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Design of R.C.C.

Bridge Piers of Ladpura Bridge on RMC
Design parameters :
Canal discharge Q = 188.45 cumecs
Clear span between piers = 8.00 m
Thickness of road way deck slab = 0.8 m
F.S.L. of canal U/S of Bridge = 256.42
F.S.L. of canal D/S of Bridge = 256.42 m
Canal bed Level D/S of Bridge = 253.22 m
Lacey's Silt factor (f) = 1.00
Bearing Capacity of Soil = 25 t/m2
Width of roadway slab of bridge = 3.5 m
Width of Kerb on roadway bridge = 0 m
Thickness of Kerb = 0 m
Weight of Railing per m run of bridge = 0.7 ton/m
Eccen of C/L road deck slab from pier center= 0 m
Height of Pier upto Bed block top LVL from CBL = 4.1 m
Thickness of Bed block = 0.6 m
Area of bridge Hoisting platform = 0 m2
Width of pier 1.5 m
Length of pier at bed block bottom level = 5 m
Length of pier at CBL = 5.3 m
LVL of wearing top of road way deck slab = 258.22 m
LVL of deck slab bearing 257.32 m
LVL of top of foundation block of Pier 253.22 m
No of bays of bridge 3 Nos
Length of Pier at FSL D/S of bridge 5.03 m
Length of Pier at CBL D/S of bridge 5.3 m
Length of foundation block at foundation LVL 7.5 m
Width of foundation block at foundation LVL 4 m
Height of foundation block at Pier-footing junct 1.5 m
Height of foundation block at edge of footing 1 m
(i) Foundation Level of Piers
Normal depth of scour (R) =0.47(Q/f)1/3 2.69 m
Anticipated depth of scour around piers = 1.5 ( R ) =
4.04 m

Level of foundation of Piers should not be less than 1 m below anticipated depth of scour
Level of foundation = 251.38 m
say 251.70 m
Evaluation of forces acting on the Pier
(a) Dead weight of super structure
(i) Weight of slab with wearing coat = 66.50 tonnes
(iii) Weight of Railings = 13.30 tonnes
Total 79.80 tonnes
(b) Live Loads
Maximum live load reaction on pier is obtained when fourth axle load 11.4 t at center of pier

01 tonnes R.100 m Increase in reaction due to braking force = 1.50 m Total wind force on live load = 2.45 tonnes Friction in sliding bearing ( with coeff.L.L.24 tonnes Impact Factor = 0.32 m Wind force on live load Intensity of wind force = 300.29 Live load with impact = 18. so two cases for calculation of wind forces have been considered (i) When level of water in the canal is at F.42 m Height of appication force above bearing level = 2. Average height of elevation area = 1.42 m (ii) When depth of water is zero Average height of area of elevation above bed level = 5.32 m (e) Wind force Since intensity of wind pressure depends upon the height of the point above mean retarding surface.29 So Maximum live load reaction with impact = 37.S.85 tonnes R.L.36 tonnes Reduced level of application of braking force = 259.S.55 m eccentricity of L.11 m (c) Braking Force It is equal to 20% of total live load present on the bridge = 8.85 tonnes Total : 100. of point of application = 257.51 tonnes Dead Load reaction = 79.3 kg/m 2 Exposed Elevation area = 17.L.82 tonnes Eccentricity of live load eccentricity of L.L from center of pier about X-X axis = 0.00 m .03) = 3.00 kg/m Length of live load = length of one span = 9.10 m2 Total Wind force on structure = 0.85 tonnes (d) Temperature force due to sliding friction Reaction on sliding end when loads are placed so as to produc maximum reaction at sliding end Live load Reaction at sliding end = 14.79 tonnes R. of point of application = 259.L. of sliding friction as 0.80 m Intensity of wind pressure = 46. of point of application = 257.55 tonnes Total Live Load reactio on the Pier from live loads = 29. (ii) When depth of water is zero (i) When level of water in the canal is at F.L.70 tonnes (ii) Reaction from left span = 12.80 tonnes Increase due to braking force = 1. from center of pier about Y-Y axis = 0.(i) Reaction from right span = 16.32 tonnes Impact factor = 0.

04 tonnes R.27 kg/m2 Area on which pressure acts = 16. of point of application = 255.12 tonnes Force due to buoyancy allowing 15% upward force = 3.45 tonnes Height of center of pressure from bed level = 1.0 kg/sqm Exposed Elevation area = 47.95 m (h) Force on pier due to current of water perpendicular to length of pier Maximum variation in direction of current = 20 0 Maximum Velocity at top = V sin 20 = 0.L.10 tonnes (iii) Force due to buoyancy Plan area at F.70 Value of V2 at bed level = 0.6 m Weight of bed block = 15. = 6.72 m Wind force on live load Total wind force on live load = 2.5 R = 4.93 tonnes (ii) Dead Load of pier Dead load of pier = 23. of point of application = 259.56 kg/m 2 Pressure at bed level = 32.61 kg/m2 Area on which pressure acts = 4.S.02 Maximum value of depth of scour = 1.04 m Assuming variation of V2 to be linear than its value at bed level = 1.17 tonnes (g) Force on pier due to current of water Maximum Velocity of flow (V) = Q/PR = 2.62 Sqm Thickness = 0.48 Sqm .30 kg/m2 Pressure at bed level = 1.L.5 sqm Total wind force on structure = 4.02 Assuming K = 80 for rectangular shape Pressure at water level = 56.84 V2= 0.45 m/s V= 2 6.60 Sqm Weight of Water displaced = 21.25 Pressure due to water current = K V2 where K = 26 for pointed Nose 45 degree angled Pressure at water level = 156.85 tonnes R.80 Sqm Total force due to water current = 0.L.Intensity of wind pressure = 85.42 m (f) Dead Loads of Sub Structure (i) Dead Load of bed block Plan area = 10.

16 m4 Case 1 : When Live load on the bridge and canal is running at F.00 t.m Due to wind force on live load = 17.83 Sqm Ixx= 1.22 m Area (A) = 6.m Due to water current in perpendicular direction = 1.80 tonnes Center of pressure below water surface y p =( I0/A`h ) +`h I0= h3(a2+4ab+b2)/36 a b= 5.61 m Area under influence for water pressure = 14.00 t.60 t.m say 96.33 tonnes Moment about x-x axis Due to braking force = 51.36 t.67 t.11 m (i) Force on pier due to pressure of water perpendicular to length of pier when water flows in alternate bays Lateral Forces on pier when one gate is opened for flow and adjacent one are closed F = g `h A `h = 1.85 tonnes (ii) Live load with impact factor = 37. (i) Vertical dead loads (a) Dead Load of super structure = 79.566 m Check for stresses in the pier at Bed Level with R.m say 43.10 tonnes (d) Increase in reaction due to braking = 1. Dir = 0.m Due to water pressure when alternate gates open = 30.max= 90.m Total Moment (Mx) = 95.m Moment about y-y axis Due to eccentricity of Live Load = 20.80 t. = 253.17 m4 Iyy= 12.46 m3 yp = 1.47 tonnes Height of center of pressure from bed level = 2.S.85 m Level of center of pressure above base = 254.m Total Moment (My) = 42.m Due to sliding friction = 12.26 t/m2 < 250 t/m2 .80 tonnes (b) Dead load of bed block = 15.m Due to water current force in long.m Due to wind force on super structure = 3.L.82 tonnes (iii) Buoyancy force acting upwards = -3.00 t.89 t.13 sqm Total pressure force F = g `h A = 22.17 tonnes So Net vertical downward force (P) = 155.83 t.89 t.70 t.Total force due to water current = 0.m P Mx My Now stress =  ( xm )  ( ym ) A I xx I yy Maximum compressive stress σ com.93 tonnes (c) Dead Load due to self weight of Pier = 23.L.25 t.

44 -0.m Total Moment (Mx) = 64.34 tonnes .00 m4 Iyy= 140.82 tonnes (f) Buoyancy force acting upwards = -3.max= 73.m Due to sliding friction = 12.50 tonnes Moment about x-x axis Due to braking force = 51. Check for stresses in the pier at foundation Level with R.L.min= -45. (i) Vertical dead loads (a) Dead Load of super structure = 79.67 t.L.00 t.m say 65.82 tonnes So Net vertical downward force (P) = 158.274 N/mm2 t/m2 = However steel provided in pier will take care of tension.02 tonnes So Net vertical downward force (P) = 253.70 m Area (A) = 30.453 N/mm2 However steel provided in pier will take care of tension.85 tonnes (e) Live load with impact factor = 37.25 t.Minimum compressive stress σ com.89 t/m2 < 250 t/m2 N/mm2 Minimum compressive stress σ com.19 t.72 t.min= (Tensile) -27.80 t.10 tonnes (d) Increase in reaction due to braking = 1.85 tonnes (ii) Live load with impact factor = 37.10 tonnes (d) Increase in reaction due to braking = 1.80 tonnes (b) Dead load of bed block = 15.m Due to wind force on super structure = 3.27 t/m2 = -0.m Total Moment (My) = 41.m Due to wind force on live load = 17. = 251.m Moment about y-y axis Due to eccentricity of Live Load = 20.83 t.63 m4 Case 1 : When Live load on the bridge and canal is running at F.00 t.m P Mx My Now stress =  ( xm )  ( ym ) A I xx I yy Maximum compressive stress σ com.36 t.S.93 tonnes (c) Dead Load due to self weight of Pier = 23.93 tonnes (c) Dead Load due to self weight of Pier = 23. Case 2 : When Live load on the bridge and No water in canal (i) Vertical dead loads (a) Dead Load of super structure = 79.80 tonnes (b) Dead load of bed block = 15.m say 42.17 tonnes (g) Dead load of foundation block = 98.00 Sqm Ixx= 40.

Case 2 : When Live load on the bridge and No water in canal (i) Vertical dead loads (a) Dead Load of super structure = 79.m Due to wind force on super structure = 4.m Moment about y-y axis Due to eccentricity of Live Load = 20.m say 149.94 t.m Due to wind force on live load = 22.00 tonnes Moment about x-x axis Due to braking force = 64.m Total Moment (My) = 48.00 t.85 tonnes (e) Live load with impact factor = 37.K.m Due to wind force on live load = 22.55 t.m Total Moment (Mx) = 81.00 t.31 t/m2 = -0.m Due to water current in perpendicular direction = 1.00 t.00 t.m Due to sliding friction = 16.48 t.003 N/mm2 O.m P Mx My Now stress =  ( xm )  ( ym ) A I xx I yy (Compressiv 17.80 tonnes (b) Dead load of bed block = 15.36 t.50 tonnes So Net vertical downward force (P) = 271.80 t.m Due to wind force on super structure = 4.m say 82.m P Mx My Now stress =  ( xm )  ( ym ) A I xx I yy .m Due to water pressure when alternate gates open = 65.00 t.m Total Moment (Mx) = 148.min= -0.m say 49.82 t.57 t.71 t.Moment about x-x axis Due to braking force = 64.00 t.m Total Moment (My) = 47.20 Maximum compressive stress σ com. Dir = 1.45 t.m Due to sliding friction = 16.54 t.10 tonnes (d) Increase in reaction due to braking = 1.m Moment about y-y axis Due to eccentricity of Live Load = 20.93 tonnes (c) Dead Load due to self weight of Pier = 23.25 t.94 t.m say 48.max= e) t/m2 < 25 t/m2 Minimum compressive stress σ com.80 t.45 t.m Due to water current force in long.82 tonnes (f) Dead Load of foundation block = 112.54 t.

max= 14.min= 3.Maximum compressive stress σ com.037 N/mm2 O.3% of gross sectional area as per IRC 21 Provide 20 mm dia main reinforcement at spacing of 190 mm with ties bar 12 mm dia 200 mm c/c .65 t/m2 = 0.41 t/m2 < 25 t/m2 Minimum compressive stress σ com. Area of steel 0.K.

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ernate bays .

10 m Total force under cantilever length = 700.95 m .0 N/mm2 Design constants : For M 30 concrete and Fe 415 steel reinforcement we have the following : Modular ratio m =280/3σcbc= 14.289 jbal=1-kbal/3 0.5 Vertical load on column = 2533.3 Maximum soil pressure at toe = 172.7 N/mm2 Steel of Grade Fe 415 with σst 230.45 kN/m2 Intensity of soil pressure below the column face = 146.51 m 1.5σcbckbaljbal= 0.00 Kbal=1/(1+(σst/mσcbc))= 0.328 kN/m2 Cantilever length for bending about critical face = 1.5 Concrete Grade M 20 with σcbc : 6.m 7.0 kN/m3 Coefficient of friction between soil and concrete : 0.01 kN/m2 Minimum soil pressure at heel = -3.75 m Eff.870 4 Ka= (1-sinF)/(1+sinF)= +X 0.0 degree Unit Weight of soil : 18.43 kN 5.00 kN.m -Y +Y Moment about y-y direction = 490.5 m Length of footing base in x-x dir 7.00 kN.5 Bending moment about critical face = 359.m Width of section at crtical face 1.353 kN D B Distance of centroid about critical face = 0.12 kN/m2 Pressure intensity under column axis = 84.333 C A Consider dimensions of footing to be checked : Length of column in x-x dir = 5.813 m Depth of footing base as required from bending consideration = 477.904 Rc=0. Length of critical plane for punching shear stress = 5.3 m Width of column in y-y dir = 1. Width of critical plane for punching shear stress = 1.64 mm -X Provide depth of footing base as 900 mm AS PER SCOURING DEPTH CRITERION AND IRC 21 DESIGN CRITERION Effective cover of reinforcement 60 mm Total depth of footing base at column face = 960 mm Provide total depth of footing base at end = 500 mm Check for Shear Force (a) Punching Shear force : For punching shear stress point of view the crritical section occurs at distance d/2 from coloumn face.Design of Reinforcement for foundation Block of Ladpura Bridge of RMC : Bearing capacity of Soil/Rock : 25 kN/m2 Angle of internal friction of soil mass F: 30.59 kN. Position of critical face = 450 mm from coloumn face Eff.5 m Width of footing base in y-y dir 4 m Moment about x-x direction = 1490.

.6363636364 mm Depth of Neutral Axis = kd' = 151.7344 m Punching shear stress at section for critical punching shear force= 140.0 mm c/c However provide 16 mm dia bars at spacing 200.Punching shear force (F) = 1586.0 mm c/c at bottom of footing Provide same spacing of bars in other direction also. Design for bending Tension : Area of steel required for bending (Ast) = 1922. Position of critical face for oneway shear = 900 mm from column face Cantilever length to right of critical plane = 0.28 N/mm2 Section is safe in direct shear O.16 Öfck = 715.74 kN Shear stress at crtical section = 0.367 m Shear force at critical section = 135.12 mm2 Area of steel wire 16 mm dia = 200. (a) One way Shear force : For one way shear stress point of view the critical section occurs at distance d from column face.K.K.15 mm Width of section at neutral axis level = 4.344 kN/m2 The section at critical plane will be trapezoidal with Top width of trapezoid = 3.56 kN Depth of section at punching shear line of influence = 0. Also provide 12 mm HYSD bars @ 200 mm c/c for temp/shrinkage on top face of foundation block.227 N/mm2 Permissible shear stress at section due to direct shear= 0.5454545455 m Effective depth of critical sectio 523.282 kN/m2 Permissible shear stress in punching shear = ks x 0.96 mm2 No of bars required for bending 10 Nos Provide 16 mm dia HYSD bars at spacing @ 400.2 m Intensity of pressure at critical plane = 167.54 kN/m2 The section is safe from punching shear point of view O.