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܳ௡ ሽ.3 and B.4 Assume ‫ ܦ‬lives inside Թ௡ . then ‫ ܦ‬is a subspace of Թ௡ .4. Does ‫ ܦ‬live in Թଷ ? Result B.2 Basis is the set of points that is is a three-dimensional equation. Is ‫ ܦ‬a subspace of Թଷ ǫ ݇ ൒ ݊ (݊ points of the ܳ௞ Ԣ‫ ݏ‬are independents). If ሺͲǡͲǡͲǡ ǥ ǡͲሻ is in learned so far from section 2.5 Assume Թ௡ ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼܳଵ ǡ ܳଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܳ௞ ሽ. Find a basis for ‫ܦ‬. we apply the Row-Reduction Method to get the is ݊.4.2 Assume ‫ ܦ‬lives inside Թ௡ . Solution: Since the equation of the above vector space Definition B. Part b: No.ebook3000. a. vectors as a matrix. If we can write ‫ܦ‬ ‫ݒ‬ଵ ൌ ሺͳǡ െͳǡͲሻ as a ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬. Let’s assume the following: Fact B. we list the main results on Թ௡ : reduce this matrix to Semi-Reduced Matrix. then it is not a subspace of Թ௡ .4. If ሺͲǡͲǡͲǡ ǥ ǡͲሻ is ͳ െͳ Ͳ not in ‫ܦ‬. 126 M. Kaabar 127 www. ͳ െͳ Ͳ ͳ െͳ Ͳ say ܳଵ ǡ ܳଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܳ௡ . b.4. then it is a subspace of Թ௡ .4.4.5 Assume ‫ ܦ‬lives inside Թ௡ .4.3: We need to write these ‫ܦ‬. If we cannot write ‫ ܦ‬as a ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬. ൥ʹ ʹ ͳ൩ Each point is a row-operation.4 tell us the following: In order ‫ ܦ‬ൌ ሼሺܽǡ ܾǡ ͳሻȁܽǡ ܾ ‫ א‬Թሽ. ‫ݒ‬ଶ ൌ ሺʹǡʹǡͳሻ ‫ݒ‬ଷ ൌ ሺͲǡͶǡͳሻ Fact B. to get all Թ௡ .4.com . Thus.3 Assume ‫ ܦ‬lives inside Թ௡ . then ‫ ܦ‬is not a subspace of Թ௡ .Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Example B. we can answer the above questions immediately. Part a: To find †‹ሺ‫ܦ‬ሻ. we check whether ‫ݒ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݒ‬ଶ and ‫ݒ‬ଷ are dependent elements or not. a.2 Given a vector space Results B.3 Choosing any ݊ independent points in Թ௡ .4 †‹ሺԹ௡ ሻ ൌ ݊. then b. ൥ʹ ʹ ͳ൩ െʹܴଵ ൅ ܴଶ ՜ ܴଶ ൥Ͳ Ͷ ͳ൩ െܴଶ ൅ ܴଷ ՜ ܴଷ Ͳ Ͷ ͳ Ͳ Ͷ ͳ Result B. ‫ ܦ‬lives inside Թଷ .4. Part a: Yes. we need exactly ݊ independent points. Result B. since ሺͲǡͲǡͲሻ ‫ܦ ב‬.3 Let ‫ ܦ‬ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼሺͳǡ െͳǡͲሻǡ ሺʹǡʹǡͳሻǡ ሺͲǡͶǡͳሻሽ. and of Թଷ .4.2 Maximum number of independent points Now. Fact B. then ‫ ܦ‬is not a subspace Solution: First of all.4. Semi-Reduced Matrix as follows: Result B. ‫ ܦ‬lives inside Թଷ . Example B. draw it because it is difficult to draw it exactly. Find †‹ሺ‫ܦ‬ሻ.4. Using what we have Fact B.

Show that ܹ is a subspace of Թଷ . Since †‹ሺ‫ܯ‬ሻ ൌ ͵.5 Given the following: ‫ݒ‬ଷ ൌ ሺെʹǡͲǡ͵ǡͲሻ ܹ ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼሺܽǡ െʹܽ ൅ ܾǡ െܽሻȁܽǡ ܾ ‫ א‬Թሽ. Kaabar 129 . †‹ሺ‫ܯ‬ሻ ൌ ͵. ൥ ͳ െʹ ͵ Ͳ൩ Each point is a row-operation. 128 M. possible bases for ‫ܯ‬: Find a basis for ‫ܯ‬. We Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ െʹ Ͳ ͵ Ͳ need to reduce this matrix to Semi-Reduced Matrix. then any two independent െͳ ʹ Ͳ Ͳ points in ‫ ܦ‬will form a basis for ‫ܦ‬. c. the following are some ‫ ܯ‬ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼሺെͳǡʹǡͲǡͲሻǡ ሺͳǡ െʹǡ͵ǡͲሻǡ ሺെʹǡͲǡ͵ǡͲሻሽ.3: We need to write these vectors as a matrix. Hence.4. Since there is a zero-row in the Semi-Reduced Matrix. Rewrite ܹ as a ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬. Thus. Let’s assume the following: Another basis for ‫ ܯ‬is ሼሺെͳǡʹǡͲǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡͲǡ͵ǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡ െͶǡ͵ǡͲሻሽ. All the three points survived in the Semi-Reduced Matrix. we apply the Row-Reduction Method to get the write at least one of them as a linear combination of Semi-Reduced Matrix as follows: the others. Thus.3 b. and ‫ ܯ‬lives inside Թସ . then these elements are independent. ൥ͳ െʹ ͵ ଵ ଶ ଶ Ͳ൩ െʹܴ ൅ ܴ ՜ ܴ ൥ Ͳ Ͳ ͵ Ͳ൩ ଵ ଷ ଷ െʹ Ͳ ͵ Ͳ Ͳ െͶ ͵ Ͳ Part b: ‫ ܦ‬is a plane that passes through the origin ሺͲǡͲǡͲሻ.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ͳ െͳ Ͳ െͳ ʹ Ͳ Ͳ ൥Ͳ Ͷ ͳ൩ This is a Semi-Reduced Matrix. Another basis for ‫ ܦ‬is ሼሺͳǡ െͳǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡͶǡͳሻሽ. and example 2. then any three independent points in ‫ ܯ‬from the above matrices will Example B. Since there is no zero-row in the Semi-Reduced Matrix.4 Given the following: form a basis for ‫ܯ‬. Only two points survived in the Semi- െͳ ʹ Ͳ Ͳ ܴ ൅ܴ ՜ܴ െͳ ʹ Ͳ Ͳ Reduced Matrix. ‫ݒ‬ଵ ൌ ሺെͳǡʹǡͲǡͲሻ Another basis for ‫ ܯ‬is ሼሺെͳǡʹǡͲǡͲሻǡ ሺͳǡ െʹǡ͵ǡͲሻǡ ሺെʹǡͲǡ͵ǡͲሻሽ. Basis for ‫ ܦ‬is ሼሺͳǡ െͳǡͲሻǡ ሺʹǡʹǡͳሻሽ.4. Hence. the following െܴଶ ൅ ܴଷ ՜ ܴଷ ൥ Ͳ Ͳ ͵ Ͳ൩ This is a Semi-Reduced Ͳ െͶ Ͳ Ͳ are some possible bases for ‫ܦ‬: Matrix. Find a basis for ܹ.6 It is always true that ȁ‫ݏ݅ݏܽܤ‬ȁ ൌ ݀݅݉ሺ‫ܦ‬ሻ. Using what we have learned so far from section 2. Result B. †‹ሺ‫ܦ‬ሻ ൌ ʹ. Basis for ‫ ܯ‬is ሼሺെͳǡʹǡͲǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡͲǡ͵ǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡ െͶǡͲǡͲሻሽ. ‫ݒ‬ଶ ൌ ሺͳǡ െʹǡ͵ǡͲሻ Example B. then these elements are dependent because we can Now. Solution: We have infinite set of points. We check if ‫ݒ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݒ‬ଶ and ‫ݒ‬ଷ are dependent elements.4.4. a. Since †‹ሺ‫ܦ‬ሻ ൌ ʹ.

then If ߙ ൌ െʹ.6 †‹ሺܹሻ ൑ ܰ‫ ݁݁ݎܨ ݂݋ݎܾ݁݉ݑ‬െ ܸܽ‫ݏ݈ܾ݁ܽ݅ݎ‬Ǥ ‫ݒ‬ସ ൌ ሺͲǡͲǡͲǡ ߨ ௘ ሻ Example B. To find †‹ሺܹሻ.4. then it is easy to rewrite ܹ as a ܵ‫ ݊ܽ݌‬as follows: ‫ݒ‬ଵ ൌ ሺʹǡ͵ǡͲǡͶሻ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ൌ ሺͲǡͷǡͳǡͳሻ ܹ ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼሺͳǡ െʹǡ െͳሻǡ ሺͲǡͳǡͲሻሽǤ ‫ݒ‬ଷ ൌ ሺͲǡͲǡʹǡ͵ሻ Fact B. and ܹ lives ‫ ܪ‬ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼሺܽଶ ǡ ͵ܾ ൅ ܽǡ െʹܿǡ ܽ ൅ ܾ ൅ ܿሻȁܽǡ ܾǡ ܿ ‫ א‬Թሽ. we conclude that ‫ ܪ‬is not a subspace of Թସ .6 Given the following: Thus. and ܽ ൌ ͳǡ ܾ ൌ ܿ ൌ Ͳ.4.com . we check for independency: We already have the ʹ ͵ Ͳ Ͷ ͳ െʹ െͳ Semi-Reduced Matrix: ቂ ቃǤ Thus. then †‹ሺܹሻ.4. and ‫ ܪ‬lives combination of the free variables ܽ and ܾ.ebook3000. Since it is impossible to write each coordinate of ‫ ܪ‬as a Part b: To find a basis for ܹ. െܽ ൌ െͳ ή ܽ ൅ Ͳ ή ܾ We assume that ‫ ݓ‬ൌ ሺͳǡͳǡͲǡͳሻ ‫ܪ א‬. then െʹ ή ‫ ݓ‬ൌ െʹ ή ሺͳǡͳǡͲǡͳሻ ൌ ሺെʹǡ െʹǡͲǡ െʹሻ ‫ܪ ב‬. Is ‫ ܪ‬a subspace of Թସ ? Part a: We write each coordinate of ܹ as a linear Solution: We have infinite set of points. We try write each coordinate of ‫ ܪ‬as a linear combination of the free variables ܽǡ ܾ and ܿ. ቎Ͳ ͷ ͳ ͳ ቏ Note: ߨ ௘ is a number. OFF GAME) with the free variables ܽ ƒ† ܾǤ Example B. the basis for ܹ is ሼሺͳǡ െʹǡ െͳሻǡ ሺͲǡͳǡͲሻሽ. Kaabar 131 www. Since it is possible to write each coordinate of ܹ as a linear combination of the free variables ܽ and ܾ. we first need to find linear combination of the free variables ܽǡ ܾ and ܿ.7 Form a basis for Թସ . inside Թସ . let’s play a game called (ON.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Solution: We have infinite set of points. and then we form a Ͷ ൈ Ͷ matrix Ͳ ͳ ሺͲǡͳǡͲሻ with four independent rows as follows: Now. the basis for Թସ ൌ ሼ‫ݒ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ǡ ‫ݒ‬ଷ ǡ ‫ݒ‬ସ ሽ. Ͳ ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ʹ ͵ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ߨ௘ Hence. ܽ ൌͳήܽ൅Ͳήܾ ܽଶ ൌ ‫ ݎܾ݁݉ݑܰ ݀݁ݔ݅ܨ‬ή ܽ ൅ ‫ ݎܾ݁݉ݑܰ ݀݁ݔ݅ܨ‬ή ܾ ൅ ‫ ݎܾ݁݉ݑܰ ݀݁ݔ݅ܨ‬ή ܿ െʹܽ ൅ ܾ ൌ െʹ ή ܽ ൅ ͳ ή ܾ ܽଶ is not a linear combination of ܽǡ ܾ and ܿ. and 130 M. †‹ሺܹሻ ൌ ʹ. inside Թଷ . Let’s assume the following: Part b: Since we found the basis for ܹ. we conclude that ܹ is a subspace of Թଷ . ܽ ܾ ܲ‫ݐ݊݅݋‬ Solution: We just need to select any random four ͳ Ͳ ሺͳǡ െʹǡ െͳሻ independent points.

and ‫ ܦ‬lives inside Թସ . example: Solution: We need to add two more points to the given The First Way: Let’s assume the following: one so that all four points are independent. We have to write Example B.8 Form a basis for Թସ that contains the Is ሺͳǡͳǡʹǡʹሻ ‫?ܦ א‬ following two independent points: Solution: We have infinite set of points. and then a basis for ‫ܦ‬. ͳ ൌ ߙଵ െ ߙଶ ൅ Ͳ ή ߙଷ Now. ‫ݒ‬ସ ൌ ሺͲǡͲǡͲǡͳͲͲͲሻ This is a random point.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼ‫ݒ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ǡ ‫ݒ‬ଷ ǡ ‫ݒ‬ସ ሽ ൌ Թସ .9 Given the following: ‫ݒ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ƒ† ‫ݒ‬ଷ as a matrix. There are two different to solve this ሺͲǡʹǡͳǡͶሻ ƒ† ሺͲǡ െʹǡ͵ǡ െͳͲሻ. Yes: ሺͳǡͳǡʹǡʹሻ ‫ܦ א‬Ǥ The Second Way (Recommended): We first need to find ሼሺͲǡʹǡͳǡͶሻ ǡ ሺͲǡ െʹǡ͵ǡ െͳͲሻǡ ሺ͵ǡͲǡͷǡ͵Ͳሻǡ ሺͲǡͲǡͲǡͳͲͲͲሻሽ. we need to write these vectors as a matrix. the basis for Թସ is Hence. 132 M. Ͳ ʹ ͳ Ͷ Answer: Yes but we need to solve the following system Ͳ െʹ ͵ െͳͲ of linear equations: ቎ ቏ Each point is a row-operation.4. ߙଵ ൌ ߙଶ ൌ ߙଷ ൌ ͳ Thus. Kaabar 133 . Let’s ‫ݒ‬ଵ ൌ ሺͳǡͳǡͳǡͳሻ assume the following: ‫ݒ‬ଶ ൌ ሺെͳǡ െͳǡͲǡͲሻ ‫ݒ‬ଵ ൌ ሺͲǡʹǡͳǡͶሻ ‫ݒ‬ଷ ൌ ሺͲǡͲǡͳǡͳሻ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ൌ ሺͲǡ െʹǡ͵ǡ െͳͲሻ We start asking ourselves the following question: ‫ݒ‬ଷ ൌ ሺͲǡͲǡͶǡ െ͸ሻ This is a random point. We Ͳ Ͳ Ͷ െ͸ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳͲͲͲ ͳ ൌ ߙଵ െ ߙଶ ൅ Ͳ ή ߙଷ need to reduce this matrix to Semi-Reduced Matrix.4. we apply the Row-Reduction Method to get the ʹ ൌ ߙଵ ൅ ߙଷ Semi-Reduced Matrix as follows: Ͳ ʹ ͳ Ͷ Ͳ ʹ ͳ Ͷ ʹ ൌ ߙଵ ൅ ߙଷ ቎Ͳ െʹ ͵ െͳͲ ቏ ܴ ൅ ܴ ՜ ܴ ቎͵ Ͳ ͷ ͵Ͳ቏ Ͳ Ͳ Ͷ െ͸ ଵ ଶ ଶ Ͳ Ͳ Ͷ െ͸ Using what we have learned from chapter 1 to solve Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳͲͲͲ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳͲͲͲ the above system of linear equations. ݀݅݉ሺ‫ܦ‬ሻ. ‫ ܦ‬ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼሺͳǡͳǡͳǡͳሻǡ ሺെͳǡ െͳǡͲǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡͲǡͳǡͳሻሽ Example B. we obtain: This is a Semi-Reduced Matrix. Question: Can we find ߙଵ ǡ ߙଶ and ߙଷ such that ሺͳǡͳǡʹǡʹሻ ൌ ߙଵ ή ‫ݒ‬ଵ ൅ ߙଶ ή ‫ݒ‬ଶ ൅ ߙଷ ή ‫ݒ‬ଷ ? Then.

In ʹ ൌ ߙଵ ൅ ߙଶ addition. Thus. We start with an then these elements are dependent. †‹ሺ‫ܦ‬ሻ ൌ ʹ. which is linear transformation. Basis for ‫ ܦ‬is ሼሺͳǡͳǡͳǡͳሻǡ ሺͲǡͲǡͳǡͳሻሽ.ebook3000. we introduce the homogeneous Matrix.com . we have learned in chapter B. Thus.2.1 Null Space and Rank Answer: Yes: In this section. We Ͳ Ͳ ͳ ͳ need to reduce this matrix to Semi-Reduced Matrix. we explain how to find row space and column ʹ ൌ ߙଵ ൅ ߙଶ space.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ൥െͳ െͳ Ͳ Ͳ൩ Each point is a row-operation. First Edition1. and one of the most important topics in linear algebra ‫ ܦ‬ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼሺͳǡͳǡͳǡͳሻǡ ሺͲǡͲǡͳǡͳሻሽ.1 and C. we study Thus. introduction to null space and rank. 134 M. Hence. At the end of this Now. െܴଶ ൅ ܴଷ ՜ ܴଷ ൥Ͳ Ͳ ͳ ͳ൩ This is a Semi-Reduced Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ In this chapter. ߙଵ ൌ ߙଶ ൌ ߙଷ ൌ ͳ. Yes: ሺͳǡͳǡʹǡʹሻ ‫ܦ א‬Ǥ Definition C. Kaabar 135 www. Question: Can we find ߙଵ ǡ ߙଶ and ߙଷ such that ሺͳǡͳǡʹǡʹሻ ൌ ߙଵ ή ሺͳǡͳǡͳǡͳሻ ൅ ߙଶ ή ሺͲǡͲǡͳǡͳሻ? C.1. we first give an introduction to ͳ ൌ ߙଵ homogeneous systems. and their relation to sections C. and we discuss how they are related to what Since there is a zero-row in the Semi-Reduced Matrix. we apply the Row-Reduction Method to get the Semi-Reduced Matrix as follows: Systems* ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ *The materials of appendix C are taken from chapter 3 ൥െͳ െͳ Ͳ Ͳ൩ ܴଵ ൅ ܴଶ ՜ ܴଶ ൥Ͳ Ͳ ͳ ͳ൩ in my published book titled A First Course in Linear Ͳ Ͳ ͳ ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ ͳ Algebra: Study Guide for the Undergraduate Linear ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ Algebra Course.1 Homogeneous System is a ݉ ൈ ݊ system of linear equations that has all zero constants. we ask ourselves the following question: chapter we discuss how to find range and kernel. systems. Appendix C: Homogenous Now. Then. and we discuss how to find the ͳ ൌ ߙଵ null space and rank of homogeneous systems.

136 M. Fact C. ‫ ݉ۍ‬൅ ‫ې ۍ ې ݓ‬ ‫ێ‬ ଶ ଶ ‫ۑͲێ ۑ‬ Result C. we obtain: ݉ ൈ ݊ can be written as ݉ଵ ‫ݓ‬ଵ Ͳ ሼሺܽଵ ǡ ܽଶ ǡ ܽଷ ǡ ܽସ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܽ௡ ȁܽଵ ǡ ܽଶ ǡ ܽଷ ǡ ܽସ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܽ௡ ‫ א‬Թሽ. say ‫ ܣ‬is a set solutions to the above system.1 If ‫ܯ‬ଵ ൌ ሺ݉ଵ ǡ ݉ଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ݉௡ ሻ is a solution. and it is equal to the ‫݉ۏۉ‬௡ ‫ݓۏ ے‬௡ ‫ےͲۏ یے‬ ݉ଵ ൅ ‫ݓ‬ଵ Ͳ number of variables.1. this solution can be viewed as a point of Թ௡ (here ‫ۑ ێ‬ ‫ۑ ێ ۑ ێ‬ Now. is a subspace of Թ௡ . ‫ۑڭێ ۑ ڭ ێ‬ ‫ݔۏ‬௡ ‫ےͲۏ ے‬ Fact C.e. ݉ଵ ‫ݓ‬ଵ Ͳ ‫݉ ۍ‬ଶ ‫ې‬ ‫ݓۍ‬ଶ ‫ېͲۍ ې‬ Then. We will show that of all solutions to the homogeneous system. Then. then ߙ‫ ܯ‬ൌ ሺߙ݉ଵ ǡ ߙ݉ଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ߙ݉௡ ሻ is a solution. We ‫݉ ێ ܥ‬ଷ ൅ ‫ݓ‬ଷ ‫ ۑ‬ൌ ‫ۑͲێ‬ ‫ݔ‬ଵ ‫ێ‬ ‫ڭ‬ ‫ۑڭێ ۑ‬ Ͳ ‫ݔ ۍ‬ଶ ‫ېͲۍ ې‬ ‫݉ۏ‬௡ ൅ ‫ݓ‬௡ ‫ےͲۏ ے‬ ‫ۑ ێ ۑ ێ‬ write it in the matrix-form: ‫ݔ ێ ܥ‬ଷ ‫ ۑ‬ൌ ‫ ۑͲێ‬where ‫ ܥ‬is a Thus. the set of all solutions in this system ߙ ‫ א‬Թ. and it is denoted by ܰ‫݈݈ݑ‬ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ or ܰሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ. Kaabar 137 .2 The only system where the solutions form a Proof of Result C.1. ‫ ܯ‬൅ ܹ is a solution.1 The solution of a homogeneous system By taking ‫ ܥ‬as a common factor. using algebra: ‫ ܯ‬൅ ܹ ൌ ‫݉ ێ ܥ‬ଷ ‫ ۑ‬൅ ‫ݓێ ܥ‬ଷ ‫ ۑ‬ൌ ‫ۑͲێ‬ is Թସ ) : ሺͲǡͲǡͲǡͲሻ ‫ۑ ڭ ێ‬ ‫ۑڭێ ۑ ڭ ێ‬ ‫݉ۏ‬௡ ‫ے‬ ‫ݓۏ‬௡ ‫ےͲۏ ے‬ Result C.1.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved (i.2 Null Space of a matrix. ‫ܯ‬ଵ ൌ ሺ݉ଵ ǡ ݉ଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ݉௡ ሻ and ܹଵ ൌ ሺ‫ݓ‬ǡ ‫ݓ‬ଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ‫ݓ‬௡ ሻ are two Definition C.2 All solutions of a homogeneous system ‫ۑ ڭ ێ ۑ ڭ ێ‬ ‫ۑڭێ‬ ݉ ൈ ݊ form a subset of Թ௡ . the following is an example of homogeneous ‫ ܯ‬൅ ܹ is a solution.1.3 Given a homogeneous system ݉ ൈ ݊.1. and coefficient.3 We assume that vector space is the homogeneous system. We write them in the matrix-form: ʹ‫ݔ‬ଵ ൅ ‫ݔ‬ଶ െ ‫ݔ‬ଷ ൅ ‫ݔ‬ସ ൌ Ͳ ݉ଵ Ͳ ‫ݓ‬ଵ Ͳ system): ൝ ଵ ൅ ͷ‫ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ͵‫ݔ‬ଷ ൅ Ͷ‫ݔ‬ସ ൌ Ͳ ͵‫ݔ‬ ‫݉ ۍ‬ଶ ‫ې Ͳ ۍ ې‬ ‫ݓۍ‬ଶ ‫ېͲۍ ې‬ ‫ۑ ێ ۑ ێ‬ ‫ۑ ێ ۑ ێ‬ െ‫ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ݔ‬ଷ െ ‫ݔ‬ସ ൌ Ͳ ‫݉ ێ ܥ‬ଷ ‫ ۑ‬ൌ ‫ ۑͲێ‬and ‫ݓێ‬ଷ ‫ ۑ‬ൌ ‫ۑͲێ‬ ‫ۑڭێ ۑ ڭ ێ‬ ‫ۑڭێ ۑ ڭ ێ‬ Imagine we have the following solution to the ‫݉ ۏ‬௡ ‫ے Ͳ ۏ ے‬ ‫ݓۏ‬௡ ‫ےͲۏ ے‬ homogeneous system: ‫ݔ‬ଵ ൌ ‫ݔ‬ଶ ൌ ‫ݔ‬ଷ ൌ ‫ݔ‬ସ ൌ Ͳ.1.1. ‫݉ ۍ‬ଶ ‫ݓ ۍ ې‬ଶ ‫ې‬ ‫ېͲۍ‬ ‫ۑ ێ ۊ ۑ ێ ۑ ێۇ‬ ‫݉ ێۈ ܥ‬ଷ ‫ ۑ‬൅ ‫ݓ ێ‬ଷ ‫ ۋۑ‬ൌ ‫ۑͲێ‬ Result C.

by ܴܽ݊݇ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ. ‫ݔ‬ଵ ൌ െͶ‫ݔ‬ଷ െ ‫ݔ‬ହ e.ebook3000.1. Free variables are ‫ݔ‬ଷ and ‫ݔ‬ହ . we need to ‫ݔ‬ସ ൌ Ͳ find the solution of ‫ ܣ‬as follows: Thus. ‫ݔ‬ହ ‫ א‬Թሽ. and it is denoted solve systems of linear equations use Row-Operation Method. Then. ‫ݔ‬ଶ ൌ െʹ‫ݔ‬ଷ െ ʹ‫ݔ‬ହ Solution: Part a: To find the null space of ‫ܣ‬. Step 3: Read the solution for the above system of linear Example C. Find ܴܽ݊݇ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ. ͳ Ͳ Ͷ Ͳ ͳͲ ൭Ͳ ͳ ʹ Ͳ ʹอͲ൱ This is a Completely-Reduced Definition C. ‫ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ʹ‫ݔ‬ଷ ൅ ʹ‫ݔ‬ହ ൌ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ Ͳ ‫ݔ‬ସ ൌ Ͳ a. and make all constants’ terms zeros.1.1. say ‫ ܣ‬is the ൭Ͳ ͳ ʹ Ͳ ʹ อͲ൱ ܴଶ ൅ ܴଵ ՜ ܴଵ ܵ‫ ݊ܽ݌‬of independent rows of ‫ܣ‬. say ‫ ܣ‬is the number Step 2: Apply what we have learned from chapter 1 to of independent rows or columns of ‫ܣ‬. ͳ െͳ ʹ Ͳ െͳ ‫ݔ‬ଵ ൅ Ͷ‫ݔ‬ଷ ൅ ‫ݔ‬ହ ൌ Ͳ ‫ ܣ‬ൌ ൥Ͳ ͳ ʹ Ͳ ʹ ൩. say ‫ ܣ‬is the Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ ͲͲ ܵ‫ ݊ܽ݌‬of independent columns of ‫ܣ‬.2. ‫ݔ‬ହ ‫ א‬Թ. ͳ െͳ ʹ Ͳ െͳ Ͳ Definition C. b.1 Given the following ͵ ൈ ͷ matrix: equations after using Row-Operation. Find ܰ‫݈݈ݑ‬ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ. Step 1: Write the above matrix as an Augmented- ܰ‫݈݈ݑ‬ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ ൌ ሼሺെͶ‫ݔ‬ଷ െ ‫ݔ‬ହ ǡ െʹ‫ݔ‬ଷ െ ʹ‫ݔ‬ହ ǡ ‫ݔ‬ଷ ǡ Ͳǡ ‫ݔ‬ହ ሻȁ‫ݔ‬ଷ . c. ͳ െͳ ʹ Ͳ െͳ Ͳ Part b: It is always true that ൭Ͳ ͳ ʹ Ͳ ʹ อͲ൱ ݀݅݉൫ܰ‫݈݈ݑ‬ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ൯ ൌ ݀݅݉൫ܰሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ൯ ൌ ݄ܶ݁ ܰ‫ݏ݈ܾ݁ܽ݅ݎܸܽ ݁݁ݎܨ ݂݋ ݎܾ݁݉ݑ‬ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Here. ‫݊݉ݑ݈݋ܥ‬ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ.4 Row Space of a matrix. Kaabar 139 www. 138 M. the solution of the above homogeneous system is as follows: d.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Definition C. Assuming that ‫ݔ‬ଷ .com .3 Rank of a matrix. and it is denoted by Matrix. ݀݅݉൫ܰ‫݈݈ݑ‬ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ൯ ൌ ʹ. Matrix. and it is denoted by Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ܴ‫ݓ݋‬ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ. Rewrite ܰ‫݈݈ݑ‬ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ as ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬. according to definition 3.5 Column Space of a matrix. Find ݀݅݉ሺܰ‫݈݈ݑ‬ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻሻ.1.1. Find ܴ‫ݓ݋‬ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ.

ܰ‫ ݈݈ݑ‬ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼሺെͶǡ െʹǡͳǡͲǡͲሻǡ ሺെͳǡ െʹǡͲǡͲǡͳሻሽ.1. We meaning of ܴ‫ݓ݋‬ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼ‫ݏݓ݋ܴ ݐ݊݁݀݊݁݌݁݀݊ܫ‬ሽ “lives” already did that in part a. Thus. ܴܽ݊݇ ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ ൌ ͵Ǥ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ܴ ൅ܴ ՜ܴ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ଵ ଶ ଶ ൥െͳ െͳ െͳ Ͳ ʹ൩ ൥ ͵൩ Part e: To find the row space of matrix ‫ܣ‬. Find ܴ‫ݓ݋‬ሺ‫ܤ‬ሻ. we need to Result C. Then. The geometric change matrix ‫ ܤ‬to the Semi-Reduced Matrix. say ‫ ܣ‬is the Result C. b.1.1. The geometric dimension of the null space of ‫ܣ‬. Kaabar 141 . we just need to change matrix ‫ ܤ‬to the Semi-Reduced Matrix as change matrix ‫ ܣ‬to the Semi-Reduced Matrix. we need to locate the inside Թ௡ .5 Let ‫ ܣ‬be ݉ ൈ ݊ matrix. c. This is a Semi-Reduced Matrix. Then. Now. we need to Part d: To find the rank of matrix ‫ܣ‬. and it is denoted by meaning of ‫݊݉ݑ݈݋ܥ‬ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼ‫ݏ݊݉ݑ݈݋ܥ ݐ݊݁݀݊݁݌݁݀݊ܫ‬ሽ ݀݅݉ሺܰ‫݈݈ݑ‬ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻሻ or ݀݅݉ሺܰሺ‫ܣ‬ሻሻ. Find ܴܽ݊݇ሺ‫ܤ‬ሻ.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Definition C. Thus.1. ܴ‫ݓ݋‬ሺ‫ܤ‬ሻ ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼሺͳǡͳǡͳǡͳǡͳሻǡ ሺͲǡͲǡͲǡͳǡ͵ሻሽǤ ܴܽ݊݇ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ ൅ ݀݅݉൫ܰ ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ൯ ൌ ݊ ൌ ܰ‫ܣ ݂݋ ݏ݊݉ݑ݈݋ܥ ݂݋ ݎܾ݁݉ݑ‬. Result C.1. independent rows.1. columns in the Semi-Reduced Matrix of ‫ ܤ‬that contain the leaders. we just need ܴଵ ൅ ܴଷ ՜ ܴଷ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ to write the ܵ‫ ݊ܽ݌‬of independent rows. Thus.2 Given the following ͵ ൈ ͷ matrix: ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ‫ݔ‬ଷ ‫ݔ‬ହ ܲ‫ݐ݊݅݋‬ ‫ ܤ‬ൌ ൥െͳ െͳ െͳ Ͳ ʹ൩. and then we should locate them to the original matrix ‫ܤ‬. Part b: To find the column space of ‫ܤ‬.4 Let ‫ ܣ‬be ݉ ൈ ݊ matrix. Part c: We first need to find a basis for ܰ‫݈݈ݑ‬ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ as Result C. Find ‫݊݉ݑ݈݋ܥ‬ሺ‫ܤ‬ሻ. The basis for ܰ‫݈݈ݑ‬ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ ൌ ሼሺെͶǡ െʹǡͳǡͲǡͲሻǡ ሺെͳǡ െʹǡͲǡͲǡͳሻሽ. follows: To find a basis for ܰ‫݈݈ݑ‬ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ. “lives” inside Թ௠ .7 Let ‫ ܣ‬be ݉ ൈ ݊ matrix. Solution: Part a: To find the row space of ‫ܤ‬. ͳ Ͳ ሺെͶǡ െʹǡͳǡͲǡͲሻ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ ሺെͳǡ െʹǡͲǡͲǡͳሻ a. Thus. We follows: already did that in part a. called (ON-OFF GAME) with the free variables ‫ݔ‬ଷ and ‫ݔ‬ହ Ǥ Example C.6 The nullity of a matrix.6 Let ‫ ܣ‬be ݉ ൈ ݊ matrix. To find the row space ܴ‫ݓ݋‬ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼሺͳǡ െͳǡʹǡͲǡ െͳሻǡ ሺͲǡͳǡʹǡͲǡʹሻǡ ሺͲǡͲǡͲǡͳǡͲሻሽǤ of matrix ‫ܤ‬. we play a game ܴܽ݊݇ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ ൌ ݀݅݉൫ܴ‫ݓ݋‬ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ൯ ൌ ݀݅݉ሺ‫݊݉ݑ݈݋ܥ‬ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻሻ. 140 M. we just need to write the ܵ‫ ݊ܽ݌‬of It is also a subspace of Թହ .

Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ ʹ (i. ቂ ቃ ‹• ‡“—‹˜ƒŽ‡– –‘ ሺͳǡʹǡ͵ǡͲǡͳǡͳሻ ).2. ͵‫ ݔ‬൅ ʹ ‫ܲ א‬ଶ .e. change matrix ‫ ܣ‬to the Semi-Reduced Matrix.com . we need to know the x ܲସ ൌ ܵ݁‫ ݁݁ݎ݃݁݀ ݂݋ ݏ݈ܽ݅݉݋݊ݕ݈݋݌ ݈݈ܽ ݂݋ ݐ‬൏ Ͷ (i. ‫݊݉ݑ݈݋ܥ‬ሺ‫ܤ‬ሻ ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼሺͳǡ െͳǡͲሻǡ ሺͳǡͲǡͲሻሽ. The algebraic expression of polynomials is in the Thus. ͳͲ ‫ܲ א‬ଶ . Ͳ ‫ܲ א‬ଶ .Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ͳ ʹ ͵ (i. C.ebook3000.2.e. following mathematical facts: ͵ͳ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ Ͷ ‫ܲ א‬ସ ). At the end of this section we x ܲଶ ൌ ܵ݁‫ ݁݁ݎ݃݁݀ ݂݋ ݏ݈ܽ݅݉݋݊ݕ݈݋݌ ݈݈ܽ ݂݋ ݐ‬൏ ʹ (i. Result C.2 Թଶൈଷ is equivalent to Թ଺ as a vector space. we just need to ܽ௡ ǡ ܽ௡ିଵ ƒ† ܽଵ are coefficients. ξ͵ξ‫ܲ ב ݔ‬ଶ ). following from: ܽ௡ ‫ ݔ‬௡ ൅ ܽ௡ିଵ ‫ ݔ‬௡ିଵ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬൅ ܽଵ ‫ ݔ‬ଵ ൅ ܽ଴ Part c: To find the rank of matrix ‫ܤ‬. ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ൥െͳ െͳ െͳ Ͳ ʹ൩ Matrix ‫ܤ‬ After knowing the above facts. We ݊ ƒ† ݊ െ ͳ are exponents that must be positive already did that in part a. Ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ൥Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ ͵൩ Semi-Reduced Matrix Fact C.3 Թଷൈଶ is equivalent to Թ଺ as a vector space. 142 M. we introduce Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ polynomials as follows: Each remaining columns is a linear combination of the ܲ௡ ൌ ܵ݁‫ ݁݁ݎ݃݁݀ ݂݋ ݏ݈ܽ݅݉݋݊ݕ݈݋݌ ݈݈ܽ ݂݋ ݐ‬൏ ݊Ǥ first and fourth columns.1 ܲ௡ is a vector space. x If ܲሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͵. Fact C. then ݀݁݃൫ܲ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ൯ ൌ Ͳ. Fact C.2.e. Kaabar 143 www. and we explain how they are similar to Թ௡ as vector spaces.2. Before discussing polynomials. We start this section with an introduction to We list the following examples of polynomials: polynomials.2 Linear Transformation The degree of polynomial is determined by the highest power (exponent). ܴܽ݊݇ሺ‫ܣ‬ሻ ൌ ݀݅݉൫ܴ‫ݓ݋‬ሺ‫ܤ‬ሻ൯ ൌ ݀݅݉ሺ‫݊݉ݑ݈݋ܥ‬ሺ‫ܤ‬ሻሻ ൌ ʹǤ ܽ଴ is a constant term.1 Թ௡ൈ௠ ൌ Թ௡ൈ௠ ൌ ‫ܯ‬௡ൈ௠ ሺԹሻ is a vector space.e. Thus. integers whole numbers. x ξ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͵ is not a polynomial. ξ͵ ‫ܲ א‬ଶ but discuss a new concept called linear transformation. ൥͵ Ͳ൩ ‹• ‡“—‹˜ƒŽ‡– –‘ ሺͳǡʹǡ͵ǡͲǡͳǡͳሻ ).

Solution: Part a: We know that these polynomial live Result C. to this question is NO.2. and as a vector space ܲଷ is the same as Թଷ . Find a checking for dependency in part a. Kaabar 145 .2. Choose one particular point. Are these polynomials independent? Part b: Since there are only 2 vectors survived after b. Let ‫ ܦ‬ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼ͵‫ ݔ‬ଶ െ ʹǡ െͷ‫ݔ‬ǡ ͸‫ ݔ‬ଶ െ ͳͲ‫ ݔ‬െ Ͷሽ. ܲଷ ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼͳǡ ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ ʹݔ‬ሽ).e. we apply the Row-Reduction Method to get the Թ଺ .4 By using proof by contradiction. it is dependent. we need to write these vectors as a matrix. Thus. (i. we obtain: 144 M. ܽ଴ ൅ ܽଵ ‫ ݔ‬ଵ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬൅ ܽ௡ିଵ ‫ ݔ‬௡ିଵ ՞ ሺܽ଴ ǡ ܽଵ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܽ௡ିଵ ሻ. then the basis for ሺͲǡ െͷǡͲሻ ՞ െͷ‫ݔ‬. then ‫ݒ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ‫ݒ‬௞ are independent. െͷ‫ ݔ‬ൌ Ͳ െ ͷ‫ ݔ‬൅ Ͳ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ՞ ሺͲǡ െͷǡͲሻ Note: The word “unique” in result 3. According ݇ ൏ ݊.1 Given the following polynomials: then these elements are dependent.2 ܲ௡ is a vector space. Our assumption means that to reduce this matrix to Semi-Reduced Matrix. and it is the same as െʹ Ͳ ͵ െʹ Ͳ ͵ Թ௡ .2.2. െʹ Ͳ ͵ Result C. Example C. ‫ ݁݁ݎ݃݁ܦ ݂݋ ݄ܿܽܧ‬൏ ͵ሽ.4 means that ͸‫ ݔ‬ଶ െ ͳͲ‫ ݔ‬െ Ͷ ൌ െͶ െ ͳͲ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͸‫ ݔ‬ଶ ՞ ሺെͶǡ െͳͲǡ͸ሻ there is only one value for each of ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܿ௞ .2. Proof of Result C.2. If ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܿ௞ are unique. െʹ Ͳ ͵ we assume that ‫ݒ‬ଵ ൌ ߙଶ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ൅ ߙଷ ‫ݒ‬ଷ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬൅ ߙ௞ ‫ݒ‬௞ where ൥Ͳ െͷ Ͳ൩ Each point is a row-operation. Since there is a zero-row in the Semi-Reduced Matrix. Now. the answer ͵‫ ݔ‬ଶ െ ʹǡ െͷ‫ݔ‬ǡ ͸‫ ݔ‬ଶ െ ͳͲ‫ ݔ‬െ Ͷ.3 ݀݅݉ሺܲ௡ ሻ ൌ ݊Ǥ െʹܴଶ ൅ ܴଷ ՜ ܴଷ ൥ Ͳ െͷ Ͳ൩ This is a Semi-Reduced Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Fact C. We need െͶ െͳͲ ͸ ߙଶ ǡ ߙଷ ǡ ǥ ǡ ߙ௞ are constants.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Fact C. a. say ܳ. we need to make each polynomial ܳ ൌ ܿଵ ‫ݒ‬ଵ ൅ ܿଶ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬൅ ܿ௞ ‫ݒ‬௞ where ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܿ௞ are equivalent to Թ௡ as follows: ͵‫ ݔ‬ଶ െ ʹ ൌ െʹ ൅ Ͳ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͵‫ ݔ‬ଶ ՞ ሺെʹǡͲǡ͵ሻ constants. basis for ‫ܦ‬.2. Using algebra.4 Թଶൈଷ ൌ ‫ܯ‬ଶൈଷ ሺԹሻ as a vector space same as Then. (i. ൥Ͳ െͷ Ͳ൩ െʹܴଵ ൅ ܴଷ ՜ ܴଷ ൥ Ͳ െͷ Ͳ൩ െͶ െͳͲ ͸ Ͳ െͳͲ Ͳ Note: The above form is in an ascending order. Semi-Reduced Matrix as follows: Result C.4 Given ‫ݒ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ‫ݒ‬௞ points in Թ௡ where in ܲଷ .2.5 ܲଷ ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼ͵ ‫ݏ݈ܽ݅݉݋݊ݕ݈݋ܲ ݐ݊݁݀݊݁݌݁݀݊ܫ‬ǡ ܽ݊݀ Matrix.2. such that to result 3.e.2.

Then. ‫ݒ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ‫ ܸ א‬and ߙ ‫ א‬Թ. ܶ൫ሺͳǡͳሻ൯ ൌ ሺ͵ሺͳሻ ൅ ͳǡͳǡ െͳሻ ൌ ሺͶǡͳǡ െͳሻ.2. a. and ߙ ‫ א‬Թ. This is a contradiction. 146 M. ܶ is not a linear transformation. ‫ݒ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ƒ† ‫ݒ‬௞ are linearly independent. ܶ൫ሺܽଵ ǡ ܽଶ ሻ൯ ൌ ሺ͵ܽଵ ൅ ܽଶ ǡ ܽଶ ǡ െܽଵ ሻ. Solution: Part a: Since 13 is not a linear combination of ‫ݔ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݔ‬ଶ ƒ† ‫ݔ‬ଷ . If ܶ൫ሺ‫ݔ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݔ‬ଶ ǡ ‫ݔ‬ଷ ሻ൯ ൌ ሺെ͵‫ݔ‬ଷ ൅ ͸‫ݔ‬ଵ ǡ െͳͲ‫ݔ‬ଶ ǡ ͳ͵ǡ െ‫ݔ‬ଷ ሻ. Part b: Since ܶ൫ሺܽଵ ǡ ܽଶ ሻ൯ ൌ ሺ͵ܽଵ ൅ ܽଶ ǡ ܽଶ ǡ െܽଵ ሻ. a linear transformation? then ܽଵ ൌ ܽଶ ൌ ͳ. we start from the Right-Hand-Side (RHS): Result C. ܶ a linear transformation? b. Part c: Proof: We assume that ‫ݒ‬ଵ ൌ ሺܽଵ ǡ ܽଶ ሻ. Then. Example C.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ܳ ൌ ܿଵ ߙଶ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ൅ ܿଵ ߙଷ ‫ݒ‬ଷ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬൅ ܿଵ ߙ௞ ‫ݒ‬௞ ൅ ܿଶ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬൅ ܿ௞ ‫ݒ‬௞ . ൌ ሺ͵ߙܽଵ ൅ ߙܽଶ ൅ ͵ܾଵ ൅ ܾଶ ǡ ߙܽଶ ൅ ܾଶ ǡ െߙܽଵ െ ܾଵ ሻ Linear Transformation: Thus. Hence. Therefore. then ܽଵ ൌ ͳ ƒ† ܽଶ ൌ Ͳ. Example C. our ߙ‫ݒ‬ଵ ൅ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ൌ ሺߙܽଵ ൅ ܾଵ ǡ ߙܽଶ ൅ ܾଶ ሻ assumption that ‫ݒ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ƒ† ‫ݒ‬௞ were linearly ܶሺߙ‫ݒ‬ଵ ൅ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ሻ ൌ ܶሺሺߙܽଵ ൅ ܾଵ ǡ ߙܽଶ ൅ ܾଶ ሻሻ ܶሺߙ‫ݒ‬ଵ ൅ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ሻ ൌ ሺ͵ߙܽଵ ൅ ͵ܾଵ ൅ ߙܽଶ ൅ ܾଶ ǡ ߙܽଶ ൅ ܾଶ ǡ െߙܽଵ െ ܾଵ ሻ dependent is false. we start from the Left- others which means that they are linearly Hand-Side (LHS): independent.com . Kaabar 147 www. Find ܶሺሺͳǡͲሻሻ. Using algebra. Show that ܶ is a linear transformation. ሺ͵ǡͲǡ െͳሻ.2 Given ܶǣ Թଶ ՜ Թଷ where Թଶ is a domain and Թଷ is a co-domain. We will show that ܶ is a linear Ͳ‫ݒ‬ଵ Ǥ Thus.2. there exists unique ߙܶሺ‫ݒ‬ଵ ሻ ൅ ܶሺ‫ݒ‬ଶ ሻ ൌ ߙሺ͵ܽଵ ൅ ܽଶ ǡ ܽଶ ǡ െܽଵ ሻ ൅ ሺ͵ܾଵ ൅ ܾଶ ǡ ܾଶ ǡ െܾଵ ሻ number ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܿ௞ such that ܳ ൌ ܿଵ ‫ݒ‬ଵ ൅ ܿଶ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬൅ ൌ ሺ͵ߙܽଵ ൅ ߙܽଶ ǡ ߙܽଶ ǡ െߙܽଵ ሻ ൅ ሺ͵ܾଵ ൅ ܾଶ ǡ ܾଶ ǡ െܾଵ ሻ ܿ௞ ‫ݒ‬௞ . ܶ is a linear transformation if for every Result C. ܶ is a linear transformation.2. ܳ ൌ ሺܿଵ ߙଶ ൅ܿଶ ሻ‫ݒ‬ଶ ൅ ሺܿଵ ߙଷ ൅ ܿଷ ሻ‫ݒ‬ଷ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬൅ ሺܿଵ ߙ௞ ൅ ܿ௞ ሻ‫ݒ‬௞ ൅ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ൌ ሺܾଵ ǡ ܾଶ ሻ.2.1 ܶǣ ܸ ՜ ܹ where ܸ is a domain and ܹ is a co-domain.6 Given ܶǣ Թ௡ ՜ Թ௠ . Thus. is c. a. we have the following: ܶሺሺܽଵ ǡ ܽଶ ǡ ܽଷ ǡ ǥ ǡ ܽ௡ ሻሻ ൌ Each coordinate is a linear ܶሺߙ‫ݒ‬ଵ ൅ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ሻ ൌ ߙܶሺ‫ݒ‬ଵ ሻ ൅ ܶሺ‫ݒ‬ଶ ሻ. Now. Thus. Find ܶሺሺͳǡͳሻሻ. ܶ is a linear transformation. If ܶ൫ሺ‫ݔ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݔ‬ଶ ǡ ‫ݔ‬ଷ ሻ൯ ൌ ሺെ͵‫ݔ‬ଷ ൅ ͸‫ݔ‬ଵ ǡ െͳͲ‫ݔ‬ଶ ǡ Ͳǡ െ‫ݔ‬ଷ ሻ.2. Definition C.5 Assume ‫ݒ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ‫ݒ‬௞ are independent and ߙܶሺ‫ݒ‬ଵ ሻ ൅ ܶሺ‫ݒ‬ଶ ሻ ൌ ߙܶሺܽଵ ǡ ܽଶ ሻ ൅ ܶሺܾଵ ǡ ܾଶ ሻ ܳ ‫݊ܽ݌ܵ א‬ሼ‫ݒ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ǡ ǥ ǡ ‫ݒ‬௞ ሽ. is ܶ Solution: Part a: Since ܶ൫ሺܽଵ ǡ ܽଶ ሻ൯ ൌ ሺ͵ܽଵ ൅ ܽଶ ǡ ܽଶ ǡ െܽଵ ሻ.3 Given ܶǣ Թଷ ՜ Թସ where Թଷ is a domain and Թସ is a co-domain. ܶ൫ሺͳǡͲሻ൯ ൌ ሺ͵ሺͳሻ ൅ ͲǡͲǡ െͳሻ ൌ Part b: Since 0 is a linear combination of ‫ݔ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݔ‬ଶ ƒ† ‫ݔ‬ଷ . none of them is a linear combination of the transformation. Thus. Thus.ebook3000. combination of the ܽ௜ Ԣ‫ݏ‬. b.

8 Find the standard basis for ܲଷ . Example C. There exists unique numbers ܿଵ and ܿଶ such that ሺ͵ǡͷሻ ൌ ܿଵ ሺʹǡͲሻ ൅ ܿଶ ሺെͳǡͳሻ. we obtain: Example C. These two points are independent because of the following: Solution: The standard basis for Թଷ is the rows of ‫ܫ‬ଷ .11 Let ܶǣ Թଶ ՜ Թଷ be a linear Example C.6 Find the standard basis for Թ . ‫ܯ‬ଶൈଶ ሺԹሻ. ͷ ൌ ܿଶ Now. Example C.4 Given ܶǣ Թଶ ՜ Թଷ where Թଶ is a domain Example C. Solution: The given points are ሺʹǡͲሻ and ሺെͳǡͳሻ.2.7 Find the standard basis for Թଷ . If ܶሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ͳͲ‫ݔ‬. Find ܶሺ͵ǡͷሻ.9 Find the standard basis for ܲସ . ሺെͳǡͳሻ. ͵ ൌ ʹܿଵ െ ܿଶ Solution: The standard basis for ܲଷ is ሼͳǡ ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሽ.2. transformation such that Solution: The standard basis for Թଶ is the rows of ‫ܫ‬ଶ .2. ‫ܯ‬ଶൈଶ ሺԹሻ ൌ Թସ as a vector space where standard basis Example C. Hence. ܶ is a linear transformation. ܶ is not a linear transformation.2.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Example C. then the standard basis for Թଶ is Ͳ ͳ ሼሺͳǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡͳሻሽ. then the standard basis for Թଷ is Ͳ Ͳ ͳ Every point in Թଶ is a linear combination of ሺʹǡͲሻ and ሼሺͳǡͲǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡͳǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡͲǡͳሻሽ. ܶሺ͵ǡͷሻ ൌ ܶሺͶሺʹǡͲሻ ൅ ͷሺെͳǡͳሻሻ 148 M. Kaabar 149 . we substitute ܿଶ ൌ ͷ in ͵ ൌ ʹܿଵ െ ܿଶ . is ܶ a ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ linear transformation? for Թଶൈଶ ൌ ‫ܯ‬ଶൈଶ ሺԹሻ is the rows of ‫ܫ‬ସ ൌ ቎Ͳ ͳ Ͳ Ͳ቏that Ͳ Ͳ ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ Solution: Since it is a linear combination of ܽଵ such are represented by ʹ ൈ ʹ matrices.2.10 Find the standard basis for Թଶൈଶ ൌ and Թଷ is a co-domain. that ߙܽଵ ൌ ͳͲ‫ݔ‬.2. If ܶ൫ሺܽଵ ǡ ܽଶ ሻ൯ ൌ ሺܽଵ ଶ ൅ ܽଶ ǡ െܽଶ ሻ. is ܶ a linear transformation? Solution: The standard basis for Թଶൈଶ ൌ ‫ܯ‬ଶൈଶ ሺԹሻ is Solution: Since ܽଵ ଶ ൅ ܽଶ is not a linear combination of ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ሼቂ ቃǡቂ ቃǡቂ ቃǡቂ ቃሽ because Թଶൈଶ ൌ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ ܽଵ ƒ† ܽଶ . Hence. ሺ͵ǡͷሻ ൌ ͶሺʹǡͲሻ ൅ ͷሺെͳǡͳሻ.2.2. ଶ Example C. ͵ ൌ ʹܿଵ െ ͷ ܿଵ ൌ Ͷ Solution: The standard basis for ܲସ is ሼͳǡ ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ǡ ‫ ݔ‬ଷ ሽ.5 Given ܶǣ Թ ՜ Թ. ܶሺʹǡͲሻ ൌ ሺͲǡͳǡͶሻ ͳ Ͳ ܶሺെͳǡͳሻ ൌ ሺʹǡͳǡͷሻ Since ‫ܫ‬ଶ ൌ ቂ ቃ. Hence. ʹ Ͳ ͳ ʹ Ͳ ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ቂ ቃ ܴ ൅ ܴଶ ՜ ܴଶ ቂ ቃ െͳ ͳ ʹ ଵ Ͳ ͳ Since ‫ܫ‬ଷ ൌ ൥Ͳ ͳ Ͳ൩.

c.3. The first. Find ܴܽ݊݃݁ሺܶሻ. Then. the ܶሺͷሻ ൌ ܶሺͷ ή ͳሻ ൌ ͷܶሺͳሻ ൌ ͷሺ͵ሻ ൌ ͳͷ. Find the Standard Matrix Representation. points in the domain that have image which equals to ‫ݔ‬ଷ the origin point.3 Range is the column space of standard Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ matrix representation.2 that the standard C. This െͷ Ͳ Ͳ means that ‫ݎ݁ܭ‬ሺܶሻ ൌ ܰ‫ܶ ݂݋ ݁ܿܽ݌ܵ ݈݈ݑ‬.1 Given ܶǣ Թଷ ՜ Թସ where Թଷ is a domain represent ܶሺ‫ݒ‬ଵ ሻǡ ܶሺ‫ݒ‬ଶ ሻ ƒ† ܶሺ‫ݒ‬ଷ ሻ.3 Kernel and Range basis for domain (here is Թଷ ) is ሼሺͳǡͲǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡͳǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡͲǡͳሻሽ. ‫ ܯ‬ൌ ቎ Ͳ ʹ ͳ቏ This is the Standard Matrix െͳ Ͳ Ͳ Definition C. 150 M. Solution: Since it is a linear transformation. If it is not a linear Standard Matrix Representation.1 Given ܶǣ Թ௡ ՜ Թ௠ where Թ௡ is a Now. Standard Matrix follows: Representation is a ݉ ൈ ݊ matrix. let’s call it ‫ܯ‬. Example C. and it is denoted by ܴܽ݊݃݁ሺܶሻ. we substitute each point of the standard basis for domain in ܶ൫ሺ‫ݔ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݔ‬ଶ ǡ ‫ݔ‬ଷ ሻ൯ ൌ ሺെͷ‫ݔ‬ଵ ǡ ʹ‫ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ݔ‬ଷ ǡ െ‫ݔ‬ଵ ǡ Ͳሻ as domain and Թ௠ is a co-domain. ܶሺ͵ǡͷሻ ൌ ሺͳͲǡͻǡͶͳሻ. here is transformation. we discuss how to find the standard ‫ݒ‬ଵ ൌ ሺͳǡͲǡͲሻ matrix representation. and Թସ is a co-domain. Representation. Find ‫ݎ݁ܭ‬ሺܶሻ.3. Find ܶሺሺ͵ǡʹǡͳሻሻ.3. Thus. Find ܶሺͷሻ. Ͷ ൈ ͵.3.1. ‫ݒ‬ଷ ൌ ሺͲǡͲǡͳሻ Definition C.com . b. and we give examples of how to ‫ݒ‬ଶ ൌ ሺͲǡͳǡͲሻ find kernel and range. second and third columns Example C. then it is impossible to find ܶሺͷሻ. then Solution: Part a: According to definition 3. We know from section 3.3.ebook3000. ܶ൫ሺͲǡͳǡͲሻ൯ ൌ ሺͲǡʹǡͲǡͲሻ Definition C. Kaabar 151 www. Kernel is a set of all ‫ݔ‬ଵ ‫ݔ‬ Our goal is to find ‫ ܯ‬so that ܶ൫ሺ‫ݔ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݔ‬ଶ ǡ ‫ݔ‬ଷ ሻ൯ ൌ ‫ ܯ‬൥ ଶ ൩.2 Given ܶǣ Թ௡ ՜ Թ௠ where Թ௡ is a ܶ൫ሺͲǡͲǡͳሻ൯ ൌ ሺͲǡͳǡͲǡͲሻ domain and Թ௠ is a co-domain.12 Let ܶǣ Թ ՜ Թ be a linear d. We assume the following: In this section. This means that it is ܶ൫ሺͳǡͲǡͲሻ൯ ൌ ሺെͷǡͲǡ െͳǡͲሻ ݀݅݉ሺ‫ ݋ܥ‬െ ‫ ݊݅ܽ݉݋ܦ‬ሻ ൈ ݀݅݉ሺ‫݊݅ܽ݉݋ܦ‬ሻ matrix.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ܶሺ͵ǡͷሻ ൌ ͶܶሺʹǡͲሻ ൅ ͷܶሺെͳǡͳሻ ܶ൫ሺ‫ݔ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݔ‬ଶ ǡ ‫ݔ‬ଷ ሻ൯ ൌ ሺെͷ‫ݔ‬ଵ ǡ ʹ‫ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ݔ‬ଷ ǡ െ‫ݔ‬ଵ ǡ Ͳሻ ܶሺ͵ǡͷሻ ൌ ͶሺͲǡͳǡͶሻ ൅ ͷሺʹǡͳǡͷሻ ൌ ሺͳͲǡͻǡͶͳሻ a.2. and it is denoted by ‫ݎ݁ܭ‬ሺܶሻ. transformation such that ܶሺͳሻ ൌ ͵.

then we need to find ܰሺ‫ܯ‬ሻ as the original matrix as follows: follows: െͷ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͳ Ͳ ͲͲ ͳ ቌ Ͳ ʹ ͳቮ ቍ െ ܴଵ ቌ Ͳ ʹ ͳቮͲቍ ܴଵ ൅ ܴଷ ՜ ܴଷ Ͳ ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ െͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͷ െͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͲͲ Ͳ Ͳ ͲͲ ቌͲ ͳ ͲǤͷቮͲቍ Completely-Reduced Matrix Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ 152 M. we need to read the above െͳ Ͳ Ͳ matrix as follows: ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ െͷ Ͳ Ͳ െͳͷ ‫ݔ‬ଵ ൌ Ͳ ͳ ܶ൫ሺ͵ǡʹǡͳሻ൯ ൌ ͵ ή ቎ ቏ ൅ ʹ ή ቎ ቏ ൅ ͳ ή ቎ ቏ ൌ ቎ ͷ ቏ Ͳ ʹ ͳ ‫ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ݔ‬ଷ ൌ Ͳ െͳ Ͳ Ͳ െ͵ ʹ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͲൌͲ െͳͷ ͲൌͲ ቎ ͷ ቏ is equivalent to ሺെͳͷǡͷǡ െ͵ǡͲሻ. we need to locate the columns െͳ Ͳ Ͳ ‫ݔ‬ Ͳ ଷ in the Completely-Reduced Matrix in part c that Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ contain the leaders. By letting ‫ݔ‬ଷ ൌ ͳ. and ଵ ‫ݔ‬ଵ Ͳ ‫ ݏ݅ݏܽܤ‬ൌ ሼሺͲǡ െ ǡ ͳሻሽ ଶ following: ‫ ܯ‬൥ ଶ ൩ ൌ ቎Ͳ቏ ‫ݔ‬ ଵ Thus. ‫ݔ‬ଵ ൌ Ͳ and ‫ݔ‬ଶ ൌ െ ଶ ‫ݔ‬ଷ . Hence. ܶ൫ሺ͵ǡʹǡͳሻ൯ ൌ ሺെͳͷǡͷǡ െ͵ǡͲሻ. Thus. ‫ݎ݁ܭ‬ሺܶሻ is a set of ܰሺ‫ܯ‬ሻ ൌ ሼሺͲǡ െ ଶ ‫ݔ‬ଷ ǡ ‫ݔ‬ଷ ሻȁ‫ݔ‬ଷ ‫ א‬Թሽ. ଵ co-domain. Kaabar 153 . ‫ݎ݁ܭ‬ሺܶሻ ൌ ܰሺ‫ ܯ‬ሻ ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼሺͲǡ െ ǡ ͳሻሽ. ଵ Part c: According to definition 3. This lives in the To write the solution. and then we should locate them to Since ‫ݎ݁ܭ‬ሺܶሻ ൌ ܰ‫݈݈ݑ‬ሺ‫ܯ‬ሻ.3. we obtain: Hence. ‫ݔ‬ଷ Ͳ ଶ Ͳ െͷ Ͳ Ͳ ‫ݔ‬ଵ Ͳ Part d: According to definition 3. all points in the domain that have imageൌ ሺͲǡͲǡͲǡͲሻ. Now. then Ͳ ʹ ͳ ቮ ቍ ܴ ቌͲ ͳ ͲǤͷቮͲቍ This is a Completely- Ͳ ଵ ቌ ‫ݔ‬ଷ Ͳ Ͳ ͲͲ ଶ ଶ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ െͷ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͲͲ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ͵ ܶ൫ሺ͵ǡʹǡͳሻ൯ ൌ ቎ Ͳ ʹ ͳ቏ ൥ʹ൩ Reduced Matrix.3. Now.3. ܶ൫ሺ‫ݔ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݔ‬ଶ ǡ ‫ݔ‬ଷ ሻ൯ ൌ ሺͲǡͲǡͲǡͲሻ. This means the ܰ‫ݕݐ݈݈݅ݑ‬ሺ‫ܯ‬ሻ ൌ ܰ‫ ݏ݈ܾ݁ܽ݅ݎܸܽ ݁݁ݎܨ ݂݋ ݎܾ݁݉ݑ‬ൌ ͳ. we need to assume that െ͵ Ͳ ‫ݔ‬ଷ ‫ א‬Թ ሺ‫݈ܾ݁ܽ݅ݎܸܽ ݁݁ݎܨ‬ሻ. ܴܽ݊݃݁ሺܶሻ is the ቎ Ͳ ʹ ͳ ቏ ൥‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൩ ൌ ቎ Ͳ ቏ column space of ‫ܯ‬.2.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved ‫ݔ‬ଵ ͳ Ͳ ͲͲ ͳ Ͳ Ͳ Ͳ ሻ൯ ‫ݔ‬ Part b: Since ൫ሺ‫ݔ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ݔ‬ଶ ǡ ‫ݔ‬ଷ ൌ ‫ ܯ‬൥ ଶ ൩ .

3 Given ܶǣ Թ௡ ՜ Թ௠ where Թ௡ is a domain and Թ௠ is a co-domain.3. as follows: ͳ representation. if we Result C. ܴܽ݊݃݁ሺܶሻ ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼሺെͷǡͲǡ െͳǡͲሻǡ ሺͲǡʹǡͲǡͲሻሽ. We also know that ଶ ܴܽ݊݃݁ሺܶሻ ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼ‫ܯ ݂݋ݏ݊݉ݑ݈݋ܥ ݐ݊݁݀݊݁݌݁݀݊ܫ‬ሽ. In Result C. ݀݅݉൫ܴܽ݊݃݁ሺܶሻ൯ ൌ ܴܽ݊݇ሺ‫ܯ‬ሻ = ‫ ݏ݅ݏܽܤ‬ൌ ሼെ ൅ ‫ݔ‬ሽ ʹ Number of Independent Columns. a.ebook3000.4 Given ܶǣ Թ௡ ՜ Թ௠ where Թ௡ is a domain linearly transform from a third degree polynomial to a and Թ௠ is a co-domain. Then. ଵ Thus. ଵ Example C. and െͳ Ͳ ͲͲ Ͳ Ͳ ͲͲ ݂ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܽ଴ ൅ ܽଵ ‫ܲ א ݔ‬ଶ . ‫ݔ‬ൌͲ ܽଵ ܽ଴ ൅ െ Ͳ ൌ Ͳ Result C. ‫ܶ ݎ݁ܭ‬ሻ ൌ ܵ‫݊ܽ݌‬ሼെ ଶ ൅ ‫ݔ‬ሽ.2 Given ܶǣ Թ௡ ՜ Թ௠ where Թ௡ is a domain addition. Then.3. Then.3. Kaabar 155 www.3. representation.3. ଵ ௔ ‫ݔ‬ൌͳ Thus. we can also find basis by letting ܽଵ be any and Թ௠ is a co-domain. then the range will be ܲଶ . For example. 154 M. Let ‫ ܯ‬be a standard matrix ܽ଴ ൌ െ ଶభ ௔భ representation. ݀݅݉൫‫ݎ݁ܭ‬ሺܶሻ൯ ൌ ܰ‫ݕݐ݈݈݅ݑ‬ሺ‫ܯ‬ሻ. say ܽଵ ൌ ͳ. ሺ Result C. Let ‫ ܯ‬be a standard matrix second degree polynomial. ݀݅݉ሺ‫ݎ݁ܭ‬ሺܶሻ ൌ ͳ because there is one free variable.com . we set equation of ܶ ൌ Ͳ. b. Hence. Find ܴܽ݊݃݁ሺܶሻ. Find ‫ݎ݁ܭ‬ሺܶሻ. ܶሺ݂ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻሻ ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ሺܽ଴ ൅ ܽଵ ‫ ݔ‬ሻ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ ܽ଴ ‫ ݔ‬൅ ଶభ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ቚ ൌͲ Thus. because we linearly transform from a second degree polynomial to a real number. ݀݅݉൫ܴܽ݊݃݁ሺܶሻ൯ ൅ ݀݅݉ሺ‫ݎ݁ܭ‬ሺܶሻሻ ൌ ݀݅݉ሺ‫݊݅ܽ݉݋ܦ‬ሻ.2 Given ܶǣ ܲଶ ՜ Թ.1 Given ܶǣ Թ௡ ՜ Թ௠ where Թ௡ is a domain ʹ ௔ and Թ௠ is a co-domain. Let ‫ ܯ‬be a standard matrix real number not equal to zero.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Solution: ଵ ‫ݔ‬ൌͳ െͷ Ͳ ͲͲ Part a: ܶሺʹ‫ ݔ‬െ ͳሻ ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ሺʹ‫ ݔ‬െ ͳሻ݀‫ ݔ‬ൌ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ െ ‫ ݔ‬ቚ ൌ ͲǤ ‫ݔ‬ൌͲ ቌͲ ʹ ͳቮͲቍ Orignial Matrix Part b: To find ‫ݎ݁ܭ‬ሺܶሻ. ܶሺ݂ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻሻ ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ݂ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ݀‫ ݔ‬is a linear transformation. ܴܽ݊݃݁ሺܶሻ ൌ Թ representation. Then. ‫ݎ݁ܭ‬ሺܶሻ ൌ ሼെ ൅ ܽଵ ‫ݔ‬ȁܽଵ ‫ א‬Թሽ. Let ‫ ܯ‬be a standard matrix Part c: It is very easy to find range here. Find ܶሺʹ‫ ݔ‬െ ͳሻ. c.

Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises This page intentionally left blank 1.3 Exercises 1. ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ାଷሻర ቅ ൌ ଶ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ݁ ିଷ௫ ൅ ͸‫ ݔ‬ଷ ݁ ିଷ௫ ଶ 5. ࣦ ିଵ ቄ మ ቅ ௦ ାସ ൌ ܷሺ‫ ݔ‬െ Ͷሻ…‘•ሺʹ‫ ݔ‬െ ͺሻ ଷ ଵ ͳ 15. ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ࣦെͳ ቄ‫ ʹݏ‬ሺ‫ ʹݏ‬൅ͳሻቅ ଶ௦ ସ௦ 19. ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ െͶ݁െ͵‫ݔ‬ ସ ଵ ଵ 9. we obtain: ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܹሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ െ ͵ܷሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ͷሻܹ ሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ͷሻ െ ʹܷሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ͷሻܹሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ͷሻ ௘ షయೣ 17. ‫ ݓ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ͳ ൅ ‫ ʹݐ‬and ݄ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ʹ‫ݐ‬ 2. ࣦ൛ܷሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ʹሻ݁͵‫ ݔ‬ൟ ൌ ‫ݏ‬െ͵ ௦݁െͶ‫ݔ‬ 13. Then. ࣦ ିଵ ቄ௦మି଺௦ାଵଷቅ ൌ ݁ ଷ௫ •‹ሺʹ‫ݔ‬ሻ 7. ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ିଵሻమሺ௦ାଷሻቅ ൌ ସ ݁ ௫ ൅ ‫ ݁ݔ‬௫ ൅ ସ ݁ ିଷ௫ ௘ లషమೞ 11. ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦మାସሻమቅ ൌ ሺ௦మ ାସሻమ 21. ‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢௚௘௡௢௨௦ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܿଵ ݁ ି௫ ൅ ܿଶ ‫ି ݁ݔ‬௫ for some ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ‫ א‬Ը 3. Assume ܹሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ െ ଼ ൅ ଷ ݁‫ ݔ‬൅ ʹͶ ݁െͺ‫ ݔ‬.7 Exercises ଵ଴ ଵ଴ ସ௫ ଷ 1. Kaabar 157 . ‫ݕ‬௚௘௡௘௥௔௟ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ሺܿଵ ൅ ܿଶ ‫ ݔ‬൅ ܿଷ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ൅ ܿସ ݁ ௫ ሻ ൅ ሺܽ଴ ൅ ܽଵ ‫ ݔ‬൅ ܽଶ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ ሻ‫ ݔ‬ଷ for some ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ܿଷ ǡ ܿସ ǡ ܽ଴ ǡ ܽଵ ǡ ܽଶ ‫ א‬Ը 156 M. ࣦ ିଵ ቄሺ௦ିସሻర ቅ ൌ ଺ ݁ ‫ݔ‬ ௦ାହ ଵ 3.

6 Exercises Determinants. ‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢௚௘௡௢௨௦ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܿଵ ൅ ܿଶ ‫ •‘… ݔ‬ቀ ଶ Žሺ‫ݔ‬ሻቁ ൅ మ య ξଷ ܿଷ ‫ ݔ‬మ •‹ ቀ ଶ Žሺ‫ݔ‬ሻቁfor some ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ܿଷ ‫ א‬Ը C 5. 9 3.ebook3000.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved 5. 78 3. It is impossible to describe ‫ݕ‬௣௔௥௧௜௖௨௟௔௥ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ A 3. 74 because the degrees of ‫ ݕ‬ᇱ and ‫ ݕ‬ᇱᇱ are not equal to each Constant Coefficients. ‫ି݊ܽݐ‬ଵ ሺ‫ݕ‬ሻ െ ‫ି݊ܽݐ‬ଵ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ܿ for some ܿ ‫ א‬Ը Dimension of Vector Spaces. ‫ݕ‬௚௘௡௘௥௔௟ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ሺܿଵ ൅ ܿଶ ‫ ݔ‬൅ ܿଷ ݁ ௫ ሻ ൅ ͲǤͲͷ •‹ሺʹ‫ݔ‬ሻ ൅ Index ͲǤͳ…‘•ሺʹ‫ݔ‬ሻ for some ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ǡ ܿଷ ‫ א‬Ը 7.3 Exercises Applications of Differential Equations.com . 123 య ξଷ Bernoulli Method. D 4. 109 య 1. Žȁ•‹ሺͷ‫ ݔ‬൅ ‫ݕ‬ሻȁ െ ʹሺͷ‫ ݔ‬൅ ‫ݕ‬ሻ െ ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ܿ for some ܿ ‫ א‬Ը Exact Method. 96 భ 1. Kaabar 159 www. 119 ଵ 5. It is impossible to use Cauchy-Euler Method Cauchy-Euler Method. 46 differential equation. ‫ݕ‬௛௢௠௢௚௘௡௢௨௦ ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ିమ௫ ቂܿଵ …‘• ቀ ξଵହ ଶ ‫ݔ‬ቁ ൅ ܿଶ •‹ ቀ ξଵହ ଶ ‫ݔ‬ቁቃfor B some ܿଵ ǡ ܿଶ ‫ א‬Ը Basis. െ ହ ݁ ିହ௬ െ ͵‫ ݁ݔ‬௫ ൅ ͵݁ ௫ ൌ ܿ for some ܿ ‫ א‬Ը E 7. ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ ݔ‬ሻ ൌ ඥሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻଷ ൅ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻܿ݁ ିଷ௫ Differential Equations. 87 G Growth and Decay Applications. 100 158 M. 51 other when you substitute them in the given Cramer’s Rule.

150 Undetermined Coefficients Method. Kaabar 161 . 33 R Reduced to Separable Method. 142 Water Tank Application. 9 Variation Method. 123 I T Initial Value Problems (IVP). 60 L V Laplace Transforms. 67 Linear Equations. 27 Inverse Laplace Transforms. 45 Linear Independence. 85 Subspace. 24 Temperature Application. 104 N Null Space and Rank. 120 W Linear Transformations. 96 K U Kernel and Range. 51 Separable Method. 92 160 M. 135 P Properties of Laplace Transforms. 90 Reduction of Order Method.Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved H S Homogenous Linear Differential Equations (HLDE).

Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Copyright © 2015 Mohammed K A Kaabar All Rights Reserved Bibliography [1] Kaabar. http://about. Charleston. Kaabar 163 www.K. Accessed 01 Jan 2015 162 M. M.com .ebook3000. CreateSpace.edu/about/facts.wsu.aspx (2015).: A First Course in Linear Algebra: Study Guide for the Undergraduate Linear Algebra Course. SC (2014) This page intentionally left blank [2] Quick Facts.

Proof Digital Proofer Printed By Createspace View publication stats .