G U H Y A C A R % ~ ~ ~ ~ N T ~ Q

The i and it^ X I V t n C e n t u ~
Commentary Dhvons-bpu
by
Gyurme Dor j e
Thesis presented for tne degree of Doctor of P h i l o s o y r , y k t t h e
S c h o o l o f Orier~tal and A f r i c a n S t u d i e s . Unlverslty of Lo n d o n .
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
Abstract
This work is a critical presentation of original sources relating
t3 the ?4ah&oga and Atiyoga traditions af the rNying-ma school of
Tibetan Buddhism. namely. the principal tantrea-text of that
school. Guhyanarbhatkt t v~v- . and klong-chen Rat-
'tyams-pa's commentapy. W, ak=bcu m.ukitie2. 11 comprises an
introduction. an eC?tion of the Tibetan root-text. an annotated
translation and bibliography.
i ! The introduction cocniders: the position of the three Inner
classes of tantra ( m g y y d &sLe-=) within the rNring-ma
tradition; the extant texts of the w u d - . s d e and =rub-c;&
divisions of Mahhyoga within the U~a'-'nuuz and the . ~ ~ - m a ' i
reyud-'bum and the transmission of the latter from its compila-
tion until recent times: the relationsk,ip Setween the eighteen
taiqtres of the w u d - s d e section and the = Y U - ' D ~ ~ U ~ cycle; the
contents of the cycle and the position of the long. medium avd
short versions of the C - within it; the strucrured
contents of this root-tantra; the controversy surrounding its
origins: the Indian histariial perspective and commentaries; the
Tibetan translatlons; the practical synthesis of mo-=nuu-sens=
~ ~ ~ b l l l ; the tka'-ma lineages with emphas:-s on the relevant
indigenous Tibetan commentaries; the gter-ma related literature;
ten philosophical topics elaborated in rhe - ; the two
exegetical interpretations; and the editions of the source
materiaLs which have been consulted.
11) The edition of the root-text is based. in the absence of
Sanskrit ms.. on extant Tibetan versions found in the t k a l - ' n u u
and the - ~ u d - ' b m . the Karma'i Chos-sear blockprint.
and the versions uttlised by klons-chen Rab--'byams-pa and Lo-chen
DharrnaSri in their commentaries.
111) The translation of the root-tantra is accompanied by the
full text of kLong-chen Rab-'byams-pa's interlinear sections
( - 1, each of which 1s preceded vy an overview ( ~YI -
PPn).
iv) The bibliography has two sections. the first comprising those
texts cited by kLohg-chen Rab-'byams-pa in PhYons-bcu rrUn - 8-1,
and the ss~orld those works referred to in the introduction and
annotations.
Contents
preface 5
~bbreviations 9
part I: Introduction 13
1 The rNying-ma School 8 the Three Inner Clasees of Tantra 10
2 Compilation of the ~ ' - * n u u r r ! n ~ ~ ~ and the FnvinP-
ma w u d - ' bum 27
3 The Texts of Mah-oga 32
h The Cycle 3 7
5 Structured Contents of the -ttvavln.i$cav~
r n a h 6 t an tra 5 9
6 Origin of the 6 1
7 The Indian Historical Tradition 7 2
8 Appearance R Translation of the Cycle in Tibot 80
9 The ma'-= lineage 83
10 The Zur Lineage in Central Ttbet 92
11 The Khams Tradition 9 9
12 The Resurgence of the ma'-m lineage in Central Tibet 102
13 Extensive Propagation of the 3 k s ' - mq lineace in Khams 1011
111 Treasure-Doctrines associated with the 109
15 Ten Philosophical Topics of the 114
16 MahHyoga and Atiyoga Interpretations of the auhvanarbha 123
17 The editions coneulted in this study 128
18 Annotatione . 129
part 11: Edition of Tibetan Root-text
1 Text
2 Notes
Part 111: Translation 8 Commentary
The Title
Chapter One: The IntroductoPy Scene
Chapter Two: Generation of Vltimate & Relative
Enlightened Mind a6 Pristine Cognition
Chapter Three: The Establishment of All Dharmas
Chapter Four: Cyclical Array of the Gariand of Syllables
Chapter Five: Ccntemplation that Attains the Magical Net
Chapter Six: Emanation of t h e Mandala
. .
Ci~apter Seven: Absorption of the Mandala ant the Secret
. .
Mantras
Chapter Eight: Consecration of All Limbs as the Mandala
. .
and the Sub~eguent EmanatLon of the Seals
Chapter Nine: Secret Commitment of the Indeetructible
Cht2ter Ten: Conferral of Empowerment
Chapter Eleven: Mandala of the Feast-Offerings
. .
Chrpter Twcl-. 2: Attaina.ent of the Feast-Of ferings
:haptar Thirte-.: Nucleus of Most Secret Esoteric
Charter Fourteen: The Eulow Which Pleases
Chapter Fifteen: Cloud-like Emanation of the Natural
Uandala of Wrathful Deities
. .
Chapter Sixteen: Emanation Of the Mrndala of Buddha-~poech
. .
of the Great A88rmblu of Wrathful Deitie8
Chapter Seventeen: Revelation of thr Uandala of Wrathful
. .
D e l t 18.
Chapter Eighteen: A Teaching on Genuine Offering m d
LiberrlitY 1174
Chapter Nineteen: Comarifmefita 11811
Chapter Twenty: Conmecrrtion of SpontanrouB Enlishtened
AC t ivi ty 1250
Chapter Twenty-one: Euloey to the Wrathful. Deiti.8 1274
Chapter Twenty-two: Thrt which is Pleasing md Retained 1283
The Perfect Conclueion
Annotation.
P I F ~ IV: Bibliography 1462
1 Text8 Cited in nhYanr-hcu mun-sal ltl63
2 Work8 Referrrd to in Introduction and Annotations la90
Pig. 1: The Palace of the mmdala.
. .
Fig. 2: The Forty-two Peaceful Deitiem ( W. Y. Evan8
Fig. 3: ?he ~ifty-eight Wrathful Deitir8 (u-.) 1095b
Cis. 8 : Plan of the mmdala. 1323b
. .
rig. 5: ?he % I . or marpent earth 8pirit. 13bbb
Fie. 61 The Drawing of the auhvlllraha mandala. 1368b
0v.r . a va r a l yaws. wh i l e wor ki ng on t h e t r r n r l a t i o n md e d i t i o n
of t h a 1st. bDud-' j oms Ri n- po- chr ' a 4xinsma Sskm~l pi ~~
Buddhira: Fundunan- I b a c u n e i n c r a r 8 i n q ; l y
aware of t h e c a n t r r l i - o r t a n c e of t h a a n d t h e
ertaem i n whi ch i t is hel d by t h e rNyi ng-ma-pa. I n ordar t o
open up and c o n s o l l d r t e o u r u n d a r a t md i n s o f t h r t a i g h t h c a n t u r y
t r a d l t i o n . c11rrly t h i s basic t ext woul d h r v a t o ba e a t r bl i s hr d
i n s c r i t i c a l a d i t i o n r l o n ~ s i d e its c o mme n i u l e s . md. as m o r e
~r i ma r y 8 o u r c a s are p u b l i s h e d i n I n d i a . i t woul d be an e 8 t e n t i r l
t a r k f o r Ti b e t o l o q ; $ 8 t s t o make some o f t h e m r ~ c e ~ ~ i b l a to wmr t ar n
r c h o l a r s h l p f o r t h e f i r n t t i m e . Th i a woul d r l a o g i v e some i mp a t u s
t o t h a c u r r e n t r a v i v r l of t h e rNyi ng-ma conr muni t i as i n Naval .
I ndi a . anb i n d a e d Ti b a t . wha r e t h e t r a d i t i o n itself has be e n made
aware of t h a v r l u a of we 8 t a r n s c h o l r r s h i p . largely t h r o u g h t h a
e f f o r t 8 of K. Gena S m i t h . It i 8 t h e r e f o r m w i t h t h e s e t wo r i ms
that I embr r kad on t h e p r e s a n ~ s t u d y . Each c h a p t e r of t h a r o o t -
t a n t r a 1. r ccoar pr ni ad by kl ong- c ha n Rr b- ' byr mo- pe' r i n t a r l i n e a r
cos mant r r y, a nd i n t h a c o u r s e o f mn o t r t i o n . h i s i n t r r p r e t r t i o n s
era j u x t r p o s a d wi t h t hosm of Lo-chan Dhr r at r hr l . Bat war n Oham.
t h r r a commant ot or s r e p r c s a n t t h a t wo ma j o r a x a s a t i c a l t r a d i t i o n 8
of t h a i n T i b a t . Of c o u r s a . t h i s s t u d y is by n o mar no
*ha d a f i n i t i v a s t r t a ma n t o n t h a p. Onl y whan a l l
e x t a n t c o mma n t r r i a s h r v a b a r n f u l l y t rmsl rt ad a nd corngarad
c oul d s u c h a c o n c l u s i v a t r ar t i s a a v e r 8a w r i t t s n . I n t h o
tip.. i t im hoead t h r t t ha i n t a i c a c i a s of kl ons - chmn- pa' s
.x+trsia will auraent our understondinr of the ralation8hip
ht-en Nahhyoga and Atiyoga. m d opmn up further avmnue8 for
fhe problmms involvmd in the intmrprmtation of trntra-tmxts like
the are Inuaense. and error6 mr m virtually unavoid-
able. Quite apart from the aB8rncm of tho orisinal SAnskrlt
muruscripta. tharm arm linguistic ob8curitie~ kn the Tibetsn
wh2ch even the survbvins oral traditian I8 unable to r08Olve.
Thia ha8 bean mxplicitly atatad by Dingo Khyentme Rinvoche.
who is revmred a8 *he greatmst living authorit3 on the rWying-ma
sehool. I would therefom a8k thooe responsible for maintaining
this tradition to underatand the underlying motivation m d not Lo
look too h u 8 h l y on my mrrorr or oaisaiona. Many of thmso
problem8 will be confrontmd in the cour#m of the mnotrtions. &nd
1 wi8h. at thin point. to acknowledse the aaaistance of all those
scholar8 who devoted time and energy to the tank.
Firstly. my thank8 are due to Phillip Denwood. Lecturer In
Tibetan at SOAS. who supervised the rrsrlrch in a methodicrl.
8~aPathetic and supportive manner and affmrmd much 8ounQ advice
on problems rrlatlna to langu-• m d thm architmcture of the
in pa~ticular. Bumble thank. are also durn to H.B. Dinso
Khrentae Rinpochm rho savm mush of hi8 pr*ciOuS timm to W tire-
s t w qummtion8 durins him moJourn in thm Dordosnm. in Junm. 1986.
Other8 mcholar8 who umimtrd at that ti- m r m Dzokchmn Khmnpo
Thuptmn. Nvoahul Khmn Rinpoche. Tulku Pmma Wanwal. m a Konchok
T*ntin. Khmnpo Thuptmn in ~artieulrr addrmamad h i u m l f to thm
linauimtic and trchnicrl pmblmmm with errat rnthumium. 1 u
a180 indebted to the library of SOAS. Universit~ of London. for
aceems to Library and microfiche facilitiae8. to L u a Chime of
the Brit1.h Librarv Oriental Umumcript8 Division. to Wichael
O'Keefe of the India Office Library. to Christian Bruvat at
the Tibetm library of the Associati05 de ChrnteEoube in the
Dordognr for u k i n g aource arterirl8 available. Additional thank6
are due to Or Tadeusz Skorupeki of SOAS. who kindly offered
advice on certain lndic aource materiala. m d to Matthew Kapstein
of the Univrrritu of Chicago who in vast years uorkcd with me to
construct the technical English vocabulrry uvloyed in this and
other 8tudies. Above all. I wish to express w gratitude t3 the
British Acadew for their generous studectohiv awarded from 1983-
iP86. to 30G for the Xiilicrnt Hrrrington A w r r d coverine the
s e e period. m d to Or John Broekineton, Senior bcturer in
tm8krit at Edinburgh Unlvermity. and Dr Michael Aris oP Wolison
Collele. Oxford for supp~rtine ry initial aoplicatlan to the
Acadew. Finally. thanks are due to Mike F-er who provided
Word-vrocessint frcilitie~. without w b l c h the project woul d never
have Sean conolefed in t h e e yesre.
Abbrevirt ions
A. Author
BBudh.Bibllotheca Buddhica. St. Petersburg/ Leningrad. 1897-1936,
BIT. Bibliotheca Indo-Tibetica. Published by the Central Instit-
ute ~f Highor Tibetan Studies. Sarnath, U. P.
BST. Buddt~ist Sanskrit Texts. Published 3y the Mithila Institute
of Post -Graduate Studies and Resehrcf~ in Sanskrit Learaing.
Darbhanga. Bihar.
CLTC. [m-u ~ ~ r - ~ l The ~LUs $, ed covered
Qf r - - w - m . Ne w Delhi:
Patshang lame Sonam Gyaltsen. 1975. 30 volumes. 1-Tib 7 5 -
9032118.
D. Discoverer ( I n the cese of treasures. pter--1.
DZ. ndams-nnan (w gf J?reciw -uctiou). Deihi:
N. Lungtok arld N. Gyaltsan. 1971. 12 vols.
EIPRB. Karl Potter. pf -0s. v01. 1.
Bibliography (Revised Edition). Princeton: Princeton
Ufilverslty Press. 1983.
GCI?. RrSin ma'i rgyud bcu bdun. 3 vols. New Delhi: Sanje Dorje.
1973-1977. I-Tib 73-9061138.
GOS. Gaekwad'~ Oriental Serie~. Published by tP,e Orient01
Institute. Baroda.
BBI. tt ienne Lamot te. luUZUXe dl Indien.
Bibliothktque du -. vol . 113. L o u v r i ~ : Publicat ions
Univereitaires. 1958.
HIL. mpL IpQLgp Edited by Jan Gonda.
9
Weisbaden: Otto Harrasowitz.
JLSB. [m nlinn-Da'i w- 'u. ] The collected works of
Kun-mkhyen 'Jigs-mrd glin-ye. 9 vols. NNS. 29-37 (197C
onwards). I (Sik)- Tib 7d-917093.
JTPD. ' J u - t - ppd-dr-. D. 'Jag-t~hon snying-yo. 7 vols.
D&i?Jeeling: Taklung Tsetrul Pema Wangyal. 1979-1982. I-
Tib 79-905783.
KCZD. -,-an U o d - w . Sde-lee edition. 6 volE. Gangtok:
Sherab Gyeltsen and Khyentse Labrang. 1983. I-Tib 83-
905058.
LCSB. [ J Q s ~ ~ n- *hum. 1 Collected works of Smin-glin Lo-then
DharmaSrf. 19 vols. DehFa Dun: D.G. Khocchen Trulku. 1975.
I-Tib 75-904278.
Litho. Lithographic edition.
LTWA. Library cf Tibetan Works and Archives. Dharam~ala. H. P.
MC6 . Melanges "hinois et Bouddiques. Institut Belpe des Hautes
f tudes Chinoises. Brus~els.
MTTWL. peter Pfandt, TextE Translated M- m
-. Cologne: In Kommissicn tei E.J. Brill. 1983.
Rvt. -attj,
hA. Not available. 1. e. no longer extant.
NL. Mot located.
HGB. - * ypyud - 1 bu (Collected Tantras qf
lac
- -
u). Thimvu: J a my a n ~ Xhy=ntss R i i i ~ c e : , t , 1973. 36
vols. Catalogue by E. Kaneko. T o W o . 1982
NMKMG. rnuinn-ma'i bka'-ma w a s - ~ a Edited by H.H. Dudjom
Rinpoche. 8 0 vols. Kalimpong. W.B.: Dubdung Lama. 1982.
I-Tib 82- 900981.
NNS. Ngargyur Nyingmay Sunerab. Published by Sonam T. Kazi.
Gangtok. Sikkim.
NSTB. Dud jom Rinpoche. X h e t i Y h S J m - P f T l b e t a n
Buddhism: Fundamentals & l&~Lozy. translated 8 edited
by G. Dorje 8 M. Kapstein. London. 1987
NYZ. -thin .- Y - - - (your- art Innel.most -). New
Delhi: Trulku Tsewang. Jamyang and L. Tashi. 1970. 11 vols.
P. Tjhetan U t - , Peking Ebition. Tokyo-Kyoto; Suzuki
Research Foundation. 1955- 61. 168 vols.
-. -
PRS. Lewis Lancaster. ed.. Er- &kl &ti d
Berkeley Buddhist Studies Series. vol. 1 , Berkeley: Asian
Humanities Press. 1977.
Pub. Pho-co-mechanical pub1 icat ion.
RTD. m - c h e a g t e r - s (Store Qf p r e c i o ~ -). Par>o:
Egodruy and Sherkp Drimay. 1 9 7 6 . 111 vols. Index compiled
by Sik K. Yeshe Zangmo in 19bfb.
SBE. F. Max Mffller. ed.. SacredBnWal U East. Osfopd
University Press. Reprinted. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
Skt. Sanskrit
SCR. Serie Orientale Roma. Published by the Institute Italiano
per 11 Medio ed Estremo Oriente (Is. M.E.O. 1.
SP. satamit- w. Saraavati Vihar. New Delhi.
EES. Si"sfirt8is sheerig spendzod. Publiehe$ by S - W . Taetrigane~a.
Leh. Ladakh.
STC. Barbara Nimri Aziz and Matthew Kapstein. eds. .
Tibetln -lion. New Delhi: Manohar. 1985.
A - C a t a l D n u e Q Z f l L e T i b e t a n B u d d h i n t T. Canon. (T6hoku
University Catalogue of the Derge Edition of the Canon)
edited by Hakuju Ui et al. Sendai. 193b.
Taisho. ?- - 2 6 W. Ed. J. Takakusu. K. Watanate. et
al. Tokyo: Taish6 Issaikyo Kanko Kai. 1920- 1932.
~ i b . Tibetan
TSHR. Michael Arls and Aung San Suu Ky i . eds., Tibatan =yd-
liugh RicharnsDn. Warmicster: Aris and Ptiillips.
1980.
TSWS. Tibetan Sanskrit Works Series. Kashl Psasad 3ayaswal
Research Institute. Patna. Bihar.
X~lo. Xylographic edition.
Part One
Introduc+ion
1. The rNyin9-ma School and the Three Inner Classes of Tantrn:
The mandala of the hundred peaceful and wrathful deities flrst
. .
ettrected attention o ~ ~ t s l d e TJbet through popular translatlon~ of
the u s - QQ w - n r o l , a seetlon of Karma gLlng-pa'e a 1 - k h r - 0
1
0 . 1,lttJe is known, however, of the t h ~ + r e or,
which this mandele and itr gter-ma cycles are bosed. The m ~ a -
. .
~ a t + v a v i n I # c ~ v ~ is B p.rinclpa1 text of the
JU!, the oldest tradition 3f Tibeten Fuddhiom whlc3 has matn-
tained the teaching-cyclee and texts jntroduced to Tlhet d,lrlng
the royal dynaatjc period through to the epoch of the Tndian
scholar Smrtijri&nakCr*l end prior to that of Lo-chen Pin-chnn
2
bZang-pa (958-1055). The rNying-ma-pa are thoee who have adhered
to this **eapller propagation" ( m - d e r ) and c ~ l t f v a ~ e * its
traditions over ~ucceedj ne renturjes through study, medl tetl on,
Compnsdtion, and the revelation of conceeled texts or tres?llrt?S
(Her-ma). A comprehensive account of the phllosoph?ct3J p~s!tlon
and hjstorfcal hackground of this school Is found In my edl ted
translation of bDud-' jomr Rin-po-che* s modern cornpi I at1 OF, 3l&
U S c h o a l T i b e t s n B u d d h i e m : aul
3
-. In contrast, the adherents of the later Buddh+tt
lineages which spread forth In Tlbet during the "et~bseqlren+
pro~agayionw ( p h v i - 4 ~ ) - - the bKe*-pdams-pa, Ss-ekya-pa and b!Ce*-
brzyud-pa-- ars commonly known as pSar-me-pa, "fol!owere of the
&
6choolsw. Whjlc the desjgnetione wrNyine-man and HgSar-ma"
were retrospectively applied. by the eleventh century the two
periods of Buddhist expansion in Tibet had become sufficiently
distinguishable to Prompt Rong-zom Pandita'e following oteer-
. *
vatlon in the dkon-mchon m. which attributes six superior-
5
ities to the ancient translaticns:
First. concerning the greatness of the benefectors who
i~~troduced them: Since the benefactors of the ancient
translation period were the thrse ancestral rulers. w h ~ were
the sublime Lords of the Three Families In kingly guise.
they were cnlike the benefactors of the later translation
6
period.
Second. concerning the locatione in which they were
translated and established: Since the ancient translations
were accomplished in such emanated temples as bSam-yas and
the .other doctrinal centres of the past, high and low. they
are unlike those translated in the monastic zrottoes of
7
today .
Third, concerning the distinctions of the translators:
Those doctrines were translated by emanational translators.
the translators of the past such a8 Vairocana. sKa-ta dPal-
brtsegs. 1Cog-ro klu'i rgyal-mtshan. Zhang Ye-shes sDe, rMa
Rin-chen mChog. and gNyags JEKnakum6ra. Thus, they 5-?e
unlike the translations made by the translators of today.
who Pa8E the summer in Mang-yul and travel to India and
A
Nepal for a short time du?inu the winter.
Fourth. concerninz the distinctions of the scholars (who
supervised the ancient tranalat?one): Those doctrinee were
introduced by buddhas and sublime bodhiaattvas abiding on
the great levels. (namely) the scholars of the past such as
the preceptcr Shntaraks ita. Buddhsguhya. the great master
Padmbkara and the great pandita Vimalamitra. Thus, they
. .
were unlike the scholars of today who wander a b o ~ t in search
9
of gold.
Fifth, concerning the distinctions of the blossome (offered)
as the basis for commissioning (the translations): In the
past the doctrines were requested with offerings of gold
weighed out in dee~skin pouches, or by the measure. Thus,
they were unlike the requeets made (by disciples of) the
present day with one or two gcld bits drawn from under their
10
own arms.
Sixth, concerning the distinctione of the doctrine itself:
The translations of the past were completed at a time when
the doctrine of the Buddha reached its zenith in India.
Furthermore, there were tantras which did not even exist in
India pr?per, which were retained by bodhisa+tvas.
accomplished masters, awareness-holders and dbkinls who had
obtained their empowerments. They were taken from pure
lands, and from regions of Jambudvlpa such a6 Singhala and
Oddiyana in th'e weet. through the arrayed miraculous powers
. .
of the the srcat master Padmasambhava, Vimalamitra and
othere. and then tranelated (in Tibet). Thua. many
(doctrines) which were completely unknown to the scholars
and accomplished masters Of India arrived to become the
11
meritorious fortune of Tibet.
Furthermore, concerning the translations themselves: Since
the translators of the past were emanat:ion~. they
establisaed the meanings correctly. For this reason their
works are easy to unCerstand and, on plumbing their depth&.
the blessing is great. But the translator-s of the later
period were unable to render rhe meaning and made lexical
translations fo1;owing (merely) the arrangement of ;:A€
Sanskrit texts. Consequently. their forced terminology is
hard to understand, and on plumbing the depths the blessing
12
is slight. Therefcre, they are dissimilar.
To understand Rong-zom-pa's final point, one might well make a
comparison between the simple versification of the Guhvevarbha
and that of the - . which is considered by many to
13
ePitomise the most complex of the later translations. Further
linguistic distinctions between these two translation method-
ologies will be considered bslow in the context of the debate
surrounding the origins of our tantra-text.
Despite Rong-zom-pa's entrenched position which was designed
Purposefully to counter the prejudice expressed against the
ancient tantrae by. certain advocates of the new translation
system, the rNying-ma tradition for the most part remained aloof
from the subsequent sectarian rivalries of Tibetan political
life-- whether in the conflict between Sa-shya and 'Bri-guns or
in the clvjl wor hetween the Karma-pa-backed gl'~ang..pa
1 11
6dmlnJ ~ t r a + l @ n nnd the dGe-lug*-pa hj erarchy. Their phi I ooophy
and sp~rItlral!ty have however cnn+Jnued t o exert influence on +he
later tr-dj + I - 1 1 9 untj 1 recent r imes . Tmpnrtant fipures ~ ~ t c h as
d P s l ! 1?8&-1365). Dslsj Lame V ! 1617-16R??. 'Jam-dbyanps rnKhyen-
bptse'l dBnng 20 (187n-18?2) and 'Jam-mgon K o n g - ~ p r u l (1813-3Rg?)
have contrlbvted j m m e n ~ e j y th +he developmen+ of the r N y l n g - ~ a
15
teachines dcspj+e their affiljation wlth other echeols. Ad 8
stuly of the y h o s - ' b v ~ genre rev- el^.. Tibet's great thinkers.
o c h o l a r ~ end rnedjtatorf from el1 traditions could freely tesch
16
each other wl+hou+ ecctarlaq inhibitions.
It it in the rNyjng-ma ny?+:em that t h e F u d d h l ~ t teachings &re
clsssified ln+a a hlnrarchjcal gradeiTjan o f nlne vehlcles o r nino
sequencee of t h e vehicle !Then-pa r i m - D Y a;. S. G. Kermay jn his
"Origin and Early Development o f t h e Tibetan Reliejour? Traditicns
of tPte Great Pe?rPectianw hae traced the development of t h j ~ njne-
f6ld class? PIc%+ion through a comparatjve study of t h e wrj t i n g ~
Of Pa4masambhsve. eKs-ha dPel-brteege. gNuhe-chen Sknpe-rgyms Ye-
1 7
shes, klonp-chen ~ab-'byams-pa end athers. T h e Rynthesie out-
lined In the Anuyogn text E D Y ~ - - - - ' d u e - ~ a and
elaborated by t h e eMtn-grol-gljng +radjtion refera t o the fjrst
three scquencee !Srlvakay&na. Pratyepabtrddhay~na and Bodhl ssttvn-
~ B n a ) un4cr the heeding "vehicles which control t h e Cb311Rr o f
suffering" (u- * hrune -an-~a'l m), t o the mlddle thr-e
!Kpiydtantra. Ubhayatantra end Yogdtantrb) a# " v c h ~ c l e s of t h e
Outer tantrae of ar~stcrc awarenessn (W * - t hU l'i=-na *i
~.V-I W - D k ) . and to the las: Three ( M a h w o g a , hriuyoga arrd
~ t i y o g a ) as "vehicles of overpowering means" ( d b -
18
kYi S . ~ P P - D&) . According to Lo-chen DharmaSrf. the enumeration
of nine is itself provisional because the structure mey be
simplified. 9.9. into the twofold classifi '-on of Hlnayana and
~ a h b i n a . or extended. e.g. by adding the mundane Manueyayhna or
~evayina. Indeed. in this overview of the Buddhist path there may
be as many vehicles as there a?e thouphte in the mind. while,
from the resultant or absolute standpoint. there is said to be no
19
-~ehicle at all. The following verses from the ~ g & i w a ~ u t r y
2 0
(T. 107) are ~ u o t e d in support of this position:
A s long as there are perceptions.
The culmination of the vehicles will never be reached.
When the mind becomes transformed
There is neither vehicle nor mover.
The integrated structure of the nlne vehicles is also referred tc
in baeic texts. such as the principle w m s - s d e tantra of the
Great Perfection ( m - ~ a m) system. the --Arc-
2 1
Kinn ( - wal- DO'^ w, T. 828):
Existentially there is only Gne.
But empirically there are nine vehicles.
The distinctions between the above mentioned nine sequences of
the vehicle are discuesed in the rany phtlosophical txbeatises of
the rNying-ma school which focus on Bpil-itu&l and philosopt~ical
systems ( - or ~ u b - mtha' ) . e. a. kLonp-chen Rab- ' bvams-pa.
nrub-mthr' mdrpd. Lo-chen Dhrrmabrl. n.nnn-bdan - * and
2 2
b~ud--jams Rin-po-che. -tan-os'i - . The motst funda-
mental djs+inction is made hetween the first thrze or e0tra-based
vehicles which advocate a causal approach to enlightenms~t
(--chub) or btrddhahood ( - ) and the last 9ir or
tantra-based vehicles whl ch maintajn the resultant view that
buddhahood i~ ~rimordlally or atemporelly (ye-naa) attained. and
realised as such by the removal of the ohscarations cnvertng
enlightened mind (-a m.>.
The term "tsn+rsW !-) refera to three contjnl-\a of meanine en9
four c l a ~ ~ e s of texts formjng the literary expression of that
meaning. The former are the ccnrinuun of the ground (m
w). of the path ( a - n v i m) nnd of the resul? ('br.-q-bu13
rnuud). which respectjvely indj.ca+e the ehiding nature of vealjty
(mno-l-), the means of reellsing it (w). and the
Culminating buddha-body (m) and pristine cognjtjon ( ye- =has?
resulting from thet realjsatjon. Tt is t h ? ~ structure of groun4.
Path and result around which the tantrs-texts. both rNying-ma and
PSar-me are developed, 8 s we will see below with reference to the
2 3
m. The four clasaes are the
texts of KriyBtantra, Ubhaybtantre (or CaryBtantra). Yogatantra
and Anutttrayopatantra. which are djfferentiated and ~ ~ R c u S R ~ ~ et
2 11
length in the ebove treatises. The last of them, accord in^ to
the rNying-me school, comprises the texts of Mahayopa. Anuyoga
and Atiyaga. the "vehiclee of averpowerine means" or three
claeeea of inner tantrae ( nau- rnvu &--nnurq)-- which form the
Principal euhject matter of the rNyinp-ma-pe commentarial
tradition. It ie important that the distinctions between these
three are comprehended because, as we ehalL see. the - -
U r a ~ a m a h i a t a n t r a has been interpreted from both
Maheoga and Atiyoga perspectives.
When the three classes of inner tactras are contrasted. Mahayoga
is said to ernphasise the ground of the Vajraykna or resultant
mode of Buddhist experience. 1.e. the abiding nature of reality
2 5
( - ) . Anuyoga the path or skiLlful means of realisation
and Atl.yoga the result itself. the presence of buddha-body ( & k l J
and prlstine cognition (J!-.). Alternatively. MahiWoge focuses
on the creation stage ! w ~ r l - a ) of contemplation. Anuyoga on
the perfection stage (-). and Atiyoga on the Great
Perfection (~1dzoz6-chen) .
In the words of Me-nysgs Khyung-%rags. an eleventh-century hoider
2 6
of the rNying-ma lineage:
2 7
Though tCe three aspects of creation and perfection are
present in them all. Mahkyoga emphatically teaches the
creation stage. Anuyoga emphatically teaches the perfection
stage. and the Great Perfection is effortless in both.
klong-chen Rab-'byanis-pa. in his Mind Rest (qemq-nvid nnal-
2 8
PBP). adds:
MahCyooa emphasises vital energy and the skillful means of
the creation stage.
Anuyoga emphasisee the seed and discriminatir-e awareness of
the perfection stage.
Atiyoea emphaeiees the pristine cognition in which
everything ie without duality.
29
And according to sKyo-ston Sgk-ye of Gong-bu:
Mahayoge leya ereat emphasis on conduct.
AnuYoge lays great emphesis on contemplation,
And Atiyoga lays great emphasis an the view.
A = these authors stete, MehByoge does emphasise the ground in Its
persgectj ve, the creeti on atage In te medj tetive technique end
ritual actSvi+ice in its conduct. Anuyoge emphasises the path,
the perfeetion stage of meditative technique and contempletion,
end Atjyoea emphesises the result. the Greet Perfection or the
view itself We shall observe however that tantre- text^ such as
rhe G u h V a n a r b h a t a t t v ~ v i ~ t a n t r q , despite their c l a ~ ~ i fi-
cation within Mah&yog&, necees~rl ly contsin element^ of a13
three, and J + is for this reason that divergent exegetical
3 0
treditlon~ later developed.
The di~positions of those who would aspire to the three inner
clesse~ of tantra ere also indtcated in the Tentre pf
3 1
ArCW (bkod - ~q chen - n ~ ) , which says:
For one who wollld transcend the mind
There is the creative phase.
For one who would posseas the essence of mjnd
There is the perfecting phase.
And for those who are eupremc and most secret
There is the Greet Perfection.
And by klong-chen Rab-'byams-pa in his Great Chariot (ahlnp-rta
32
m):
The father tantras of Mahboga are the natural expression of
the skillful means of appearance. intended on behalf of
those requiring training who are mostly hostile and
possessed by many ideas; the mother tantras of Anuyoga are
the discriminative awareness of the perfection stage which
is the reality of emptiness. intended for the benefit of
those who are mostly desiroue and delight in the tranquility
of the mind; and the AtiyogB is revealed as the natural
expression of their non-duality. intended for the benefit of
those who are mostly deluded and who are energetic.
?:hen these three claeses are coneidered distinctly. each is
analysed according to its essence. .w-erbal def iriition and
classificaticr.. as in the fol1.owing account derived from Lo-cher,
Dharmabri 's n a a n n - b m zhal-lygp. which represents the Tibetan
33
bka' -ma tradition.
Mahayoga:
The essence of Uah&yoga is that liberation is obthined through
union with the indivisible superior truth (U-DB'~ nnuip-med
-) by relying emphatically on the creation stage of
aklllful means ( L h . &~ - k ~ i ll&YrfI-rilu). The Sanekrit term mah8-
XQga is defined to mean "great unionw of the mind with non-dual
truth. The classification include6 the topics of empowerment
( - - 8 entrance ( ' ~ u E - D ~ ) . view ( m - b g ) . discipline
( - 1. meditation (m). conduct ( m o d - D & ) and reeult
3 11
~t the outset, four anpowermenta are conferred, anabling Mahh-
yoga to be practised. The vehicle is then entered through three
contemplations, namely: great emptiness (efPnn-Pa ~ m n - ~ p ) which
purifies death. great compassion (--rJe ~ P ~ - D Q ) which
purifies the intermediate state after death (bar--) and the
seals and attainment of the mandala-clusters ( W- r -
. .
) which purify the three phases of life by
3 5
estsblishing one's true nature to be the mandala of deities.
. .
The view of Mahiiyoga holds ultimate truth ( - We n - ~ a ) to be
spontansous awareness ( p i n - ~ e ) without conceptual elaboration.
relative truth ( U- rd7m m e n - ~ a ) to be the ideas oxb mental
energy of that awareness which manifest as a mandala of buddha-
. .
body and pristine cognition. and the superior indivisible truth
to be the unity of these two-- emptineee and pure appearance.
Discipline refers to twenty-eight commitments (dam-tahin) upheld
in relation to meditative practice, renunciation and attain-
3 6
rnent. Meditation comprises the non-symbolic contemplation of
ultimate reality and the symbolic meditations of the creatioa and
Perfection stages. In the creation stage. the mandala ie gradual-
. .
1Y vieualised thrcugh the three contemplations. in which deity
and thought are indivisible. In the perfection stage, visualis-
ation concentrates on the energy channels, current8 and seminal-
Pbints ( r t ~ a - r w - ) in the body-- either in the **upver
door1* of one's own body (v - W -BPO) or the "lower door*'
37
(sexuai centre) of one's partner1@ body ( w - l u ~ ' p e - ~ ) .
The conduct of Mahboga implies that defilemante and ~onflicting
emotions of aamsnra. rites of "liberation" (m) and aexuai
practices (w) can be experienced without attachment because
3 8
they are retained as ski?.lful meane. The result indicates that
3 9
the five buddha-bodies ( U u - w ) are actualised in this life-
time or in the intermediate state after death.
Anuyoga:
The essence of Anuyoga is that by relying on the perfection stage
of discriminative awareneaa ( W- r & xdzfi=q-~&fl) liberation is
I
obtained through the unifying realisatlon of the expanse of
1 reaiity (-) and pristine cognition ( y e - E b E ) , without
! u 0
duality. The Sanskrit term is defined to meen "sub-
sequent yoga", 1.e.. that which links MahByoga to Atiyo~a OF
which reveals the path of deuire ( - 1 subsequent on dis-
u 1
criminative awareness.
As to the aforementionec! six claesificatory topics. Anuyoga has
36 basic and 831 ancillary empowerments which refer to all nine
u 2
eequences of the vebicle. including the eiltrae; and it is
entered through the npontaneouely perfect non-duality of the
expanse and pristine cognition. The view is that all phenomena
are the primordial mandala of Samantabhadrl (Xi2 li-hZhin-d
. .
1 - k the uncre,ted awareness ie the pristine cognition
or spontaneously present mandala of Samantabhadra (rann-lzhin
. .
dbyil-*ktlnr). and the supreme b1i.s of their
0ff4yring I s the fundamental mandala of enlightened mind. without
. .
duality of expanse and pristine cognition (burnn - chUh
f~ 3
W i l - *hhpr). Di8cipline refers to the nine enumerations of
commitments described in the sixty-sixth chapter of the mQp
4 1,
-
~a (NOB. Vol. 11). Meditation compriues the path
of nkilltul means ( m b a - a ) which utilises the energy channels.
currents and seminal points eithe? with reference to one's own
body or in union with a partner, and the path of liberation
( ~ 0 1 - a ) which comprises the non-conceptual conternplatJon of
reality and uymbolic contemplation of the deities. who are said
to appear Instantly "in the manner of a fish leaping from the
11 5
water. " In the reeult. the twenty-five resultant realities
( - chas we r - m) of the buddha-level are actuaiised
46
within one lifetime.
The essence of ktiyopa or the Great Perfection ( W s - n a then-
PP) is that liberatian occurs in primordial buddhahood ( y 0 - m
- ~ R Y ~ B - D B ) , without renunciation. acceptance, hope or doubt.
The Sanskrit term rtivana ia defined to mean "hiphest union".
because it is the culmination of all vehicles and of the creation
8 perfection stages. AS tc classification, the empowerment of the
expressive power of awareness ( a - ~ a ' L - 1 is con-
4 7
ferred, the entrance is without activity, the view is that all
thinas of aamsara and nirvana are primordial buddhahood in the
unique eeminal point (--lo w a n - an- ) or buddha-body of
h 8
reality (-1. Discipline inclubss eai i i t ni ent e G:
a9
nothingneam. apathy. uniquenese and apontaneoua presence.
Meditation comprise'e the three classes- mental, spatial and
- - esoteric inatructionai (same -)-- the
laet of which includea the crlebrated tachniquea of Cuttine
Through Repistance (khr-yes-chod) end All-Surpessinz ReaJ?satlon
5 G
( mo d- r u) . Conduct 1s wjtho~rt acceptance end rejection, and
the result is that the goal i s reached at t h e preeent moment on
5 1
the level of epontaneoualy perfect Samantabhadre.
The prime distinction between these three i s therefore that
Mahayoga, the besia, cultivates t h e real l aat I on of primordl a3
buddhahood jn a prafiual manner, Anuyoea doen 80 in a epontenc@l>?
or perfect manner. and Atiyoga la t h e Greet Pepfectlon underlying
both approachae-- the goal itsel f.
2. Compilstlon o f t h e b K e * - l e ~ m w n n - r n v u n and t h e -
ypyu.1- * bum:
Each o f theee three Inner clseees ip represented in the coq-
~ i l a t i o n s of tantra-texte-- t h e B K a l - * n u = and t h e a e c t e d
Tant ra- s~f Lh- - - (Fnvinn-ma*i l l ~ ~ u d - 'hum . T h n former
includes a W n - r u eectlon (T. 828-8hh) which may have. ae
Neae-gi dBang-fa clelms, been Inserted during t h e lflTh. century
5 2
by dBu8-PB bLo-nasl S a n ~ r - r n v a e 'Bum. Therein t h e ~ r i n c i o a l
texts refrepentjne each o f these categories a r e contained-- t h e
BXCkB Qf _thg All - A ~ c o m r l i s h i n n fSine ( W - b v d rPYal - OQ , T. 828)
which exemplifies t h e Mental Clarrs ( m - n d e ) af Atjyogs, t h e
SQtra ~ h ~ r h u Lnsentiona ( m- 4- u - . T.
829) an4 its ~ o o t t h e ~ l l - GathsFinn ~warcnsss ( Un- ' Qua rin-na.
T. 831) a l o n ~ with t h e pL SDlsndour ( ye - ohm - . T.
330) which represent Anuyoga, e n 3 s scrlee o f tantrae belonging
to the U a h b o g a class, v i z . 1. 832- 868. o n which Ere b c l a w , pp.
32-61.
Owine to the eecrecy of the rlying-ma tantrae, which had been
recognised in the early ninth century when the
5 3
Catalogue was compiled. and in consequence of the controverey
surrounding them In the eleventh century writings of Lha bLa-ma
5a
Ye-shes-'od and 'Go8 Khug-pa Lhas-btsae. these texts were,
with few exceptions. not Included in the kJh'-*nuyy. which was
devised chiefly as a compilation of later or new tranelatfons.
5 5
The 7 in fact e w s :
Because of their great strictnees the inner tantras of the
secret mantras are not here set forth.
Certain key texts representative of the rlying-ma tantrae wePe.
as we have already seen. inserted in the b ~ a * - * a v u at an early
date. and the Peking edition of the bsTan-'n;vur (vole. 82-83)
conteins a substantial number of treatises on these tanti'as.
Throuph the determined efforts of the Zur family, the bulk of the
rlying-ma tantres were stored at '00-pa-lung in gTeang. which was
the main centre of rlying-ma activity in Central Tibet from the
era of Zur-po-che (lete tenth/ early eleventh century) until the
56
fourteenth century. Zur 1Zang-go UPel utilised the material
resogrces. which he had obtained in the form of commiselons arid
gifts from the Mongol emperor Buyantu (r. 1311-1320). to prepare
Printing-blocks for twenty-eight doctrinal collections of the
ancient translations which were preserved at ' Ug-pa- lung.
incluc;ng tho (T. 832 ) 0 and
57
its celebrrtmd commentary by ~11PvaJra. the so-called sPnr-
printed a thousand copies of each and distributed them to
5 8
students. Nonetheless. until the fifteenth century. the
continuous lineages of these rNying-ma tantras were exceedingly
few.
The various transmissions of these tantras then converged in the
treasure-finder Ratna gLine-pa (1U03-1071). a native of Gru-stlul
in Lho-brag. He persevered to collect texts from all quarters.
including the abbreviated set of the mJ u Q Tantras (~g&L! &k
-) which was preserved at 'Ug-pa-la~ng, and he received. with
great difficulty. their complete tronzmission from the aged Mes-
spom bSam-gtan bZang-po of RTsang. who alone held the continuous
5 9
lineage. Later. Rarna gLing-pa compiled the Collect- Tantras
at Lhun-grub Palace in Gru-shul. and had new copies prepared. the
earlier onee in ink. and the later onee in gold. He transmitted
them many time^ to ensure their continuity. The lineage was
maintained by his elder son. Tshe-dbang Grags-Pa. continuing down
60
to the present in the following succession:
Tshe-dbang Grags-pa (elder son):
Wpag-dbang Grags-pa (younger son):
Wgag-dbang Nor-bu (grand~on):
Nor-bu Yonpa-grage:
rGyal-sras Nor-bu dBang-rgyal:
Pad-glinp gSung-~3rul 111. Tshul-khrims rDo-rje:
Gar-dbang Tshul-khrirns rGyal-mtshan of Bon-lung;
Pad-gling Thugs-sras IV. belan-'dzin '~yur-med rDo-rje:
Rig-'dzin gTer-bdag sling-pa of SMin-grol-gling:
Pad-gling gSung-eprul IV. Ngrg-dbanz Kun-bzang rDo-rje:
pad-gling thugs-orae V. '~yur-med mchog-grub dPal-'tar:
Pad-rnr Don-grub Grrge-pa;
Pad-gling gSung-sprul VI. Kun-bz~ng bnTan-pr'i pGyal-mtehan:
r8r-khr Kun-bzrng Rig-'dzin rDo-rje:
Pad-gling gSung-sprul VIII. Kun-bzong bsTrn-pa'i Nyi-ma;
rBr-khr Rig-'dzin Khuno-pmum Yong-grol;
0-rgyen Nun-grol rGye-mt8ho:
bGe- 'dun rGye-mtrho;
bDud-*jom8 *Jig#-bra1 Ye-mhmm rD0-rje.
Other Figures Connected with the Collectad n:
6 1
Gong-ra LO-Chen gZhan-phan rDo-rje (1530-1650):
Gong-ra Lo-chen was a student of Pad-sling gSung-sprul 111 Tshul-
khrims rDo-r3e and mKhas-grub bLo-groe rgyal-mCshan and a teacher
of gSang-bdag Phrin-las Lhun-grub. He prepared c o p i e ~ of the
U r t e G -a--
- - ( - --'bum) on
three occasions, and on two of them, in consideration of the
continuity of the teaching. he sent those copies to Kham and
Kong-po. so that his transmi~sion penetrated both Kham and
Central Tibet.
'~igs-med gLing-pa (1730-1798). a native of 'Phyong-rgyas and
student of dPal-ri monastery. is celebrated for his revelations
of the lnnermast SDiritualitv pf kLC)I13-chen-DB ( k h n n - c h m
-). During the eighteenth century when, in conseouence
of the incurgione by Dzun-gar-pa Monsols. tne rNying-mh monastic
centres of rDo-rje Brag and sMin-grol-gling had been severely
6 3
dmaged, he made copies of all the tantras of the rtdying-ma-pa
tradition which were to be found at eMin-groi-gling. some twenty-
five volumes. and had the first five pages of each volume written
6 0
in ink made of the five precious subetances. and the remainder
in black ink on a white background (-a-rhns). He was the first
to prepare a detailed catalogue and hietory of thie collection.
entitled the - t i we HistPrv pL a PrefiDUB CDllected Tantrae
Pf ms a n c i e n t P S c h o P 1 : XUOrnuncnt Cdverinp
J-muuim ( m- *pyYT -udd @ ---
* d z m - n m m - u r u -,- -). All later compilers have
relied on this ~3talOgue which la Included in the nine volumes of
6 5
h3.8 collected works.
*Jigs-med gLing-pa's new redaction of the Collected Tantras waa
subsepuentlY carved on wcod-blocks under the patronage of Queen
66
Ga-je-bza' Tshe-dbanp Lha-mo of sDe-dge. In 1797. the Kah-thog
dGe-brtse Pandl.ta 'Gyur-ned Tahe-dbanu mChog-grub. a student of
. .
*Jigs-med =Ling-pa's main disciple end lineace-holder rDo-grub I.
67
'Jigs-med Phrln-la8 'Od-zer, prepared an lndex for the sDe-dge
xylograph edition. entitled. b k b nehPns-Da9 k B P ~ ZdQALh?
There is an extant manuscript of the rGyud u, pertaining to
the aforementioned eDe-dge edition. in 30 vclumes origin all^ 33
~01s.). twenty-nine cf which are housed in the India Office
Library in London (Waddell Collection. 190U-5). and the other
(vol. lj in the Bodleian. Copies of the celebrated sDe-lee xylo-
6 9
graph and catalogue are also to be found outside Tibet. and a
new reprint of the -acted TIntras was prepared in 1973 under
the patronage of Dingo Khyentee Rinyoche based on a manuscript
7 0
Dreaerv+d at gTi ng-~Y&2cs dG=n-sc byr eg. ~ t . 4 . ..-- a ...--..4crA -.. . . t - c ~ ~ ~ r i s e s
thirty-six volumes. of which vole. 1-10 include the trntre-texts
Of Atiyoga. vole. 11-13 include the afitra and trntrr-texts of
Anuyogn rnd vols. 18-33 include the texts of ~rhiyoen. Volume 3u
Contains *Jig.-med gting-pa'8 crtrlogue. while v01~1ne8 35-36
contain the index Of 'Gyur-med Tshe-dbang nachos-grub. A modern
catalogue to this edition of the ZU~L~AE by Eiichi
7 1
Kanrko haa boon published in Japan.
In addition, there are other extant compilations of the PNying-ma
tantras 8ome of which correspond to eectione of NGB.. e.u. the
rnuinn-ma'i p c u - w . and others which contain considerable
variations. e.g., the IXLS Bnr- OL and the
7 2
Bhutancae manuscripts.
A t this juncture, an advanced study of the literature contained
in vo1s.l- 13 would make a definitive contribution to our know-
ledge of Atiyoga and Anuyoga. The praaent research, however, will
focus on the texts of Kahfiyoga, since it ie wlrhin the ~ a h b o g a
category of the -m that the ~ ~ ~ ~ h a t n t t v ~ c e v a -
mrhatrntra cycle fs to be found, deapite the connection with
Atiyoga which has been drawn by some l a t ~ r Tibetan
3. The texts of Mahboga:
The texte of Mnh&yoga are divided into two classes-- tantrao
(revYd-sde/ m e ) and mean6 for attainment ( m u b - w
dLdh4-j. The fornsr (NOS. vols. I&-19) compriae the
exoteric corpus of literature from which the latter (NGB. voln.
7 3
2 8 - 5 3 ) , the esoteric practice%. are drawn. Volumen 31-32 al qo
rospoctivoly contain the Panoral tantram ( - - ) and the
Particular tantrae ( - 1 aesociated with the orisinal
nt.r-ml roconaion of tho lprub - FW UA 1 - m ~ a - * ~ Q u s k y l
a, from which the later cyclom of tho Eight Trans-
mitted Precepts (Ua'-brpuad) derive.
The mean8 for sttajnmtnt have five main Bectionfit, corresponding
7 5
to the five eupramundar\e meditetional deitiee. viz. YamBntaka
( - - - - Da 8 d - u d - ~ b ~ ~ , NGB. vole. 20-22. T.
(u a=-- ~ ~ W R - ~ L J F wud-ede-T?-, NGB. vol . 2 5 ) . ' Jcljr8-
mrta ( a - r n e f l Pbdud-rtaA yon-ten-PYi r g y u d - n d e - r n m, NGB. v o l .
26, T. 881). end Vajrakfla./ VajrekumBra ( b r o m- mn - ' m dnal -.
~ h ' > r - w e ' i rnvud-s4e D. NGB. vole. 77-29). T h e iol lowing
three mundane medttational deitiep are also lnclufled: Mbtar? (ma;.
m d dzonP h.u chen-mo xum BzunP - ma'i . d u c ~ - a r u h chen-
RUU wud-rn- - ma-mo ass-rnvud W * - a, NGB.
vole. 30-31, Vol. 33, T. 887). LokeutatrapQja/ mchod-bstod (NGR.
~ ~ 0 1 . 32, T. 8118). end Vajramentrebtr¶ru/ Drag-engags (NGR. vcl .
32, T. 883).
The clase of tentrae ?t? otherwlne known 8s the eighteen tantra-
~ i t a k s e of Mehayoea, a besit- cycle oP texts tradl+ionally held t o
have been oubdiviflefl from the Hundred ' - Y g r s e P QL L k
( a p y u - * ~ h r u l m - ~ h ~ a g p r n v a - ~ g ) by Kukkurlja, on
whom gee below, pp. 78-75. D3Pferent enumeratlone of thee0
trntrngitakau have been recorded In the work6 of kLone-chnn Reb-
chen rOya1-tshab Padma rNam-rgyal and others. In the .nnape - k .,
claaaifies the elghteen nccording t o buddhe-body, speech, mind,
7 6
attributes, n c t l v j t i e ~ , and genrrallty aa follaws:
- RllPmadbmn-chan:
ud - thin. - .
- rtse rn-Q&.
dPa' - bo g Ts ug - l a g ' Phr e ng- ba. mkhaa - na'l W ' - st =. e nume r a t e s
t h e e i g h t e e n d i f f e r e n t l y , but wi t h t h e same b a s i c e i x f o l d cl ass-
7 7
if i cet i o n :
-'dU.--plm-- - - --
rnYud s u m :
The enumeration which sained acceptance from the time of pTer-
78
bdag gLing-pa onwards and which corresponds to the etructure of
the Collectad Tlntrae ei: r-aa, is that given by Zhe-
U m w J A s A U - , and inferred by bDud-'joms Rin-po-che,
attributes and activities are respectively
( NOB. vol. 16. T. 366-7). (NGB. vol. 16. T.
1177). ( NGB. vole 17. T. 4112-3),
( NOB. vol. 17, T . P87). and ( NOB. vol. 17 : the
five tantras concerned with means for attainment are hzu&n
r kp1 ( NOB. vol. 18, T. 840). rta - mchan - ( NGB. vol.
18, T. 839). .nuinn - -D& ( NOB. vol. 18. T. 890), U
- 4 ( HOE. vol. 181, ace rJhrrr-DIchu-plW1rn-m (MOB-
voL. 19); hi five tantras concerned with conduct are -
( NOB. vol. 6 ) . ur-lhq. - ( NQB. vol. 12.
To 830). dm- - - (MOB. V O ~ . 12). U- ' d z i n -
(NGB. vol. 8 ) . and nlann-chen --*ban (MGB. vol. 19);
the two supplementary tantras are -
* v a - b (NGB. vol. 19, T. 066) and thrbs-kYi- (WGB.
vol. 19, T. 8 3 5 ) ; and tne single tantra which summarises all
the others is Wanarbha (WGB. vols. 1C-16. T. 832-837).
All. these systems of enumeration in common give precedence to the
GuhvaParbhrtlntra and its cycle of texts. known as the
( - u v u - *DW ), whether it 1s cla~eified ao the
general tantra (-) . the general tantra among general
tantras - s9ui-rnuud). or the single tantra which
sunmrarises all the others ( - - - - bndus-don Lta-Lu*l
w u d - a P f a). This is indeed suggested in the name of the
basic tantra from which the eighteen we r e nDutcdly subdivided.
- -
h. he Cycle:
?he cycle of texts to which the - v t t m
belongs comprlaea both an eightfold and a
fourfold division. This moat sionificrnt cycle of the rnying-ma-
pa oral tradition ham until recently been ienored by western
scholars. yet it would merit the attention given to the
-
80
1iCeraturu by E. Conze nnd othesr. Early hictorical
and literary references to agecific texts connected with the
A a -
cycle are found in the Tun Hurng manu5cripts. at3 well as
in the writins6 of gNubs-chen Sangs-rwas Ye-shes and Rong-zom
81
Chos-kyi bZang-DO. an S.G. Y a r m r y has indicated. Among =Nubs-
chenr6 compositions there is reported to have been a -
an zhs Rellirltipn Qf Me E1amY c-- nmPicrl nsx ( a w u *DhPul
-
8 2
=-cal -pr*i - s) shich no longer eui-vives. The
various recenmionm of the m i o m & (w
M a * - w ) provide what are perhaps the earliest specific
references to the eightfold and fourfold divisions. The
- - - u C r v n t P l w (Dndan
Pbl'-tm --mn). m extant 8ource attributed to
Yap-rje 0 - r w m gLing-pa (1323-c. 1360) contains the following
83
Utatement:
w u - * u - b - -
--h~ r-r-rua -- - brrvld:
The 6- text additionally ammertm that Prdramubhava himeelf
4-w up the eiehttold diviaion of the cycle with the
8 0
tranmlator8 mKa-ba dPrl-brtmeea m d 1Ca-ero kLu*i rOya1-mtshan.
Sanss-rws6 ling-pa (1300-1396) in his ua*-- 7.
providea the Sollowing comvlete enumeration of the eightfold
division of the W. indicatine the emphasis of each
8 5
t ext :
This. sisnificantiy, in the enumeration of the - U
to have boon accoptod by lator himtorIan8 m d comen-
tator., much r . d~r*-bo sTmus-lrl: 'Phrons-br (1501-1566). Soe-
bzlos-pa blo-grom Wrl-mtmhur (1552-1621). and Lo-chon Dhrrrakrl
(165P-1717). dPa*-bo. m k h r 4 3 -*-stpll. describes these eight
8 6
I primaryrexts in the followlne terms:
2. pol -be mh&Ea u - w u
3 . m?il-@w ton-pb * . -B:
P. ~ ~ ~ E I c x u - 'Phrul.Qzrll -bcu-*a:
5 . aUne #trn-bnr - - P ~ Y u - * D ~ ~
6. van-tm mthar-vhuln-nar a n - D a m-. * ~ h r u --ku-D*:
The same author also prevlde- a set of four exege*lcal +anYras
( U p d - rnuud . which do not carrespend to the so-called snuu-
e?
m. namely:
I. -1-lam a m - n v i n btnn-nfi y e - s h e - .
2. --char stan-=a rdq-r'c w - l o x :
3. m h s - r n --nu& e t o n - ~ a a m - r l * -1 - . ha.
8. s i n - ch- , -tnn-n& pdo-p*r r neb.
The ttsndnrd enumeraf.ion of the - \ I - ' ~ h r u s b t - b t M 4s that
given by klong-chen Rob-'byam8-pa in the followine passage Prom
hjs - b c ~ - at1 . and already lmpljed In the writlngs of
8 3
Yar-rje 0-rtyan gLlnp-pa:
This (cycle of the ) also comprise8 Four
sections. namakly. the nrnical flaf which
reveals a11 thing6 of eatombra and nIrvCna t o be aelf-
nrrnlfe+tlng an8 lndivi6ible; the LLU Pi
(1. 166. MOB. Vol . 19) which extoneivrly reveals the rlturl
activity and feast-offerings: the WIpiCil &UL Qf U.e C)6ddaee
(T. 836. NGB. vol. 15) which actually revealm the displru of
reality: and the (T. 360. NGP, Vol.
15) which all-pervasively reveals the vehicle.
klong-chen Rab-'Oyuoa-pa additionally claims that the wu - ' p h r u l
b d e - b r w is 8 subclassification Of the Wanicrl &C$i Q f
8 9
-. providing us with a different enumeration:
The m- itaelf comprises eight
eections. namely. the glorious (T. 832. IG9.
Vol. 16) which reveals mind and pristine cognition to be
manifest in and of themselves; the Jnrtv-rhrpt9r nnnicnl
(NGB. Vol. 10) which perfectly reveals enlightened activity;
the Einht-XhmW -CAI- (NGB. Vol. 111) which P9rfeCtlV
reveal6 the mandala: the WIpFCrl lkt ( 7 . 837. NGB.
. .
VoL. 14) which clearly reveal6 the erpowerments; the
llef (NGB. Vol. 14) which reveals the
commitments as supreme; the m t v - C- E W U a A IP%tL (T.
836. NGB. vol 16) which extensively reverls enlightened
attributes; the nirrPr pjL Indcatrutiblt Rsrlitv (T. 833.
HOB. Vol. 15) which clearly raveals the deity.' body-coloure
and symbolic hand-implements: the Qccrnic nnnicll (NOB.
Vol. 15) which clearly reveal. the creation mtage; and the
M ~ K ~ A L BLLf (NQB. Vol. 15) which clearly reveals
the path of skillful moans.
of t he t ex t 8 I ncl uded t n t he r l g h t f o l d di vi mi on b~ Sangs- ~gyse
gLine-pa. and l a t e r by &Paq-ho ~ Tu u g - l a g 'Phrmng-ba. So( - b~l og- pa
bnd 1.0-chon Dharmabrq. kLong-chmn Rab-'byam.-pa ammianm t ha Ihr-
w u - ' o U and t he --'D- t o t ho e-w,
~ u b s t l t u t i n g f a r them t hr ee e x r g c t j c r l t ant r am- - yda-CjJ w m ,
a. and wu-'ntLCIl;L ud
The t ent r e- t ex t 8 o f t h i r c y c l e whi ch ar e ncw e ~ t 8 n t
compriac two compl et e valumecl o f t ho qL
{HOB. vol e. I &- 15) . al ong wi t h a aubr t anPi a1 p o r t l a n
of volume 16 end one t ax+ I n volume 19. t hey ar e assangod @a a3
t o i ncl ude t he t ex t 8 accept ed hy bat h system@ a@ r oat t ant sas
( r t s a - m ) i n NriB. voJ*rme 111, and t hocc r agr r dr d as er egs+i caJ
t ent r as i n volume 15, aI*hough t hr ee o f t he l e t t e r ar e hel d t o be
Foot-tantram by kLong-chen-pa and anot her two ar e he16 +o be
mat - t ant r au by Bangs-pgyac gLl ng-pa an3 dPae-Do *?mug-leg. The
t i t l e s a f t hese ext ant t ant r as ar e l i s t e 3 bel ow, al ong wi t h a
br i ef ri surnd o f each. The d e t a i l e d cont ent 6 o f t he t hr ee v e ~ c i a n ~
of t he t n particular ar e gj ven i n t he t a b l r r whi ch
f ol l ow, and t he Ti het en r hapt er t i t J em and pagi nat i on f a r t he
e n t l r r r e- t i on nay be f nund f n Kaneko'm cat al ogue.
ROB. VOl . I&:
I- ESKU.9 r . ~ n t d i - , Chr. 22, pp. 1- 611
The b a t j c t a n t r a of t he cycl e, and r t bhj ect sl t hi m r or asr ch,
vhi ch i. ma14 t o r eveal a11 t hl ngm to bo r ani t em* i n and aC
t hm~s* l ves I thlm.-cl4 srnv - - ) , o r *a r e v a r l mind
and pr i mt i ne c o ~ n i t j o n t o bo 8 o l f - n ~ n i t e 8 t 2 n ~ ( .m.-d.nlz
Q 0
A h a r l l r r - m - - - ). It8 nmdala I8 that of the
. .
forty-two oeetaful and fifty-eimht wrathful deities cola-
brated in later - corpilation8. The detailed ccntonta
of thi8 ahortar verrion are camoarre9 with tho.* of two
lonear ver8ions in the taDlec balow. tranalatrd by sWyage
JAinakuaira and r)ta Rin-ehen mChO8 followlna the 3nrt~uetion
of Vimalaaitra.
2. -, Ch8. 5. ep. 69- 67:
Thiu text, in aupport of the for re^, .m&?haaiaer the
deoendence of all attainrant8 on the unique tudaha-body, the
vpoda!ctien 01 the mandela, inotructionr on 8earinal p~inta
. .
( - 1 and vital enerqy (m) and the puritisatlon of
9 1
tho cowonant8 (-j. Tr8nllated by ~fibUs4~bha and
lot8lwa Vairocana.
3. . ~yu- ' - P r t y a d - h c w , Ch8. 82, pp. 67-317;
This, the lens ver~ion of the rrrnr-br'i .nuint-p9, @aQhQ-
8i8@8 the enli8htened sttPfibut@8 lyan-tm) O? buddhrhood.
I
Sea below for a com~ari8on betworn it. 82 chamtact en8 the
tW@nty-two chapter6 of the f
trntrr in tabular fore. Tranmlatmd by Viralusitra and alyaga
Jll&nrkurira.
4 . ~ l y y - ' ~ - Ch8. 46, 99. 317-1158
Thi8 intemediate len8th ~ . r n l - h a ' A - empha818ea
anlightened activity. It8 46 chapter8 .ca a180 outlined in
the tablo bO&~w.
I
-
5. u v u 'w w. Cha. 33. up. 015-5L9;
gmphasiaing commitments. the a describes in its intro-
guctory chapter zho gathering of all m i r a t 0 creatures and
~
inanimate things of the ten di~ections m d four tirrs in the
Great Identity. and the cyclO8 of buddha-body. speech. mind
and rapture which are inexhaustible adornrente. Then. ite
I
th$rfy-two remining chapter8 closmly cor-rpond in their
titlos. content. and ot~ucture to those of the a - r l p
PQ-b* - 'i rnvud in WQB. vol. 16. These
concern the gatheping of ail things in the expanoe of the
female conmoPt. the absorption in the seal of the inaub-
8tanti.l buddha-body. the presence of the aeed of reality Sn
a11 bainqa and the differsncea of intslligence. the
e.lmstlrl palace (-1. tranafornation Q? all thins8 Into
the wrathful deitism and purification by the fire of their
grimtine cognition. tho further ritual a e ~ v i c e roaociated
with the w a t aeerot wrathful deitios. the external
rrvmlation of thm rmdala-di8~lur of 8pirituality and the
= = 92
burn% offeringf# raoociated with the Sour ritrm. power
ovmr lonaavity. di8clo8u~e of eovopt 8yrbols through macra-
aents and mantr.. activitiee asaociatmd with the seals. the
attainment of Vajramattva. raking of rmdicino/ olixir (- -
-1. absorption of fho moat 8ecrot r m b a l a urd -velation
. .
Of its hisher contorplativo irases. emanation of the seala.
tho attainment ef )(rhQdevr and of tho mandala of tho four
93 . .
turrdiana. tho eonatruetion of mtOpa8. tho twenty-on.
9 4
e l u m t a , sathasins all thine8 in thm arpurmm. @atharint
of the perfectione, levels. mkillful H a n s and buddhafields
in intellipcnce m d phenomena (1.e.. In Surntrbhrdra and
conmort). the most mecret accomBliehaent. the uergence of
the mandala of luddha-body. basic 8 ancillary commitents. an
. .
explanation of the comitments. the vision of Vajrasattva.
the conmitment8 ~ 8 8 0 C i ~ t e d with the seals, and the con-
clu8ion which deals with the conferral of the tantra by
6. apyu - *DM - , Che. 8, PB. 589-571;
Emphrsisirrg the mandala, thie text teaches union with the
. .
natural Great Perfection, emanation of the cloud-like
u n d a l a of wrathful deitiee and of the mandala oP buddha-
. . . .
epaech aoaociated with the feast-offerings of the wr6thful
beitlee. the cornitrent of offering. md the plessing of the
u n d a l a.
. .
4 . ~LP;YU - *D- ble - - , Chs. 13. pp. 572- 638;
B L p h ~ 8 i ~ i n g empowerment. this text concerns the recognition
of the e x p m m e and primtine cognition a . the superior met-et
bliss. the attainment of the nature of rind in the non-dun1
disgomition of expanse m d pristine cognition. the emanation
& abmorption of the mandala and it8 secret Mntroe.
. .
emanation of the meal.. mecret corritmntm and conferral of
.rpouerrrnt. dimcipline throush corpusion. plea8inc the
mandala through the f-amt-offerincm. mubjugation of demons
-.
and clarification of the sr-atnemm of buddha-bow. mpoech
m d rind throughout tho ten Oirectionm. the mandala of
. .
W o e o m bubblu-a-ch and tho in48atructiblO c r i t n n t a .
and t he supreme bl i ms o l bodhi o6t t v6s who have t he essent i 61
95
i nst r uct l one.
8. WU - *-, Ch6. 13, pp. 1-96;
mph6618i ng t he di mpl oy o f c e@l i t v , t h i s exeget i c61 t ant r 6
di ecusfea t he amdal e o l t he t 9t hf g6t 6a and t he remov61 o l
. ,
~ 1 1 o&~ocur 6t i on6 i n ~ e l @t i o n t o i t , t he b l i s ~ l u l cycl e o l
mecret yog6 6asoci 6t ed wi t h t he body, spetch 8nd r i n d o l a l l
r ho t 6t h6a6t 68, t he i nt r oduct i on t o non- du@l i t v, o l l e r i n g
p6nc.r whi ch pl ease 611 t he t 6t hi g6t 68, t he supr- v o w o l
6ecr et b l i s s 6asoci r t ed wi t h a l l t he t st h&gat es. t he secr et
undo&. o r 611 t he t et hf i get as, t he be61 nat ur e o l o f l e r i p s s
. .
u o n g t ho i nconcr i vabl r p u r i l i c a t o r y deeds o l p l l the t at h4-
a , t he e e c ~ e t ~uddha-body, operah, mrnd, ouvr-e
c t l e ~ l n g ~ oC r e a l i t y end co~~p6ssi on o l 611 t he t 6t h&gat ae,
8mumt i on or t h t wr at hf ul t.th&g.t*., t he wheel o l p r i s t i n e
cogni t i os whi ch r evol ve6 l ~ m t he OecPet nat ur e o l 611 t he
C.thbrt+8, t he U ~ C P ~ B mo n l t ho8r 6opect6 whi ch pl eaor t he
r ecr et nat uve o l a11 t he t at h&at as, t he wnd616 whi ch i o
. .
I r e a t uat hevi ns of Chr Ii8Fukas u o n s a l l t he t 6t hhat em. ur d
b y t o thr di @or sr i n@t i on o f t he f our or ct i ons of t he
rhi. eert. a180 known a8 the pi %ha l mu pL H@UbS
(m-. 7 . 360) in it. later trurmlation,
Mphami8e8 the cohemion oi a11 the pitalcam or vehiclom. Its
topics concern the enliahten*d Puily. manifemt awakrning
throush the MasicaL Not. emanation oi anlimhtened mind.
eulo8iea ammociatad with the iivr primtina cognitbonm.
rfilightaned attributes and mantra..
10. -rr.-dnab -drrhr- -
mm-1fime Chs. 13 * root-text. pg. 119-3102
U~~pholiming tha immediate attainment accordins to the path
oi liberation (m Etr - ) or the coloupa and
m~mbolic hand-im&lement8 oi tho buddha-body ( - -
-1. At8 tovicm l~clude the view. ond duct.
mandala. mmpowerment. co~mitmentm, attainment. enlightened
. .
activity. 8pesiiic ritual8. and epentanaeur uremence.
Tranmlated by Vimalamitra and gNy-8 Jhhakumlra.
~Vha8lming the gradual ampect oi the path oi liberrtion
(um - it reveal8 the five ampectm oi meminal
97
*enliahtened mindn. the eur@ence or opirituality and
primtine cognition. the cycle oi my11able8, ~0ntemVlati0n.
errur oi the meal8 or mupreme bli88. conmecration oi the
awa~eneem or mecrat mantram, the radiance of the areat meal.
8warenass. the descent of pristine c o ~ n i t i o n . syonta-
neous presence. and the secret mandala. Translated by gNuba-
. .
chen S a n g r - r g y a ~ Ye-shes (rDo-rje Yanp-dbang-gter).
12. W U - ' ~ h r u r R V 8 - m . Che. 22. Pp. 339-420:
Emphssising the immediate aspect of the path of sklllful
means ( - cin-char) o r the creatton stage ( w e b -
u). this text concerns the five aspects of seminal
aenlightened mindu. the establlehing of all things, the
emergence 09 the mandala^ of buddha-speech end mlnd wlth
. .
thelr cansec~ations. the mandala of feast-~fCerings. the
. .
path o? the eecret vehicle. the eecret meaning. the pIbactice
9 8
of the five impuri+ies. emergence o f the indestructible
wrathful natupo in body. speech and mlnd alone with their
conscc~ntione. and spontaneous rites. Translated by Vfmela-
ritra and SNyaps Jfi&nakuaars.
3 . anuw-'bhrul --baei m. Chs. 26. pp. 621-538:
Emphssising the gradual aepect of the path of skillful megns
( - rim - a ~ u 1 , it c ~ n c e r n a the flve aspects 3f
seninel wenlightened minda. the vfew o f great skillful
aeans. relt-manifesting buddha-body, speech and mind.
attelnment of the gel?-manifeet nature throuch akjllfu?
aerns, Ggpsarciice o? conismpla+lve images through -en-
liwhtened mindw, secret mantras. expansion a? the three
' 9 9
secret centres. the commitnente. e m p o m m e n t s . discipline
of rwarmnestl, entrance into the aecret path of skillful
aeanr, its actual skillful means. thome without skt1lPul
m a n o who arm unlihratmd. ConQdmForm of thm oamt a yo+inm
of thm premmnt who a m libmratmd through mkillful n m a . thm
*me-t m u i n a l oointr. dimclplinm of 8mn.e-orcur8 and
objmctm. eathmring of a thins. in intmlligmncm and
phmn-na ( - S ~ . ~ m t a b h a d r a md conmort). and atability in
thm m. Trmmlatmd W Viulrritra and gNyrga
Its topics include the rind which e m r e e m according to thm
teaching. its sonnmctlon with the mandala. thm pur.ult ai
. .
thm orimtinm coenitlon of the 8mrla. thm natupal mandala.
. .
comitaenta. attainment. mnlishtonmd activity. unerlencm of
thm ruraala of wrathful dmitima. conduct md thm concmalmd
. .
emcrmt tmaehinem. Trmalrtmd by Vi-lamit~a and cnragr
A180 mntitlmd. - -11 - w u - * - w
Q A r the chaotmrm of thi8 tmxt corr~e8oond in nurbmr,
mtructuzw and titlm to thoae of the wu-'- a.
which havm a l n r d y bomn mv-rrsimmd.
16. -rnvinr-W - - - -mael -0 - rtpbp
-
~ u d - r = . v r L . pp. 138-1L2;
Thi8 text $8 rl8o known as the aKr uk
M - n p y p d m - - - -
- m. A frsgment.
17. -a-rn --DO-P=~ w - k v u - - * a w a - -ub-
-VIA-'- & r r - u r ~ v u d , vp. 142-147;
Tranmlrted ky Virrlraitrr an8 Vrirocmna.
18. - - -. u v u
- -'nhrul m. Ch6.
8. DD. 147-163.
Ita topics concern cruse 6 condition. ground B natural
eXDrmS8ion. the auie8cence of reality. the wrathful aeitieB
who suixlue thought. the net of emoteric Instruc%ions. the
cWcl* of wrrt?.lul exorcism. the rbmorption of =round. path
and mault. ma r moot vlauin8 aulow.
m i 8 text in rlmo known u - lrvl - -
a v r - Qa m d I8 also extant a8 a later. translation Du
Rin-chon bZane-po (T. 166). h ~ h ~ i m i n r rituals m d feast-
offerinrm. it8 tovic~ concern the grrdual entrmce, the
undrlr, secret arntru. conterglrtion. unfoldIra8 of tne
. .
VFistine cognition of the recret mantras, tho offerins of
the oerlo. rttrinrrnt of primtine cognition through
wditrtion on oalishtrned rind. rttrinrwnt through the
Table Comparing the Chapters of the Long (A). ntdium (B) and
Short (C) Versions of the e.
which rekpectively have 82. 86 and 22 chapters. m d are contained
in I GB. voL. 11.
A. -ph,ul- * -
- . chs. 82. pp. 67-31?:
Ch. 1
- * u. pp. 67-70: = B. pp. 317-320: C.
pp. 2- 6.
Ch. 2 nlenr - * u. pp. 70-73: = B. pp. 320-321.
c 3 dan - - Da - Da - -bYi hyaiu=chub-bui remr; %
W p d - ~ a ' i 1 & ~ . pp. 73-71: = R. pp. 321-
323: C. pp. 6-10.
Ch. & a--ahAD - - -Da*i m. pp. 7&.-?$: =
B. pp. 323-325: C. pp. 10-13.
Ch. 5 ehoP w c r c l J . a - - - - - . rpyU xQ&D*dML - -
- ~ a * i u. pp. 78-80: = B. pp. 326-328.
Ch. 6 ~i-ne'i - lo T + - m. pp. 80-
84: = e . pp. 328-331; C. pp. 13-16.
Ch. 7
*
&wil-*kh9r khema nui-ehu -*=-t.u
u. pp. 84-87: = 8. pp. 331-333.
Ch. 8 -U-'- strub - - - - PP.
87-89: = 8. pp. 333-335: C. pp. 17-18.
Ch. 9 nrll.lr-br'i --*- brdu. - nrr - ~ a * i
m. PO. 89-90: B. PP.
335-336-
Ch. 10 - - * m~ r ~ p y o m& - * w. pp. 90-93: = B . VV.
336-338; C, pp. 18-21.
Ch. 11 dkU&-~a*i thrbr d r ~ - b - * i khl. DD.
93-95: = B. PP. 338-300.
Ch. 12 -
- m. pp. 95-97: = 8. PD. 300-311.2;
C. pp. 21-26.
Ch. 13 dkyil- * khor bvin UuB Da L P e a n n S - -
*
-
le'u,
PP. 97-98: 8. pp. 380-382: C , pp. 21-24.
Ch. 10 dPn - - - d r a a QQ ln - , m
-
Ch.
Ch.
Ch.
Ch.
Ch.
Ch.
Ch.
rpyd nsunn - ni-*mfX u - * h.!~. OD. 98-99.
15 chPa thrlne crd ainn r i m: yyum gyi
- - - - -
ba - *i le'u. pp. 99-101: =
B. pp. 362-3&&.
16 -11-1- - -
l l i S a - - - - * u. pp. 101-105: = B.
PP. 306-366; C. pp. 21-27.
17 -6b. - d m- t e h i n - - - J U L i ULu. OD.
105-111.
18 spuu-'phrul-~- - - - - -
RbL&&--le(u. pp. 111- 11: = B. pp.
3&6-351; C. pp. 27-32.
19 ~dn-rir bkod - g a a r u ~ U - - - U. DR. 110-
118: = B. pp. 316-351; C. pp. 27-32.
2 0 --- - - - . pp. 118-121:
Be Pp- 351-353.
21 W - ~ a ' i Ir'u. PP. 121-123: = 8. pp. 353-
355: C. Pp. 32-38.
22 =O - PA. rrr. - * - * m, pp. 123-126: -
i
I Ch.
I
Ch.
Ch'.
Ch.
Ch.
Ch.
Ch.
Ch.
Ch.
B. PP. 355- 357-
i l - ' u - , pp. 126-129: = B,
pp. 357-359; C. PP. 34- 37.
tahone --~a'i U, pp. 129-130: = B. PP. 359-
360; C. pp. 37- 38.
--m - - - le'Y. PB.
130-133: = 8, pp. 360-362; C. pp. 3 8 - b l .
Ru&pal _i u*
PP. 133- 135.
m d - b ~ u - Da -
i l 8md
mir~~fl-~a'i
-
pp. 135-136: =
B, pp. 362-364.
- De ' i l e' u, pp. 136- 137: = R. pp. 364-365; C,
pp. 41- 02.
aRxhr nam-
UaZ EQX'os Dm
- : MJUbr- - ' u. pp. 137-146: =
B, pp. 365-373: C. PP. 42- 51.
khro-bo*A 3aAmu chen - - neunnvil - 8 - aclron_ -
U. PP. 146-108: = B. pv. 373-375; C. PP.
51-52.
w- bo 8 i - Fpya m. pp. 148- 151: =
B. PO. 375-378.
- a- bo' i --'- - na 'f u. pp. 151-153:
= B. pp. 378-379; C, pp. 52- 53.
--DO*& hyin - - yon- - - -
- ~a'i Ir'u. DP. 153- 157.
Ch. 30 chen-Da baed - -in - D a q i le'u, pp.
157-159.
Ch- 35 wil- q
-
-
pp. 159-160.
Ch. 38 ydo,-r.lr - le'u, pp. 165-
167.
Ch. 39 ~ u - ' ~ t r r u l rbDn-cf' ~ A r l = R a Z bzunn-aa L~SLUfl-rtel
u. pp. 167-16&.
~ 1 1 . 40 sman-nra-Daqi u, pa. 168-173: 8. pp. 380-385.
Ch. 41 de - bzhin - n s h e p s - k v i - Wi n - b r U ' b ~ u u ~ -
b zhea-- le'u, vp. 173-176.
Ch. 42 - - - - ph- -haq ypn- t an
u, pp. 176-181.
ch. 03 -
zhes.-ha'i Iply, pp.
181-152.
Ch. 00 w u - q P-
&a-baqi -a - a - ~ - hya
-ba'i le'u. pp. 182-186.
Ch. 05 ~ u - ' a h r u l ~ - ~ o ' ~ ~ ~ - -
Zbrs bua
-
-hA.!A Ic'u. pp. 186-187.
Ch. 06 thllb - - - - ' d a ~ -wip - ndun-
~nrma
- %-bani U. pp. 187-190.
Ch. 07 W U - * D ~ chan-pa - -a1 - wed
Ch.
Ch .
Ch.
Ch.
Ch.
Ch.
Ch.
Ch.
Ch.
Ch.
Ch.
Ch.
1 8 ahin-tu 'dul-har pyur -
-
~A.!A U. PP. 193- 196.
09 kka' -drin &an- ~ a ' i U. PP. 196- 199.
50 dprp- *n-DU bud-med u - b a ' i u, pp. 199-
203.
51 mchod-ebuln a -& bh. p. 203: B. pp.
379-380; C, p. 51.
5 2 U t a n
~a
- 'i uh. PP.
203-206: = B. pp. 385- 387; C, pp. 5L-56.
5 3 dam- s u m - W a - m a FtSB-hB b+ -,a- l nm m d w - pahad-
u, pp. 206-219: = B. pp. 387- 388.
5 4 srua m a m s - c a d - hamL JLu-0 - bo - khro - =
me Es bv onna
- 1 , pp. 219- 220: = B, pp. 388-
389.
5 h o ma - - w - - - ~ k ' l . u. pp. 228-
221: = B. pp. 389- 390.
56 B h i D d ns t nn- ba ' i khrn - ba we - bax benruQ-Ba'.l m.
pp. 221-222: = B, pp. 390- 392.
57 - DQ homa - W i u. pp. 222-22&: = 8 , pp. 392-
393.
58
-
hPma evi, pp. 221- 226: = B. pp. 393-395.
59 -11 - M mwal - mdzlld - ULXML -no'i U.
PP. 226-227: = B. pp. 395- 396.
6 0 -cad-- - - - - d %hi-b.'i -
u. pp. 227-228: = 8, pp. 396- 398.
C h .
C h .
C h .
C h .
C h .
C h .
C h .
C h .
C h .
6 I p ~ u b - ~ e ~ l n h - p q
-em-bua-ba'i m. pp. 228-230: = 8. pp. 398-1100;
c. PP. 57-59.
6 2 p C n - ~ n l - d y rhvfn-na bcu dann: $a- hr u- danpL fk
mchon-denn:
fSYi zhinP me-lugr - Y f d - c v u l s m e - n u 'd"s-*ar
u. pp. 230-237: = €3, pp. 800-1102.
6 3 - n a ' i ~ . k y i l - ' k h m we s - n a ' i ma=.
P me@-~~'i LLhL' m p - p
u. pp. 232-2311: = 8. pp. 1102-0011.
611 $ s h e - ' 1 cno-ne -bin O - tu-bann-ba 'i leru.
pp. 2311-236: = B, pp. hO11-106.
65 d . b b - ~ * ' i le'u. pp. 236-239: = 8 . pp. 1106-1109,
66 ~ F Y - D Q --~a-dbnP: sh-n-no bzhf'i
dbyi ) - ' k h a &~ Q - p f n g w u b - pa ' ' PP. 239-
243: = 8. pp. 009-1113.
67 eku'l - 'khor - r &u m~ = U a p e - bua -he 1
u, pp. 2113-21111.
58 m - t u &f a- beVi QaPPa - nrub B o b - m a r
- *
bus_ba i I f l - l l , pp. 21111-2117.
69 u. pp. 267-2118.
70 r - - - m u b - ~ a - k ~ i - %-:
W u b - ~ a ' i u. PP. 2118-251.
71 m - t E m U - F Y ~ prft-w hehad-
'1eVu, PP. 251-2511.
7 2 d a k Z a h k s u m - b m &ue - cu - LhhZ m.m~ - pat- bnrop-
nal_i u. PP. 2511-278.
7 3
i
Ch. 77 . DD.
I
303-305.
ch. 78 - - ctlar u. pp. 305-314.
Ch. 79 w a s - a l ' i w,. pp. 338-315: R. pv. 413-414; C. DO.
59-60.
ch. 80 y9nns_ru - -2 -ba * OD. 315-316: B e 00. hlh-
415; C. pp. 60-61.
Ch. 81 snvud - - rhinn - ma '1 Ash, DO- 316.
Ch. 82 u- * nyur-ba r a b - ty -ga'i Lpfy. 00.
316-317.
Of the 82 chapters of the longer vereion. the fiost 28 concern
the mandala of peaceful deitiee and the remainder the mandala of
. . . .
wrathful deitiea. The intermediate vermion omit8 onlv three of
the foomar (chs. 18. 17. 26) but thirty-one of the latter (Chs.
33-39. 81-50. 67-78. 81-82) rnd the shoot veroion omits only
twelve of the fomeo (Ch8. 2, 5, 7 . 9 , 11, 14-15, 17. 20. 22. 26-
27) but forty-mix of' the latter (Ch8. 31, 33-50. 53-60. 62-78.
81-82). xt im thorefooe in the longer vermion that t hr mandala of
. .
wrathful deitirm reachom it. fullemt exprrmmion. while all t h r * ~
Vep8ionm differ far 1888 in their vrementation of the ~perceful
mandala. Slpnlficantly. It was the short version whlch wa s moet
assertion tha+ the fully elaborate wrathful rltes were corefully
guarded and not conside~ed advantagcous for the majority of
practitjoners. One could also speculate. on the analagy of
teaching-cycles such as the - , whether the ? h ~ - + e r
versions were abridged from the longer to facjlitati= ~ e c i + ~ t l o n
and memorl eat1 on, or whether the precedence t ~ a d l t l onall y 01 ven
to the shortes+ Is valid. However It le difficult a? ths prcsent
time to make reliable assertions regarding the hiato~lcal statug
100
of these version8 with rcepect to each other.
Among them the prese3t study concerns the - eat QL W
Secret - Deiinit1Y.e With BLpncct SQ m Re a l (nelnn - b**l
3attvavLnj.b c a u a ma h B t m. T. 832. MOB. uol. I &. pp. 1-61). which
!r consldered To be the barlc text of the cycle. klong-chen #ah-
1 @ J
'byarns-pa speaks of it in his ohvaPa - m - =el as :
. . . thjs kingly and g l o r l o u ~ Qf -- c-crct JJucI-u
HUh Rc.Dcct b BEBL !T- 8 3 2 ) - - +he furthest
summit of 013 vehlclee. the source of all literary trsns-
misajons. the Oreat short-cut of thc vehicle of a11 braddhar
OZ the three tlmea. and the most eecret of all.
* ad-- And * Ju Mi-pham ~ N s m - r ~ y a l i n hj* W-
102
elaborates:
It I known from l l t e r a ~ y ~ o u r c r a that "tantrsr ape to be
known In comparison with other tantrasa. A c c o P ~ I ~ S I Y . t h i s
g r e a t trntra whi ch c ompl e t e l y di a c l omr s the e n o e n t l r l . of
vi ew and me d i t a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e una ur pa a a r d u n t r a m l a
a uni que gemat one of t h e t h r e e wor l da i naamuch as i t
g u a l i t a t i v r l v e a t a b l i s l s s the i n t e n t i o n m d mor ni ng of t h e
e n t i r e v e h i c l e of i n d e r t r u c t i b l e r e a l i t y . It l a t h e ki ng of
al l t m t r a a . It i m t h e f ur t he t a t a u n i t of a l l v e h i c l e s . t h e
mource o f a l l t e a c hi ngs . t h e g e n e r a l c or me nt a r y on a l l
l i t e r a r y t r ma mi s a i o n s . t h e great s h o r t - c u t o f a l l buddhne.
m d i t i n endowed wi t h t h e wondr our c n l i a h t e n a d a t t r i b u t e s
of gr eat neam whi ch are t h e ge nui ne 1nnepl.o.t i n t e n t i o n of
al l t h e t at h8gat a. 8. The r e $6 t h e r e f o r e n o e ms e n t i a l Po i n t
whi ch - pe a r s t o be t a ught o u t s i d e %h i 6 t a n t r a . Kn wi n g t h a t
t h o s e t e x t s whi ch have been c u h l y c o m~ o s e d , e i v i n g
instruction on e a c h pr of ound md mi nut e v e r s e o f
i n d e 6 t r u c t i b l e reality i n t h e mant r a- ma tmtra-tertm ne a
d e a l r r b l e o b j e c t o f 6 o p h i r t c y t o ms t i a f y t h e prPcreaB of
one ' s own i n t e l l e c t . are v a c a n t r a a l i f c l e a a c or ps e , 1% i a
a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t f o r t u n a t e b e i n g s who pom0s6m t h e supreme
u p i r a t i o n o f t h e v e h i c l e o f indestructible r e a l i t y a houl b
e a r n e s t l y a t t e n d t o t h e exposition of auch trntrar. e ve n et
t h e c o a t of t h e i r own bodism o r o f l i f e i t a a l f !
The r l y i n s - u t r d i t i o n t h e r e f o r e regards t h i s t e x t it. f unda-
ment al t a n t r a . What her i t i a i nt er pr et ed am x~i ast - ~ W O I L O
or u m A t i y o ~ a mource.
I 5. Structured Content. or the
The underlying structure of the Smtra*. twenty-two chapters
cor~rspondm to the three continua (~ul
- ) of the ground.
path and result, which have been outlined abovm. While klong-Chen
Rae-'byus-pa presents a mliehtly different account in Pbrann-hcu
-
run (mat below p. 513) . the following ernera1 etructure 1s
obmerved by most bkl'-rr cornentatore.
Title and Introductory Words
e) The Pmacvful Mandala:
i . 1 ?he Introductory Scene ( - - * 1p'y)
Ch. 2 Generation of Ultimate and Relative Enlightened UInd ao
Prletine Cognition ( - - b v m n -
Ch. 3 The L8tablishment of A11 0ha-u (w
- Pl'iIr'u)
s a J u n u B p f - -
Ch. k cyclical Arr- of the 0mr1-d of Syllables (Yi-nl 'Phr,nn-
Qaa2mQrLh - -1
a. 5 Contamplation tbat Attrinm the w i c a l Met ( m u - *D~U
Ch. 6 banatLon of the Wdal r ( p k y i l - ' m - * U)
.
Cb. 7 Ab8e~ptAon of the Mendrla and the Secret Wurtru (m
Ch. 8 Consecration of All Lirba a8 the Nmdala and tho Subsrquent
. .
Emmat ion of the Sea18 ( XULUS - 1IP t hrrr- erdi l - * Uuu rPu
Ch. 9 Socret Conitrent of the Indeatructiblo Arrw (rQP*
W - n a ' L - - b ~ * i -in-U u)
Ch. 10 Conferral of Errpowermtnt I - -&
Ch. 11 Mmdala of the Feaot-offering8 (t.hpna-kul u I l - ' -
. .
.yi la'u)
Ch. 5 2 Attainment of the Feast-offerings (trhpnr - - ~ r ' i
-1
Ch. 13 Nucleuu of Maat Secret Laoteric Instructions (u -
C P n t i n u l r r ~ ~ R a r u l t :
Ch. 1 4 The Lulow Which Pleaamo ( m - ~ a ' i U - n a ' i -1
b) The Wrathful nuleala:
. .
s onuubma + h. - :
Ch. 15 Cloud-like LIanatian of the Natural Mandala of Wrathful
Ch. 16 muration of tho ManOala of Buddha-apooch of the Oreat
. .
&.soably of WP~thful Doitior (h@a-haeL chrn-~o*i
Ch. 17 Rmvrlation of tho Clrndala of Wrathful Doitie8 (hJhra-bo'i
. .
dlcvil-'LhPr &h)
ch. 18 A Toaching on Ocnuine Offorins m d Liborrlity (-
r 4 u i n u - -
- -1
Ch. 19 C m i t m e n t a
Ch. 20 Conmacrotion cf Spontaneous Enlightened Activity (u
pri. --hyin a*=
- - - - -
h A 3 -1
CantinuullpLwRaault:
Ch. 21 U u l o w to the Wrathful Deities (w - bo - la
- r
Conclusion:
Ch. 22 That which ia Pleasing m d Retained ( ~ ~ ) v e s - DI - 9.pp
--Mi h h 1 .
In the remaining part of this introduction this celebrated trntrr
is to be examined in t a m s of the controversy aurroundins ita
orioins. the historical background derived from the biusrrphies
Of it6 Indian and Tibetan line-e-holders. and m ma1Yais of its
Vhil080phi~~l content.
6. Origin of the - t t v a v p :
Any di8cu88ion of tho himtorical pomition of thm auhulnrrahr-
t r t t vr vi ni l r l ur r r h. t an* ~ rust taka note of tho controvor8v
r*gardina it8 origin which prevailed in Tibot in tho crnturiea
iurdiatolv tollowing the lrtor propasation of the Buddhimt
trachinam. Wm have a l n r b y notmd that dismuinrtion of tho
ancient tantras was reetrictcd in conaeqtaence of their secrecy
and the danger of their misapplication. In the eleventh century,
Lha bLa-ma Ye-shes-'od and others sought to outlaw the teaching
and practice of tuntra. accusing the adherents of this tradition
of engaging in practices. The Guhuanarbhetattva-
-. one of the main texts expounding these methods. was
subjected to critic is^. Other such texts. including the -a-
- . were paradoxically exempted from this attack. None-
theless. as we shall see in our examination of the text itself.
the expression of these techniques in the Guhvanarbha appears to
have a particularly subtle intention when contrasted with the
overt sexdal and macabre descriptions found in certain other
103
tantran . Further study of the Tantras gL rHYinn-
ra-pa. particularly of its Anuyoga and Atiyoga texts. would, it
has been suggested. reveal that the the ancient translations
appear to have their own distinct terminology and a literary
style better suited to rhe Tibetan language than the rigid
formalism present in many of the later translations. giving some
105
weight to Rong-zom-pa's early critique.
An incident from the life of Zur-chung-pa Shes-rab Grass alludes
t v this controversy with aome humour. When four students of the
bKal-gdams-pa teacher Khyung-po Grags-se were defeated by Zur-
chung-pa in debate and asreed to become hi8 dieciples* having
understood the profundity of hie view. KhyunS-90 Grags-se
105
announced:
"Anyone who kills one like Zur-chune-pa. who hartoura
ververmr opinions and leadm everyone astrry. will certainiy
rttrin b~ddhrhood!~ Zur-chung-pa. on herring thim. remained
silent without thought of rncer and wrm later meen 8miling.
On leinu asked the rermon for hi8 mirth. he mmwered.
"A8 for doctrines. thim. my secret mantra-trrdit ion of the
greater vehicle. is it! For it im the tradition of mecret
mantras that maintrine that buddhahood mr y be attained by
"libaration"; the dirlecticirnm do not think so. Now. even
such a great dialectician as Khyuag-po Qraas-me hre maid
thrt rnyona who kills one like Zur-chuna-pa will rttrin
buddhrhood. So. in his innernoet heart. he has turned to lay
106
doc trine. Therefore* I am delighted! "
Another eleventb century figure. *Go6 Khug-pa Lhes-btsao.
reputedly nursing a grudge bec8uae he hrd been refused
107
instruction by Zur-po-che. in hi6 --&la ( - )
Bought to refute the authentic orisin of the trntrr, imputing it
to have "four faults** (&on - h u , m d claiminu that it was not
108
known in India. The trntro wrm generally considered by *GOB
to lack the five excellencies (Phun-rum - -1. 1.9.
tho8e of teacher. retinue, locrtion. teaching and time. He im-
puted it to have r flawad introduction ( - 1. 1.e.. that
unlike other trntrrm it had no audience of bodhimrttvrm; r
flrcred time (-1. 1.8.. thrt it opeaka of four time8 instead
of three; r flrwed undrlr (&yil-'w -1. 1.8.. that Vrjra-
. .
rrttvr rpperrm at the centre of the undrlr lnsterd of Vrirocma;
. .
m d r fl-4 text ( - 1 bcrume it refern to other trntrr8
when indicrtins the ru8vicioua time8 m d Ow. for it8
109
vrrc t ice.
Slirht variatione on there "four faults*' have been reported in
the later writlags of Sog-bzlog-pa bLo-gros rGyal-mtahan. PA*-bo
gTsug-lag 'Phreng-ba. and others. Sog-bzlog-pa. in hie &?is--
run-gpya. p. 33, holde *Go6 Lha.8-bteas to
have imputed the to be flawed in word (-).
flawed in meaning (-). flawed by contradiction (w
WM) and flawed by disconnection (ma-'brel ba
-
'i -1.
speaks of *'four errors" -1. namely. the error of
the - ' s introductory statement "At the time of this
explanation" ( ' d i - w - ~ a ' i . - -). the
error of its mandala which is said to have an immeasurable ground
. . 110
(lUhi tshpd - u - -Da). the error of its explaining the
three times as four tlmes ( m - n s u m - a dua - b w U d - Da mi-
rine-sa) and the error of Vajrasattvr being the central deity of
the manaala instead of Vairocana (pbyil-*- - & s o - b ~ rdo - rje
. .
mas-- - a ) .
The rNying-ma response to these four flaws. faults or errors is
disclosed in the course of the appended commentary by kLong-chen
Rab-'byams-pa. Vigorous counter-refutations have also been made.
in particular by bCom-ldan Rig-pa'i Ral-gri, and the afore-
mentioned authors-- dPa*-bo gTsug-lag 'Phreng-ba and Sog-bzlog-pa
LO-groe rOyal-mtshan.
bcom-ldan Rig-pa'i' Ral-gri's commentary is entitled Erm: pL fbe
m~f ( - - lnvinnub - wa n - - ? w g ) . No
longer extant u r dimtinct work, momt of it aurvivem OF is citod
I
in other texts. viz. rOyal-.ram Thuga-mchog-rtsal. a a - ' h u w
. 11, f. 357-61. Dalai L u a V. SULUA!A
-
chuEaYun, V01. 4. 0. 397. the Writinnr pf S a s A u h ~ -
p.. Vol. 1. pp. 500-509 and 52&-526 ( = - 'hrun - ). and
kLong-chen I11 bKra-mhim rNam-reyal. - - PUUUX
-, p. 20. Reference8 to tala treatime are also found in
111
dPa'-bo eTmug-1- 'Phrane-ba. - -'-fa-. p. 178.
I
I
In Sog-bzlog-pa'a version. Rig-pa5i Hal-sri ie quoted r e
I
112
I
I
sollow8:
I
I This trntra 1st genuine for the follow in^ reasons: The master
Vihvamitra in hla Ctrart M Xha QloriPua
aamkt ~ (dnUsaumAa'du.-DI'nral - than . T. 1804). in the
courae of him coamaenta on the vaaaage (from the -
aamuA):
%ow far does the Being of Pristine Co~nition reach? ..."
sitam the auhVrrrrbhr as follows:
In the abode of Akanirtha without extremes or centre.
. .
on tne radiant wheel of priatine cognition that is the
limitlema ground. there is hi8 celestial palace
blazing forth with jewelm of pristine cognition.
complately uninterrugteb throughout the ten
directions...(Ch. i. aection 3)
And al8o:
In every inconceivable (world-syatrs). he appearn
univermally a8 biver8r bubbha-body. speech. and mind.
(Ch. 1. saction 6 )
Then. in comaentine on the (QUhYaama) pamm-e:
"The mtQva should be known to be
Tha palatial abode of all buddha a..."
he cite8 the -hha a8 follows:
Its spire 1s the pristine cognition central to all.
in which all rmdalas Of the buddha6 of the ten
. .
direction6 and four time6 without exception are not
distinct from one mother. m d are of a single esmence.
(Ch. 1. section 3)
Then. commentins on the pasrage, "Substantial existence is
based on inrubmtantiality.. ." he sivee:
Emaho! This wondrous marveloue reality
IS the secret Of all the perfect b.ubdhae.
All is created through the untreated.
At creation iteel? there ie no creation.
(Ch. 2. 6)
Then. while explaining the meaninu of "8ecretW he revs. "Th@
speaks of -." (Ch. 10)
Moreover. he uuotss the passaee beeinnine:
Their [body-colourr] art dark blue. white. ell ow.
scarlet.. . up to:
...[ Pervrsive] without extreme6 or centre.
[It i8 m unthinkable] apontaneoumly prorent [mandala];
and ha 8wa. ' wAccordinp to the there are
113
three rmalitiem.a
In thrmr m d all other much inmtmcrm Vi4vrritra br8in. by
mntionine thr titla
The four perverse faults, et cetera. (criticised by 'Gos
Lhaa-btsas). are also to be rejected:
1. (When texts begin with the words) 1 have
114
- * it traditionally means that they were
compiled by the buddhas themselves, for it is impossible
for even the tenth level bodhisattvas to compile all the
teachings of the buddhas. As it nays in the VcriiiEatiPn Qf
a Sccrct (Srlnuhuasiddhi, T. 2217). composed by marter
115
Saroruha as a commentary 0 1 the w:
Most mastera claim
That tbe most radiant tantra,
The plorious - .
Had aa its cornviler
Tne spiritual warrior called Lokedvara.
But by the kindness of m y venerable guru
I Itnow that the compiler of the glorious
Could not have been any other,
And so the beine who propounded it
Was that tantra' s outhof.
The indestructible reality of mind.
In accord with this explanation. there ie a tradition where-
116
by the exponent himself is the compiler.
2. A8 for the nrpund: the AbhidhBmIB. too.
explains that Akanlmtha is immeasurable.
- .
3. Concerning the LpUp m: vibvuaitra's orart -trru
(T. lab&) saws: "Thus. the fourth ti- mhould be known to
muenemm. . . rn Moreover. the phrame. & a lPrdl a
U, n &ad f mu i8 a180 found in the new
trmmlation8. Buddh~uhya explain8 that it refer8 to the
four aeon..
. Regarding Vajramattva'm appearance at the centre (of the
mnndrla): even the new trmmlationm explain that the fore-
. .
~0.t figure in the randale m w changr po8itione.
. .
(Ch. 4. 15) : the Indim rurumcript of the Quhvanlrbhr read8
a wylti. ("threadn) i8 the Su8krit word
for !"aearurino 1lnew). SOryrgrabhL.lrha'8 cosaentarv
( p n - t l I s p , P. 4719) expAain8
117
(&,A.a am being e~uivolent) to U. I& ir m .rchaici8m.
h for the reference to other tantram (which i8 found is
the duhurllrbhr): All the tantras expounded later on,
Such am the ( 7 , 117-8). almo refer to the
PL tLU UaU ( - . I. h79i which had been
118
deliverad fir8t.
R i g - ' a l - argument thus 8eek8 to emtablimh the
authenticity o f the - , citing euotbtionm from it which
occur in celebrated lndian text8 of the C Y C A ~ . While
Certain tmtrr8 I.W have bean written down directly in the
*one theme.
Further critlclrmr levelled by '9ri-gun# dPa1-'dsln nt the Ati-
yoga wyotem in general and at Paflmsoambhavalm
-. a celebrated commentary on chapter t h l ~ t e e n a? aur teut.
have been euamined by Sog-trslog-pa and 'Jjtr-mod g1,jng-pa, qnfl
119
more rccently by W. Norbu and S. G. Warmay. The l a t t a ~ h*e
noted pnssaaea from thlr commentary which occur in ~Yuhs-ehen's
early work, h4ra-ntrn -. and tranrlatee the qntirc ten*
as reproduced by Rang-tom-pe. In addition, he ha* bralrght t a our
attention certojn pasmaser Prom SOryoprabh%sfrha's Indian
commentary. the - t t v ~ n m a ~ ~ a k h y h n ~ t ~ . amanp
130
The Tun Wuanq documents. The oarly 11 t c ~ a ~ y and h3 s t a ~ 3 c 6 3
sources thus brine urn cYaaer to the tradltienal view thet the
text war jntroducad In the eiehth century.
That many af tho rNylng-ma tantras were unknown in eleventh
century India lr not rurprlslng when one considers that fhejr
translattont are attributed ta the bichth century and thrt the
majarlty of them were ehnrldered t o have bean impertcd jnta
eighth century Tibet. not fram the Mapadhe heartland OP Nnrbh
India. but fram C%dQiyina and adjacent reglanm in the nerth-west.
. .
Atlba, on a virlt to tho l l h ~ a r y of Pehar dKor-mdrad g l * I n ~ a*
bsm-yam, in known t o have marvolleb at the oxi8tmncm o f tantrrr
123
which no longep m u ~ v l v o d In Central Indla.
The argurnontm ralmad by Ye-mhoa 'ad and ' Oa r Lhrs-Eteas atrinat
the loat t h c i ~ impact and controvmroy hy the
f~urtoonth contury. Indmed, they bmcamm doad 1rru.r Per Tlhmtan
historians much a6 *Gas LateBwa ~Zhon-nu dPal (1392-lh81) who
persenally scqulred the Sanskrlt manuscript of the root-tsntra
122
which had been rediscovered at bRam-yae in the Interim.
In consequence. Sop-bzlag-pa could crebibly present +he iollowlng
siutecnth century account of Its introd-~ction anfl t~nngla+lnv In
his slob-- I ~ ~ ~ - F P V U nrwl.-Pa cashna rnam-Far
w* p. 128: Therein. perhaps iollowinp
tha? the Sanskrit manuecriptr of the -2- ade-brnuad were
taken f ~ o m Nalanda Vihara by Padmasambhava and then trsnslated
through ml racu? ous ebi li ty at PGye-dkar sGra-bsgyur gtinp. sou+h
123
of bSam-yap. The tests were then kept at the Kc-tshane In
bSam-yas when no l o n g e ~ extent in India.
P* +hea repeats 'Go- Lots&wa's account of the discovery of the
San~krit manuscript in bSam-yas by the great pandita jakyadrf
(1127-22?5!. The latter entrueted It to rTa-ston gZl-brjid. from
whom it passed int@ the handm of Shs-ge L o t ~ g w a snd thence +o
bCom-ldan Rig-pa.1 Ral-grl who composed the eforemen+ioned
commentary in depence of the tantra. Subseq~ient l y. Thar-pa
Lotsawa reqranslated the Sanskrit varmion of the roat-tewt kn9w-t
88 the rPyUd -I--. with two additional chapters (Chs. 33 8 2 4 )
for the first time, and thewe were m ~ v i e e d by '~os ~ots&wa gZhon-
1.2 I
nu dPa1 In person.
Later rlyjne-ma writmrr like *Jlgr-mod .Line-pa rmfraee to debate
the specific point8 of 'Qos Lhea-btsas. conmidering that the past
refutations of bCOm-lean Rig-pa'i Ral-gri and Sog-bzlos-pa were
unanswerable. That this view was also held by followers of the
new translation schools is evidenced by the follow in^ dismiesive
response of the Sa-skya-pa scholar. Zi-lung-pa 38k-ya mChog-ldan
125
( 1428- 1507) :
It is not necessary to prove laboriously that
The rNying-ma-pa doct-ines ware translated from Indian
originals.
It -1s enouprr that they are proven to be
The teaching of the emanational master (Padmasembhava;.
Although they do not conform with the mantraz and symbols
9f those translated from India later on.
The proof of their validity is infallible accomplishment
126
Through their supreme and cormnor3 attainmerlt.
They mey be compared with the doctrinc~ taken
By supreme. accomplished maeters frow various. great lands.
And which were not translated in India
From their respective volusres:
For it is said that with Vajrasattva's consent
The compilers of those transmitted precepts
Were themselves pexmitted to teach them
In the language of each different country.
The rNying-ma-pa doctrinal traditione that definitely w e r e
frrnslrted from India require no proof.
Brving formulrtrd argument8 one might prove
The indefinite onre to be treatires.
But the great one8 who c u e before in Tibet.
Discovering thia to be an rrtificirl. concrpturl path.
kiove avoi ded wrnbrring upon it,
Aa they thesaelve8 have explained.
7. The Indian historical tradition of the p
- :
the present account of the Indian and Tibetan lineages arsociated
*Jigs-bra1 Ye-.he6 rDo-rje in WSTB.. Book 2. Theme include: *Go6
klong-chen Rab- * byum-pa. Pnvinr - U -bu * A -- -
-
ria r h r n d w PhPann - znr; and the
aforementioned catalo@ue m b index of the m a by
the l ef mdr r y historical appearance of the Mnh&oge tnntrw 18
umocieteb uith Kinf 31 of sahor. uho is considered to be the
8ubdect of various prophetic declaration6. auch rs the followintz
128
t t ~ the s - - - :
One hundred end twelve Yearn from now,
Uhrn I have vmlahed from hef*.
Renowned in the three di-~ine realms.
Will be revealed by the Lord 5f Secrets
To one who is named Kine Ja.
Who will appear by virtue of great merits
At Jambudvlpa's eastern frontier.
And in the bun-bzann ye-ehfa nsal - utan -oa8 i mahs-kwi
129
IqyS-oa8i rnvud ( NGa . Vol.8):
The Maheoga tantrae will fall onto the palace of King
Ja. The Anuyoga tantras will emerge in the forests of
Singhala.
While the identity of this figure is Obscure-- he has been re-
ferred to as Indrabhiit1 the Great. his son. or even a later
Indrabhdti contemporaneous with KukkurB ja. Kambalapada.
130
Saroruha. and J&landharip& - - the tradition clearly recounts
131
that:
While the king was sitting absorbed in the meditative
cultivation of the yoga of the lower fantras, a volume con-
taining the Mah&ogatantras. including the Buddhasamrivona !T.
366-3671 and an image of their compiler Guhyapati Vajrapbi.
reportedly fell upon the royal palace. just as in his dream.
Then. having performed prayers. he intuitively understood the
chapter entitled the "Vieion of Vajrasattvaw and practised
meditation for seven months. relying on that and on the image
of Vajraphi. As o result he had a vision of Vojrasattva and
received from him the empowerment of pristine cognition.
Thus. he came to underntand the 8ymbolic conventions and
meanings of that volume in their entirety.
King J a first taught these tantras to Uparhja. the celebrated
scholar Of Sahor. but without acscess. He then taught the master
Kukkurhja. who intuitively understcod the chapter On the "vision
of vajrasattva" ( w a d - h c u - ~ a . Ch. 70) . from the - eema
(NGB. vol. 10) . and received a prediction that
Guhyapati Vajrap&ni would subsequently reveal the meanings of
this tantra. Accordingly Kukkuraja is said to have been empowered
132
by G u h r a ~ a t i and verbally instructed by Licchavi Vimalakfrti.
He then divided the Mah&oga texts into eighteen great tantra-
pitakas and taught them to King Ja. The latter wrote many famous
commectaries o n the tantras including the ~ p y y - 'Phrul LaAmam-
kkQd ( P. 4737) and the - a- w~&kh { P . 11771)
which are connected with the cycle. H e himself says in
r 33
the a p y u - l n h r u - ( p . 0737):
In the eastern domain of IndrahhGti.
At Vajrakata. in India.
I. the noble Indrabhcti.
Practised the M c a 1 Net.
Having been taught by the Lord o f Secrets. himself.
I actually realised Vajrapiini.
With his retinue o f fifty thousand.
Being empowered in wholesome action.
Br the practice o f dieciplined conduct.
I was free from sin. and reached (an exalted) level.
KukkurCja, known ae the "king of dogs" becauee he reputedly
taught the doctrine by day in the guise o f a dog t o a thousand
warriors anC yoginZs. and by night we n t to the charnel grounds
with them to perfOmD feast-offerings and other sacramental
practices. went to Oddiysna where he gave a detailed explanation
.
of the five inner tantra-pitakas of Mahbyoga. including the
~ ~ o n a . (T. 366-367) on which he had composed many
treatises. e.g.. the Sndm&x&- (T. 1660-1669). and
the m n p (T.1670). He transmitted the
. .
eighteen tantrapitakas of Mohboga to jakraputra, or IndrabhGti
the younger. who was the king*& son: he to Sj-mhar&ja; he to
Sakrabhati. or UparBJa; and finally to the daughter Gomadevl. As
13a
18 said in the H,&&L&l- (P. P736):
Then. to the east of Jambudvipu.
Which rests on the Indeatructible Seat.
In a holy palace of precious gems.
In an auspicious and sacred room.
Kukkurdja and IndrabhQti.
Tosether with SimharEija. Upa~Bja.
Daughter Gomadev~. and others.
Received the empowerment of the
They actually attained the mandala as an assembly;
. .
And manifeetly reached the level of Vajradhara.
135
The lineage then descended tc LIlPvajra and Buddhapuhya.
The maetcr LXlPvaJra, a native of Saarrrara. waa crrdained in
. ..
Oddiyana where he studied the Tripitaka and became particularly
. .
learned in the philooophical tenezs of ~ar naa. the ordinarv
sciences. m d a11 the tantrrpi takas. the MInicrl W in part-
iculrr. On m island in Oddiyha called Madhima he practised and
. .
becue accorvlirhed in the P (1. 360) . During
him ten years at Ukilanda, he composed many treatimes and ex-
pounded them in detail. Those concerning the - - inclubo;
dm. T. 2533) accordinr to the intrrpret-
ation8 of the Unsurpassed (Yoga)-tmtra; the w - k h m h r n - m
P ~ S IAs sarrat #uclcur i - t - . P. 1718); the fnaarr
msuL Paint (-. P. 4723); the Siriold ((Krrrl-
8atbs. P. 8761): the pi ( m i t r a -
. .
e, P. 4748); md the Lpr
(p, P. 6745). Among the students of Llllvajra.
the root prominent were Buddh-uhya and BuddhaJfi~nap&a. who
136
atudied the maclsal mL (HOB. Volr. 14-16).
The Mster Buddhapuhya, a native of Centpal India, was ordained
at Ullurba. where ht m d master Buddhrhhti were both disciple8
of BuddhrjiiPnapPdr during the early pact of the latter's life. On
attalnino accorplishment through HaiilulrS. he travelled to
Oddiuba, m e r e he me t the urter Llllvajra, and 8tubird the
.,
Yosatmtru. the Five Inner Unsurpm8Bed Tmtrspitaku, and She
in prrticulrr. He composed a great uny works.
including: the t ~ ~ ~ ~ ' I l a t c l ~ ~
- r y r r L C p L " r , P. 4720); the -eraf thaw
. .
( - d m , 7. 3705) ; thr
P. 4735) i the rrr.rl. ( s O k . W*
P. 4734) and the - A t (Arvr-rU. P. 4733; t the
Smamu8 01 &Lh ( - , P. 4736) urd the Laagm~
SIaurncr ai ( mu - ' Ph r u l Ira - cvi SunaAe.
Dz. Vol. 1) ; am we1.1 a8 treatime8 on other tmtraa.
Pabu8ubhava :
Another lineye of the HahQuopa tantram a180 puetd from Kina Ja
md Kukkurija through Sukhuidhi (-dOa*-rrb rDo-rje) to Yajra-
hCmya m d thence to PrabhChamti of Sahor. The latter waa a
principle teacher of Paama8unbhava. who .la0 received the
U crcie directly from Buddhaguhya. Pabauunbhava compo8ed the
Grrrt m ( - - - - 1 on the -ttvr-
y h l A ~ ~ ~ a m d A t m k t r m . and in Tibet he a180 tausht hi8 celebrated
treat180 on Ch. 13 of %hi8 tmtra, entitled the OL
-pLtrptrrlcfn.tructipnr(- J A L a m u u - . P.
0726) to King Khri-8rong lde-btaan a d hie fortunate 8ubjacte.
v i u l w i tra:
A native of H u t i v m a in wemtern India. Yimal8mitra ma8tered the
8cience8 m d their brmchem. the miitram of the le88er and
Srerter vehicle8. and the tmtram under many mamter8 including
Buddhaeuhya. He we8 particularly learned in the rruicrlIrt
BOB. Vol8. l k- 16) ; -0 he corgo8ed many
treati8m8, o r in8turce: the c r n t a r y On tho
antitled & (rtuu-
3uuu - - 3 . - a P. 4739); the
A C r W M f P . U ( mu- ' Phcul
-*I - -11 the - m Q n 3m
~ U u l e t U . P. 6756) : the M
. ..
USuY ~~ u (W bfiu
- --*A w- * tcllL); Qpanint
orrvrlacr*6~uordebnbma, P. 6725) : the - - ( -
an-rr*rlaartsrYr, P. 8782) : nrdit.tivs Ahuustian ip Zh.8 HUrAa
. . .
SalainllE!~ht( m): and the ( -
The extant Indian colwentariea on the cycle of the MInicll W.
includine the above, are praservmd in the Peking edition of t h e
h.rur-'tuu, volm. 82-83. According to Lo-chen DharmaPrf, gaum- -
M A & a h L h m~ - . PP- 107 if.. they are divided between gcnecal
axegetical tracts (u OM -1 such as LflCvajra*6
and Vimmlrai tra'8 LrhPn-mum tarl-mn~an, and
cammentariea 1 - The latter include root-comraentaciss
( Wr - * mmA ) and exagetical commentaries ( u t l - *- 1. The f iret
SFoup comprlamm the great Indian treatises an the W b h a -
knd Vimalunitra. * E F I ~ - P - and- (P. 1755) . The mecond
.
~ncludea ceementarir8 on the other text8 of the cycle much a8
(P. 6756) . and W a d - cu - ~ a * i m&ue-'-.
In addition. each of the "ten aspects of mantrau ! - -
137
m!. which form the suhjec+-matter of the tantra-text. has
its awn c o m e n t a ~ i a l trabjtion:
1. View ( U ~ - h e ) :
dGa*-rsb rt?@-rjc*h u - ~ h m lta-@a*i w o n - p ~ a (P. 1777) . Padme-
sambhava ' B man - 1 t 4-ohrc- (P. 8726) . Vimalamitra's a-9-m
snpan-me'i 'nrcl ( P. 8725) . N&gErjuna*s a u - thm- a, c-dm (P.
h7 2 9 ) . and sKa-be dPal-brtsegr* Tibetan trestlse l t a - r h -
h c u - b w (k. b 7 2 8 ? .
2. COFduCt (=Y@~-D&) :
w a d - b a P y E (P. 5357?) , - -- * -
3 - Mandale (dk,yil - *kh= ):
. .
Buddhsguhya's ydn - rle Iss - - 3 t m Q (P. 1720) . mJ 1-
0 0 s - Qn n ( 7. 3705) . and Vimalamitre* s mgrgym;phll
(P. 8733-1, 8738O).
6 . Empowerment (n ) :
Buddhaguhya's ~ b o - rlc - amaQ ( P. 8761 1. &-PQ (P.
6721, 4767) . CLP+- y h c - c h w (P. a722) . (P.
a738) .
5. Commjtment ( - 1:
LilbvaJra*~ a - t ~ h i p nsal-bkra (P. b74h) . - - ~ e v p a
(P. h7k5) .
6. ~ c t i v i t y ( - 1:
vimalamitra's (P. 1766) . F - - (P. 8767) .
-
U ( P a 4 7 4 9 ) . - w-w - (P-
7. Attainment (-ub-D&):
IndrabhQt I ' e l a m - b k o a - ( P. 6737) . I E I W ~ ~ - D ~ (P. h771) .
Buddhaguhya *s lam-rim she - p h y ~ (P. 8736. DZ. V O ~ . 1 ) . ~ l l a -
vejrs's Cirp -. d ~ u (P. h7b1). Vlmalarnltr~'~ - ( P. b7&2!,
* - d - m (F. h731) . mvn-chcn (P. h733) . Bu0dhagubysts Qr v a r C: w
!P. 8731) . rnvan (P. Q735) .
e . Contemplstion (w - - * d a ! :
V l r n a l a mj trs * s Qsarn-ntan (P. 6732) . m o - b s Dhuan-ypya
(P. Q???!. ptse-ec- --a - - D e * i barn-
- ( p. h77- 9) .
10. Wantpa R Seal ( n - d a n n yhya* - Pava ) :
--ha brnuad-
8 . Appearmcc a T r m r l a t t o n of the 1L4y.jUI Wcl e In Ti bet :
'Jigs-me0 =Ling-pa, in his Catelanut Collcctcd Tantrae gL
m u - - , p. 6 1-3. stares that the was
definitively translated by Vlmalamltra. ~ N y a a s Jfi&nakum&rs and
*a Rin-chen mChog. Prevloumly. It had been translat-d by Bt~ddhs-
Euhye and Vmirocana, mnd in an Intervening period by Psdma-
aambhava and gWyacr Jfiinrkumira.
~t Mount Ksilash, Buddhaguhya instructed nBas *Jam-Opal mnd Bran-
ka Mu-kt1 among others on texts belonging t o the -
cycle, incl*~dine the bkod oa
- -
(P. h 7 3 7 ) . In
colYaboretion with Vairocana, he made the earliest translation of
Paclmaeembheva Instructed eNyaee Jfi&nakurn&i-a in ?he Pt ~hvrl erebt ~q
and in hi^ own S i b f l m ~f Yiows: A W m n & Inet-
ruct- (man-nqh~. lta-nhrr-. P. 8 7 2 6 ) . Tozether they made the
Intermcdlate translation. JfiBnakurnBra instructed the Sogelan
dPal-pyi Ye-ehes: and. with Z h a n ~ rGya1 -ba* 1 Yon-tan, he
Instructed gttuhe Sangs-rgyas Ye-ahes.
Vlmalamitrs t h t ~ expounded the EiPht ,Sec.%.ti~xlE Qf net
pL w a t t v a ( w u - '@hru s d e - b r w a . MOB. Vole. 1 h-1 5 ! , in-
cluding the h, which Is the root
of the Elohteen Great Tantre-pltakas. Fle expounded them to rMs
Rig--chen mChog, and translsted them wlth the latter's ausis*ance.
anfl that of gMysge JfiBnakumBre. Their version is therefore the
1 latest of three, snd it la knovn ae the basJc translatjon.
I
LaYer. the menuscript was translated by Thar-lo Nyd-ma rbyal-
mtshen and 'Gar lotsSwe gZho-nu dPa?. Their v e ~ s i o n ie c ~ l l e d t h e
acreative tpanslatlon" ( - ) because they had no ouFer-
vising prndita. In addition, the twenty-third an0 twenty-fourth
. .
chapters were alsb *ranslated by Thar-lo in nccordrnce wlth the
redi8covered Sanskrit manuscript.
w
klong-chen-pa (1308-1363). havinp examined the extant Tibetan
version in great detail. made the following obmervation in his
- mun - concerning certain appended vermes of the
138
tmtra:
Now. certain persons bold that theee appendices are absent
in this root-tantra but were extracted from other texts in
the cycle of the and inserted into their
resvcctive chapters by rMa Rin-chen mChop. and that (the
versione of the text) were divided by ~TSUP-rum Rin-chen
gZhon-nu into those which have appendices and Those which do
not.
Again. there are some who hold that the ve~sion without the
appendice6 was translated by gNyrgs JfiOnrkurn&ra. and that
the vereion with appended presages had them inserted into
the translation by rMa Rin-chen mChog. There are even some
who saw that M a himself concealed them out of envy at La-
139
Osum rGyal-bo Byang-chub. But the truth of the matter Is
that the appendices are lacking in both the earliest
translation made by Buddhaguhya and Vairocana and in the
intermediate translation which was made by Padmasambhava and
LNyage Jfi&nakum&ra. They are present in the later trans-
lation which was made by Vimalunitra. plyogs Jfi&nakum&ra and
*a Rin-chen mChog. Therefore it is clear that the Sanskrit
manumcriptm themmelve6 had a number of redactlone. Should
anyone wi8h to know that thim I6 the cram. the Trmrcrnd-
PtpPrrtLPn m n a t i v m
fhausrnd Lints (T. 8) itself had a number of manuscripts.
extant in the three redactions of the 920-
sbyangs. 'Phreng-ba-can. and sDe-can; and in certain texts
such as the SitPtPDatra (T. 3083. 592: a number of
redactions is similarly found. Therefore it is not certain
that these (variant passages) were ineerted by the Tibetans.
One should know that the discrepancies in the translations
ot this tantra were to be found in the Sanskrit rnanuscsipts.
Numerous redactions of Sanskrit manuscripts occur beca2se
there is a distinction between those version^) in which the
meaning is clearly expressed and those in which it is not.
M a Rin-chen mChog instructed gTsug-ru Rin-chen gZhon-nu and Kye-
re mChog-ekyong, who both instructed Zhang rGyal-ba'i Yon-tan and
Dar-~je dPal-gyi Grags-pa. The former taught this tantrh many
times in Central Tibet. atsang. and KhBEIb. and the lineages
descended from him became known as "the transmitted precepts of
mChins-pu". or as "the lineage of esoteric instructions".
9. The bJ&.a'-m lineage:
The succession known in Tibet as the "distant lineage of trans-
mitted precepts" ( - - ma'-=: encorporates all those
texts and inetructions of Mah6yoga. Anuyoga and g ti yoga which
were introduced from India and gradually passed down in an oral
and literary tradition. It is contrasted with the "close lineage
of treaeuree" (we-brwlrd m). which comprisem those cycles
discovered anew in each successive generation. This wdistant
lineagea la identified preeminently by its eynthesis of MrhAYosa.
Anuyoga. and Atiyoga. named ~ - a ~ v u - a r ~ s after tr8e titles
of the principal text of each-- the Manical ( E i U U ) . the SDPra
u k b Gathtrs A. U ULemLnu (m&) and the A U Kinn
(m) which represents the Mental Class ( - ) of Atiyoga.
This common heritage of all the rNying-ma-pa lineages in Tibet
fell first to gNyags JiiEnakumSra. secondly to gNubs Sangs-rgyas
Ye-shes and finally to the Zur family.
sNyags JiiHnakumSra was fully ordained by Shntarakeita and he
became s celebrated adept of ~ a j r h r t a and ~ajraklla. He followed
the most learned and accomplished masters of India. and acquired
great learning in grammar. logic. dialectics. and in the outer
and inner mantra-texts. lie translated many siitras and tsntras.
becoming the confluence of of the "four great rivers of the
distant lineage" which derived from the teachings of Padma-
1110
sambhavs. Vimalamitra. Vairocana and pYu-syra eNyine-PO.
~Nyags mastered the - u - sems_pgym - , and above all. through
his interpretations and expositions. he transmitted the Manical
N.eX to numerous students. The foremost were known as the "eight
~10ri0us adepts of Vajrakfla". namely. his four earlier disciples
--- the Sogdian dPal-gyi Ye-shes. '0-bran dPal-gyi gZhon-nu.
ONyan-chen dPal-dbyangs. and Thag-bzang dPal-gyi roo-rje --- and
hie four later disciples --- Lam-mchog dPal-gyi roo-rje, Oar-rje
dpal-wi Grage-pa. Gra dPal-gyi sNying-go. and Lha-lung dPal-gyi
181
rDo-rje.
g ~ u b s - c h e n Sangs-rgyaa Ye-shee, a native of Grape. was empowered
and accomplished in the mandala o f MafiJubrl. H e etudied many
. .
outer 8 inner tantraf? including t h e and their
esoteric lnetructions under Padmasambhava. SrT S ? m h a ,
Vimalamitre, Vasudhara and Kamala&%la, as well ae t h e ~ i b e t ~ n
tranulator gNyags JfiBnakumAra. Sop-po dPal-pyi Ye-shes and Zhang
3 112
rGyal-ba'i Yon-tan in par+icular. Hj 6 compoeltione include:
- the -UP 7, whlch is a vaet commentary on
the S t l t r e wh i c h Gattu?~ -.= All I n t e n t i o ~ c ( ~ d o ' l 'nrel-chen
pa'i no- chq) ;
- the Dlsnutant's Sword Which Cutp Throunh Pifflcultirs
- the m e n t s i r u on the R-nli- E i p h t u - r h a ~ t c z
Menical hz ( s n u u - ' F h r u l o n - m a - - '=re1 1; and
- the Lamn f o r t h e B e of C o n t m l a t l o n - - w h i c h b a n
W- I C instl.uct.1Pr! ~ 3 2 ~ Greet Periect (z!lz(~rd~~~p-chen-evI
PNuhs-chen's moet authentic student was Khu-lung Yon-tan r4ye-
3 h3
mtsho, who received all hia empowerment?, tantrss, and
eeoterlc inetructione, and passed the lineage on through:
Ye-shee rGya-mtsha and Padma dBang-rpyel (his sons):
Lhe-rJe HQm-chrlng (the former's eon ) ;
Nyanp Shee-rab mrhog;
WYanp Ye-shes " ~ y u n g - g n a s of chos-lung;
Lha-rje Zur-po-che.
This lineal descent is known as the tradition of Rong, o r else
the tradftfon of Nyang. after their clan came. Before considering
the importance of the Zur family which msintained this "distant
lineagew down to the seventeenth century It is appropriate to
examine the role of Rong-zom Pandlta, who was a contemporery of
. .
Zur-po-che, and that of' ktong-chen Rab- by am^-pa in relation to
the Guhuenarbhatattvavi-tpn-.
Rong-zom Pandi ta, rhos-kyi hZang-po:
. .
Chos-kyi SZang-go of Rong, the celebrated eleventh centrlry m&hG-
gandlfa of the rNying-me school, was a native of sNar-lung-rong.
Pu-lag, in lower gTsang. He -ecelved the ljneage oi the
instructionR of Padmasambhava, which had been transmitted
successively from the latter through:
sNa-nam rba-rje bDud-* joms;
mKhar-chen dPa3-pyl dBang-phyug;
sGra rbo-rje gZhon-nu;
Zhang-zhang Yon-tan Grags;
Ronp-ban Yon-tan; and
Rong-ban Tshul-khrlms Rin-po-che (1.e. hip father)
In hjs youth, while studying the ancdent translations under one
mDo-ston Senp-ge, he once dreamed that he was eatj ng a porrjdge
he had prepared of the Q u h v m , with a vegetable broth made
of the BuMhasarnBv0n-s. He told this to his master. who said,
"How wonderfult It is a sign that yorl have completely inter-
nalieed those doctrines. You should compose a commentery on
each." Amonp hie , compositione therefore was the first major
Tibetan commentary on the pa an^ - ~ n v i r l o *crrl -,-,4) - -
the B e ~ f n y ~ Jew01 =tm (dkan-con *-. NMKMG. Val. 25) 0
80 called becauee of its introductory words which may:
The ntture of the Three Precious Jewels
Is enlightened mind.
This commentary and kLong-char>-pa's phyons-hcu - ( NMKMG .
Vol. 26) arve regarded as the two major expositions of the tantra
according to the Atiyoga standpoint. in contrast to those of the
"distant lineagew which emphasise the Mahboga position. bDud-
1 11 11
'joas Rin-po-che Says of these:
The commentary by the great. all-knowing klong-chen-pa.
entitled Qi . s &eul I Uz lthe QazUeaa of Direrti~ns
(phuone - b. , u RUKAZ EE~ ) clearly elucidates (the -),
commenting on it accordinC to the tradition of the "king of
vehiclee" (1. e. Atiyoga! . On the other hand, this
commentary by the all-knowing Rung-zom-pa appears like a
great cheet that is sealed tight. vastly commenting on the
expanse of reality. Knowing that these two are the main
Tibetan commentaries on the Guhvanarbha provides the
intellect with the potential for great power.
Rang-zom-pa's role as the first major Tibetan commentator was
105
criticised by scholars from the four Tibetan provinces.
including the noted opponent of the rNying-ma tantras 'Gos Khug-
Pa Lhas-btsas. but he is reported to have subdued these critics
in debate. One could argue that Rong-zom-pa merely revived the
commentaria1 tradition established in Tibet by SKa-ba dPal-
brtsegs. eNyan dpal-dbyanpe. and gNubs-chen Sangs-rpyas Ye-Shes
Prior to the later diseemination of the teaching. Yet. despite
the novelty of indieenoue composition in the eleventh century*
hie critic8 in fact found that he adhered to the ecriptural
authorltles, could bear lopical examination, and that he contra-
dicted neither qyllogistic prooi nar the teachinpa their
gurus. Concerning this controversy. bDud-'jome Rin-po-chc
106
adds :
This reasonen argument appeors to be a learned exiom, when
scr:l+lnieed fairly. In general, a doctrlne is no more
impor+snt merely because it oripina?ed in Tndis. .4
dietinc+lon of good end bad treetlaeq on The haeis of cauntry
ls not known In lc6rnefJ clrcle~. If the author was one who
abided on the level of ec?omplishment. the trenti8es composed
by him sho?>ld be valld. So, it la proven that whether they
origjnated in Indie or Tibet meke9 no difference. Sometime?,
too, TibcYan treatfses are @c+ter than Indian tpeatiaea. One
should regard ar reliable those composed by accompli~hcd
Tibetans, whose pristine cognitjon was manifest. rather than
those written by ordfnary Indian 8cholarr. who bssed them-
selves on learning in prammar and logic.
Th% celebrated rlyinp-ma-pa mapter klong-chen Rab-'byams-pa
(1308-1363). a native of Wean-lam, studied the & - enuu-s-
and the Dl l c r t r d TantI.ae -s under four
teachers. includinp Dan 'Phage-pn. gZhon-nu Don-grub. and Myom-
mthing-ma-ba Sange-rgyas drage-pa. H 1 e life story is preeented In
1 O?
fsome detsil by bDud-'jome 'Jigo-bra1 Ye-she8 rDo-rje in NSTB.
Amonp his many compositions which firmly eetahllshed the termin-
108
logy of the Gseat Perfection system. there is an inter-
Pretation of the V t f i n t r . from the Atiyoga perspective.
entitled the Which (m rkar-eaum).
his work compriaea the a.au. - dnn - - U - ( NGKMG.
vol. 2 7 ) . which in la folia provide8 an ansly818 of the chapter-
divisions of the - . the ppri - - yid - - mun-pa gel-ha
(NGKMG. Vol. 2 which in 89 folia analraes the scope and
structure of the Buddhist and non-Buddhiat teachinge. and the
*
- m. which in 313 folia ( pp.
629) p~ovides both general introductory explanations of each
section of the and a detailed interlinear commentary
of its "verses of indestructible reality" ( a - r A ~ * i W). The
translation .of the Guhvanarbha contained in the present study ia
based on and accompanied by this interlinear commentary.
The Zur fsmlly:
Lha-rje Zur-po-che S&k-ya 'Byung-gnaa. a native of Yar-rdzonp or
gSar-mo in mPo-khems, received the three stages of ordination
1 b9
from bLa-chen daongs-pa Rab-gsal. Under his grandfather, Rln-
chen rGya-mtsho, he studied the eGtra & tantra- text^, including
the cycle of the nanical (NGB. Vole. 14-16), Then he
receive6 instruction on the #aPiral and the Mental Clsse
(--ma) from Nyane Ye-shes 'Byung-gnae of Chos-lung, on the
khBP) and the Great Ferfectfon from Nam-mkha*-~dt; and on the
(P. f l 736) from 'Bre Khro-chung of upper lyRng.
Zur-PO-che is known to have broueht together the roct B
exepetical tantrae: the root-texts and their commentsrice; the
tantras and their means for attainment: and he applied the- in
Practice.
150
Fo~cmost among his disciples were the four "summitaw:
- Zur-chung Shce-rab Orage, who had arrived at the summit or
the view. and intention;
- Me-nyage Khyunge-grege. who hsd arriveC at the e~rmmtt of
the exegesis of +he ma a r b h a
- Zheng 'Gas-ehunp, who had arrived a+ the e u m l ? of vast
knowledoe; and
- hZang-sgom Shes-reb rGyn1-po, who had arrived at the
SUIIIWI~~ of medltatlve practice.
Zur-PO-che inhabited 'We-pa-lung in the Shange valley for many
Years. and constructed his temple in that place, where h e had
vieions of the Forty-t,uo Peaceful Deitiee and of the Fifty-eight
151
Blood-drinkera. As he himself aald:
1 pescefve all the earth, stones. mountains and rocks of
'up-pa-lung to be the host of peaceful and wrathful dei+iee.
But in particular. 1 always see this uouthern peak of dBen-
ser-mo as the Buddhas of the Five Enlig?ttened 7amiliee.
Therefore. I shall build a temple of the peacefuJ. deltjes."
S3nce in the past. the greet accomplished masters ware
completely mindful of pre~erving secrecy. Zur-po-che sald
thqt It was improper to make images according to the secret
means Por attainment in places w h e ~ e many people would
congregate. and commissioned images according to the
+radition of the *antraft. The freecoee painted to the rjght
were of the peaceful deities of the nsnical m. and those
on .tho left were of the blazing wrathful deitiee.
M I 3 main student end nephew, Zur-t-hung-pa Shes-rab Gregs ($014-
10?h ) mastere3 and widely propagated the **dirten+ 11 neage".
including the -rbh&. Foremost among hie students were the
"four pillare": sKyo-ston SRk-ye of Gung-bu who was the pillar of
tke Plentel ClaFB: Yane-khtng hLa-ma of sKyong-lung who was the
PIIIsF of the - 3us-oa; g La n SBk-ye bZang-po of
Chu-bar who waa the pillar of the MaPicel M e t (NGB. Val?. I h - 1 6 ) ;
and mDa*-tie Jo-&Ak of Nag-mo-re who wae the pillar of rltuel an@
meen9 for attainment.
ft wee Zur-Chung-pa's son, Zur sGro-phug-pa Sbk-ya Seng-gt (b.
107h) howsver who effectively popularieed the -tattvs-
jn Tibet. He beean hje study of thie text in
his iffteenth year u n d e ~ eLan $&k-ya bZene-po of Chu-bar. snd
recejved the entire exegctfcel tradition of the Zur fam41y from
the other three main student. of Zur-chune-pa, who were invited
to hjs re~idence. His accoapli~hmcnt in the is
152
illuet~etcd by the following lncldent:
Once. when he warn teaching the doctrine jn sGro-phug, he sat
on a backleee teaching-throne. and students eurround~d hlm
on a11 sidee. Be appeared to be faclng his audlence in a31
directlone. Therefore. they were convinced that he was
actually the Pepresentrtlve of the lord of the mandsja of
. .
the -Nct_oi yAA=&-attv~ (WGB. Vols. 16-16) and he
became renowned as an undisputed emanation.
Desefte the recent critjcisms of Lha bLe-ma Ye-shes *od an6 *Go9
Khup-ee Lhas-bt~ae, sGro-fhue-pa could reportedly gather five
hundred literate students Curi-ng the summer end wj n t a r and three
hundred during the autumn and epring. Wing to hie maetery of
this tantra, the two mainstream lineapes diverged from hlm. 1.e..
the Zur lineage of Central Tibet and the Khama lineage of Eastern
Tibet.
10. The Zur Lineage in pcntral Tibet:
In Central Tibet, 2ur sGro-phug-pn*e principle disciples were
known as the four "black onesw: the four wteachersw; and the ?cur
wgrandfathers". The Your *black oneen (m, so-called because
their names all cantajned the element nap. wblack") inclrided ICe-
aton rt3ya-nag oC Upper Wyang, the main llnesge-holde~ of +he
Central or wVpger Zur Traditionw.
MYa-nae studied under aGro-phug-pa Prom the age o? thjr*y for
eleven yearn, and owins to his intellectual abili*ies and
devotion, 8Qro-phue-pa breitowed upon him the fundamental tevts
and practical in~truction~ for Mah8yoga. Anuyoga and Atlyog~.
Fcr t h i s reason. he became the moat complete lineape-holder of
t he 2 ~ ~ s . His many students included dBus-pa aTon-b8k. dR,s-pa
~hig-po. and hie own nephew. Yon-tan gZungs (b. 1126) who studied
the three clasre~ of inner tsntre under him for thirteen years.
The lineage thus descended ae follows:
- Ice-ston rGya-nag;
- yon-ton gZungs and dBus-pa Zhfg-po:
- Zhig-po bnud-rrsi:
- rfa-ston So-ye (compiler of the former's ?eachings!;
- rTe-s+on gZi-brjid (compiler of the biopraphice a? thlg
1 i neage !
The latter also composed his own extensive commentary ot: the
pYung-9ton-pa rDo-rje dPal. however. in hjs cammertary on the
?allowing divergenr lineace. based an the exepesj e of the
- sGfo-phug-pa:
- Byins-etan of p T ~ s n g and Nye-aton Chos-kyi Seng-ge of s G a r g -
drj ngs;
- gTsang-nag 'Od-*bar:
- Mes-ston mGon-pa:
- bta-ma Srong;
- Pak-shl Sak-ya 'od:
- 1-78-nag bD*~d-*dul :
- mDa* JBk-ya *Phel:
- Zur Byams-pe Seng-ge;
- gYunp-ston-pa roo-rje dPa1.
Zur Byams-pa Seng-ge
~Yung-eton-pa's own teacher. Zur Byame-ps Scnp-ge. was the Ron of
ZuP Wyi-ma Sang-ge and great grandson of Pak-shi S&k-ya-'od. In
hie fifteenth year. at 'Us-pa-lung, he studied the Ouhvanlrbha
under mDal Sakya 'Phel, and then, in hie seventeenth year. he
composed a rjcP-tivt Pretatat-n at the Tan- ( - -
m m ) . H e subsequently recejved the w - m a - D - ! P.
1736) and the Great Perfectjon from 1Ce-eton Grub-pa 'Bum, the
ampowemnents af beneficence, ability, and profundity acccrding to
the zur trsdition of *he cnl Ne t (pnvu - *D- ~ u r . - 1- -kvf
phnp-nus-w-nsum-PVI w) P r o m rTa-sten pZi-brjld af L a - ~ t o d ,
and msny other teachjngs. Byemc-pa Sene-ge himeelf hed nurneroue
dieciplea. includlnp s i ~ + e e n wh3 had mastered the W e - D a -
(P. h 7 3 6 ) . +he -brbha and the Her-khm ~omment a-~ w
( e t w , P. 0718). Foremoet anlane them
w e e gYung-eton rbo-rje dPa3, the penlor disciflc of hie eerly
year s. end rfs-nag eGro1-ms-ba hSam-grub rDo-rjc, the foremost
disciple of his later yesre.
gYung-ston rba-rje OPsl :
gYung-ston-pa af the pLan clan ( 328D- 1365) wa s learned in
dialectice. Abhidhamna. and the mantra-traditionn. ancient and
n e w. He became the genuine egiritual son of Kar-ma-pa IT?. 4ene-
by*)?lg rbo-rje. From Zur Byams-ps Sene-ge, however, he ohtninod
the mbp - - , rcpreeentative of the "dintant ljnesge",
and he composed the W h t l n n Mirror nfenn-ba*i envina-
EQ! i l ~ ~ u d - don w -bvrd m. MOKMO. Val. ? 8 ) , a commentary
on the which suryarsed other exepet~csl
traditions j n it5 popularity. His approach is 4escribed as clasi-
ficatsry and he rearranged the fifth chapter. which became a
focal point ofJ etudy for later masters such as Zur Choe-dyinga
Rang-grol. Later cornentatore such as N@m-mkha' Rin-chen. Lo-chcn
153
* ~ d - z e r were frequently influenced by hie intrrpretatione.
rTa-nag isGrol-ma-ba bSm-grub rDo-rje:
bSm-grub rDo-rje from rTa-nag gttae-gear (1295-1376) studied
extensively under Zur Byms-pa Seng-ge and became learned in the
. He also received its empowerment from gtan Nya-
tshal-pa %Sod-name mGon-po. Amons his students were Zur Ham Sbk-
ye 'Byung-gnas of Yane-dben. from whom iseued the so-called "Zur
lineage" ( t y y - bmv uQ) and his own son. Sangs-rgyae Rin-chen. from
whom issued the "eon*s lineage" ( w - b r u ) .
Zur Ham was the eon cf the aforementioned Zur bZeng-po dPal. In
his fifth Year he delivered an aetonishing public exegesis of the
158
v. Under Sa-bzang Mat1 Pan-chen, g ~ u n ~ - s t o n -
pa. and *Jam-dbyanee bsam-grub rDo-rje he made a general study of
dialectics. eiitras, tantras and eeoteric inst~uctions. including
the -ma (P. 11736). the jrlnuhvAnarbhatattva-
- a (T. 832). and the - v
( - - t m . P. 11718). He extensively
Propagated the ---nmUpl to hi8 students. including
Sangs-rgyae Rin-chen rGyal-mtahrn dPal-bzang-Po:
Sanss-rwas Rin-chen. sGr31-ma-ba bSun-grub rDo-rje*s son (1350-
1a31). maatered the doctrinal cycle6 of the I(.Picll Ib&
includin~ the under hi8 own frthrr and Zur Ha i n
Slk-ye 'Byung-enas. A t the agr of fourteen. he was able to confer
ewowerrrnt on other.. Hr then compo88d a arrrt pa fihL
7 ( - ! 'urcl-eh-p), and a Detatlcd
Q f rn A r r r Y P L L k P a t h p L ms Ma n i c a l (lam - -
-1 when he was about forty. HIS other compositions
include an E.uteneive DescriDtive Basis (iar a Bi- aL
Wrsthiul Dnities (kbro bo l amnn9n- ~a~- r t ~gg na rw-
- - - -pa) and a
Detailrd CercmonvLpy&he E&t eeLn. ezku2meHi nheJ2
!--la1- cho-narnuaa-Q&). In his seventieth year he
accepted 'Gas-lo pZho-nu dPal, the author of the Blue Annals as a
discivle and granted him the empowermer!t of the peaceful and
wrathful deities according to the (BS,YU-'D~F~
' i -1: the longevity-empowerment of the Manical NPZ
( w u - q ~ h r * m - - d a m ) ; the exefeeis of the Guhvanarbha-
tantra and it8 commentary; and en extensive exegesis of the &FPV
8737) accoreing to his own commentary. He also bestowed on him
the transmissions of the Illurninatinn pf Punaamental
% {khon-nzhunn - , P, 11739); the m t v - cha~t er Maniral
k& ( ~ g y u - * o h W w - b r u - n h . , NPJB. Vol. 111) ; the m-
bu&aU I&% ( m u - *DW k~ead-brlr - pa , T. 8301 and the
'Gas Lote&wa pZhon-nu dPal:
'Go8 gZhon-nu dPal (1392-1U81) was a student of Karma-pa V, De-
bzhin gshegs-pa, rNgop Byanf-chub dPal, and the great pandita
. .
Vhnaratns. He corrected and retranslated the -m
155
(T. 3 6 0 ) . the - , and other texts. He received the
"distant lineago" from sarol-chen Sangs-rgya6 Rin-chen, and 80
became r rnratrr and lineaee-holder of the r~yine-ma school. He
156
himself said:
"1 acquired exceptional devotion towards the tradition
renowned as the rNyinp-ma-pa echool of secret mantras. So. I
was never polluted by the defilement of rejecting (true)
doctrine."
His main students were Karma-pa VII. Chos-graps rGya-mtsho and
Zhve-dmar-pa 1V. Chos-kyi Grass-Pa. the latter being the
principal lineage-holder.
Zhva-dmar-pa IV. Choa-kyi Grape-pa (i153-1525):
A native of Tre-shod Khans-dmar. he studied the tantras of the
Ancient and New Translation Schools under 'Go8 Lotshwa gzhon-nu
dPal, and conferred the former on Zur-pa Rin-chen Phun-tahops of
Rin-chen Phun-tshops from 'Bri-guns SKU-gnyer-egang mastered both
the tranamitted precepts (m1-=). exemplified by the mqp-rnuud-
sems-aaum; and the treasures ( - 1 associated with the ElCpht
~r an~mi t t ed ? F P C L D ~ i m* - b r wa d ) ; the Epyr - art 'Innerrnosf
- (snuinn-thin- - : and t h e m w
157
ur--trovra (gter-kha Ponp-'on 1 In accord with the
tradition of the mNpa'-ria Pan-chen Padma dBang-rpyal. his custom
w a s to disclose the central points by meane of the tranemitted
Precepts. and to adorn them with the eeoteric in8tructlonS of the
158
trea~ure~. From him. the liner~e descended through:
- Rans-erol Wyi-zlr Srnea-reyam
- T8he-dbang Nor-rw.8. r mantur of the 'Khon family:
- 'Khon-aton dPrl-'byor ~hun-grub (the former's eon).
*~hon-ston dPsl-'byor Lhun-grub ( 1561- 1637) :
6Pal- * byor Lhun-grub ~ t u d l e d the
tan+ra. its commentary camposed by gYung-ston-pa. and +he other
commentaries of the Manical cycle, such as ktong-chen Pnh-
'bysms-ps's - under hjs fat he^. and ln
consequence of hi9 learnfnc ln t h i ~ Cycle. he was regarded a? 9n
enana+*on of 8Gra-phug-pa. He instructed 0-rgya? CaTan-ldzln. the
doctrine-master of Brag-sna and Zur Chos-dbyinpe Rang-cral. The
former composed a memorandum o f the flrst flve chapters of the
~uhvanarbha a c c 6 ~ d i n g to gYunp-etan-pn's Commentary (-
-a). Late in 11 fe, dPal- lbyar 1.hun-grub instructed Dalal lama
V at his retreat in Pha-vang-khe.
Zur-chen Choe-dbylngs Rang-grol ( 160h- 1669) :
He wa s the son of Zur-chen gZhon-nu Don-grub and a direct
descendant of the Z u r lineage. From dPa1-*byor Lhnn-grub he
received in partlcular twa dally sesslons o f instruction which
combined the - . the &Par-- Commentary f-hhrr -
ma h ~ t m, P. b718) . and the Tibetan commentary by
PYung-stan-pa (bod- * n ~ + l n Y w t f h , HMKMG. Vol . 28). H e composed
a memorandum of the teachlng he hnrl rece3ved on the first five
chapters. In 1622 he studied klong-chen Rab-'byams-pa'e comment-
ary on the --- Phv - bc u~ - - . Then, in 1624,
Chon-dbyin~s Rang-grol expounded the Whyanart&a t o rDor-braz
159
Rig'dzin 111 Mgae-qi dBang-PO and others at the semtnbry o f
PTeee-thang, where he definitively established its extgesie. and.
160
to sfag-bla Padmansti o f p ah-tho=, he taught kl-ong-chen Rab-
'byms-pa's commentary-- --bcu - srl . Padmamatt, in t u ~ n .
offered thir exegetical transmission to Lho-brag gSunes-nprul.
16 1
ensuring its future continul ty. Late In life. Chon-dbylnp~
Rang-groi lived in Oung-thong, where he i n ~ t r u c t e d gSang-bdap
162
Phrin-la8 Lhun-grub in Che - . Dalsi Lams V also
fne+~ucteb Phrin-las !bun-grub In accordance with the e a r - k m
Conmen ( a r v a G u h v a n a r b h f k t A t t I k & , P. h7191, and gYl r l g-
stsn-pels Commentary -G. Yo3. 28). The " d I ~ + a n t
lineage* theretore contj nucd from:
- Zur Chos-clbyings Rang-era1 and Dalbi Lame V;
- gNyoe-st on gSang-bdag Phrl n-I sc Lhun-grub;
- Lo-chen Chos-real bsTan-'dzin.
From thir time on. the momentum o f this Central- Tibetan
eveestfcal trafljtion hae continued without interruption. owing t o
OSans-bdag Phrln-lss Lhun-grub's two eons. Rig-'dzin gTer-bdee
KLjng-pe 'Byor-med rDo-rjc !16&6-1716) and Lo-chcn D h a m a d ~ f
(1654-1717). from whom a great many lineages spread Forth.
empharisinp the msh-sevu- sea^^.
11. The Khame Trsditfon o f Kah-thog:
Vairocana +ranolatsd master SQryaprabh&sishe3s extcngive
Khamc and he cxpounaed ft there. Tt was Kah-thac-pa Dam-pr bnr-
tshegr. hovever, vha originally made the teaching o f the Ancjent
T~ansletlon School we1 2-known in that pcgjon.
A maternal cousin o f Phag-mo-gru-pa and a native of Bu-'bur-sgan~t
in mDo-khams. Kah-thog-pa etudied the -. the Mental
Class. rnO 80 on, under *Dzam-ston 'Gro-ta*i e o n - p o . a student
of Zur aGro-phug-pa. Dalai Lama V also statee in hie
163
( W- D~ Ch Pn 00 '1
-
- 1 that Kah-
thop-pa wet sGro-phug-pa in person. Kah-thop-pa alao etudied the
4739) unde? Opal-gyi dBang-phyug of La-stod. I n 1159. nt Kah-
thoe. on a site which resembled the letter KA. he founded the
temple of Kah-thog. There. t o students from A-mdo, Tsha-ba-rong.
Mustang. and Uon, he skillfully revealed the Great Perfection and
the Guhvanarbbntrntra !T. 8321, Including all i t s major and minor
Indian and Tibetan commentaries and texts. all according to the
Zur tradition. In addition, he expounded the Bp t of
( - - 3- * s- &va - ba , NGB. Val. 15. T. 3 6 0 )
and other tantrae. In this way. he laid the foundation for the
teechino of the secret mantras in the province of mCo-khams. The
Khrms lineage beginning from Kah-thop-pa continued through:
- gTeang-eton-pa:
- Byrms-pr 'bum:
- spyan-engs Ueng-phu-ba bSob-nams 'Bum-pa;
- dBu-'od Ye-she6 'Bum;
- Byanp-chub dPa1-ba:
- bSod-nuam bZrng-po;
- Kun-aga* 'Bum-pa;
- dBans-phyug dPr1-br:
- bLo-.roe * Bum-pa:
- bLo-sros Sent-gi;
- B y m g - c h u b blo-gro~:
- Byrns-chub Seng-fe:
- Byrns-chub royal-mtmhrn:.
- mKhrm-.rub Ye-rhea rQyrl-mtmhan.
At Kah-thog. the -distant linestea o f the - we ?C
proparated during the fourteenth-sixteenth centuriem. in 4.e..
?he period between the zreetness of 'Ug-pa-lung and the rise n i
the ?ater monastfc centrce in C e n t ~ a l Tibet.
Ye-9hes rGyal-mtshan, the learned and accomplished master oi Bu-
'bar. was r etudent o? Byang-chub r6yal-mtshan and Br¶*o Choy-
'buw. He reclarifled the root-text and cammentorics of t h e -a-
m t a n t r a in Khsme. His campasitions incluOe4 n - x
P e a c e P U & 4 3 - (a-o*i *nrcl-pa!: s
commehtary, outline end s y n o p s i ~ of the SccrcP Wucle,m !-
hLi snvinn - nn - la '=~el - ~ a - / ~ a - b e e ~ - I- p - : e Cammcntarv
h a - ) : the ~ ~ p l l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l l ~ ~ u m i n ~ ~ f h i n u d r h s s &
>el-~a); and the lea m o s i l t i a n qL st-
l ba
!t.h9ns-J~i w - l o e l r - ) .
mkha* my.-mt@ho miso compaaed cammentarie@ on the m h u a n a ~ b h a
165
a n d t h e l u ' r k v P L m w a f h a W l u i c a l I l a f . (a- - ) .
12. The resursence o f the bka'-ma lineage in Central Tibe*:
Ris-'dzin pTer-bdap gLlng-pa:
i
Rip-'dzin ~ T r r - b d a g gtlng-pa !16h6-1713) from Dar-rpyas chos-
gline in Grn-n*ng, wa g the son of gSang-bdag Phrin-lme I.ha.~n-grub.
1
f is studie3 ef the dnctrlnc C O V D P ~ ~ a extent tr*nwvittsd
i
1
precerts o f the Ancient Transla+ian School. Includjng the ry-le
i of the
I
m. In hie th$r+e-nth year. he mew@rleed the
n h b b t - and recelved Its oral cxegc-cs from his Fat her .
Later, he mastere* the scriyture9 o f the ~ M u b s tradition. the Yur
tradition and of R o n g - z o ~ Pandita; brom-ldan Rig-pa'i Ral-grl*-
. .
Fcllnitlve .@z&x pX l.k -?ah- ( - rbl-nri'i
-3; an* ether texts. In p a t i c l r he la sajd ta have
obtained unimpeded p o w e ~ s ef in+eYlectual analysis by 6lligently
investlgatine the scriptures of ktomg-chen Rab-'byams-ps.
tTer-bdag =Ling-pa restored the "distant lineage o f tranzwi+ted
preceptsN. exemglifled by the mdo - s n ~ u - B- a- ear n, at sMln-0"-1-
gline. whLch he himself founded 1- 1659 st a time o f decline in
166
Centrsl Tibe+. In8ceB. It I F due t o hls efforts and to those
of his Fuccessors that the ndistant llneapen has continued es a
living trsditlon. He transm$tted +he rallcrttq (rQYud-
Padma Phrin-lan of rDo-rje Brag. rDzags-chen Padma Rig-'Rrln
IDe'u-htcan, and r multitude of other atudente from Tibet an4
167
Khams. The closest students were hlr younger brother 1.0-chrn
bthln 1.0~8-grub, Drin-chcn Pin-chon rNm-rcyal: and hS8 daughter.
The translator nharmadrf (1656-1718) was fully ordained by Dalal
Lama V, and given instrvctlon by his elder brother, gter-bdag
gLing-pa, in the works of klong-chen-ph. Rong-zom-pa, snd those
of the Zur lineage. He received the entire bdo m u s-m
- - and
I their root-- the Callccted rantrarr pi
- - (rnvint-
I
,
I M ~ud-'b\;~)). Subsequently. he taught the on
behalf of about alxty mmnbePB of the community at snin-grol-
gllng. an4 eight times he conferred the empowemcnt of the peace-
ful and wrathful Oeitiea of the - -. In order to
perpetuate the distant lineage of tranemiitted precept6 and close
lineage of treaeures he composed the elghteen voiumes of his
( m' - bm) . including coamentariee on the lpdp
-
DB m - ~ a and the nanicrl m. When. in particular, he
heard his brother deliver an oral exegesls of the auhvaPsrhha
which combined the - + (p
~ &~ t f k &. p. 4718) and pyung-iston-pa'a Consentary (-tU,
m. Vol. 28) . he understood the overt and hidden meanings of
that tantra and composed r volumlnous serien of texto. collect-
ively known a6 the p * u - ' ~ h v u l -I - ffi yit-cha , NnKMG. Vole. 11-
32-31). AmOng them are two authoritative commentaries on i t
-
bdr l - U. IRIKWO. vols. 33-36. pp. 881. which a v p r a i ~ e s
role of this tantrr within the rwying-ma t r d i t i o n as r
wholo. and tho i hal u a n a - b m * i - - -
365. which providom 6efinitive readinem for tho root-vmrmem then-
169
molvom . Thore are a180 extant colpwntariom on tho latter bv
him ctudont. 0-rwan Chom-'phel (b. 1676). viz. tho -
rm-nru I.in - - which w u corpomod in 1730. and
In mMln--01-cline. the "distant linergr" ua8 transmitted in the
following mucco8mion:
cOp.ntary on the antitlod - -
171
b'rd-am*~ U m * u - u (IW. Vol. 36).
13. txtonmivo Propagation of tho "dimtant llnoasow in Khru:
From tho t i w of Dalai ku V, tho "dimturt l i n o ~ o " wam
extonmivoly propyato0 throu~hout Khuo. ~ f t o r tho deprrdationm
of tho Dzun-gar-pc incurmion and during tho era of *Jig8-mad
172
gLine-pa. tho -in csntro of activity for tho rlyins-u
tr.diSion la frct w v o d outwrrda to Kh-, w h r ~ the aMin-gr01-
gling l i n e ~ e u m t m i n e f~ -11-mrrm Rin-chmn r l u - r w r l end
m a - c h e n 0-rwm bmtm-'dtin wrra propurted in tha Kh~mo-pr
~prerding am far am W r l - n o - r a n g in ramtern U h u m m d the mGo-
log m a i o n oi A-mdo. In theme regionm. the *dimtmt lin@u@" of
the
- - continued without decline until -cent
tire..
the lonUterU of Krh-tho8 roo-rje 8Den. r mtronghold of tha
raving-u teaching in Khamm from the t m l f t h century onwrcdo. w u
md klong-earl oNying-PO. The latter'm student. bSod-nr~m lde'u-
bfaan, racoiveb the Central Tibetan l i n e u e froa efer-bdu rLine-
Dr Of .Win-e~ol-elina. urd revitrlieed the exegeticrl tradition.
o? Kah-thou. Throueh hi0 oucceomive incrrnationm. basinning with
Dri-nard Zhing-mkyong -on-poo and through the rfiortr of Rig-
. .
m d Pmhe-dbong mchog-grub. thim l i n e a m ham continued down to
recent tercherm. e. g. Krh-tho8 Si-tu XX Kun-grigm Chom-Wi -a-
rtoho !1880-1925). m e n - c h e n Rig-'drin New-dbure dPr1-bran.
S u r g e - r w u roo- rjm. Among them. Krh-thoe dam-brt me Prndi tr.
. .
'Wur-mmd ohm-db-g a~hog-erub crta&oeued thu
171
Q t L U W . - - and in c. 1764 corpooed r o ' n t u v on
the F, entitled trurrr - QameAA - UD-Fa
the behest of Drlri Lama V. m d founded t h ~ r o t m a t centre of
G u - g t r n Chos-glint at Ru-daa 8Kyid-khrra in 1683. The #eat was
mrintrlncd by hi8 mtudrnfs. ahr-chen Nyi-rr Qrras-pa. dPon-slob
ntahan. and thererfter by hi6 auccemaive incr~nrtiona-- cDzogs-
ehen I1 *Gyur-md Theg-nchot bsTrn-'dzin, r~rots-chon I I I .
bkal Byrne-chub rDo-rje. and now in India by rDzoga-chon VII.
Purine the life ti^ of ~Dzaca-chon IV, Myrl-srrs ~Zhrn-phrn
Calletr at rDtoga-chrn and. ro the ~@queat a? mNin-elins Khri-
p ~ ~ e p t a " . including the cycle of the U. in about ten
vol ume. 818 incrrnrtion. *a-kona nKhrn-go =than-phan Cho8--Wi
aNrnc-br, rl irs mKhan-po a Z h m - d a r e (1871-1927). wrote
comentrria8 on thirtren major text.. IncluCinc the - .
th* l r t t r ~ mntitlrd n's fi-vr-br*i - k v i --'a
w - z l r .nuinl-p9) brine r repetition of the intmrlinerr mectiona
171
of kLona-chon Rrb"byu8-vre8 ahvPtr - bru -. -
Thim monr8tery wr8 founded in 1735 a8 r branch of rDzoa8-chen by
Zh*-chon Rrb-'Wua iI ' W u r - ~ d Kun-bzmc rNu-rayrl. Thm meat
Y1a rrintrinad by hi8 8ucce88ive incrrnrtion8. including Zhe-chen
/
saa- *byans I r I r1r- *orln ap.1- 'byor r a y n - m t ~ h o (1771-1809). Zhc-
chen Rab-'byams I V 'Oyur-med mlhu-Btobs rlam-rmal, and by the
Zhe-chen dysl-tshab 1 sang-.sngags beTan-'dzin and rOya1-tshah
'Oyur-med Padma rWaw-rgyal (3871-1977).
apg] -YUI:
In 1665. Rig-'dztn Kun-bzang Shes-rab founded the doc+w3nsl
cen+re of rWam-rgyal Dynng-chub pLinp et dPsl-yul. where his
successore upheld hi 3 teach1 ng tradi ti an, enphasieing the
tresau~c-cycle o f Ra+na pl lng-pa. At dPa1-yul, *Jam-dbyavgs
aKhyen-brtse'i 6Bsng-po and m C h o g - * w u r gLlng-pa encouraged ~ S y s -
sprul Padma m b o - s n ~ m g e beTan-'dzin t n inetltu+e the annual
ceremony associa+cd with the twenty-sevt- extant
mandalaa a? the - d l ~ + b n t Ilneapca, and )re fa~:ndr?.d the hrench-
. -
monastery of bar-thane m b o - ~ q ~ a g s bShad-spub gLJng in 4-mde. The
llneete of dPa1-yul 10 now maintained in South In433 by t h r
?ncarn%tion of &Pal -yul Pndna Nor-bu ' Jan-dpsY Grub-pa * J I?! 0-
tras. The extant texts canstitutlng the ndistsn+ lineate o f
trsnsmitted precepts* were r r p ~ ~ b l i s h e d in snac twenty valumef by
0 - r w a n mfa-snergr Chos-ky3 Wyi-ma, and these hove heen reprinted
190a!. The second o f these lndian editions. the - Bkbka * -M
Wns-m comprises 4 0 volumes. o f wh¶ch volumes 21-&O include
newl y i n c o ~ p o ~ a + e d corumente~irl literstulu within t he orls3nst
175
COl lection.
Dil-mgo. sDe-dgc district. mDo-khans. wae directly responsjblc.
along with *Jam-mgon Kong-sprill and mChog-'gyur gL.!ng-pa, *or
the beeurgenee of the rUying-ns and ether traditlone in n!ns-
tecnth century Khans. In his twenty-flra* year he wap f l ~ ? l y
ordained by Rig-'dzin bZang-pc, a preceptop of eMln-grol-glln~,
an9 from the Se-skya-pa PDO-r3e Rin-chen end other^ he recefved
176
the vowe of the cultivatfon of the enlightened attitud*. He
studied all the existing e x ~ g e t l - a 1 tradjtions of sOtras,
tres+feee and tentree i n c l u d ~ n ~ the w m mvrr thirteen
yeer e. and received the trensmieelona of ?he bKa*-'~~u.z. +he
rol l*c*e.sl t.ntras gL ZQe zUins me ~a
- - (rnuinn - Z=f ?14-*-), end
the - *mu . In particula~, he received teaching on t h e
pesecf.rt3 an6 wrathful deities of the w e a l (-P!l
a - k h r o ) , along with ite empowenneqt, from 'Cyur-wee mihu-stnhs
F U W - r w e l o f Zhe-chrn. Hi s foremort students were 'JIJ Mi-pbam
Kun-bzsng dPal-ldan. Opal-yul Padma Wor-bu 'Jam-dpel Grub-pa'!
177
M)o-~je, and rDzogs-chen V Thl~b-betan Chos-kyi ri)o-rze. Among
commentsry on the , entitled - ba'i
-1-m -
pin - s w - 3 - pp. 2 4 b . which he@ an
elabo~ate d&.cu..¶on on the med$totive technfgues. The tex* woe
!
I
written down by gTer-eton bSod-rgyel et rDo-grub Chen'e
I
dictation. In the Ouhyeearbhe Temple at rDo-grub Monastery. +he
/ ~ ~ e g e t i ~ a l tradition of thin tantra accorling to the *f l l B+. nr
! 178
1 lineagen wre taught during winter eaminers.
A native of *Ju. near rDe-dpc, he pecefved lnstpuc+jon in t h i e
tradl tion primer1 ly from ' Jam-Obyongs mKhyen-brtae* i UBang-po and
179
QP s l -sp~uI Rin-po-ehe ! 1808- J 887) . Penown@& tor hje anslyees
of Buddhist sQtra end tentre-based philasophy, h l ~ writings
l~cll~de en important commentary on kLong-chen Rah- * byamp-pa * s
-bcu mun-eel. en+i tled -1 - don -. NMKMG.
1 . 27, f l . 137, which examines the in terms OP the
ten mepecte of mantra.
l a . The Treaeure-Dactrine~ associated with the O u h . a p r r - b h e l v
I n addition to theae holOers of the ndi~t€.int lineage of trens-
mftted preceptsn ( rf nn- brw! ~ ' - m c l ! , who dlsscmlneted end
c * mt ?Q~ e 4 commentaries on +he - , we must a 1 ~ ~ take note
of the various nttr-mr traditions inspired by the @rigins1
taqtra-text. Canenjral support for the practice of cnncceljng aqd
redlscovering text6 in the form of trea~ure-doctrines ( - 1
180
foun4 in many a S t ~ r 6 an6 ?en*ree. The rationale is +ha+,
W h e ~ e ~ e the vitality of the djytant lineage is inevitsbl~
weakened by the vicieeitudee of time. the purity of the erclent
tpaneleti~ne i r aid to be retained in the *cloate lineage of
trea~urer* (we-brPJLYP e). a srriea of doctrines which are
or diecovered r ne w in each generation and which h w e a
more l~msdj at e jmpact. Such doctrines are c1 ass1 f icd as e9rth-
i
treasures (pa-nt-=I . f reasuree nf intention ( - 1. pure
f
visions ( $ J ~ P - P ~ ) . recollected treasures (pj-n-dran a
-
!
zicz).
! or rediscovered treasures (XaIl,E-nt*ll). Among these, the earth
treasures are prlrnarily associated with Pedernesambhava wha
transmitted a masp of teachings on Uehhyoga. Anuyosa and Atiyoge
1 R 1
to his cansert Ye-shes mTshn-rgya?. She ? s said tc have
retained theme. rearrsnglne them on five kinds of yellow serfill
(eymbolising The five buddha-fa mi lie^) in the symbolic script of
the d&kinfs, and to have inserted them in varinus sealed
*reasure-che~ts, to be rediecavered in future generatj ens.
Padmasambhava. King Irhri-srong 1De-btsen. Ye-shes mfshn-rgysl, a~
well as Vimalamitra. Vsirocane, gNubs Sangs-rgyas Ye-shes. We*-
Nysng-ban Ting-'dzin bZsng-pn and other* ape eimllarly regerde4
as concealers of ~ t ~ r - , while the Future rediacovererff are
182
their cmanaticns.
Concerning treasures of inten+lon and pvre \rielon.c. it is F R I ~
thet owing to past aepirations bodhisettve~ continunlly heer the
sound of the 4ortrine In the elements and in +he ~ a u n d e of wild
heaets. Buddha~ and bodhissttvar may reveel themselves in vision9
and teach the doctrine, a?r it says jn the -nnyg;
183
(7'. 136):
0 Vimalatejas! the great bodhisattvae who are desirous of
the doctrine and who are endowed with perfect aepiration and
reverence, will behold the visage of the Transcendent Lord
Buddha and hear hir doctrine even though they reside In
another region of the universe
/ This -* literature a180 developed a mynthetic tendency.
corresponding to the 049 - revu - - of the "distant lineage".
In general the major diucoverie8 should include text8 concerning
Guru Padmasambhavr. Great Perfection and nahik&aunikr (w
-
rdrona -1, and the fOFemO8t of theme mhould almo contain
texts ce??=err;lr;= the Lirht TFpnemittaB PPftPD'CI. the
4 --
31-
~ t t n t l o n s . and (-*-- - - DhurnrUlp1.
Among the treasure-findera (m-) t h e m are aon!e whose dis-
coveries include text8 associated with the mandala of tha hundred
. .
peaceful and wrathful deitiee. which is that of the auhvanarbha -
tantra and the cycle of the 1Yftf. The most notable of
tbese are mentioned below. on the baeia of their biographies
recorded in 'Jam-ngon Kong-aprul's nineteenth century
compilation. the U e a PL %he WunaMd w- a
Yar-rje 0-rgyan sling-pa (1323-c. 1360):
Behind Shel-brag in Yar-lung. in a cave on Padna brTmeg6-pa Rock.
once frepuanted by Padmamrabhava. there were natural stone irnaitea
of the peaceful and wrathful deities, guarded by an itnate of
Rhhula. From the herdm and other body-part6 of that image of
Rahula. 0-rwrn gLing-pa extracted several cycle8 o? texts. From
the throat mpecifically he di8~0vOPtd the drthrlrinl Qf X h
Karma gLing-pa (c. 1327-1387) extracted from Mt. maom-go-=bar in
Dvrgs-po the $bS
YharltlPn&LtsSa&m(--- - - , RTD. Vol.
8, pp. 1-261). the Ona: AXiA
186
~)ritir. a ~ ~ d m a ( t h w - p i a c he n- ~ a - ).
and other treasures. Hn Oave the laat mentioned to fourteen
1
studrctr, but: conferred the parcaiul a I?aities: 3Ae
I
I hi8 son Wyi-tla Choa-rJe rlone: demanding that for three
generrtions it mhsuld be tranamj.ttad to only a slngle person.
Then, it wrs disseminated by am-nrkha' Chos-kyi flays-ntsho, the
third tenerrtion 8uccaa8or. and the line- of its empowerment,
transmission and guidance has continued until the prmSent. One
seetian of it, the erslt By aclrinlt ateF-
rrdiPtc Stala ( a - d a xhom-n~ol chan-po), is known in its English
187
translations rs the bard.
He diecovered the Px&& DL L i Q m r t m W EeasUd mid l k k Xt &U
188
- ( ~ 0 1 - rhi - khI.9 , RTD. vol8. 1. 11). the practlce of
which wrs eaphrsimed rt his monastery in 'Phyone-?was dPal-ri.
m n g the many trer8ure8 which he di8covered. e8pecirll~ in the
Kong-po lu=ion. there 10 the a -
[ Be obtained +he cyclet of t h e P t * c c f u )JI.~- &
i and o f the Llnht -m 315n0: wlth
i
the protectors+ o f the3e tranoaj++ed precepts (-u-*nhryl zhl-
eytrected from Mount gNam-lcags *Bar-be In sPu-bc by +3e yogin
I oa
Di13z-phrenp-can.
Bio prolfflc discoveries anmountjng to twenty-three volumes
191
include the pgrm-?has 7 h l - m . PTP. Val. 60.
mChog-'gy~r =ling-pa received from 'Jam-mgon K o n e - ~ p r u J a5st @f
the rWylng-me tradltlans, lncl uding the pcaceF111 & wr4t+1T1,1
fleitiee of t h e < 8 p : r t l ~ - * p w - . Re 5- 6 *,l-m-
succeselons, which concerned tbc "distant llneapew oT the a
197
WU-R--, the + r e e ~ u r e e , and pure visions. A r n o ~ g hi€
profound treasr~ree. there are some such 5 s the G r e s t
'Bum-rdrang, end the accbrdinn XQ %hs S Z i &Qfsun2
19a
rurlc,s (--M?UI WU - * - ) , whjch uphold t h e tcrminalogy
195
and philosophlcsl structurvs o f t h e adistent lineagem.
Re was a proljfic dlsrn~f?rer of treasure-, i n c ~ u d i n ~ the ~f
m U KeZ eL Lk Thrce Rbots m w u - ' ~ h r u l drva-
196
w, RTn. Vol. 7 ) whlch he ertracten from Si-nprr pY11-
mtsho. Alp?, in a pure vlsfon, while residing rr)70ne-Bbofl bpe-
~ s h c g e 'Dus-pe, he vtstted t h e Stiipe of SenkerskGts wh r r a he w e 3
empowered and lnetructed by Padmasambhsva's eieht emanations into
the 3lr-+tecl prepen+& ~ rea at ( ~ I J E - ~ ~ * ~
-'--) and the P e ~ c e f u l W r b t h W l&ltiee, pL
15. Ten Philosophical Top1 cs of t h e Guhva~s r bhs :
The philosophical content a? the ~ u h u e n a r b h e t B t t v e v f n ~ ~ ~ ~ v ~ -
t a n t m is penermlly eXp0Qlnded in accordance with the ground.
1 9?
path and reeult of MahAyoga, which have been outlined above,
and it has also been eusmj nee in terms of the three cnvtfnua
198
(i'pj.ud - rn lm). By contrast, the present a n o l y ~ r s will seek t o
examine the jn t e m p of the ten practical ~ s p e c t s of
PO-cht In h f s m~ 1 - W '00-P- - . Theee ten awpec+e ere
199
said to he:
A view of the real, deter?inate ccnduct, mandala array.
. .
euccessive eradatlon of empowerment, commitment which is not
transpre~sed, enlich+&ned actfvlty which 4 0 dlsplaycfl, ful-
fi llmcnt of ampiration, unwavering contcmpl at ion, offer3 nes
which bring the goal to fruition, and mantra recltatian
B vl*w(-)*
rpyi-bon. pp. 66-113:
i;
?him is uenerally defined am the intellectual perepective of
I
reality once exaperation a d depreciation have been cut throush
# by means of discriminative a w a r e n e ~ ~ (.b-tU&). The Btatue of
i
sentient beings is eetabliahed. in terms of the true
I
eetablf6hment of this view. to comprise those of no under-
standing. those of wrong understanding. and those who do not
I
Sullr understand genuine reality (1.e.. the adherents of the
causal vehiclee). ae well as thoec who understand the meanings of
diecipline. intention. aecrecy, and the naturally secret truth
(1. c.. the respective adhercntr of Kriyktantra. Ubhayatantra.
200
Yogatantra and Mahhogatantra) .
1 In particular the view of Mah&oga epitomised in this tantra is
I
i
that Dhenomenal existence ie ascertained to be fundamental
reality by maana of four axioms. nrmely. the axiom of the four
kinds of realisation ( - w). the axiom of the three
purities (- M). the axiom of the four modes of eamenese
(-). and the axiom of supreme identity ( - - Ehan-
MI.
1) The four kindm of realimation are indicated in Ch. 11. 2:
The 8ingle bamim m d the manner of meed-mYllablem.
The ble88ing and the direct perception:
Through (theme) four kindm of excellent realimation.
All thing8 are the great king. manifemtly perfect.
The axiom of the single basis (w eetabliahee all
i
thing8 to be naturally preeent and uncreated. that of the manner
i
I
of seed-syllable8 ( y t g - ' b r ~ x tahu;) establiehee all things to be
t
an unceasing display of pure appearance. that of bleseing or
consecration ( Qv l n- = i s - 1 eetabli~hee all thinge as an
indivisible esecnce of uncreated samanees and pure appearance.
and that of the direct perception ( - ) eetablishee all
201
thinge to be without intellectual characterietice.
ii) The axiom of the three purities estnbliehes the container-
world. its eentient contents and the mind-etream a8 a great
202
purity.
I
ill) The axiom of the four mode8 of sameness. namely. emptiness.
r
coalescence of appearance & emptiness, freedom from conceptual
f
elaboration and sameness itself. establishee all thinge eubsumed
2 03
!
in relative and ultimate truth a8 a great sameness.
i
I
1 ivj The axiom of supreme identity establishes all thins8 to abide
1 Primordially in the identity of a ainele pristine cognition (yp=
2011
or mind-ae-such (m - n v U 1. The ascertainment of this
abiding nature ( pnas - 1- 1 io indeed the fundamental view or goal
Of Mahbopa. and it8 logical proof is explored by M i - p h m Rin-PO-
205
che in three topice which he outlinee ae followa:
1) The view of apparitional reality ie the view that the
container-world and its oentient contenta aF8 a meat purity
in the mandala of eupportive buddha-body and supported
. .
Vriutine cognition. ii) The view of reality jtmelf is that
all things are a great indivimible namenems. 111) The view
which behold6 intrinsic awareness is thdt in which one is to
become individually Aware that the muperior truth of the
indi~i6ibilitv of purity and anmenerne is the great buddha-
body of reallty (mahpdharmakilve).
In 'od-nsal w, pp. 69-10?. he sets forth the
proof of the view, comprising a proof of the superiority of the
mantra view over that of the sGtras and s proof of sameness,
purity and indivisibility with reference to the mantra--view
itself. In concluelon (pp. 107-113) he shows how each of the
other ten aspects of mantra depends on purity and sameness of
view.
Contemplation ( t i n p e - - 'qZin ) . PP. 113-127:
This is essentially defined as the balanced Intelligence abiding
one-pointedly with reference to or in harmony with a visualised
object, withbut 0 b ~ ~ ~ r a t i o n or agitation. ~t the outset, contem-
Plation is attained through appropriate inclination, effort,
recollection, awareness of the present, and equanimity. Then, the
experience of tranquility (barnatha/ zhinnaa - ) is refined by nine
kinds of skillful means which enable the mind to abide in its
natural state, giving rise incidentally to experiences of bliss,
206
radiance and non-conceptualieation.
According to the Inner classes of tantra, contemplation
SPefifically refers to the contemplation of the creation stage
(PakYgd-rim) and the contemplation of the perfection stage
(rdzPna=rim). The former has four modes: an exteneive one which
1 refines ~ r ~ p e n ~ i t i e s aPseciafed with the four places of birth.
I
develops the five awakeninps in life and the four rites of
207
indestructible reality; an intermediate mode which enacts the
208
three rites: an abridged mode which creates the spontaneously
209
perfect contemplation accordinp to Anuyoga; and an extremely
abridged mode which applies the instantaneous recollection in
210
acco~dance with Atiyopa. The latter includes the path of
skillful means ( - 1 on which the enel*gy channels. currents
and seminal points !rtna-rlu,ng w) in the body are con-
trolled and the coalescent path of liberation ipynl--) or non-
conceptualisinp yopa. Here, contemplation occurs in three steps.
known as the Yoga of blessing or devotional meditation. the yoga
of the imaginary or effective meditation, and the yoga of
perfection or instantaneous contemplation.
Conduct (-1. PP- 12?-136:
Conduct is essentially defined to include all activities of body.
speech and mind which arc to be performed in the application of
skillful means (-1 and discriminative awareness (p -hes-rab).
It is classified into the conduct of discipline on the path of
conduct of careful restraint on the path of liberation ( u n l - Lam
2 11
Bovad-pa) . In periods of meditative absorption.
conduct is said to refer to contemplation itself. but in the
212
aftermath of z~editation it concerns the phenomenal display
which arises before the mind. The particular conduct of ~ahayoga
includes the rite0 of **sexual union" (-or-b) which generate
delight and pitee of "liberation" ( ~ 0 1 - b ) . which are the
I
i
21 3
; wrathfui rpplicrtion of compamrion.
Ilrabala (Wil - *khaz ). pp. 136-108:
. .
Mandalr is emaentirlly defined as a central deity embodying
. .
fundamental reality rurrounded by peripheral c l u s t e r ~ of deities.
or am the baais on which the essential enlightened attributes are
apprehended. It is classified according to the mandalas of
. .
ground. path and result. the firet referring to the primordial
presence of the container world and its sentient coatents as the
eupportive deity and supported prietine cognition. the second to
the Symbolic or illustrative images of meditation and the genuine
mandalas of buddha-body. epeech and mind. while the third refers
. .
to the conclusive reault. the "rank of Samantabhadra" whereon
buddha-body m d pristine cognitioa are without conJunction or
210
die junct ion.
Empowerment is eeeentially defined as the initial disipation of
stains covering the body. epeech and mind and the conferral of
mature pristine co~nition. It is generally classif led into the
vase-empowerment ( - - ) which purifies the body and its
energy channels into the emanational body ( w u l - w ) , the secret
empowerment ( - ) which purlfie6 the epeech and vital
e n e r w into the buddha-body of perfect rapture ( 1 P n n e - n ~ ~ o d
i -1. the rmpowrrment of di8criminatinp primtine
cognition (.hr.' - y--kwi - dbmn) which purifier the mind
and seminal point into the buddha-body of reality ( - 1; and
the empoweranent of word and tneaninQ ( - - - m) which
DUrifie8 theme three in equal proportion into the e8srntial
buddha-body ( w- b n - n u i d - kyi m). According to Mahboga in
particular. there are three catepories of empowerment--
beneficence ( - - ) . ability ( u - ~ a ' l and profundity
(-). the first two of which correspond to the vase
2 15
empowerment and the last to the three higher ones.
Commitment (-3;Lr). 2s. 152-185:
Commitment is essentially defined as an object not to be
transgressed. When cla8sified there are general commitmenta
including the vows of prxc&2ms&eg. %he cultivation of enlightened
mind ( - - ) and the commitments of the gSar-ma-pa mantra--
traditions. and in particular, accordinit to ~ah&osa. there is an
2 16
enumeration of twenty-eipht commitments, or one of five basic
and ten ancillary commitments. The five basic ones are not to
abandon the unsurpassed, to venerate the - , not to interrupt
the continuity of mantras and seals. to have loving kindness for
those entering the genuine path. and not to expound the secret
meaning to unworthy recipients. The ten anicllary commitments are
not to abandon the five poisons and to gather the five
217
nectars .
Attainment (aprub-pa). pp. 185-202:
Attainment ie essentially defined as the a c ~ ~ i s i t i o n of supreme
and common accompliehmente through the extraordinary skillful
mean8 of the eecret mantras. It is classified according to accom-
plishments (supreme & common). supports (material 68craments.
verbal mantras. mental contemplation, and physical Poetures).
essences (creation & perfection stages). and mode. of attainment
(ritual service and rites of attainment). In particular. it la
classified according to the extraordinary attainments of the
feast-offerings (LE~.Q&R). whereby male 8 female yopina attain the
rank of the awareness-holders by the four aapeets of ritual
218
service and rite8 of attainment.
Offering is essentially defined €38 the means for venerating and
producing delight in the deities because it precedes all virtuous
deeds and the attainment of all activities. Offerings are
classlfied into outer offerings of enjoyment (phui LW~F-BD~Q&-AY~
-1, inner offerings of commitment (~BDP - k ~ i
mr$~od-~a). secret offerings of sexual union and "liberation"
(gumsJ2a-U - - - . a ) , and real offerlnps of great
sameness (am-- - na - a * n -DO'L m;=bod-~a). These are
219
intesrated in the course of the feast-offering ceremony.
Enlightened Activity ( - 1. Vp. 215-226:
E~lizhtened activity is essentially defined as the extraordinary
action. learned in ekillful meana. which is expressed for the
sake of others through the four immeaaurables ( w d - m f i d
220
rlzrd). It is clasmified according to its objects of attainment
into supreme and common activities. the former generating the
seed of liberation in other minds and the lattrr manifest in^
Drovieional blissful results. Then according to its mupports.
there are outer activitiea dependent on external sacraments and
inner activitiem of bodv. mpeech and mind. According to its
aapectm. there are activitiea of benefit to mentient beings and
those which eranicate GbsYacles, 1.e. the four rites of rlscifice-
tion (-1. enrichment (-1. subjufation (-1 and wrath
(-1. At-cordlng to motivation or attributes. there are common
self-centred or+lvitie~ and suprema other-orient91 ac+lvitiee.
These may be ettained through the perleetion stsge, the crestion
221
stage OF through the recitation of mantras.
Sealint ( Wac- r- ?. pp. 226-237:
Sealing is e~aentialy defined ae the meane of reeolutely securine
the buddha-body, speech, mind and actlvl ties. It Is cla9si fie4
generally eccording t@ the reale of erorlnd, psth end result, ev4
in particular accordlne to +he seele of the path. which in +he
case of the crestion ftaee of Mahdyoga include the great-seal of
budflha-body (w m a n - rev& &en -FQ!, the dactr? n%l - peel of
buddha-epeech !- rhoe - k u i &ep-r=~q 1. the comwitrne~+--eel ~f
hudflhe-mind (thuRf dav-+~- w - r n v a ) end t b e ec+q ep-eea)
Of huddha-actjvity !-In-1% l e e - w wa r - r e v q ) . In the case cf
+he perfection stage, these fal~r seals ere secured by meane clf a
female consort !-!. by the coltlvm+ion of the path, OF by
272
the four reeultsnt prietine cognitfone. Thene eealr ere
223
sYmbDlics1ly made eCfec+lve by the hsnd-ge~turcg.
h n t r a ! s mmz ~ ) . pp. 237-759:
Rantre I R ensentislly defined ae +he extreardjnary uklllful mean?
? 2 h
which protects the mind or discrirninstive awareness. T t s
toplcr caneio* of the syllshlcs. +he$ r fnl.~r kinds of etVainmcnt,
their result: The vocalic and consonantml eyllmhlea hove four
modee, according to which they either #bide ar bs s i r I-yllabl-s in
the body. es the syllables of the divine palece. an the 6yllsblcr
1
of miraculous emanation, or as syllables of symbolic Bound. Their
I
1 four attainments are associated either with the essential nature
i of reality. with the nature of apparitional reality. with the
i
! consecration of the buddhas. or with thcir unimpeded potency and
force. The result includes provisional and eonclusjve levels of
I
I 2 2 5
#
realisat ion.
In terms of their practical application, mantras are said to be
of three kinds: secret mantras ( - - ) snostic mantras
!
(7 - ) and retentive mantras ( - - 3). the first
so-called because its skilliul means is secret, the second
because its essence js awareness or pristine cognition, and the
226
third because coneecration occure when it is retained.
In the course of this analysis, Mi-yham Rin-po-che concludes each
section with a statement indicating the interrelated nature of
these ten aspects.
16. MahByoga and Atiyoga Interpretations of the Guhvawarbha:
In Tibet the commentarial literature associated with the -
narbhatantra broadly falls into two categories-- texts which
interpret the Guhvaperbhetantra in the context of the "distant
lineage of transmitted precepts". according to which this tantra
i representative of Mahwoga, and texts which interpret it in
terns of the resultant vehicle. Atiyoga. the Great Perfection. As
227
Hi-pham rNam-rgyal 8 w s in his apyi - &xl lPd-PBp1 anvinnsp. - .
The exegetical methods which apply to the meaning of this
tantra comprise two great traditional paths of conveya:lce,
namely the exegetical method which 18 extensive and common.
and the expository method which ie profound and uncommon.
The former refers to the wondrous tradition of the trans-
mitted preceots of the slorious Zur family who were kinga
m o n o all the holdera of tnostic mantras. and is explained
in accordance with Mahiiyoea'a own textual tradition. The
second refera to the unsurpassed tradition of the two lions
of speech-- Rong-zorn Pandita Chos-kyi bZanp-po and klonp-
. .
chen Rab-'byams-pa. Because this tantra is classified as the
At1 or highest division of Rlahho~a. it is essentially
identical. to the MahH classification cf Atiyoga, among the
three divisions of the Great Pe~iection. For in the secret
Great Perfection there are three categories of teaching,
namely that which reveals the mandala In which creation &
. .
perfection are indivisible and mind 8 pristine cognition are
manifest in themselvea, that which reveals mind-as-such to
be the natural expreeaion of primordial buddhahood without
regard for creation or perfection. and that which reveals
priatine cognition in its essence. manifesting in and of
itself as the nature of buddhahood. Among them. thia
exposition sccords with the firet.
And he continuee:
While these two exegetical methode are of a vinele eavour in
that their intentions are directed toward8 the conclusive
es~ential meaninp, in the context of thia work, the exegesis
aCC0rde with the latter tradition, poemtoeing the eesentials
of Profound oaoteric instruction.
I
I
These two exegetical traditions do not therefore uphold contra-
dictory dogmas but they Indicate a subtle difference of emphasis.
228
j
In the words of Lo-chen Dharmrbrl:
!
Mahayoga realises all things to be the miraculous events of
1
mind-as-such in which appearance and emptiness are indivis-
ible. Anuyoga realises &il things to be the expressive power
of mind-as-such. in which the expanse and pristine cognition
are indivisible; and Atiyoga realises all thing0 to be
manifest In and of themselves as mind-as-such. the naturally
present pristine cognition which Is without creation or
cessation from the beginning.
229
And Zur-chung-pa Shes-rab Grags:
Mahbosa appears as the miracle of awareness. Anuyosa
appears as the expressive power of intrinsic awareness.
Atiyoga ie awareness. manifest in and of itself.
While the standard techniques of Mah&yoga. stressing the nature
Of the ground and the gradual visualisation of the creation
stage. are of course present. this text equally demonstFates the
integration of creation and perfection stages and the self-
manifesting nature of mind and pristine cognition. which are
features of ~tiyoga. Indeed. the tantra-text comprises
creation and perfection stages, and the seeds of Great
Perfection, indicating that there is no fundamental contradiction
230
between these exegetical approaches.
The firat method ia exemplified by thomr treatimam derived from
t3e "dietant lineage". namely the Indian conaentarie8 by ~ f l P -
vajrr. - - t w
(P. 6718). and Buddhaauh~a. rP.IP - dbwe M. and the extant
Tibetan commentiriea by gYung-aton rDo-rje dPal (128&-1365). dn&J,
n.lnn-br'i m - ~ n * i mud-don ~4.1 - b y u - (NMKMG. Vol.
20) . rTa-nag mGrol-ma-ba bSam-grub rDo-rje. klUgdh& (NMKMG.
Vol. 28). Ham-mkha* 1 Rin-chen (c. 1653). m - b a x ~ ~ - ~ o
W- D I * ~ m - k u l - - M- -
- .
n6r (NELi5. Vols. 29-30).
swan-lung-pa MI-bskyod rDo-rje. gaans---i- * = p a l - ~a - dmuz .PYI-
(NMKMQ. Vol. 31). Lo-chen DharmabrX (1656-1718). &al nsann-
ba'i rnvinp - D P P P - - - -=-apea-~n*i - r p ~ a L d 3 . ~ EJ ZYL~
*'by#,*
- -D*'
m- mhrd m - b b a n - (NMKMG. Vole. 33-31). and g a mu ~ -
Mfbe f l i mn~~ - rwah [NMKMG. Vol. 321, Padma 'G~uP-med rGya-mtsho.
(NMKMG. Vol. 35). Kah-thoo *Gyur-
mtd T~ht-dbmg mChop-grub (c, 1760). - - Lank
Elm sev* - chcrel - M - r p y r e - -
1 a
(NMKHG. vol. 35). rDo-grub 111 '~ig8-med beTan-pa*i Nyi-ma (1865-
1926). a m - b n ' i rnvfnn * i
- (NMKMG.
Vol. 5 . and '~yur-med ~hm-bde'i 'Od-zer ( c . 192111. -
m ' u - - (NHKHO. Vol. 36).
h e second 10 exemplified by SQryaprabhP8imha. nunn-h&!A
tnsrl-Pr (P. 0719) . Padaamunbhava. am-nnrP
(P. 6726) and - - , Rons-tom-pa (c.
1100). r ~ ~ u d - r w a , l mmuUzdi - ba'i-DO
'nrrl (NMKMQ. Vol. 25), kLonp-chen-pa'8 mun-acl - ( NMKMQ .
Vols. 26-27 1. ' Ju Mi-pham rNam-rwal (1846-1912 1 -
g.bl (NMKMG. Vol. 27). and gZhan-phan Chos-kyi sNanp-
b 8 (mKhan-po gZhan-dea'. 1871-1927). apyu-'phrul *va-ba'i
231
&g, p y i -zla*i -).
In the couree of the textual annotations. the reader's attention
will be drawn to specific points which differentiate these two
approachee. the first tending towards reductionism and classi-
fication with emphasis on the Itroctural basis of Mahboea. the
oecond elaborating the eoeential. often covert meanings.
This edition and translation of the h
largelv folLowe the interpretation of ktong-chen Rob-
'byema-pa (1308-1363) in hie celebrated interlinear commentary,
m - b c u m. which accompanies our text. The variant
readings of the extant manuscript and xyiograph editions r a i ~ e
further difficulties. which have often been resolved by
consultins the established by Lo-chen Dharmabrl in his
definitive - --r- . The approach adopted is
Clearly a traditional one of philological. literary and
historical emphaoia in contraet to the phenomenological inter-
Dretatione pioneered by B.V. Quenther. Nonetheless the ltpacy of
the latter ham left its imprint in the rendition of certain hey
terms-- priatint cognition (yr--1 and discriminative awaren868
232 *
( - 1 amone 0thmr8.
17. The editiona consulted in this study:
a) a:
In the abeence of the oriainal Sanekrit manuscripto. thia edition
of the root-tantra is derived from the following extant Tibetan
vereiona;
A. The Karma Chos-sgar Block-print
8. The aDe-dge =a'- * w u - - T. 832
Ca The Peking - * - '-LIT - - P. 457
D. --pi.-- - - -- NGB. Vol. 10 (Thimphu
edition of Gtin-ekyes Dgon-pa-Dyan Monastery me.. 1973-75)
Z . ( l o l l e c t e d - d m w m a R a - - -- NGB. V O ~ . lo (IOL.
me. )
T. The version utilised by kLong-chen Rab-*byams-pa in
G. The root-verses given in Lo-chen Dharmabr%.
an.
b ) myQe.6 - hcy n: -
1) The spa-gro edition. which is a 1975 reprint based on the
xylographe of the A-'dzom 'Brug-pa Choe-mgar. prepared by A-
*dzom 'Brug-pe (1802-1930).
ii) The dQa'-ldan Phun-tshogs-gling edition (British
Library. Waddell Collection).
18. Annotations:
1 On the life and works of this gtrs- ton, see 'Jam-mpon
Kong-sprul. pter-~tpg h r ~ x ~ y rIn
.. I
- -chen
~&x&!A V - , pp. 12ba. 3-1TUb. 3. bDud-'joms 'Jigs-
bra1 Ye-shes rDo-rje. hIL SLQnQR-
-1 - *nvw *do - r At = l&e&-~a'i
tshul dan - cinna1-bnc
- - -
dbens.nYu1-I= ypynl-ha'F bo che'i U r R -
-. Ch. 6, pp. 588-589. and the edited translation of
the latter contained in Dudjom Rinpoche, G. Dorje 8 M.
Kapstein, 3l E NYinnme SklUxS Qf Tibetan Buddhism: a
0
Pundam-ntale and -tors. Book 2. Pt. 6. The most com-
prehensive edition of the Tibetan text of thi-hhro dnonns-
PB- - appears to be that publiehec! in 3 vols.:
Delhi: Sherab Lama. 1975-1976, but refer also to RTD. vol.
b. pp. 1-281. The translations of the bar - d o o s - n r ~ l are
of course those by Kazi Dawa-Samdup. in W.Y. Evans-Wentz.
ed. , T h e = , I a n Book M- f;he Dead. London/ Oxford/ New
York: Oxford University Press. 1927; and by Francesca
Freemantle and ChBgyam Trungpa. n b e t m Book pf a
PfaQ. Berkeley/ London: Shambhala. 1975. See also Detlef
Inso Lauf'. Secret ~oct~i nerr pf uu~ Tibetan a6e)ts pL r . k
w. Boulder/ tondon: Shambhala. 1977.
2 On the early kings of Tibet. see E. Haarh. Ys r - Ly J
DYnestv end NSTR. Book 2, Pt. 3, Preciae dateR far Smrti-
jfihneklrti are unknown. According to bDud-'dome 'Jigs-bra1
Ye-shes r9o-rje, . pp. b52-3, he is held to have
been elther e previoue emanmtjon or teacher of Pone-z~m-pa
Chos-kyi bZang-po, whose floruit was in the eleventh
century. As stafed in R.A. Stein, Tibet-q ~ ~ a t l o n , pp.
72-73, he was 9lso s teacher of 'Elram-aton-pa. It appears.
therefore, tlist very little time actuelly elapsed betweet?
Smrtijfi&naklrti and Lo-chen Rjn-chen bZang-PO.
3 TbJs editod translation, prepared in collahorstian wjth Dr.
Matthew Kapstein. cnntmjns two texts which were compiled by
bDud-*jams Rjn-po-che frnm older sources, v . +he afore-
mentioned ypysl-hstm yonns-rd7o=-kyJ. mul-
mC2 -aLAaLUr rda-rle th.n o - m a n - ~ r + rin - rip -che ji - l t m
uunp-ha'i tshul gar - cine g s ~ l - h m hpind-pa m&Aba_ag - lzY!Jk
Las mal-ba'l - ho - che * i m- m. fshnrt title:
aos-'hv-1, end the m n - s n ~ u gag4 - * Q . V U ~
I
b ~ t a n - ~ a ' i rnsm - n 7 . b mdo -tsam hrj od- nq
lens - bshad snann -ba*i &R*-ston [short title: m a n P -pa * J
hap). Henceforth the work will he referred to 43
NSTB. Note, however, that since the fjnal paeina+ion of the
English vereion has not yet been determined. the gjven page
references acbord with the origjnal Tibetan texts.
I
' Notethat t h i e d e s f g n a t j o n n g S s r - ma - p e " a 1 s o a p p l i p a t o t h e
bKa'-edams-pa echool. Here there is no connection with the
Ubr PYud of the dOe-luge-pa. in which the dKa*-
gdamm-pa mastere who preceded Teong-kha-pa are referred to
as the ancient onea ( e - h r w u ) when contrastrd with
his succeaeora. the holdere of the dGe-lugs-pa lineage. who
are de~cribed by the term - - -
Rong-zom-pa. V - -1. as quoted in NSTB. Book 2.
Pt. 7, pp. 723-726.
The three ancestral rulers are the celebrated three
religious klnue of the royal dynasty. namely: Srorig-btean
sQ8.n-po who is revered as an emanation of Avalokite4vara,
the bedhisattva of comvaesion; Khri-srong 1De-btean who ie
revered ae an emanation of Hafiju4rX. the bodhisattva of
discriminative awarenese: and Khri Ral-pa-can. who in turn
la revered as an emanation of Vajraphi. the bodhisrttva of
power. See MSTB. Book 2. Pt. 3. pp. 151-169.
The expres%ion "high and low" ( gt od - ) doctrinal centreo
refer8 respectivel~ to those in Lhasa (the Jo-khans and Ra-
ma-chel and near bSam-Yae (the dPal bSam-ya~ Mi-*wur Lhun-
grub Lha-khanel. the former being earlier and at a higher
elevation than thoee around bsam-yas. See NSTB. Book 2. Pt.
7. P. 723.
Extant trmmlrt.iona prepared bv each of the88 illu~trious
ei~hth m d ninth century fiaurem in raya-dkar mgra-*gyur
line at bSlm-&fa6 and elsewhere are premrrved in the - * -
d, w - ' w y y m d - m u d -*hum. See NSTB. Book
2. Pt.. 3-5. m.
The contributions of the last three figures to the trane-
mission of the GuhvenarbhA are outlined below. pp. 76-78.
For more details. see NSTB. Book 2. Pte. 2-6: and elso for
information on the role of Santaraksita in Tibet. see NSTB.
Book 2. Pt. 3, pp. 158-166.
-: Literally, drawn from the underarm
poekct of the Tibetan garment.
India. in this context. refers to the Magadha region alone.
Refer alsc to Tlra~Gtha. a&nn a Buddhism u. p.
332.
The charge ia commonly made by the rNying-ma-pa that those
translations of Vajraykna texts made during the earlier
Propagation and unaltered by the ninth century revisions
read more lucidly in the Tibetan language than those which
conformed to the strict conventions of lexical translation.
& n - * n ~ u . or tranelation of meaning. is here contrasted
with m a . or translation of word. See below. pp. 61-
62: also * Jiee-med ling-pa. ypyud- *- m. pp. 285-
288.
The standard seven-syllable verses of the OuhvaParbha are
reproduced below in transliteration. Contrrmt the twenty-
one syllable' verses of the m r t a n t r a ( T. 362). on
Which see J. Hopkinm. Kallchlkrs -, and the San-
skrit edition: m a - Tlntra & -. Ed. Dr.
Raghu Vira and Dr. Lokesh Candra, Pt. 1.
1 14
The conflict between Sa-skya and *Bpi-gun. developed out of
,
a personal quarrel between Qubilai Qan. who exercise6
authority in Tibet through his association with Sa-skya.
I
I
I and his elder brother HnlegU. who had founded the Ilkhan
I dynasty in Iran in 1258 and extended his own patronage to
the *Bri-guns-pa by 1267. The military campain which began
in 1285 led to the victory of Sa-skya and the sacking of
'Bri-gung in 1290. See T. W. D. Shakabpa. 33 bet- & m a ; L
tory. p. 70. and R.A. Stein, - , pp.
78-79. The civil war waged between the dGe-luga-pa hier-
archy. with the military support of Gudrl Qan of the Qoaot
Moneole. and the Karms-pa with thelr petrons, the lords of
nTsang, led to the enthronment of Dalai Lama V in Lhasa in
161)l. See R.A. Stein, pe &. . pp. 82-83.
1 1 5 Karma-pa 111 Rang-byung rDo-rje was a major lineage holder
! Of the esoteric instructj.ona1 class of the Great perfection
I (-then- - - - - 1 . See NsTB, Book 2, Pt.
I
k . pp. 236-238. gYung-ston PDO-rje dPal contributed greatly
to the propagation of the lineage. and the Guhua=
tantra in particular. as we shall see below. Dalai
Lama V I6 revered as one of the major discoverere of gter-
RiB. ammounting to twenty-five volumes in hie - ~ I T V R -
ran. mKhyen-brtse and Kong-eprul. with Sa-akya and bKa*-
brgyud affiliations respectively. were the architects of
the u-m or non-sectarian movement in nineteenth century
Khams. Both were major holders of the rNyins-ma liqeages.
See NSTB. Book 2. Pt. 6. pp. 658-693.
16 There are countless incidents of this free exchange of
idea8 and instructions. and these were by no means confined
to the aforementioned masters or to the rim - m- d activities
in nineteenth century Khame. e.p., the relationship between
Sa-skya and the Zur family of *Ug-pa-lung. Sa-skya
Pandita's association with the yogin 'Dar-phya-ru-be. or
. .
the role of 'Bri-gung Rin-chen Phun-tshogs and Zhva-dmar-pa
I
IV in the ma'-- lineage, to name but a few. Refer to
WSTB, Book 2 . Pts. 8-6. naasim.
I l7
S.G. Karmay. "Origin and Early Development of the Tibetan
Relipious Traditions of the Great Perfection*'. Pp. 25h-31h.
18 The basic Anuyopa text gpyi - M ~ Q XUS-DEJ. T . 829.
is the subject of many commentaries by Lo-chen Dharmabrl.
'duB-DB Y I U - P U . L C S ~ . ~ 0 1 s . 10-12. NMKMG.
vols. I&-16. The sMin-grol-gling monastery. founded by hi3
brother gfer-bdas gLinp-pa in 1659. quickly became the most
influential centre for the study and development of
rNying-ma philosophical ideas. Its branches covered Western
and Eaatern Tibet. and the treatiees aesociated with this
tradition have become the established authorities of the
achool. See elo ow. pp. 102-105.
2 0 - : Ch. 2. v. 202 a-d; Ch. 10. v. b58 a-d.
I
2 1
m. T. 828. This verse is quoted by
aeverai authore. e.g.. Lo-chen ~hama4rS. pe U.. 0. 19;
NSTB. Book 1. Pt. 1. 0 . 23b.
Ed. Dodrup Chen Rinpoche. Qangtok. Sikkim. ca. 1969. Lo-
chen Dharmahrl, =.UP nrannbs i - * - - *i *el p m
-
- -1-m. NMKMG. Vol. 32. bDud-'joms 'Jige-bra1
ye-ahem DO-~Jc. W d - . KalFmpons. 1966.
See ,the edited English vereion of the latter contained in
NSTB. Book 1.
23 See below. vp. 59-61.
24 See kLong-chen Rab-'Cyams-pa. - ' mdzpd. pv. 257ff.:
LO-then Dhrrmadrl. L h L h k Q K - . PP. 59-83: m d
NSTB, Book 1. Pt. 4. pp. 152ff.
25 For a definition of this term. oee H.V. Guenther. pL
Mvetaru. 0. 229. n. 5. It ale0 forms the title of a
trdkati~e br klonp-chen Rab-*byam#-pa on the commitments
as8ociated with Ativoga. the - -~o-Ehe*i w.
The definition of the term yai r* re the means of
realiaing the fundrmental unchanging buddha-nature in that
given. for e k p l e . in WSTB. Book 1. Pt. &. pp. lh6a-b.
Buddha-nature ia described a8 a in the 80n80 that it
1 . held to be undivided ( - 1 and i~peri8hable (.Sr
rhitr).
QuoteC in Lo-cheri Dhali~nobr-1. -. p. 69.
The three aspects of creation and perfection (bshxek
a m ) are the meditative techniques of the creation
stage ( w - d - r i m , Skt. ktvattikrama). the perfection stage
( - . Skt. -). and the Great Perfection
( WR- D~ sen-DO. Skt. -1. For tho distinctions
between these techniques. see below. pp. 23-27. and the
appended commentary o h u o n s - b e ~ m- s e l . Chs. 11-13. See
also NSTB, Book 1. Pt. h . pp. 156a ff.
kLong-chen Rab- ' byams-pa, s e mi = -lurid - , Ctr . 9, ver-ses
AVIII as translated by H.V. Guenther in Kindlv a E _ f e
m. Part One. p. 158.
Quoted in Lo-chen Dharmadrf, -P - b&&g -1-1- . P. 69.
See below. pp. 123-127. Also refer to the structure of the
- ' s chapters, outlined on pp. 59-61, which clear-
ly indicates that creation stage. perfection stage and
Great Perfection ape integrated in this tantra.
This is a frequentiy clted quotation. e.g.. in Lo-chen
Dharmakrl. nsann-bdan thal-lunn. p. 70: NSTB. Book 1. Pt.
11. p. 220b.
Quoted in Lo-chen Dhamabri. nsann-bdan - . PP. 69-
70.
The eource for the entire section which follows is Lo-chen
Dharmrbrl. nnlnn-bdfin -. pp. 70-83.
311 On the four empobierments. see below, pp. 119-120. A ~ E O
refer to the appended commentary -6-bcu ~OYD - m p l Ch. 9.
pp. 313-332 and Ch. 10 for a detailed explanation of their
role in the - .
35 The three phases of life or birth (ahYkba'i r i m - m u m ) are
respectively those from conception in the worn3 to the
moment of birth (mnnal-du --ha WIL Da n m
- - W s - o a ' F
m), from the moment of birth to adult maturity ( m a s - n u
r-so--~a'l m), and from adult maturity to old age
(nnr-an--nas m - ~ o ' i m). See NSTB. Bock 1. Pt. 4. p.
159.9.
3 6 These twenty-eight commitments ( - w i - 8hL ._ rtea-
RrPyBd) are outlined by Lllavajra, dam-tshin - P.
0744. pp. 1&7-8. They comprise three basic commitments of
buddha-body, speech and mind (au-ns- - , - k y i ztue-ha'i
- I and twenty-five ancillary ones: five of
which are practised ( f t ~ ~ a d - u a r pya-bq u), namely five
kinds of ritual concerning rites of "liberation" and sexual
practices: five not to be renounced ( W- DU -a-be
-1. namely the five conflicting emotions: five to be
adopted (--bar m a - b a m). namely the five nectars;
five to be k'nown ( m - ~ a r m a - b a w). namely the com-
Ponents. elements. sense-objects. sacraments of meat. and
the propcnaitics in their pure nature; and five to be
attained ( w u b - m a r ma- ba -1, namely. Sody, speech.
mind, enlightened attributes and activitiee.
; 37 A clear account of the dietinctions between these practices
is given in the appended commentary e - h c u myg-eel, Ch.
I
13. PP. U53-463.
38 These practices see described in w - b c u w - s e L , Ch .
11, pp. 386-b02. Also see below, pp. 61-62 and note 103.
For a biographical account of how the wrathful rites of
"liberation" (-1 were practically applied, see the life
of ~ N y a g e Jriknakurnbra In NSTB. Book 2, Pt. 5, pp. 281-289.
39 The five buddha-bodies (-&a) are those of reality
(sJ.ws-sku, Skt. -1, perfect rapture ( ~ P D P ~ - s ~ v o ~
- - i u, Skt. - 1, emanation (w - ~ a ' i
W, Skt. ~ n U & ) , awakenine ( - - - w, Skt.
- ) , and indestructible reality ( rdo- rJe
Skt. -). Far the distinctions between these, see
NSTB. BOOK 1. Pt. 2, pp. Ulb-66b. especially 60a-63a.
& 0 dbuinne, the expanse of reality, represents the emptiness
aspect ( p a m- c h a ) of the fundamental buddha-nature, while
~ - - ~ h e a , pristine cognition, represents the apparitional or
mental aspect (-). See note U3 below. Alao refer to
NSTB, Book 1. Pt. 1, pp. 162b-163a.
The int&gration of the sexual practicee (m) or path of
desire ( - ) with diecriminative awareness is a
eignificant part of the perfection 6tage. according to
Anuyoge. klong-then Rab-'byams-pa. pyub-mtha' U&LQ~, pp.
292-&. discusses the general integration of the four kind
of desire ( 3nd- chans m u l - b z h i ) in the tantraa. For Anu-
yoga in particular ?efer to NSTB. Book 1. Pt. O. pp. 162b-
166b.
5
112
i
For an appraisal of these empowerments. refer to 'Jam-mzon
Kong-sprul, shes-bya bun-- mdzod, Vol. 2, pp. 7&8-7b9.
aad for a discussion of the application of Anuyopa empower-
!
ments tc all nine vehicles. includinz the siitras. refer to
I
NSTB. Book 2. Pt. 7, pp. 758-76b.
i
I
U3 The emptiness aspect of phenomena. represented by Samanta-
bhadrl, is united with the pure apparitional aspect of
-!ntelligeQce. represented by Samantabhadra, to produce the
fundamental enlightened mind or buddha-nature. Refer to
NSTB. Book 1. Pt. O, pp. l62b if. Also, see the present
tantra-text, Ch. 2. and the appended commentary, y h v o ~ u - hru
mun-ma, Ch. 2, pp. 97.6 ff.. which speak of SamantabhadrP
as &#A - ba - mo , the objective aspect of phenomena or reality.
end Samantabhedra as w e d - ~a - DQ , the subjective aspect of
intelligence.
118 & w e - ~ a -B-D~. P. 1152. Vol. 9. Ch. 66. 190:3:3-
192:3:fl. These comprise four definitive commitmente.
twenty-eight c o q o n commitmente. four euperior commitments,
twenty-three relating to diecipline. twenty concerning
Mttainment, four relating to continuity of the path of
conduct. five MAras which are to be renounced. four enemies
to be destroyed, and the commitment of the view. See '3am-
mgon Kong-sprul, -*--by& m, Vol. 2, pp. 182-
192. Refe? also to NSTB, gloseary of enumeratlons, under
their respective entries for an Er~glieh version.
11 5 The ability to visualise the deities instantly is
associated with the perfection stage. It is contrasted with
the gradually constructed visualisations of the creation
stage. See NSTB, Book 1, Pt. b , p. 165a.
11 6 These twenty-five realities of the buddha-level ccmprise:
the five buddha-bodies ( - 1 which have been
enumerated above; the five modes of buddha-speech (m
- 1, namely, untreated meaning, intentional symbols.
expressive words, speech of indestructible and indivisibie
reality, and the speech which has the blessing of aware-
ness; the five kinds of buddha-mind (-), namely
the pristine cognition of reality's expanse. the mirror-
like pristine cognition, and those of sameness, discernment
and accomplishment; the five enlightened attributes (yon-
ltan -), namely, pure buddhafields, limitless celestial
palaces, pure light-rays, thrones, and rapturous enjoyment;
anC the five enlightened activities ( h r i n - b -1, name-
ly, pacification of suffering and it6 causes, enrichment of
excellent provisions, overpowering those who require
training, wrathfully uprooting those who are difficult to
train, and Bpontaneously accomp1ishin.g whatever emerges
without effort. See also ISTB, Book 1, Pt. k , p. 162a.
47 On this empowerment and its aspects, through which the
Great Perfection is entered. eee klong-chen Rab-'byams-pa,
pyub-mtha'i m, gp. 370-372. For the Indian historical
backgroun3 refer to NSTB, Book 2, Pt. 2, pp. 130-137.
1
1
! a8 The term thiP-le (Skt. U n d ~ ! . rendered here as seminal
i
point, in thin context refers to the eeed or nucleus of
enlightened mind. The term also indicates the white and red
seminal fluids within the physical body and .the subtle
seminal points of light which appear internally and before
the eyes during the practice of All-Surpassing Realisation
(mod-r&, Skt. -). See NSTB, glossary.
119 1.r. m d ~ q , - phy a l bf i - , p-in-~a, and - , For a de-
tailed explanation of these commitmente accordins to the
Great Perfection. see klong-chen Rab-'byams-pa, paa~ - 1-
m, . -; and H.V. Guenther, Matrix pL: Ws t e u , p.
238. The terms nothingness and apathy are. of course,
unrelated to their usage in mundane doctrines.
50 On these classes and meditative technique6 of the Great
Perfection, see NSTB, Book 1, Pt. &. pp. 190a. 5-211b: and
for their respective lineages, ibid., Book 2, Pt. 2, pp.
120-la3, pt. 4, pp. 187-277.
51 Thie refere to the sixteenth buddha-level, otherwise known
a8 - , on whlch see the appended commentary
-
munsrl, Ch. 12, p. 430. The celebrated
commentary by 'Jigs-med gLing-pa on - meditation.
khrid-yin ye- m, is named after this highest of
buddha-level S .
S.G. Karmay in his "Origin and Early Development of the
Tibetan Religious Traditions of the Great Perfection", p.
276, has brought to our attention this claim made by Ngag-
-
gi dBanp-po in the rpol m l o n - r t ~ g h z l o ~ - - ~ a ' I DBtan-
w. Even if the aesertion were true, the inclusion of
these texts would have coincided with the flnrvit of Bu-
aton Rin-then-grub (1290-136U) who helped compile the M a v -
t
u in its later farm.
The m~'-'nvur - rh- 1 D a n - u - (T. U36&) , compiled
by sKa-ba dPal-brtseys and Nam-mkha'i sNying-po during the
ninth century, is a catalogue of thoae texts which could be
widely disseminated. See M. Lalou, "L.es Textea Bouddiques
au temps du Roi Khri-sron-lde-bcan." The same translators,
who had been involved in the translation of texts relating
to the three inner classes of tantra, were advised to
employ the utmost secrecy with respect to these highest and
most potent of instructions. Consepuently these texts were
neither revised nor catalogued. See 'Jigs-med gLing-pa,
lY&~ud-'bUm u - , pp. 285-288. Indeed, the lineages
associated with the three classes of tantra were not widely
RropaOated before the late eleventh century in sGro-phug-
pa's time. see also NSTB, Book 2, Pt. 5, p. 360 ff.
5 tl The polemics of Lha-bla-ma Ye-shce *od and the prlnce of
Gu-gc, Pho-branp Xhi-ba-'od, h ~ v e been discussed by S.G.
Karmay, "The Ordinance of Lhe Ala-ma Ye-shee-'ad"; "An Open
1.etter hy Pho-brang hi-he-'06 to the ~uddhiuts of Tibetw;
"A Discuesion on the Doctrinal Po~ltion of rl?zogw-chen from
the lOth to the 13th Centurjes"; and R. A. Stein, Tlh-tqp
~ivilization, pp. 71-72. On their objections to the
p~aetice of W - o n r d and on the 'busms-Yin of *Gns Khug-
p~ Lhas-btsns, see also helow, pp. 61-72.
5 5 QT ham-pn~ie, T. &3&7, pp. 6-7. Ed. Sonam Ancdu, fn
=beto-Sans- - u J W R ~ P F ~ .
56 On the founding and development of 'Ug-pa-lung, and for the
bio~raphies of the Z,ur femily whjch majntelned the b)ta'-ma
lineage through to the seventeenth century, s e e NSTP, bnok
2, Pt. 5 pp. 3C.b-&29. On the location of +his monestery
near gZhi9-ka-rt~e and of the retree+ centpe of the Zurs in
the Shanga ~alle:~, see A . F e r ~ a ~ l , m* ~ e n - s d Gvide
L l E W m Q C f - ,entral-, pp. 60, 6 6 , I & & , 159.
57 The conventianal rendering of Lllhvaj~a hae b e e n challenged
by R.M. Davldson, **The Litany of Names of Mafijubrf," p. 6,
n. 18, where he argues that Vllaeavajra is the correct
Sanskrit name.
58 Or! the set iv1,t lea of Zur hZang-po dPal , see NSTB, Book 2,
Pt. 5, pp. 100-105.
59 The atory of Ratna ling-pa's eucceesful salvage of the
W e r t r d Tentrae in pTsanz is recounted in 'Jam-mgon Kong-
sprul. err-st= wva-brtea. pp. 127a. 3-128b. 1. and in
NSTB, Book 2. Pt. 6. pp. 580-583. According to tradition.
the act of obtaining the books would have been meaningless
if he had not manaped to receive the spir-itual transmission
connected with them from Wee-sgom.
60 Refer to NSTB. Book 2. Pt. 5, pp. 501-502 for this lineage.
6 1 Refer to NSTB. Book 2. Pt. 5, pp. 083-086.
6 2 Refer to NSTB. Book 2, Pt. 6. pp. 636-606; also S.D.
OooQman. "Rig-'dzin 'Jigs-med ling-pa and the w - C h e n
-n.
63 In 1717 the Dzungar Mongols occupied Lhasa and killed
Lha-bzang Qan, the Qobot leader who had previously murdered
the regent Sangye Gyamtso and helped the Chinese to remove
the Dalai Lama VI in 1706. A great persecution of rNying-
ma-Pa monasterieB followed. resulting in the deaths of Lo-
chen Dha~mabrt. Rig-'dzin bZhi-pa Padres Phrin-las of rDo-
rJe Brag, and others. See 5 . Petech. Chine a Tibet in
EaZuXYIIIthcenturu.
6h The five precious substance6 ( a - c h c n aria are pold.
silver. turquoiee. coral and pearl.
65 he catalogue is included in NGB. vol. 30. no. 007. and in
JLSB. Vol. 3.
It was largely throuph the efforts of 'Jiga-me0 p~inp-pa's
atudent, rDo-grub I, 'Jigs-mod Phrin-lam '00-zer (17&3-
1821) that the Queen of aDe-doe offered royal patronage to
the rNyinp-ma tradition and mponsored the carving of the
woodblork~. This alignment of the Queen with her
preceptor, rDo-grub Rin-po-che, led to the 1798 eDe-dse
civil war, after which both of them were exiled. See E. Q.
Smith, ~ntraduftion _tp Konntrul'e EnwWaadia, pp. 23-20.
On rDo-g~ub I. Phrin-ias '00-zer. eee Tulku Thondup.
T~ULCI S pL lthe WLuma~. vv. 88-93.
This index is contained in NQB. Vole. 36-36. Regardins this
figure's other composition on the tattva
-
wc-v-, see below. D. 105.
The sDe-dge Wlopraph edition in 25 volumes plus cataloaue
is preserved in Rome and elsewhere. See J. Driver. "A
Preliminary Survey of the Tantras of the Old School", un-
published ms.
y p y u d - ' m. Vcle 1-36: Thimphu: Ngodrup. 1973-
Eiichi Kaneko, - -. Tokyo:
Kokusho Kankakai, 1982.
The ~ublication details of theae alternativo ~ o l l O ~ t i 0 n 8
art as f ollowe: u. 3 vola. Now
Delhl: S m j e Dorje, 1973-1977. I-Tlb 73-906636. 2.h R4YUd-
a -. 8 Vola. SSS. 16-23 (1971 1. I - Ti b 70-
926537. The Mtahuna-brag manuscript . b 6 vola. 1982,
Thimvhu. Bhutan, National Library. Royal Oovornmont of
Bhutan. Bhu-Tib 82-902165.
The distinction between the eeoTerlc c l e s ~ and the
exoteric tantrs clase I s emphasised by the sccount of Zur-
po-che's conetruction of 'Up-pa-lung monastery. See below,
pp. 90-91.
This Is the Tentrs pL p h t h e r i m pf Einht Trap?-
&tea P ? . , which Padmas~mhhnvo j ntroduced into Tibet.
It wa.? subsequently revealed in the context of ~ s n y
important zter-nu cycles, such as Nyeng-ral Nyl-ma 'Od-
zer's U s ' - b r W bfle-n?hepe b n e r - ' d u (RTP. vol . 21 ) . 612-
C U Chos-dbang' s b k ~ * -hrwea m a w n u o - r d 7 . 0 ~ (RTD,
Volt. 22-23], PadmagLjng- pa*^ b k a * - b ~ ~ ~ ~ 3 fbuns-kuL-
LP[1P (RTD. Vol. 231, end mChop-pyur bDe-chen gline-pa's
bkaq-hrnuad b8e - h un-'dus (RTD. Vol. 25)
The meditationel deities !yl-Qm? Yamfintaka, H s y a ~ r l v a ,
Srqheruka, Vajr8mrta. and VajrakumBrg are eafd tn be
supramundane in the sense thaf they confer supreme accom-
plishmen+s (m d mz ~ ~ . - n r l ~ b ! of enligb+snment and
buddhahood. They are con*ras+ed wjth the three mundsne
mcdita+l onal del ties-- MBtarf . Stotrepil ja. and Vajrsm~?tra-
bhTru-- who confer common accompl~ehmenta (mun-monn-pi
. On the Indjan hjetorlcal hackground to these
prsctices, see NSTB, Book 2, Pt. 2 , pp. 103-112. On their
etructure, see NSTB, Book 1 , Pt. h , p. 162.
76 Ed. Tarthang Tulku, Varanami. 1968. pp. 27-28. The text ia
also published in vol. 4 of Dodrup Chen Rinpoche's edition
of nnrl - . For an earlier Yogatantra tradition
of eighteen tantrrs which reeemblts this in a few cases.
eee Amoghavajra's pn l~b p.
Taieha, 869 (vol. 18).
7 7 Ed. Lokeeh Candra. Delhi. y. 238. There exists another
Delhi editfon: Delhi Karmapae Chodey Gyalwae Sungrab Partun
Khang, 1983.
78 On the Life and works of gTer-bdag sting-pa. the founder of
I
the sMin-grol-sling (l6Y6-17Ph) tradition which penetrated
Khams and Western Tibet from its mtronghold in Lho-kha and
became the dominant rNyinp-ma echo01 during the nineteenth
century, Bee NSTB. Book 2, Pt. 6, pp. 620-636. 'Jiga-med
I
=Ling-pa in his - * -- - I P.
117, however foltowe the earlier enumeration of dPa*-bo
gTmup-leg 'Phreng-bt.
79 The first of these texts is contained in the g;h--rhwI
n.unp-'bum. vol. 2. Paro: Neodruv, 1975
onwarde. The eecond reference is to NSTB, Book 2, Pt. 2, p.
83.
80 H.V. ~ u e n t h e r * ~ ' ~tudy, pf m. 1 . the firot
wemtern wOPk to draw heavily on the P.
Among E. Conte* a work., one might note Ztm Sutl?r M
P/ i . i rct uaam, Z h a ~ n f l o u ml a mh k i n h t T h P u l l n d
L i n a r ~ ~ ~ S u n r m r r u . and--&-
a - - - . See rleo L. Lrncrster.
PRS .
81 S.Q. Karmay. nn, &. . p. 2311. notes references in Macdonrld
and Imaede. & 08-T2: a u. to the effect that Pelliot
PT. 42, Pte. 1. VIIX & IX correopond to eectione from the
p. Among them. moat of Pt. VPXI c?rrceponde
to SQryaprabh&simha's - c b - (P. b719). if.
308-317. On K a m w l s rcferencee to the writings of gNubs-
chen Srnge-reyae Ye-ehes and Rong-esm Choe-kvi bZang-po.
Bee below. p. 69. note 120.
82 See NSTB. Book 2. Pt. 5. 0. 298.
83 The reference given here is to the traneletion from tho
French of Ouetavc-Chrrlee Tcuieeant by K. Douglae and 0 .
Bays, Xha Lire AU LiberatiDn pf PadmasamDhava. Part XI. R.
537. Bee the bibliosravh~ under lnjunctiPn pL. Padma
ca-d for further details of the xylo-
eravh edition and the French translation.
811 Yeahe Tsogyal. Z h Liie A U LibarlltiPn Pldmasnmbhavr*
Port 11. R. 416.
Kalimpong: Du jam Rinpoche, 1970.
86 dPal-bo eTmug-lag Phrens-br. mkhra-~a'i m* - r t ~ . DR. 238-
239.
87 oP.cit., P. 239.
88 ace the appended commentary
- -
. P. 6.
90 This phra8e indicates. in the view of klone-chen Rab-
lbyams-pa, that the text 16 representative of the MahP
d i v i ~ i ~ n of Atiyoga. See below, g. 120, and - boy LPIlP;
m, OD. 5-6. The term eelf-manifesting or manifeet in and
of itself (v - ) implie6 that the pure appearances of
the buddha-level are manifest to buddh88 alone. It is
contrasted with the term "extraneously manifest" (m-
u) which refers to the perception of other beings--
tenth level b0dhiSattvaEi and so forth. See NSTB, Book 1,
Pt. 2, p. 06b: Book 2, Pt. 2. p. 60.
91 On the sionificance of and u, see the appended
Commentary ohuaps-bca - . PP. 053f f. ; and H. V.
Ouenther, af -, PC. 270-275. The
purificaticn of the components refers to the -andha,
namely form (nzuna!! - Phunp, - Skt. w a n d h a ,
feelings (w -be 1 phunp, - Skt. - 1,
- -
vcrceptione ( * du-ehQs h i ohunn. Skt. -aha),
habitual tendencie~ which are pSyCh0-phY8iC~l ( ' d u - b y ! -
phunp-pa, skt. aam- 1, and conacioumneee (rnrm -
W - k v i Phunn-pp, Skt. -).
92 The four rite6 are the firot four of the five hinds of
anlishtened activity enumerated above. p. 1 4 0 , note 06..
viz. pacification (a). enrichment (-1. mubjueation
I
(-1 and wrath (-1. See also pp. 121-2. note 221
!
below.
93 Theme are the four guardian king8 of the four directions
I
( ~ k l - than hzhi. Skt. c a t i k a ) , namely, Dhrta-
r b t r a in the eaet, VirOdaka in the aouth, VirQpakea in the
.
went, and vaihravana in the north.
94 The ~tandard enumeration of eighteen peycho-physical basen
(- Qcp-br-) ie given in Mvt. 2040-2058, viz., those
of the eye, form, and the conaciousneee cf the eye; of The
esr, sound and the coneciousneee of the ear; of the nose,
smell and the con~cioueness of the nose; of the tongue,
taete and the coneciouenass of the tongue; of the body,
touch and the consciousnese of the body; and of the
intellect, phenomena and the consciouenees of the
intellect. In addition. the present enumeration of twenty-
one inciudas: 19) the identity of all the tath&gatae which
is the eource of the preceding eighteen; 20) the field in
which enlightenment is accomplished; and 21) the causal
base which givee riee to bliss. See e.o., the Einhtv
Chant%F am&L&l ( ~ p y u - '~hrul hlLlZYld - b O U - a a ) , T. 83&, P.
h57, QKa-'wu, V0l. 10, 39.3.1.
95 At the end of Volume 111, the compiler of the new edit.ion
ha6 inserted a veraion of the thuns-lsui thinr - Da * i man=
u, pp. 639-665. Thin trertiee ha0 three central topica,
numoly, a brief instruction on the appearances of mind in
ita natural mtate, thr apvearancee of bewilderment, and the
appearance8 which purify thoee to be trainmd. In P. 0738,
Vol. 10, lZ!g.ll.l-l3ll.l. 3. a text of this titlm is attri-
buted jointly to Buddhapuhya, Vimalamitra and L11&vaJra.
There are now two useful editions and translations of this
text, viz. R.M. Davideon, "The Litany of Kames of Mafiju-
Lrf." McB 20 (1981). DD. 1-69. and A. wayman, Chlntinn -the
Pf m. Boulder/ London: Shambhala, 1985.
The five aspects of seminal "enlightened mind" ( Q x ~ ~ s - sem
u) may be explained according t3 either pro1 - OF
---. In the former context, they refer to an clrbora-
tion of the five verses on non-creation. non-cessation,
non-abiding, non-reference, and abaence of motion, which
respectively give rise to the ( - , Ch.
2, 6-10). As such the five are known as sYa-ldaIu QXuUk
GhUh ESm8, RmQn-Ra - hxaCSh~ann-rm -I a u e - ~ a hYAtU PhUh
-
-,I --chub and m t w - ~ h y i n - ~ a bupnn-
a%pp~. In the latter case, ae deecribed below, p. 1016,
in connection with the &or-rn practices and in kLons-chen
rab-'byams-pa, =-ba'i u - ~ n ' i wi-QM lenn-
par b . h r d - p r ' i . n mn - b r r r y i d I n b u L M - - adz ha.
p. 69b. these five refer to the arousal of the seminal
fluid (vanlightened mindv) from its natural po8ition
(hulnn-rhub-kYi rrm. nnu - nr.0 -ha), it. demcent and
coming to reat in the srcret centre (--mu w - D U
P.. 8ic). it8 retontion in the pmni8 (--FA= bzunn-bar
nnl.-~r), it8 induction upwa~d8 (4vrn - - 3US=
P.). and it8 porva8ion of thm body (m - W
- - m). See - , Ch.
13. Dv. 053 if. . and Lo-chen DhamabrZ. n.mn - -
snuu?. pp. 106-108.
- Innr* Skt. 98 he five i m p u ~ i t i e ~ (v 6-1 are
impurity of life (t.hF'i - . Skt. . yyhAL86h) .
impurity of view (ltn-bn'i @ n u i ~ - m a . Skt. Oret l - kl eka) .
. . .
impuritv of conflicting emotions ( - - - -,
Skt. -ah). impurity of mentient beings ( - - -
pyi- - . Skt. r nt t ynA&e&a) , and im~urity of time
(dus-kyi- - Skt. - 8 h ) . Mvt. 2335-2300.
9 9 The three 6ecret centres (namn-ba beclm) are the indeo-
tructible realities of buddha-body. speech and mind.
100 This a6sertion regarding the wrafhful mandala is made by
. .
klong-chen Rab-'byams-pa. ~hvanm-bcu mun-eel, Ch. 1, p. 87.
E. Conze claims e. e. * in Xha Parf*etian af wiraom ln EUht
Linae And Lta Vqtrec Summasu, pp. x-xi. that on the
evidence of the Sanekrit the basic Prajiiap&ramita aQtra is
the veraion in eight thoueand lines (T. 12!. md that both
the longer and shorter ver6iona are derived from it. Since
the Sanakrit manumcript6 of our text. which were formerly
houeed In the Pa-her dKor-mdzod-sling library at bSun-yam.
are not available. the problem of chronoloeical mequence
cannst in thia case be remoiveb. T i ~ u i i t c t ~ ~ trrnrirtians
of the three varmionm rre all attributed to the eighth
century. Sae bmlow. DD. 80-83: and for the traditional
account of t h d r orisin in India, pp. 72-75.
102 'Ju Mi-pham rNem-rgyal . 'od-neal - . pp.
10-11. The three wc-Ids (--rten w) referred to in
this passage are tllose Of the desire realm ( I - dPd- >aWi
m. Skt. kamadhgtu). the form reelm ( m - k u i m.
Skt. -1. and the formless reelm (nzuns-rne-
w. Skt. -1. Refer to NSTB. Book 1. Pt. 1. pp.
I
103 Reference has already been made to these polemics. p. 28.
I
note 5 & . 'Jigs-med yLing-pa. - * w u d - ' burn-nui
id. pp. 1 U7 - 1 U8 . however. cites a relevant Faesage
from chapter sixteen of the - - . indlcatins
that the &or - snrol practices are also prominent in
tantras respected by the later schools. Yet there is
clearly a Cistinction in purpose between the apparently
ahocking coded o r twilight language ! - s a ) found in
tantras like the Und-eu. and the Guhvanarbha's
. .
elaborate and lucid presentation of the -or--
practices within the context of' advanced meditation. One
can only speculate that it was the clear and direct
expression of secret teaching In this text which caught the
attention of Lha bLa-ma Ye-ehes-'od, thereby causing him to
link it with the abuse of &vor - in eleventh century
Tibet. ~ncidentally. coded language a160 occurs in the
early translations. and a detailed examination of its usage
and metaphor would be a valrtable study in iteelf.
1011 Lo-ct~en ~harrnaari, --adan Zh&l-l-. pp. 102-103. dis-
cusses the distinctive terminology of the Anuyoga and Ati-
yoga texts. His argument that the language employed in
higher vehicles is not the same as that current in lower
vehicles is taken up by bDud-'joms 'Jigs-bra1 Ye-shes rDo-
rje. NSTB. Book 2. Pt. 7. p. 735. who emphasises that the
- .
doctrinal terminology of the is absent in
the and in the lower mantra texts. while the
language of the lower mantra-texts 16 not found in the
Anuttaratantras such as - . and the terms of the
latter do not much occur in Anuyoga arlCAtiyoga. Reference
has already been made. p. 17. n. 12-13; P. 28. n. 53. to
the early translators who sought to render meaning rather
than word. Their original translations of tantra-texts are
contrasted with the revised translations of sutra-texts,
e.g.. in 'Jigs-med gling-pa. rpy~ld-'bu &?IR - 1- . pp. 285-
288.
105 NSTB. Book 2. Pt. 5. pp. 352-353.
I 106 Zur-chung-pa, in jest. associates Khyung-po ~rags-se's
I
mundane eelf-interested desire to have him killed with the
forceful rite of "liberation" (-1. which is explained
to transfer the consciousness of another from the body into
a buddhafield. acting out of compassion. See g p s -t,pu
-
msel. PV. 396-h00; also NSTB. Book 2. Pt. 5, vv. 281 ff.
107 #STB. Book 2, Pt. 5. BP. 360- 341. Pt. 7 . p. ?64.
108 'Qom Khup-pa Lhas-btsas's w o ~ k in contained in p
urn- pp. 18-25: T h i ~ p ~ , 1979. India. am mtrtrd
above. p. 132, note 11. refer8 in thim context to the
nardha region alone.
109 The trntra clearly has no audience of bodhimattvae because
it is hela to be r self-manifastinu expraemion or buddho-
nature, i.e. it manffcets in and of iteelf to
the buddhae alone. This problem lo d i s ~ u ~ ~ e d by klonp-chen
Rab-'by~s-pa in - - ~ h . 1, DR. 16-28.
where he ale0 explain6 that the introductory Phraee *d*-
rkaP U*fl-Qa*i due-na referm to the fourth time, 1.e.
asnreness thrO~phOUt past. present and future. On the third
of G o Lhae-ttnaa'a pointe. klong-chen-pa states the
central deity of r mandcla a 4 rotate. Intereetingly,
. .
he is the only commentator on the who ineists
on Vrirocrnr beins the central deity. rather than Vrjra-
sattva. His reasons for so dointt are outlined in
ksu-
- , Ch. 1, RR. 60-72. As to the fourth point, he
clrim8, - bru - , Ch. 11. pp. 917-018. that there
many ~recedents for trntras referring to other8 which had
been delivered errlier in time.
110 klone-chon-pe, M, u. ~ h . 1. rmmertm that in the view of
the new trrnalrtion 8chool8 the around of Akmimthr 10 rloo
. .
conaidered to be immermurrble.
Refer to S. O. Karmaat. pe a.. 0. 277, note 23. The firnt
of theme text8 im commonly attributed to klons-chen-pa.
The following reproduce# alaost the entire text of this
8hort work r e preee~vrd in Wbitinnr p~
The five empowerment8 referred to are alao known am the
iive empowemants of rbilitv ( WE- ~ a ' i dhang -1. which
are included unons the fifteen ordinary sacraments of om-
~owerment. See - - ht-u - - Ch. 10. pp. 372-376.
They are namely. the empowerment of the listener (=-~a'i
which is that of Ratnasambhava. the empowerment of
the meditator (--DE'~ which is that of Akaobhva.
the empowerment of the expoeitor ( - - ' which is
that of AmitPbha. the empowerment of enlightened activitv
( w i n - JJUJ - kui w) which ia that of Amoghaaiddhi. and
the empowerment of the king of indestructible reality (a
r;L. w a l - a o ' i w ) which is that of the five enlightened
funilir~. The three rarlities ( - - - nnuu -I in
question are explained in SQryaprabh&~imha'm commentary (P.
4719). pp. 2-3. to be the untreated reality which im the
caunal bamis of the mandala, the resultant reality which is
. .
the mpontaneous Smnmtrbhadra. and the realitr which
appear. am a chain of meed mvllablee and im the caumrl
brmim of the iacret enlinhtened mind.
One mhould note that theme are not the actual word. of
introduction raploved in thim trntra-text. The particular
reason behind the -*s usage of the words:
Thus. at the time of this explanation
is discussed by klong-chen Rab-'byams-pa in -6-bcu
afl. Ch. 1. pp. 16-28.
I
115 - . T. 2217. P. 3061. vol. 68. 228.11.7-8. Note
t
I
that the last verse of the Peking version reads We - r S e
I
I & for thuns rdo-rl~. The author Sororuha or Padmavajra is
!
regarded as a form of Padmasambhava.
116 The exponent ie identified with the compiler in the sense
that such advanced tantras are said to be maniPented in
and of themselves ( . See the above explanation
of this term. p. a2. note 90.
117 The punctuation dots. which delimit or measure the Sanskrit
word are. of course. the -. See the explanation in
w - b c u --eel. p. 189.
118 See the above note 109. The Yogatantras. exemplified by the
Tattva~amprahs (T. 479). are considered to be earlier than
the Anuttarayopatantras. See D. L. Snellgrove. & v a j ~ a
-. 11. v. 57 for this specific reference.
119 'Bri-sung dPal-*dzin*s text. chas-dnnn rhpa u n - ~ a mam-
~ a 6 dl we- ba' L rah-tu U e d - Da , is reproduced in ~oe-bzlog-
Pa. - -. p. 265. where his contention that
the mrn - Jta - * D m is a commentary on the
and hie rejcctian of the rdz9ns-chcn temnino-
logy are refu+ed. 'Jjgs-me0 gLlng-pa. mud-'burn-UYL
r - . p. 133, repeate the refrrtation, pointing out
that B u d d h s J ~ B n a p h d a ' s ~ . P. 2716, vol. 65, p.
10.1.2. refers to Atiyoga in a celebreted line: rdzoPa-Dm
-I-Y~ w. In the a u d - * bym mis-lclll.
p. 127. he also quotee mNga'-rie Pan-chen Padma dEang-
rgyal's rejection of 'Bri-gung dPa1-'dzin'e poeition. On
thie varse and mNga'-rie Pan-chen's repetitjon of it at the
beginning of his En-, a commentary or? the
intearetion of QE&dm&sn. - @ a and vows. see
NSTB. Book I . Pt. U, pp. 19hb-195b. Book 2. Pt. 6, pp. 706
ff. For recent criticiams. see N. tiorbu. Smell
lhlhctlnn a Hidden m c c ~ t s . pp. 8 - 9 , end P. G. Karmay,
u. , pp. 2116-251.
120 Karmsy notes. pg &. p. 2311, that two pessagee from msn-
apag l t a - ~ h r e u are cited in pNubs-chen Sangt-rgyss Ye-
~ h e s ' B - . Ch. 6. The enti r-e text is
reproduced in WP+-Q Writinns QL - - kv l bann=.
PO. For the Tun Huang referencee, see above p. 37, note 81.
121 The comments of Atlba on this subject are recorded in his
biography. See H. Elmer. Rnam W rnu.s M, vol. 2. P. 53.
pasease 076.
122 ?or perhaps the earlleet nurvlving account of its redie-
covrry, mee '(308 Lotm&ws gZhon-nu dP.1. a b - t w w,
-
rtad, v. 136; and a. Roerlch. Blur Ann.ls. PV. 103-lob.
*Go6 himself was involved in the retranelation of the root-
text.
However the colophons of the W U - * ~ h r u and
biograph~cal sources concur that Vimalamitra was the
translator of the whole collection. See NSTB. Book 2. Pt.
0 . P. 179-
Accordins to G. Roerich. Blue Annals. p. I O U . the twenty-
third and twenty-fourtti chapters of this later version are
contained in the sDe-doe xylograph edition of the rnuinn-
maLj --*bum. Vol. X I 1 ( N a ) . The text does not appear to
be contained in NGB.
On Zi-lung-pa Sak-ya mChog-ldan and his contributions to
ptrilosophical controversy in Tibet. see L . W. J . van der
~uijp. Contrib~tions _tp LU a ~uddhist
- . pg. 10-22. This particular passage is cited
by Sog-bzlog-pa in his (hJ.J~m -. vol. 1. pp. 519-
520.
I. e. . supreme and common accomplishments (mchon-datlg thun-
-1. on which see above. note 75.
See the bibliography for further information. These and
other eourcee are listed in a epecial section at the end of
USTB. Book 2 . Pt. 2. pp. 835-837.
On this veree. Bee S.G. Karmay. "King Tea/ Dza and Vajra-
y6nr." D3. 197-199.
WGB. Vol. 3. no. Q6. For a traditiona3 account of the
appearance of Anuyopa in Srf Lank&. see WSTB. Book 2, Pt.
2. pp. 72-77.
The traditions concerning this figure and the intermediere
IndrabRQti have been studied by S.G. Karmay. "KIng Tea/ Dza
and Vajray&na." For other references to intermedjate Indra-
bhQti, see T€iranbtha. Bietorv pL Buddhism ip ~KuIU, pp.
201. h10: and NSTB. Book 2. Pt. 2. gp. 78-79.
ISTB. Book 2. Pt. 2. p. 80.
Vimalakfrti is best known to the Buddhist world through the
magnificent #ah&y&na sQtra bearing his name, 1.e. the
h, T. 176, on which see E. Lamotte,
4.e V; R. Thurman. l i ~U Teachinn pL
w r t i : and the translation from Chinese by Charles
LUC.
Peking &Tan-'nvu, Vol. 83. p. 120.2.8-120.3.2.
Peking -Tan- 'nvu, Vol, 83. p. 103.5.5-1 03.5.7.
See N. Norbu, Small Collection eL1 Hidden prep--. pp.
3811. S.G. Kcrrmay. u., pp. 109-112, states that the
biograPhie~ of the tantra-master Buddheguhya and of the
exponent of the Great Perfection Buddhagupta were confused
by *Go6 ~ost&we aZhon-nu dPa1 in the deb - th-r snnon-~o.
Even if this were the case. it is probable that the figure
in gue8tiOn here it3 Buddhaguhya sirhce the text8 outlined In
the blo~aaphy are based on Mahkyoga. See NSTB. Book 2. Pt.
136 See NSTB. Pt . 2. Book 2. p. 87.
137 These ten aspects are dlecussed below. pp. 110-123. within
the fpsmework of 'Ju Mi-pam rNam-rgyal's commentary 9pyi-
dPn 'ad-peal enuinn-Do.
138 pbvone-bcu y ~ ~ n - s e L , Ch. 6. pp. 2116-2118.
139 La-=sum rGyal-bs Byang-chub. who, llkc rMa Rin-chen mChog,
was one Of the eight major tran~lators and one the seven
monks who were originally tested for ordlnatlon, was em-
powered by Padmasamhhava af Khra-brug. and :n consequence
was able to assume a meditative posture in the sky. See K.
Dowman. a. pp. 283-0 and m; Yeshe Ts@gyal,
anQ Ube r at m pL - , Part 11. p. 592;
a180 NSTB. Book 7 . Pt. h . p. 185.
130 These so-called "Pour greRt rivers of the distant lineage"
compriee: the river cf conventional textual exegeeis. long
with the commenteri~s an6 ieciure notes; the river of
instruction of the aural lineage. along with the essentla3
writings and the guidance whlch lays Sare the teaching
(dmar-khrid); the river of blessing and empowerment, along
With the means for conferral and the introductions: and the
river a? practical techniques. rites of enlightened sct-
ivity and attaln~ent. along with the wrathful mantras of
the protactorb of the teaching. See NSTB. Book 2. Pt. 5 .
P. 282. On the tranolatorn Vairocrna and pYu-s~ra aNyine-
yo, see S.G. Karmay, "The Orlgln and Early Development of
the Tlbetan Religioue Traditions of the Great Perfcction".
Pt.1. which Is a summary of the BionraPhY pL M r n c w
( zl e- bf sun thams-cad m h b ~ e n - ~a bai -r~-tea - n a * i rnam-thax
m - * h u -1: also WSTB. Book 2. Pt. h . pp. 187-390.
1 h 1 On these figures. see NSTB, Book 2. Pt. 5. pp. 289-290.
Among them. gNyan-chen dPal-dbyangs was a pro11 f 1 c
commentator. his works including treatisee on the WYR-
m h . h t a n t r a , viz. the - a ~ m (P. 5918), the
lta-ha ~anl - dan w o n - m a (P. 5919). the snron=ma
(P. 5921). and the lta - ba - DO - che aprnn -ma (p- 5923).
la2 On Srf Sjmha see WSTB, Book 2, Pt. 2, pp. 130-137, Pt. 4,
PP. 187-190. On VasuChara. pe a. . Book 7 , Pt. 5, pp. 290
ff.. and on Zhang rGyal-ba*i Yon-tan. QL u.. Book 2. Pt.
5 . p. 291. Kamala&fla*s role in the bSam-yes debate is
recorded In sBa-gsal-enang. gbe - bzhed ; R. A. Stein,
Chroniaue Anciervre Qe man;-vaa: G. TUCCI. Winor Bvddhlst
f - . Pt. IT: and J . Broughton, "Early Ch*an In Tibet. **.
See also S.G. Karmay. pe u.. pp. 353-190 on the relat-
ionship between the Tlbetan s i ~ - c n r - ~ a tradltlon and the
Hva-ehang.
I h 3 On thle flgure. eee NSTF). Book 2. Pt. 2. pp. 300-304
lb5 The four provinces of stPd mnztt'-ru - dbus-
ntsann. a-mda. khams.
1h6 WSTR. Book 2. Pt. 7. p. 770.
1117 RsTB. ~ o o k 2. Pt. 11. pp. 238-277.
1h8 According to WSTB, Book 2. Pt. 11. p. 235, ktonp-chen Rab-
'byeme-pa'e teacher Kum&r5dza also playeC a major part in
the establishing of ~~2~~ terminology. Tn addttion to
the Which par)tnesa. which occupies nio9t of
the preeent study. the sost celebrated treatises by klong-
chen-pa. are the S P V P ~ ( W d - 1. the ZLUAJW
Pf Res ((2-USQ -or-e8um). the a Wr l r al
Liberation !-~hIuuum - - . an4 the Tnree- a
Further Inn- Saicltualitx ( - - &or -nsum) . See
the bibliosraphy for details.
I d 9 The three stages of ordination are those of the renunclate
(~~avraiix&). the novitiate ( k a g l a n m) . and full monkhood
( - 1. On bLe-chen clGongs-pa Rab-gsel, who
maintained the Vinaya lineage in north-eastern Tibet after
the persecution of gLang Dar-ma. see NSTB. Book 2 . Pt. 3.
PF. 169-173.
150 WSTB. Book 2. Pt. 5. p. 313.
151 nsrs. BOO^ 2. ~ t . 5. p. 315.
152 NSTB. Book 2. Pt. 5. p. 3611.
153 ~t was g~ung-ston-pa's commentary which picked up the
Mah&yosa theme6 of the Gyhuanarbhatantra. and gave vitality
to subeequent generatione of scholars within the lineage of
transmitted precepts. Lo-chen Dharmabrl in particular.
Sa-bzang Mati Pan-chen was a leading Sanskritist. who made
the final revisions of the - . He also wrote
several influential commentaries on philosophical works.
See G. Roerich. Annals. pp. 776 & 10115-6.
'Gos Lotsawa. -. gtod-rh. p. 136. (G.
Roerich. &Lyg w. p. 1011. ) . states that he had in his
possession the remaining fragments of the Sanskrit manu-
script for the w-.
'GOB Lotsawa. o~b-th-x - ~ t o d - c b , p. 190: G.
Roerich. R h e Annals. P. 153-
Among the L - e r - m cycles there are diverse collection^
based on the unified form of the eight meditational deities
known as the T r a n s mm - . (hbq' --) . Some
of these have been enumerated above. p. 1116. note 711. See
also NSTB. Book 2. Pt. 6. w. The --Dart
Soiritualitv (snuinn-thiy u - ) comprising 13 volumes of
the esoteric insfructional class of the Great Perfection
(--d a) was compiled by kLonp-chen Rab-'byams-pa.
It includes the texts of the Indian and Tibetan oral
tradition which he received (m - . vols. 3-6.
w*-*PFR - . vols. 10-11) and his own pt e r - ma
cycles known ,as. bla - (vole. 1-2). W 1 - ' n r q
(vols. 7-9. and zah - - (vols. 12-13). The
Elrlier and Later Zrsnawe - troves ( g t ~ r - k h a p--'op) are
those discoveries of Nyang-ral Nyi-ma '~a-zer (1136-12011)
and GU-ru Chos-dbang (1212-1270) re~pectively.
158 mNga'-ris Pan-chen Padma dBang-rgyal (lh87-15h3) was an
important figure in the lineage of transmitted precepts,
and also the fif-r-st- who discovered an important work
entitled ma'-'dua phyi - ma rin -*dzin ypnns-'du~-kvi chos-
3kQZ mol 'debs
- le'u m - m a ' i apyub-thabs (RTD. vols, 6,
PD. 123-1b0, 11. PP. - 1 2 30. pp. 61-227). His major
treatise on the integration of monastic, bodhisattva and
mantra vows. the --p8um mm - ~ P S .- DA 'i ~ - b c o s
(NMKMG. Vol 37). has been highly influential within the
rNying-ma trsdition.
159 In the seventeenth century it was this figure who re-
established the monastery of rDo-rje Brag at its present
locatim in dBus after that community had endured & long
Period of persecution at the hands of the governor of
~Tsang. Tshe-brtan rDo-rje. On this dispute. see NSTB. Book
2. Pt. 6. p. 567.
160 sTeg-bla Padmamati of Kah-thog was an important figure in
East Tibet. particularly influential in connection with the
lineage of the gter - e t p n Zhig-Po gLing-pa. See NSTB. Book
2. Pt. 5. p. h22.
161 The Lho-brag pSunp-sprul 11. Tshul-khrims rDo-rje (1598-
1669) wae an emanation of the buddha-speech of Yadma gLing-
p a (1050-1521). See NSTB. Book 2. Pt. 5. pp. h22. 501.
162 On =Sang-bdag Phrin-laa Lhun-grub (1611-1662). see NSTB.
~ o o k 2. pt. 5. pp. 886-889.
163 This is the neen-yin chen-mo nenn-na
- 9
-
in four
volumes. an enumeration of texts studied by Dalai Lama V.
Pub. Delhi: Nechung and 1,hakhar. 1970.
16lI The commentaries by Ye-shes rGyal-mtshan are not presently
I
r
available. For more details of his life, see NSTB. Book 2.
\ Pt. 5. pp. 183-885.
I
I 1 165 The texts are not presently available. On the lineages of
Kah-thog monastery in general, see H. Ei me r and P. Tsering.
"Abte und Lehrer von Kah-thog . . . " ; and "A List of Abbots of
Kah-thog Monastery.. . ' I ; also NSTB. Book 2, Pt. 5. pp. U 3 0 -
051.
160 In the seventeenth century. and increasingly in the
eighteenth century. the propagation of the ma'-mp lineage
was concentrated in east Tibet. When the lineage had all
but disappeared in the central region. gTer-bdag gLing-pa
and his brother Lo-chen Dharmahrl became responsible for
ita restitution. See NSTB. Book 2. Pt. 5. pp. $88- 506.
167 On Dalai bLa-ma V, see NSTB. Book 2. Pt. 5. pp. b28-825.
Pt. 6. pp. 6111-620: and on Rig-'dzin IV. u.. Pt. 5 , PP.
877-879.
168 Among the children of gTer-bdas gLing-pa. it was his
daughter. Mi,-'gyur dPal-egron, who was largely responsible
for the reetoration of 8Min-grol-sling monastery followin&r
the Dzungar invraion of 1717. She was a brilliant teacher
in her own right and the author of several important
meditation manuals.
169 These text6 have both been repeatedly consulted in the
course of the present research, the first for backaround
information and the second for it8 presentation of the
Tibetan text.
170 These commentaries on the - bdap dnonPs snvan
- -
are
published in ~n LluhuauQSb Xan3z.a KUUI
~ r P r e ~ T ~ ~ f b f ~ Q f Q ~ ~
m. Vol. 1.
171 He ie an important recent figure in the lineape of the
transmitted precepts and a teacher of bDud-'joms 'Jigs-bra1
Ye-shes roo-~je. See NSTB, Book 2, Pt. 6. 0. 099.
172 See above, D. 30, note 63.
173 See above, p. 31.
170 On this --'_nral, which is etill highly regarded in
rbeoge-chen monssttry. see H.V. Ouenther. natrix pL
p. 213. note 8.
175 The twenty volume edition. according to an oral communica-
tion by bDud-'dome 'Jig#-bra1 Ye-she6 rbo-rje. had been
published ~loeraphically at dPa1-~ul monamtrry. It was
partiallv reprinted in a fourteen volume edition from 1969
onwardm. ~owiver. the firat twentv volumes of the new
bmiinitive fortv volume U'-M mbition. MMKMG.. maintain
thm contmnt and mtructurm of thm orieinal compilation.
176 This is the bodhisattva vow ( b f m - c h u b I R - - ~ D & ' ~ m j
maintained by all Buddhist traditione in Tibet. Within the
rNying-ma-pa tradition. the rites for the conferral of this
vow are found in NMKWG. vol 1. The author of m - b c y
-. klong-chen Rab-'byams-pa himself gathered together
three such tradit$.ons, namely, the tradition of Maiijulrf
via Hagarjuna and Candraklrti. the tradition of naitraya
via Asanga and Yaeubandhu. and the tradition of MaiiJudrf
via Naggrjuna and/ or Santideva. See the G a a ~ rln af Glaz=
- -
- nl l n VV. 15-16.
177 On these fieuree. see T. Thondup. Z k Tantric Tr_Bdition qf
178 There is a good account of rDo-grub 111's activities in
T. ThonduD, X U TLlntrif TlraditiPn d nuinPmrDk, PP. 98-
102. 121.
179 On dPal-sprul Rin-po-che. eee NSTB. Book 2. Pt. 6. p. 69&;
T. Thondup. m. &.. p. 100. He is the author Of a cele-
brated commentary on preliminary meditation practices. the
-
u. on which see the French
trmmlation by Christian Bruyat at. al.. urd rxcrrpte in
Khatmun Surevo Rin-bo-chw urd J . HoPkinm, Rx2mSka
iD&Awmm. . .
180 For example. it says in the --
g-isfitra (T. 130. P. 802. Vol. 32. p. 140.2.1/2!:
0 Vimalatejas! the doctrinal treasures of bodhisattvas.
great spiritual warriors who desire the doctrine, have been
inserted in mountains, ravines. and woods. Dharanis and
limitlese approaches to the doctrine, which arc set down In
books. will also came into their hands.
And:
For one whose aspiration is perfect the doctrine will
emerge from the midst of the skw. and from walls and trees,
even though no buddha be present.
181 On Ye-shes Tsho-rgyal. see the biography by sTag-sham Nus-
ldan rDo-rje (b. 1655). translated in K. Dowman. -
Dancer: also Zhe Ll.fe anQ pf Padmaanmbhabva. 5112
ff. and Pa u s i m; NSTB, Book 2. Pt. 5. py. 065 if.. Pt. 6. p.
519.
182 On these figures see Yeshe TshoWal. The Liie anQ
Lib-~ati.Qn - : T. Thondup.
m-. + 4 - -
a Lhe NYinPmBPB: NSTB. Book 2. m. For
Nrang-ban Ting-'dzin bZanp-po and hie role In the lineage
of the Great Perfection, see NSTB. Book 2, Pt. a. DD. 215-
216. Future pt-F - at= or discoverers of treasure-doctrines
are considered to be emanations of these masters. See the
blographiea in NSTB. Book 2. Pt. 6.
l a3 Peking W' - ' u . Vo1. 32. P. 802, pp. 100.1.7-1110.2.1.
C k X ! ~ - ~ ~ a ' 1 - - , RTD. V a l . 1. pp. 291-759
185 This text is no longer avellable. hut a rediscovered
treasure based on it. the -anvin~ - po o r - b ~ u
qber by 'Jam-dbyangs mKhyen-brtee'i dbang-po. lm In RTD.
Val. 23, pp. 209-hP9. On 0-rgyan gLinrx-pa in general. see
NSTB. Book 2. Pt. 6. pp. 557-563.
186 On the flrst of these texts. see above p. 10. note 2 . The
m m - r l t ? d - n - n q Dadms - fr no longer avaj 1obl . e.
However. there is a rediscovered vereion ( u - n t e r ) of a
treasure by this name. RTD. Vol. 3Q. pp. 235-U32. the
original discoverer of which wss s descendent of Karma
gl-in=-p- , named Nyf -me Seng-ge. The redlscaverer wms ' Jam-
dbyanes mKhyen-hrtse't dBsng-po.
187 See above, p. 13. note I .
188 On Shes-reh *Od-zer. see *Jam-mgon Kong-sprul. gter-st=
a*i - , pp. 135a.6-137~. 6.
189 On 'Je-tshon sNying-pol see *Jam-mpon Kong-sprul. pp, -.,
PP. 880.1-91a.2: WSTB, Book 2. Pt. 6. pp. 598-604. H i s
collected works. the ' d a - t s h a p o d - d r u . now comprise seven
volumes.
NL. On bDud- *Ful rDo-rje. see 'Jam-mpon Kong-eprul . p ~ ,
a.. pp. 165a. 3-1D8a. 2: NSTB. Book 2. Pt. 6. pp. 6011-610.
pp. 2lla.6-213a.3. He received fifteen volumes of c o l l e c ~ e d
visionary teachines. known as "celeetial doctrinest* (-
w) from Zhe see of twelve until hie death at the age of
twenty-four.
192 These seven succeaslons (gke * - b m m) comprlse
transmltten preccptp (-1, earth t-errsllre~ ( p e - ~ t ~ ~ ) .
reconcesl en treasuree (m - n t m 1, intentj onel treasure?
(dnonns - nt-r , ~ e c o l l ected treasures I p r a D - ~ f i
m!. Pure vislon9 (-). and aural trsnsmissisns
( ~ ~ Y - ~ ! . See RSTB, Bonk 3 , Pt. 6. p. 651,
193 See CLTC. Vols. 11-12. RTD. Vol. 39
1911 See CLTC. Vols. lb-19. RTD. m b .
195 On m C h o g - * m u r gLlnp-pa, eee 'Jam-m~on Kong-ep~ul, pe
Ci3. . PP. 177a. h-18bt. 1; NSTB. Book 7 . Pt. 6. pp. 606-658.
H I S collected rediscovered *eechinps. the mchoP - r ter-
W. occupy thirty volumes. See the blblioeraphy for
details.
196 RTD. Vol. 7. pp. 09- 90. On the ljfe o f 'Jsm-dbyangs mKhyen-
h~tee'i dBeng-po. refer to 'Jam-mpon Kong-aprul. pe a..
PP. 185a.4-195a.2: WSTB. Book 2. Pt. 6, pp. 658- 676.
I97 See above. pp. 20-25.
198 See absve pp. 59-61.
200 The rclatlonshlp between theae qualities and the adherents
of the nine vehicle8 is explored in Chapter Thjrtecn of
mun-srl. on the basis of the opening verses of
the correepondlng chapter of the root-tantra. See WOES--
- ---. Ch. 13. pp. 880-b88. Tn klong-chen-pa's v i e w ,
the naturally 8ecrtT truth refers to Atlyoga as an
extension of Mahayoga.
201 On these axjoms. which form the introductory verses 09
Chapter Eleven, and their appllcetion. eee -5-bcy
u. PU. 380.1-3811.1: el80 for a aynopaie see hlSTB. Book 1,
Pt. 4. pp. 1 5 6 ~ ?f.
202 This axiom also Occur8 In ch. 11. For en explanetion see
one-bcu - eel , pg. 808. 2 fi.
203 Wj-ph~m Rin-po-che's deflnltlon sllghtly differs from t h e t
given by klong-chen-pe in - w- b c u mun - sel , Ch, 11, PP.
808-809, according t o which there are two ordinary axioms
of saneneee. namely, that ell phenomena of sem%&ra and
nirvana are the same In their llncreetsd disposition and
Pelatively the e m e in the manner of a magical apparjtlon;
and two superior axiorrre, namely that the five components
are buddhae and the elsht esgresates of consctoueness are
204 On thie axiom. nee - . Ch. 9. 35; a180 WSTB, Book
1, Pt. 4. VQ. 156b-157a.
205 'Ju Mi-pham rWm-rwal, lDYjdpn- - * - - P . 65.
206 These nine kind6 of skillful means. otherwise known as the
nine kinds of balanced absorption ( - m.
Skt., -1. are discussed by Mi-phuu Rin-po-che
in detril. pp. 117 if. They are as follows: absorption
(-) which I8 effected by study. continuous absorption
( wu n - ' Am) which im effected by thought. joint aOsorvtion
(w 'Jon-pr) and further absorption (we-- -1
dhich are effected by recollection. diecipline (-1 and
auieecence ( - 1 which are effected by awareness of the
present. continuous quiescence (m - 1 which is
effected by perseverence. and contemplative equipoine
(v- - - 1 which is effected by experience.
207 For an explanation of the wry6 in which the creation stage
purifiee and transforms living creatures at different
B t m e s of development. nee NSTB. Book I. Pt. h . pp. 158b-
160.. The four places or stations of birth ( m l w e - w rinr-
) are womb-birth ( - - - Skt. J &h k d a ) .
esg-birth (rn9-nnl - - - . Skt. a n d a h ) . birth from
. .
roimture ( - - - lhrr - . Skt. max8d&h). and
miraculoun birth ( - - - . Skt. -1. The
five awakening8 ( - - w). or 8Oeps in creative
vimualination. are emptinenn ( - - - 1. the lunar
throne ) the meed-myllablem of buddha-8pOech
(m yin-'bm), the hand-implement= eyabolic of buGGha-
mind (w - 1. and the complete body of the
deity in question (W -1. The four rites of
indestructible reality (rds-rde rha;na -1 here refer to
the four miracles (rho-'~hrul -1. namely, contemplation
( - - - * 1 , consecration or blessing ( bYin-rlabs).
empowerment ( - 1. and offering (mama-vs) .
208 The three rites (- -1 in the intermediate mode of
creative visualiaation are the body of the deity in
~uestion in its entirety (& yonns-rdzona). the buddha-
speech in the form of seed-syllables (m yin - 1 , and
the buddha-mind of meditative concentration (m
-1. See NSTB. elossary of enumerations.
209 On the contemplations of Anuyoga. see NSTB. Book 1. Pt. 1).
PP. 161)b ff.
2x0 On the meditative techniques of Cutting through Resistance
(- - rhop 1 refer to dPal-sprul 0-rgyan '~1~s-med Chos-
kYi dBang-po's commentary on dGa9-rab rDo-rje. -nsvs -
hXd@~-~a. and its English translations by T.
Thondup and K. Dowman. On All-surpassing Realisation (s
X%al). see NSTD. Book I, Pt. 1). pp. 190a-211b: also
Qsu mu -1
- , Ch. 13. pp. h63-477.
211 On the distinctions between these modes of conduct in
Mahiqroga, ate NSTB. BOO^ 1. ~ t . 1). pp. l60b-161a. There are
naid to be eipht divisions of the conduct of careful Self-
restraint. namely. faj thful persevcrence, conduct in
harmony with discrjminative awareness. conduct in hermony
with cornpasalon. one-sided conduct. elaborate conduct.
conduct concerning the provlslons. conduct concernine
mlrRc1110us ebill ties, and immediate conduct.
212 The aftermath of meditation (rle~-thob) is a technical term
referring to the experience of pure appearances when
perlods of medjtative absorptjon have been interruptefl.
See, e. $. . dPa3 -sprul 0-ruyan '3 igs-me0 Chos-kyi dAane-PC.
tshln-nsum ~ l l ~ d - d t ~ brden-*~.
213 A detailed and clear expl.anation of these rites Is g J v e ~ in
eel
- , ch. 11, pp. 386-koz.
210 The structure of the root-tantra itself corresponds +o the
arrangement of the mandalas of ground, path end result. The
. .
"rank of Samantabhadra" refers to the sixteenth huddhn-
level, ye - pmb l a - m , on which see abo~~e. p. 141. note 51.
215 For a detailed explanation of these empowerments nnd their
correspondence, see - & - bet) m - e e l Ch. 9. PP. 333-332.
370-379, Ch. 10.
216 See above. p. 211, note 36.
217 The five poisons are the five conflicting emoti0nS (Jjvon-
-
-1. namely, derire. hatred. prid-. envy end
aelusion. The five nectars (Edud - r t a L m) are excrement,
urine, blood, semen. and flesh. See ' ~ u Mi-pham rNm-rgyal.
'od-paal -. p. 166.
218 On the feast-offerings (-). see - y ylyn-eel.
Chs. 11-12. pp. 379-039. esp. 402-008, The four aspects of
ritual service and rites of attainment ( w e n - YBLL=.
w) are ritual service ( - - , Skt. -1.
entai3ing the recitation of mantra and one-pointed prayer-
t
ful devotion to a deity that is visualised; further ritual
service (n;r~-m w e n - 96 , Skt. m ~ s e v 6 ) . entailing the
prayers that the deity's blessings will descend and
transform the mundane body. speech and mind into the three
syllables of indestructible reality; attainment (sub-ua.
Skt. -). entailing that accomplishments are abeorbed
from the Susatas of the ten directions into the deity and
thence into oneself, either in actuality. meditation or
dreams: and treat attainment (w -?hen, Skt.
-). which is the ultimate realieation of primordial
Purity experienced when body. speech and mind sre Identical
to thoee of the deitg. See 'Zu-Mi-pnam rNam-rwal. U
acltl- - Padma - DQ , pp. 22-23.
219 A 8 'Ju Mi-pham rNam-rgyal. a p y ; i 'od-naal - . PP.
204-206, adds: The outer offerings compriee dance. eong.
mental contamplation. desired raptures. wondrous
1 C B r c ~ r i a t e sacraments. euperior skillful neane, and the
e0tablishment of phenomenal existence as the ground. The
inner offerings include many aspecta corresponding to the
Outer offerings. and in particular the pure offcringe of
the body of Indestructible reality ( m- r l c ' i &kll) wjth its
network of e n e m y channels. current8 and seminal points.
The secret offeringe of sexual union and "liberation"
transform the five poisons into five pristine cogcltions
and the three poieons Into offerings of tuddhe-body, sppcch
and rnjnd. The real ofyerlng is descrlhed act >'tho Rl JpYemP
bliss of purity and sameness. "
220 The fouF lmmeasurablea ( m~d- rned a) are loving kindnpse
(bynm~-@g. Skt. mal trl!, compesslon ( u - r d e . Skt ,
I'gS;Lnh), sympathetic joy (-'-ha, Skt. myditfi), and eyua-
nimlty (btang-snvoms. Skt. m e & ) . See e. o . . Sgam.po. pa.
X U Jewel Qmmusn2 a lLberaYion. PP. glff.: NSTB, Book 1.
Pt. 1. IOa-llb.
221 These four rites sre expialned in nhvons - h c ~ - , Ch.
9. PP. 333-315, within the context of the home rltual . See
ale0 Tadeuez Skorupeki. "Tibetan Homa Rites" and S. Beyer.
rulf SZ Tlrl. FP. 2 5 7 . 2611-775.
2 2 7 The four resultant prlstlne cognitlone., as erplelned In
NSTB. Book 1. Pt. 2. p. h8e. are reepectively outer. inner
and secret awareneee of the outer, inner and secret major R
mlnor marks on the bl~ddha-body: and the pristine coenition
of reality (w - na - ye-eh+p ) which I s aware of the
Bupreme merks of the Great Perfectfon.
I'
On the formation of hand-pesturee. see ohuone-bru myll-8~1.
1
ch. 8. pp. 276-290: also S. Beyer. Z&e Cult pt u. RR.
I lU3f f.
t.
t
r 228 On this definition. which derives the Skt. mantra. from
[
manaa. mind. and ILZbXa. to protect, see HSTB. Book 2. Pf .
L &. p. 103b.
i
I
I 225 The realisations referred to are those of the four kinds of
awareness-holders ( - - 1, which are dis-
cuesed in phyo-s - bcu mun-sel Ch. 9. pp. 331-332: Ch. 12.
pp. &2&-835. The first three-- the awareness holder of
maturation ( r;Lp- '-1, the awareness-holder with
power over the lifespan ( - - d = - u ) and the
awarenees-holder of the great seal (w dn-'-)--
are considered to be provisional results in relation to the
conclusive awareness-holder of spontanecus presence (u
iuUh ZAALklaiJl - . Both this text and NSTB. Book 1. Pt. b .
DR. 161a-16213. distinguieh. however. between the latter and
the complete buddha-level.
226 Alternatively. retentive mantras are the essence of dis-
criminative awareness, oripinatinp from the teachings of
-.
- . pn08tiC mantras are the essence of skillful
means. oripinating from the KriyBtantra. and secret mantras
are the non-dual prietine copnition. oripinatinp from
Mahwopa. Anuyopa. and Atiyoga. See e.p.. 'Jipe-med pLinp-
pa. rpyud - ' b m , p. 91. who gives this description
on the brais of a quote from the dnonn. - u u b - ~ m @ i m.
227 'Ju Mi-pham rNm-rsyal, -1-d~n 'ad-- -. pp.
11 -12.
230 Within the section on the mandala of peaceful deities. Ch.
I
. *
13 concerns the perfection 8t-e and the Great Perfection.
23: Lo-chen Dhamnebrl, --bdag - , pp. 83 if.. is a
major eource for this diecusi~ion on the two exegetical
traditione. On the khan-go gZhan-dga' commentary. see
above p. 106. note 170.
232 Whenever English technical terms are not explained or
accompanied by their Tibetan equivalenta, the reader should
refer to the glossaries of technical terms and enumerationn
in NSTB. along with the definitions provided in NSTB. Book
1. As far as the two thrme mentioned here are concerned.
the expreesion nwisdom" does eeem inadequate. According to
Ehen-mP. the tern Ye-shes is variously
deac~ibed ae pristine or primordiallr abidin~ cognition
( ~e- n, &a - t - ) or the awarenees of coalemcent
*mPtFneea m d radiance abiding naturally in the minds of
all being6 i - - cln - rrrd -1 - - -
r i n- p. ) . A . indicated by the
definitions of the five kind8 of primtine cognition in
ISfB. Book I* Pt. 2, pp. 60a-63&, it 10 the perception of
the buddhas rather tnan an accumulaticn of factual wisdom
or knowledse. The term s l i m 8 8 - is described as the
discriminative awarenese of the eesence. dietinctlono.
particular 8 general characteristics. and advantages 8
dimadvantagee of anr object of reference within one's own
perceptual range. at the conclusion of which doubt0 are
reeolved ( - - y l l l - p y l - u - I i - DO - 4 - mi
de'i w - - aaIu bbvan-~rr (1Be9 u - a n v i ' i
- -
dmU hlrnn - dar-*e-naE Aed-Pa'i ahell - Zab- kvl mthar-
&h--t&uin zlon-Ps'i Ugkn& la8=san-~a>. Discrimin-
ative awareness is eaid to be Droduced thrlueh study.
thought or contemplation. See Sgam.po.pa. Orna-
m a & Of -. PI?. 202f f .
The T i t l e
[rgya-gar ekad-du : Sr~guhyaparbhatattvavinibcayamahatantra-
bod-ekad-du: dpal geang-ba'i snying-po de-kho-na-nyid rnam-par
1
nges-pa' i rgyt~d chen-go : [I]
bcom-ldan-'das dpal kun-tu-bzang-60-la phyag-'tshal-lo: (21
C h a p t e r On e
'dl-skad bshad-pa'i dus-na:[l] de-bzhin gshegs-pa yang-dag-par
rdzogs-pa'i sa.?ga-rgyae bcom-ldan-'daa: longs-spyod chen-Po
gsunp-dang thugs rdo-rje'i bdag-nyid: ma-lus mi-lue lue-pa med-
Pa thaqs-cad-dang so-so ma-yin tha-mi-dad dbyer-med-pa'i rang-
1
bzhin-te:[2] 'cg-min-gyi gnas mtha'-dang dbus-med-pa-na: gzhi
2
tshab-med-pa'i ye-ehes-kyi 'khcr-lo gsal-ba-la: ye-Bhes rin-PO-
che 'bar-baqi gzhal-yas-khang: rgya-phYOSs bcur Yonge-eu ma-
3
1
~ h a d - ~ a ; yon-tan dpag-tu mad-pa ~ o Y ~ s - P * ' P ~ Y ~ P f2ru-bzhir gYur-
pa: lhag-pa'i ye-ehee rin-pa-che'i glo-'bur-gyis mdzes-pa:
rtse-mo phyoge-bcu dus-bzhi'i sange-rgyas-kyi dkyil-'khor ma-lus-
0
pa tharns-cad: so-so ma-yin ngo-bo-nyid pcig-pa'i ye-she6 kun-tu
5
'khyil-pa: ye-ehee beam-syis mi-khyab-pa; ye-shes rin-PO-Che'i
dbYibs-dang kha-dog la-sops-pa rnam-pa tha-dad-pa'i bye-brag-dang
6
khyad-par-d~ gyur-pa: 'phags-pa: tehad dpag-tu med-pa: (31 Ye-
7
rin-po-che sna-tehogs-kyi phreng-ba-dang: chur- r3h~ang-
8
den=; shar-buri rgyan-dang: ezugs sna-tshogs-dang: asre sne-
t~hoge-dang: dri sna-tshogs-dangl r o sna-tshoge-dang: reg-bya
9
sna-tshogs-kyis phyogs-bcur * k h r i g ~ - p a r rang-byung-la: mi-oprib-
10
par gsal-ba'l rgyan bsam-gyis mi-khyab-Par klubs-pa: rnam-par
11
thar-pa bzhi'l ego-n&s 'jug-pa'i Bgo-khyud-can: rnam-par thar-
12
pa brgyad-kyi rta-babe-dang ldan-pa: phyi-dang nang med-pa kun-
tu yang nang-du gyur-pa-na: [ A ] mi-'jigs--pa seng-ge'i khri-dang:
s t obs glang-PO-che'i khri-dang: rdzu-'phrul rta-yi khrP-dang:
dbang rma-bya' i khri-dang : thogs-pa ned-pa nam-mkha' lding-gi
13
ktlri-clang: rang-bzhin-gyis 'od-gsal-ba nyi-zla'i dkyil-'khor-
dang: gos-pa med-pa padma rin-po-che'i gdan-la: [ 5 1 sku mdun-
danp rgyab- med-pa: thams-cacl-du zhal thal-le-bar gsal-zhing
1 lr
mtahan-dang dpe-byad-du ldan-pa: bsam-gyis mi-khyab-pa thams-
15
cad-du; 8ku-g8ung-thugs sna-tshogs-par kun-tu snang-ba: thabs-
16
dang shes-rab-kyi zhabs-gnyis mnyain-pa'i brtul-zhugs-kyi skyil-
mo-krung-du bzhuga-pa: ye-shes drug-gi phyag ye-shes rin-po-
che'i phyag-rgya ' bar-ba-can : sku-gsung-thugs bsam-gyis mj -
khyab-pa'i dbu-gsum-dang ldan-pa:[6] bcom-ldan-'das de-bzhin
OBhegs-pa rnam-par enes-pa'l rgyal-po-dang: de-bzhia gshegs-pa
OZUgS-kyi rgyal-po-dang: de-bzhin gshegs-pa tshor-ba'i rgyal-po-
Qane: de-bzhin gshegs-pa 'du-shes-kyi rgyal-po-dangi de-bzhin
khu'i mdog-tu 'teher-ba: [ 7 ] btsun-mo dam-pa enang-ba'i dbyings-
19
danp: era-ba'i dbyinga-clang: mnyen-pa'i dbyings-dan(~: dro-ba'i
d b ~ i n g e - d a n ~ : bekyod-pa'r dbyings la-sogs-pa btsun-mo*i teh0g8-
a a n ~ Onyis-su med-par chos-kyl dbylngs kun-tu mtha'-yas-par
2 0 2 1
kbab-.pa-ni : * dl-lta-ate : dper-na til-svi @any-bu bzhin-du
22
be-nae byang-chub chen-po rdo-rje mthong-ba-dang: byang-chub
then-po rdo-rje thos-pa-dang: bysng-chub chen-po rdo-rjc snom-
2 3 2 11
pa-clang: byang-chub chen-po rdo-rje myong-pa-dang ! [91 bteun-
2 5
mo mthong-par bya-be-dang: mnyan-par bye-ba-bang: bsnam-par
2 6
bye-be-dang / myong-bar bya-ba' 1 tshogs-dang ! [lo] byar~z-chub
chen-po rdo-rje mthong-byed-dang: byang-chub chen-po rdo-rje
27
thos-byed-dang! byang-chub chen-p6 rda-rje snom-byed-bang:
byarjg-chuh chen-po rdo-rje myong-bYeC-dang:[11] brsun-mo ' daa-
2 8 2 9
pa-dang: ba-ltar-bang: 'byung-bs-dang: ma-byon-pa'l tshoes-
3 0
clang: [I21 ' jon~s-pa chen-po rdo-rje reg-pa-clang: ' joms-pa
30 30
chen-go rdo-rje reg-byed-dens: ' joms-pa chen-po rdo-rje reg-
30
bya-dang ! 'jome-pa chen-po rdo-rje reg-shes-dang:[13) btsun-
mo rtag-par ma-yin-pa-dang! chacl-par me-yin-pa-dang: bdag-tu
3 1
ma-yin-pa-bang: mtshan-mar hs-yin-pa la-soge-pa: de-lta-bu'i
3 2
t8hogs b r j o d - k y i ~ mi-lang-ba-dang: gnyis-su med-par bzhuge-
3 3
3 0 : [lb]
de-nas de--bzhin g s h e g ~ - p a btsun-mo'l tshogs-clang g n y i s - R ~ I med-
~ a ' i gsang-ba'i dkyil-'khor de-dsg-nyid-kyj geeng-be 'dl-nyid
- -. - - . - .
3a
sku-dang gsune-dang thugs-dang yon-tan phrin-las rda-rje-las
PhYung-ngo 1 [a51
3 5
e e-ma e-ma-ho:
36
de-bzhin-nyid-kyl dbyjnge-nyid dbang-egyur ye-shes dkyll-
'khor thugs-rje'l ngang: 1161
rang-enang-be-nyid tlng-'dzin ezugs-brnyan apyu-ma rnam-dag
I 37
I sku-gaung-thugs-dang yon-tan ' phrin-18s sel-med-pa-yi
I yon-tan yid-bzhin rin-go-che:
I 3 8
mi-zad-par ldan-pa r g y a n - g ~ i 'khor-lo rdo-rje mchog-gi
39
gnas-nyid-do;
- zhes rdo-rje gsang-ba'i tshig-tu'o: 1181 gsang-ba'i snying-go
de-kho-na-nyid ngee-pa-lae glens-gzhi'i le'u-ste dang-po'o; i [ 19]
1 2
de-nae bcorn-ldan-'das byed-pa-po rdo-rje yid kun-tu bzang-poi
3
theme-cad ma-lue-pa'i rang-bzhin-gyi tshul rdo-rjes: bteun-mo
bya-ba-mo chos Run-tu bzang-mo-la ' jug-par pyur-to: zhugs-pas
phyogs-bcu dus-bzhi'i de-bzhin gshega-pa ma-lus-pa thama-cad
4
gcig-gi rang-bzhin-du dbyer-med-pas de-bzhin gshegs-pa-nyld; de-
bzhin gshege-pa-nyLd-la ched-du brjod-pa 'dl brj od-do: [I]
e-ma- ho :
reo-rje phung-PO yan-la9-ni:
rdzoga-va'i sangs-rgyas lnea-ru grage:
akye-mched khamo-rnsme mang-po kun:
byang-chub sema-dpa'l dkyil-'khor-nyid:
sa-chu epyan-dang mb-ma-ki:
me-rlung gos-dkar egrol-ma-ate:
nam-mkhr' dbyinge-kyi dbong-phyug-ma:
thams-cad ma-lus chon-so-cog:
B a n g ~ - r e ~ 8 8 - n ~ l d - l & ~ ezhan-pa'?- chos:
5 6
mange-rgyae-nyid-kyle mi-brnyes-so:
t o: [21
7
de-nss btsun-?no bya-ba-mo Chos )tun-tu bzang-rnos: bcorn-ldan-'daa
8
yid [byed-pa-yo] kun-tu bzang-po-dang pnyie-eu med-par gyur-nas:
9
ched-du brjod-pa 'dl brjod-do: [31
kye-ma ' o :
10
phyogs-bcu stone-khams ye-nae dben:
11
srid-pa gsurn-ni dae-pa'i zhing:
12
snyigs-ma lnga-nyid bde-ldan g n a e ;
13
phung-po lnga-nyid rdzoge sange-rpyas:
theme-cad mchog-gi snying-po-bas:
111
gzhan-du rgyal-bas chos mi-btsal:
nyid-las g z h ~ n zhes-bya-ba'i chos:
1 5 16
bteal-kyang rgyal-bas mi-brnyes-so:
-me6 brjod-pas thams-cad ye-nee eangs-rgyas-par de-bzhin eehegs-
pa-nyid-kyle mkhyen-to: [ & I
a e - n a ~ gnyie-su med-pa'i bdag-nyid chen-pos ye-nas sange-rgyes-
Pa'i eeme ye-shes-eu bskyed-pa 'dl geunpe-80: I51
e-ma-ho ngo-mtshar rmad-kyi chos:
rdzoge-pa'i eanee-rgyas kun-pyi geang:
e-ma-ho ngo-mtehar rmed-kyl chos:
rdzocs-pa'i sangs-~-gyes kun-gyl gsang:
'gag-pa med-la8 thams-cad 'gag:
18
'gag-pa-nyid-ne * geg-pa-med: [?I
e-ma-ho ngo-mteher rmad-kyl chos:
rdzogs-pa'l sanga-rgyas kun-pyl ysang:
gnas--pa mcd-les thams-cad gnas j
19
pnau-pa-nyld-na gnas-pa-mcd: [ 8 ]
e-ma-ho ngo-mtshar rmad-kyl chos:
2 0
rrlzogs-pe'i as~gs-rgyaa kun-gyl gsang:
dmigs-pa med-la8 the~ns-cad dmlge:
P 1
dmigs-pa-nyld-na dmlgs-pa-med: 19;
e-me-ho ngo-mtsher rmad-kyj chos!
-Ces b~jod-pas: de-bzhln gshegs-pa thams-cad-dang bt~un-mo'l
tshogs thams-cad-kyang mnyes-pas khyah-par gyur-to: Llll
2 3
be-naa de-bzhin gehegs-pa thams-cad btsun-mo'i tshogs [thams-
2u
cad]-dang bcas-pas ched-du brjod-pa 'dl brjod-40: 1121
e-me-ho ye-nae ~eang-ba'i choe:
sna-tehoge snang-la rang-Szhfn =sane:
ngo-bo-nyld-kyle rab-tu sang:
2 5
gzhan-du min-lae ehln-tu geang:
-zp,ee brjod-pas! 1131 de-bthln gehegs-pa thams-cad-dens: chos
thms-cad ye-nee sengs-rgyae-pa'i ngo-bn-nyld-du gcig-pa'i
26
mtshan-nyid yin-pas dbytr-med-na'ang: 'ern-ba'i ~ n a m - p a r rtog-
27
pa ma-rig-pa-lee: 'gro-ba lnga' r i ~ bsam-gyis mi-khyeb-par
2 8
smiil-pa-la: thugs-rje chen-po sengs-rgyaa-kyi ye-shes chen-go
skyes-nas: ched-du brjod-pe 'dl brjod-do: [ I &]
2 9
e-ma-ho bde-gahege snyine-pa-las:
rang-g? rnam-rtog lee.-kyis spruj :
sna-tehogs lus-dsng lones-spyod-danz:
gnas-dang edug-bsnesl la-sogs-pa:
bdag-dang bdag-gir so-€Or 'd?.in : 1151
sua-kyang me-beings bclngs-men-de:
30
bclng-bar bya-ba yod-ma-yin:
31
rnam-rtog bdag-tu 'Czj n-pa-yis:
3 2
nan-gyis mKha'-la mdud-pa 'dor : [ I 61
bcings-med rnam-par yrol-med-pa'l!
ye-nas lhuv-rdzogs sanpa-rgyas chos:
baten-phyir spro-ba ens-tehogs mdzad:
- CeS de-bzhin gshegu-pa-nyid de-bzhin gshege-pa-nyid-18 ched-du
OSang-bati gnying-pa ne-kho-na-nyid nges-pa-la6 don-dam-pa-dang
33
kun-rdzob-kyi byang-chub Seme ye-shes-su bekyed-pa'i le'u-ste
1
de-nas de-bzhin gshege-pa thams-cad-lae : thugs-rje chen-po'i
2 3
byin-gyis brlabs Zthee-bya-ba' 1 : rig-pa' 1 ekyes-bu thub-pa
a
drug: de-bzhin gshegs-pa'i eku-dang geung-dang thugs rdo-rje-
lea 'thon-to: [l] 'thon-naa-kyang las-kyi dbang-pie enrel-gzhi-
5
deng yen-man-gyi 'jig-rten drug-gi phyogs-bcu mtha'-yas mu-rned-
6 7
pe'i atone-geum-gyi etong-chen-po re-rer : thub-pa chen-po
8
bcom-ldan-'daa re-re6 'dul-ba rnam-pa b z h i ~ 'arc-ba lnga'i don
9
mdzad-de:[2] bltame-pa-dang: rab-tu byung-ba-dsng: dka'-thub
1 0
mdzad-pa-dang ; eangs-rgyaa-pa-dang: bdud-htul-ba-danp : chos-
11
kvi 'khor-lo bskor-ba-dang: cho-'phrul chen-pa aton-pa-dang:
1 2
mya-ngan-lae-'das la-aogs-par aton-pa'i thub-pas :[31 dua-bzhi
kun-tu mkhyen-pa-dang: thama-cad-kyi sems-kyi rgYud kun-tu
mkhyen-pa-dang : rdzu-'phrul-gyi spyan-gyis thams-cad kun-tu
1 3
Sties-pe-dang : rclzu-'pbrul-gyi anyan-gyfs kun-tu gsan-pa-dang:
1 l A
I-4~9-'phrul-gyi tehoga kun-tu don-apyod-pa-dang: zag-pa med-
15 1 6
Pas kun-tu bzane-po'i spyod-pa rdzogs-pa'i mngon-par shes-pa
Chen-po drug-pang : [&I kun-tu sku barn-gyis mi-khyab-pa-dang :
kun-tu thugs beam-gyio mi-khyab-pa-dang: kun-tu gzhal b e a m - g ~ i s
1 7
mi-khyab-pa-dang : kurr-tu esung bsam-gyis mi-khyab-pa-danp
1 8 1 9
Idan-pa; bsam-gyie mi-khyab-pa grange-med-pa phyops-bcur
thams-cad-kyang 'dl-lta-ete: 'dul-ba'i dbang-gis lha-dana mi'i
2 0
thee-pa-dang : nyan-thoe-kyi thep-pa-clang: rang m a n e - c h u b -
21
k ~ i thee-pa-clans: b ~ a n g - c h u b eems-dpa'i theg-pa-dang! blo-nh
2 2
med-pa'i theg-pas : (61 ma-rlg-pa'i rnam-par tog-pa nyon-mongs-
23
pa stong-phrag breyed-cu rtee-bzhi'i gnycn-por: chos stong-
phpag brgyed-cu rtsa-bzhi gsungs-so: geung-ngo: gaung-bar
2 1,
at-dag thams-cad-kyang gzung-ba-dang 'dzin-pa'i: phyi-nang-gi
2 5
rten-cing 'hrel-har 'byung-be: 'dzin-pa ' khrul-pa-la8 'doge-pa
26
(rtogs-pa) -bang: las-dang las-kyi 'bras-ht~ chud mi-7.8-be-dang:
med-par ston-pa'i mthar-thug-go: [81
de-nas de-bzhln gshegs-pa thams-cad-kyjs ched-du brjod-pa 'dl
ma-rig rtog-pa'i gzung-'dzin-gyisi
phyi-nang rten-'brel gnyis-au 'khor:
27
ml-mthun bde-sdug myong-bar 'gyur: [ l o ]
rang-bzhin nyid-la6 nyams-pa-med:
M a g - d e n s bdag-gi pzhan-mcd-de:
bdag-dang bdag-gi gzhan-rnams-nl:
2 R
log-par rtog-pa taam-nyid-3aa:
Vhra-zhing zab-pa'ang yod-ma-ydn:
2 9
lag-rtog nyid-18 nyid 6pyod-pae:
3 0
ezhan-du =Yo-ba ci-yang med: (121
gzhi-rtea-med dbyings skad-clg-ma:
31
rnarn-par dag-pa'i dbylngs-nyid-tshul: (131
nyld-1.a dbang-agyur-nyid spyod-phylr:
bdag-dang gzhan-deng rtog-pa'l rgyun:
rnam-dag bla.-med thee-pa'i mchoe: [I&!
3 2
theg--pa bzhl-yla nges-'lyung-la:
33
thep-pa gclg-01 'brae-Sur gnes: [I51
rang-bzhin med-las clr-yane 'grub: C161
3 4
sangs-rgyas mya-ngan yongs mi-'da':
3 5
choa-kyang nub-par mi-'gyur-te:
ma-rig smln-mdzad 'dul-ba*l phyir:
byung-naa mya-ngan *daq-bar aton: [I?]
'dul-ba mdo-sde choa-mngon-dang:
dam-tshig sgrub-dang grub-pa-dang:
sku-dang gaune-dang thugs-kyl rgyud:
3 6
~hyoos-bcu rnams-su rab-grage-pa:
rang-bzhln gsang-ba'l snylng-po 'dl:
3 7
sde-snod kun-dang reyud-kun-ayl:
'byung-gnas gtan-la nges-par 'bebs: [I91
3 8
choa-rnama mlng-du btogs-ba tsam:
Eton-pan don-dang mthun-phyoge-su:
mine-drne tmhlg-tu btrae-nae batan:
39
ston ming-tshig-la dngos-yo med:
11 0
-ces brjod-do: [ 20]
de-nas de-bzhin gshegs-Pa e n ~ i s - s u med-pa'i dkyil-'khor de-dag-
nyid-kyi geang-ba 'dl-nyid: sku-dang gsung-dang thugs-dang yon-
0 1
tan 'phrin-la6 rdo-rje- la^ phyung-ngo: [21]
a-ho ;
C 2
srid-rtsa'i nyea-dmize bdag-tu rtog-la8 'phros:
gnaa-dang adug-bengal 'khrul-'khor la-aogs-pa:
43
log-rtog-nyid-las gzhan-du cl-yang-med: 1221
s t o n - w i d bdag-med ye-mkhyen rang-rig thugs:
dnigs-bya dmigs-byeb med-par dran-dbang-bsgyur:
114
ngo-mtshar sku-&sung yon-tan zhing-khams-las:
gzhan-na ned-de de-nyid de-ltar yin:
-zhes rdo-rje gsang-be'i tshig-tu'o: [231
-zhes-brjod-pas: thub-pa drug-gi sprul-pa grangs-med-pa-dang:
8 5
de-bzhin gsheus-pa thams-cad-kyis geunps-pa yang de-dag-tu
SnYing-po de-kho-na-nyid ngea-pa-las chos thams-cad gtan-la phab-
11 6
p a ' i le'u-ste gsum-pa'o: : 1261
Chapter Four
de-nas de-bzhin gShegS-Pa thams-cad deonge-pa gcle-tu gyur-nas:
myam-pa chen-PO' i tshul rdo-.r3e1 i dbyings-su: chos thams-cad
1
ye-nas s a n g ~ - r ~ ~ a S - P a ' i ting-nge-'dzin-la8 mi-gYo-Sari chos
thams-cad ming-tsam-du gnas-pa'i yi-ge 'phreng-ba'i 'khor-lo
zhes-bya-ba 'di: sku-dang gsung-dang thugs rdo-rje-la6 phyung-
nool i l l
2 .
A :
3
rab-tu brtan-gyur a-dkar-las:
u
shin-tu phra-ba'i a-rname spro:
5
phyoga-bcu gang-bar gflkI-gyur-naa:
6 7
bedue-kyang 'phel-'grib med-par brtcin:
de-las ming-tshogs gsal-'bar kun:
spro-zhing badu-ba'bng de-bzhin-no: [ 2]
'di-ni rdo-rje dngos-grub-kyi:
8
brtan-'byung ye-ahes rgyu-yin-no: [3]
A: KA KHA GA GHA NA1
CA CHA J A J HA RA:
T A THA D A DHA N A :
. . . .
T A THA DA DHA NA:
PA PHA BA BHA MA:
YA VA RA LA:
SA SA SA HA:
KSA:
1 'di-dae phyung-bas: *Jig-rten drug-gi phyogs-bcu mtha*-yas-pa:
9
rnam-pa drug-tu eYoe: rab-tu OYo6: kun-tu gYom-n-a: chos
10
thema-cad ming-gi mtehan-nyid-tam-du gyur-to: ho: [ 5 1
de-nas de-bzhin gehegs-pa thame-cad-kyle ched-du brjod-pa 'dl
brjod-do ] 161
11
a-ni etong-dang mi-stong-tti:
dbu-ma'ang dmige-su yod-ma-yfn]
thams-cad ming-Seam mange-rgyas kun:
a-nrid sna-tshogs-par snang-ba'ii
ka la-soga-pa bzhi-bcu-gnyis:
sgra-yi ming-gis thams-cad bsdus:
12
mngon-rdzogs reyal-po de-nvid nges: [ a]
e-an-ho ngo-mtehar ya-mtshan-gyi:
'phrul-chen bzhi-bcu-rtsa-lnga'i ming:
13
tohie-rnante ma-lus *dzin-pa*i gnas]
sna-tshogs don-=hen emra-zhing eton; 191
dngos-med yi-ge*i rang-bzhin sems:
bdap-med mtha'-bra1 mi-dmiga-kyrng:
111
dbribs-dang kha-dog ming-tshogs-kyle:
1 5
pol-pa cir-yang mprul-cing ston: [lo]
Yl-ee mgo-nrs ksr-la rdeogs: [ i l l
same-kyi rang-bzhln yl-ge-ste:
18
yl-ge dngos-go yod-ma-yin: [12]
drnles-mad de-nyld en.-tshoge-pa'l:
sku-geune-thugs-kyl 'khor-lo che:
sku-smung-thugs-ni ngo-mtehar-syl:
19 20
ya-mtshan 'phrul-chen rab-'guge-pa'o: {I31
yl-ge zheu-nl de-phyir brjod: [I&]
mgo-nl ma-nor lam-yln-te:
tig-ni nhe6-rab ming-du snra:
ehrd-nl thrbs-chen tehlgs-eu gcod: [I51
2 1
a-nl skye-med de-behln-nyld: [I61
thr-nl rgyu-'phrul rdo-rje-nyid:
22
ta-ni enang-ba'l egyu-'phrul-nyld:
da-nl sgyu-'phrul yid-bzhin-nyid',
23
dha-nl agyu-'phrul rnun-dag-nyld:
24
na-nl kun-tu ngyu-'phrul-nyid: [ 17 1
2 5
the-nl drr-br mnson-rdzoge-nyld:
2 5
tr-nl drr-br brtrn-pa-nyid:
2 5 26
dr-nl drr-br l h m - m e - n y i d :
2 5
dhr-nl dra-br 'kh,ril-ba-nyid:
25 '
ria-nl drr-br Nun-tu 'gyur: (181
khr - nl m w r n - w i t h u g s - k y i mchog:
.ha-ni ljags-kvi t hugu- kyi mchog:
27
n r - n i t h u g s - k y mg ' jig-bved-pr' o: ti91
c r - n i mpva n- wi s k u - v i mchog:
c h r - n i a nya n- pyi mku-vi rchog:
pha- ni r n v a n - w i gs ung- xi mchog:
ba- nl mhansm-kvi eaung- 01 mchoe:
bhr - ni ljage-kyi s s u n g - p i mchog:
30
u - n i g a u n g - v mo ' j i g- bar bved: (211
r r - n i .We-br r n u a - p a r dae:
3 1
va - ni g n r a - p a r nam- par dr p:
32
r r - n i ' j i g- pa bag-pa-eta:
3 3
l a - n i a t o n e - p a dag-pa'o:
36
ha- ni rtrg-pa drg-pa-mte:
3 5
8 r - n i c h r d - p a vod-ma-wi n;
36
k8r - ni ye-mhum t hus m- kyi thus.:
i - n i r dul - mnr od lhr-rn-8-mu:
I-nl rdul-snycd lha-ma-yin:
u-nt rdul-snyed mi-rname-su:
G-nl rdul-snyed byol-eong-rnam8:
e-nl rdul-snyed rl-dvags-su:
ai-nl rdul-snycd dmyal-bs-rnams: [23]
3 7
o-nl thams-cad 'jig-par byed:
3 8
au-nt thams-cad zhig-pa-yin: (24 I
39
yl-ge 'khar-lo tshogs-chen 'dis:
PO
sku-gsung-thugs-ky% phreng-ha bsdus:
- z h e s brjod-do: a-ho: [25J
de-nap de-bzh¶ n gshegs-pa btsun-mo'l tshogs-dang ~ n y l s-eu med-
h 1
~ 8 ' 1 dkyil- * khor de-dag-nyid-kyi gsang-ha 'dl-nyld: n k u - ~ s ~ n g -
07 h 3
thugs yon-tan 'phrl n-las roo-~je-lap phyung-ngo: C261
a-ho:
4 D a5
thabs-dang s3es-rab dgyes-sprln byana-chub sems-tshoes
rgyu 'khor-lo:
4 6
'bras-bu rgyal-be omln-grub ngo-mtshsr mlng-tshoe~ bahl-
bcu-gnyis :
a8
'dus-ma-byas-nyld 'due-byas rdo-rje dkyll-'khor 'byln-pa'l
dam :
*deV-bar mi-mdaed dbang-med rpyu-rkyen tshogs-pa'i mbhu-then
in :
a9
ho: rdo-rje gsane-ha* 1 tshig-bu ' 0 : 1271
5 0
- 2 he s brjod-pas: de-'bzhin gshegs-pa thame-Cad ~i-ge'i * khor-
ee ' ~ h ~ ~ n g - b a ' i 'khor-lo bkod-pa'i le'u-ate bthi-pa'o:: (281
Chapt e r F i v e
lphro-ba 'di ched-du brjod-do: [I]
chos-rnams kun-gyi rtea-ba yin:
f~em6-nyid yl-ge'i rang-bzhln-te:
yi-pe yid-bzhin rin-chen sprin: 121
BOYu-'phrul dkyil-'khor bzhi-bcu gnyis:
dra-ba'i dkyil-'khor mngon-rdzogs--pas:
longs-spyod 'b~une-zhing ngan-song sbyong:
7
ci-yang gzhaa-du ' g ~ u r - b a *grub: [ b ]
nam-mkha' r d o - ~ j e sra-'byung-zhing:
a
'bar-nas me-vane 'tshig-pa-danu:
9
chur-'gyur 'bab-pa'ang de-bzhin-te:
10
'31~-rttn khame-ni *thar-ba-danp:
11
thams-cad stonge-shins ltung-bar ' w u r : t 51























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Abstract

This work is a critical presentation of original sources relating t3 the ?4ah&oga and Atiyoga traditions af the rNying-ma school of Tibetan Buddhism. namely. the principal tantrea-text of that tv ~ and klong-chen Ratschool. Guhyanarbhatktv. 'tyams-pa's commentapy. W , a k = b c u m.ukitie2. 11 comprises an an annotated introduction. an eC?tion of the Tibetan root-text. translation and bibliography. i ! The introduction cocniders: the position of the three Inner classes of tantra ( m g y y d &sLe-=) within the rNring-ma tradition; the extant texts of the w u d - s d e . and =rub-c;& divisions of Mahhyoga within the U ~ a ' - ' n u u z and the . ~ ~ - m a ' i reyud-'bum and the transmission of the latter from its compilation until recent times: the relationsk,ip Setween the eighteen taiqtres o f the w u d - s d e section and the = Y U - ' D ~ ~ Ucycle; the ~ contents of the cycle and the position of the long. medium avd short versions of t h e C within it; the strucrured contents of this root-tantra; the controversy surrounding its origins: the Indian histariial perspective and commentaries; the Tibetan translatlons; the practical synthesis of m o - = n u u - s e n s = ~ ~ ~ b l l l the ; t a - a lineages with emphas:-s on the relevant k'm indigenous Tibetan commentaries; the gter-ma related literature; the two ten philosophical topics elaborated in rhe ; exegetical interpretations; and the editions of the source materiaLs which have been consulted. 11) The edition of the root-text is based. in the absence of on extant Tibetan versions found in the t k a l - ' n u u Sanskrit ms.. and the ~ u d -b ' m the Karma'i Chos-sear blockprint. and the versions uttlised by klons-chen Rab--'byams-pa and Lo-chen DharrnaSri in their commentaries.

.

111) full
1 ,( -

The translation of the root-tantra is accompanied by the text of kLong-chen Rab-'byams-pa's interlinear sections each of which 1s preceded v y an overview ( ~ Y I -

PPn).
iv) The bibliography has two sections. the first comprising those texts cited by kLohg-chen Rab-'byams-pa in PhYons-bcu rrUn - 8-1, and t h e ss~orld those works referred to in the introduction and annotations.

Contents

preface ~bbreviations part I: 1
2

5
9
13
10

Introduction

The rNying-ma School 8 the Three Inner Clasees of Tantra
Compilation of the ~ ' - * n u u r r

!

n and ~ the FnvinP-~ ~
27 32 37

ma
3
h

w u d -

'bum

The Texts of Mah-oga The Cycle

5

Structured Contents of the -ttvavln.i$cav~
r n a h 6 t a n tra

59

6
7

Origin of the The Indian Historical Tradition Appearance R Translation of the The Cycle in Tibot

61 72
80 83
92

8
9

ma'-=

lineage

10 The Zur Lineage in Central Ttbet 11 The Khams Tradition 12 The Resurgence of the

99

ma'-m

lineage in Central Tibet lineace in Khams

102 1011 109 114 123 128 129

13 Extensive Propagation of the 3 k s ' - m q

11 Treasure-Doctrines associated with the 1 15 Ten Philosophical Topics of the 16 MahHyoga and Atiyoga Interpretations of the auhvanarbha 17 The editions coneulted in this study 18 Annotatione

.

part 11:
1 2

Edition of Tibetan Root-text

Text Notes

Part 111: Translation 8 Commentary The Title Chapter One: The IntroductoPy Scene Chapter Two: Generation of Vltimate
&

Relative

Enlightened Mind a6 Pristine Cognition Chapter Three: The Establishment of All Dharmas

Chapter Four: Cyclical Array of the Gariand of Syllables Chapter Five: Ccntemplation that Attains the Magical Net Chapter Six: Emanation of t h e Mandala

..

Ci~apterSeven: Absorption of the Mandala ant the Secret

..

Mantras Chapter Eight: Consecration of All Limbs as the Mandala

..

and the Sub~eguent EmanatLon of the Seals Chapter Nine: Secret Commitment of the Indeetructible

Cht2ter Ten: Conferral of Empowerment Chapter Eleven: Mandala of the Feast-Offerings

..

Chrpter Twcl-.2: Attaina.ent of the Feast-Of ferings :haptar Thirte-.: Nucleus of Most Secret Esoteric

Charter Fourteen: The E u l o w Which Pleases Chapter Fifteen: Cloud-like Emanation of the Natural

Uandala of Wrathful Deities

..

Chapter Sixteen: Emanation Of the Mrndala of Buddha-~poech

..

of the Great A88rmblu of Wrathful Deitie8 Chapter Seventeen: Revelation of thr Uandala of Wrathful

..

D e l t 1. 8

Chapter Eighteen: A Teaching on Genuine Offering m d LiberrlitY Chapter Nineteen: Comarifmefita Chapter Twenty: Conmecrrtion of SpontanrouB Enlishtened AC t ivi ty et. Chapter Twenty-one: Euloey to the Wrathful. D i i 8 Chapter Twenty-two: Thrt which is Pleasing m d Retained
The Perfect Conclueion

1174 11811

1250 1274 1283

Annotation. P I F ~IV:
1

Bibliography

1462 ltl63 la90

Text8 Cited in nhYanr-hcu mun-sal Work8 Referrrd to in Introduction and Annotations

2

Pig. 1:

The Palace of the

mmdala.

..

Fig. 2: The Forty-two Peaceful Deitiem ( W . Y .

Evan8

Fig. 3: ?he ~ifty-eight Wrathful Deitir8 Cis. 8 : Plan of the mmdala. rig. 5: ?he %

(u-.) 1095b
1323b 13bbb 1368b

I

. or marpent earth 8pirit.

..

Fie. 61 The Drawing of the auhvlllraha mandala.

0v.r of

.avaral
tha

yaws.

w h i l e w o r k i n g o n t h e t r r n r l a t i o n md e d i t i o n Rin-po-chr'a

1st. bDud-'joms
Fundunan-

4xinsma Sskm~lpi
I bacune

~~
and the to

Buddhira:

incrar8inq;ly

aware o f t h e c a n t r r l i - o r t a n c e ertaem in which
it

of t h a

i s h e l d by t h e rNying-ma-pa.

I n ordar

open up and c o n s o l l d r t e o u r u n d a r a t m d i n s o f t h r t a i g h t h tradltion.
c11rrly

cantury

t h i s b a s i c t e x t w o u l d h r v a t o ba e a t r b l i s h r d
md.

i n s c r i t i c a l a d i t i o n r l o n ~ s i d ei t s c o m m e n i u l e s .

as

more

~ r i m a r y8 o u r c a s are p u b l i s h e d i n I n d i a . i t

w o u l d be an e 8 t e n t i r l

t a r k f o r T i b e t o l o q ; $ 8 t s t o make some o f t h e m r ~ c e ~ ~ i tol w m r t a r n b a rcholarshlp f o r t h e f i r n t time. to
tha

T h i a w o u l d r l a o g i v e some i m p a t u s in Naval.

c u r r e n t r a v i v r l of t h e rNying-ma c o n r m u n i t i a s

I n d i a . anb i n d a e d T i b a t . w h a r e t h e t r a d i t i o n itself h a s b e e n made aware
of t h a v r l u a of w e 8 t a r n s c h o l r r s h i p .
largely t h r o u g h

tha rims root-

effort8

of K.

Gena S m i t h .

It

i8

t h e r e f o r m w i t h t h e s e two E a c h c h a p t e r of t h a

t h a t I e m b r r k a d o n t h e p r e s a n ~s t u d y .

tantra

1 .

r c c o a r p r n i a d by k l o n g - c h a n R r b - ' b y r m o - p e ' r and i n t h a c o u r s e of m n o t r t i o n .
his

intarlinear

cosmantrry,

intrrpretrtions B a t w a r n Oham. tradition8

era

j u x t r p o s a d w i t h t h o s m of

Lo-chan D h r r a t r h r l .

t h r r a commantotors r e p r c s a n t t h a two major a x a s a t i c a l of t h a
*ha

i n T i b a t . Of c o u r s a .

this

s t u d y i s by n o m a r n o

d a f i n i t i v a s t r t a m a n t o n t h a p n l y whan a l l . O commantrrias such
it

extant could

hrva barn f u l l y

trmslrtad

and

corngarad

a conclusiva trartisa

aver

8a
of

writtsn.

In

tho

tip..

im hoead t h r t tha i n t a i c a c i a s

klons-chmn-pa's

.x+trsia ht-en

will

auraent

our understondinr of

the

ralation8hip avmnue8 for

Nahhyoga and Atiyoga.

m d opmn up further

fhe problmms involvmd in the intmrprmtation of trntra-tmxts the able. Quite a r e Inuaense. apart tharm from and error6 m r m virtually orisinal the to

like

unavoidSAnskrlt Tibetsn r08Olve. Rinvoche. rWying-ma

the aB8rncm of tho

muruscripta. wh2ch Thia even
ha8

arm linguistic o b 8 c u r i t i e ~ kn

t h e survbvins oral traditian I 8 unable bean mxplicitly atatad by Dingo

Khyentme

who is revmred a8 *he greatmst living authorit3 on t h e sehool.

I would t h e r e f o m a8k

thooe responsible for maintaining

this tradition t o underatand t h e underlying motivation m d not Lo look too hu8hly on
my mrrorr o r

oaisaiona.

Many

of

thmso

problem8 will be confrontmd in the cour#m o f the m n o t r t i o n s . &nd
1 wi8h.

at thin point. to acknowledse the aaaistance of all those

scholar8 who devoted time and energy t o the tank.

Firstly. Tibetan

my

thank8

are

due t o

Phillip Denwood. a

Lecturer

In

at SOAS.

w h o supervised the rrsrlrch i n

methodicrl.

8 ~ a P a t h e t i c and supportive manner on problems

and affmrmd much 8ounQ advice architmcture of the Dinso tire-

rrlatlna t o langu-• m d thm

in p a ~ t i c u l a r . Bumble thank.

are also durn t o H.B.

Khrentae Rinpochm r h o savm mush of hi8 pr*ciOuS timm to W

s t w qummtion8 durins him moJourn in thm Dordosnm. i n Junm. 1986. Other8 Thuptmn. T*ntin. mcholar8 w h o u m i m t r d at that tim r m Dzokchmn Khmnpo Konchok to thm

Nvoahul Khmn Rinpoche. Khmnpo

Tulku Pmma W a n w a l .

m a

Thuptmn in ~ a r t i e u l r raddrmamad h i u m l f

linauimtic

and trchnicrl pmblmmm with errat r n t h u m i u m .

1

u

a180 indebted to the library of SOAS. aceems the

U n i v e r s i t ~of London. to L u a Chime to

for of

to Library and microfiche facilitiae8. Librarv Oriental U m u m c r i p t 8

Bi1h rt.

Division. to

Wichael

O'Keefe the

of the India Office Library. library

Christian Bruvat at in the

Tibetm

of the Associati05 de ChrnteEoube

Dordognr for u k i n g aource arterirl8 available. Additional thank6 are due to Or Tadeusz Skorupeki of SOAS. who kindly offered

advice on certain lndic aource materiala. m d t o Matthew Kapstein of the Univrrritu of Chicago who in vast years uorkcd with me to the technical English vocabulrry u v l o y e d in this Above all. and

construct

other 8tudies.

I wish to express w gratitude t 3 the

British A c a d e w for their generous studectohiv awarded from 1983-

iP86.
s e e

to

3 0 G for the Xiilicrnt Hrrrington A w r r d

coverine bcturer

the

period.

m d

to Or John Broekineton,

Senior

in

t m 8 k r i t at Edinburgh Unlvermity. Collele. Acadew. Oxford Finally. for

and Dr Michael Aris oP Wolison to
the

supp~rtine ry initial aoplicatlan are due to Mike F-er who

thanks

provided

Word-vrocessint f r c i l i t i e ~ . without w b l c h the project would n e v e r
have Sean conolefed in t h e e yesre.

Abbrevirt ions

A.

Author

BBudh.Bibllotheca Buddhica. St. Petersburg/ Leningrad. 1897-1936, BIT. Bibliotheca Indo-Tibetica. Published by the Central Institute ~f Highor Tibetan Studies. Sarnath, U. P. BST. Buddt~ist Sanskrit Texts. Published 3y the Mithila Institute of Post -Graduate Studies and Resehrcf~ in Sanskrit Learaing. Darbhanga. Bihar. CLTC.

[m-u ~
Qf

~
-

r

The -

~ LUs$,ed ~ l
New

covered
Delhi:

r

- w - m .
1975.

Patshang lame Sonam Gyaltsen. 9032118.

30 volumes. 1-Tib 7 5 -

D.

Discoverer

( I n the cese of treasures. pter--1.

DZ.

ndams-nnan

( gf J ? r e c i w w
pf

-uctiou).

Deihi:

N. Lungtok arld N. Gyaltsan. 1971. 12 vols.
EIPRB. Karl Potter.
Bibliography (Revised

-s 0.
Princeton:

v01.

1.

Edition).

Princeton

Ufilverslty Press. 1983.
GCI?.

RrSin ma'i

rgyud bcu bdun.

3 vols.

New Delhi: Sanje Dorje.

1973-1977. I-Tib 73-9061138.

GOS.

G a e k w a d ' ~ Oriental Institute. Baroda.

Serie~.

Published

by

tP,e

Orient01

BBI.

tt ienne

Lamot te. du

luUZUXe
vol .

dl

Indien.
L o u v r i ~ : Publicat ions

Bibliothktque

-.

13 1.

Univereitaires. 1958.

HIL.

mL p

I Q g p L p
9

Edited

by

Jan

Gonda.

Weisbaden: Otto Harrasowitz. JLSB.

[m nlinn-Da'i
Kun-mkhyen

w'u. collected works ] The
9 vols.

of

'Jigs-mrd glin-ye.

NNS.

29-37

(197C

onwards). I ( S i k ) - Tib 7d-917093. JTPD. ' J u - t ppd-dr-.

D.

' J a g - t ~ h o n snying-yo.

7

vols. I-

D&i?Jeeling:

Taklung

Tsetrul Pema Wangyal.

1979-1982.

Tib 79-905783. KCZD. -,-an Sherab 905058. LCSB. [ J Q s ~ ~
U o d - w .

Sde-lee edition. Labrang.

6 volE. 1983.

Gangtok: I-Tib

Gyeltsen

and Khyentse

83-

n- 1 *hum.

Collected works of Smin-glin

Lo-then

DharmaSrf.

19 vols. DehFa Dun: D.G. Khocchen Trulku. 1975.

I-Tib 75-904278. Litho. Lithographic edition. LTWA. Library cf Tibetan Works and Archives. D h a r a m ~ a l a . H. P.

MC6.

Melanges

"hinois et Bouddiques.

Institut Belpe des Hautes

f tudes Chinoises. B r u s ~ e l s .
MTTWL. peter Pfandt,

TextE

Translated

m M -

.
Rvt.
hA.

Cologne: In Kommissicn tei E.J. Brill. 1983.

-tj at,

Not available. 1 . e . Mot located.

no longer extant.

NL.

HGB.

- * ypyud - bu (Collected Tantras - u Thimvu: J a m y a n ~Xhy=ntss R i i i ~ c e : , t , ) .
1

qf

lac

1973. 36

vols. Catalogue by E. Kaneko. T o W o . 1982

NMKMG. rnuinn-ma'i Rinpoche.
80

bka'-ma
vols.

w a s - ~ a Edited

by

H.H.

Dudjom

Kalimpong.

W.B.:

Dubdung Lama. 1 9 8 2 .

I-Tib 8 2 - 9 0 0 9 8 1 . NNS. Ngargyur Nyingmay Sunerab. Published by Sonam T. Kazi.

Gangtok. Sikkim. NSTB. Dud jom Rinpoche.

XhetiYhSJm-PfTlbetan
translated 8 edited

Buddhism:

Fundamentals & l&~Lozy.

by G. Dorje 8 M. Kapstein. London. 1987 NYZ.

- h n .ti

-Y

-

-

(your- art

Inlms ne.ot

-. )

New

Delhi: Trulku Tsewang. Jamyang and L. Tashi. 1 9 7 0 . 1 1 vols.

P.

Tjhetan

U t - ,

Peking Ebition. Tokyo-Kyoto; Suzuki
1 6 8 vols.
&kl&tid

Research Foundation. 1 9 5 5 - 6 1 . PRS. Lewis Lancaster. ed.. E r -

-.

vol.

Berkeley Buddhist Studies Series. Humanities Press. 1 9 7 7 . Pub. Pho-co-mechanical pub1 icat ion.

1 , Berkeley: Asian

RTD.

m-chea

g t e r - s (Store Qf

precio~

-).

Par>o: Index compiled

Egodruy and Sherkp Drimay.

1976.

1 1 1 vols.

by Sik K. Yeshe Zangmo in 19bfb.

SBE.

F.

Max

Mffller.

ed..

SacredBnWalU

East.

Osfopd

University Press. Reprinted. Skt. SCR. Sanskrit Serie Orientale Roma.

Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.

Published by the Institute Italiano

per 11 Medio ed Estremo Oriente (Is. M.E.O. 1. SP. satamit-

w. Saraavati

Vihar. New Delhi.

EES.

Si"sfirt8is sheerig spendzod. Publiehe$ by S - W .

Taetrigane~a.

Leh. Ladakh. STC. Barbara Nimri Aziz and Matthew Kapstein.
Tibetln - i n lo.
eds..

New Delhi: Manohar.

1985.

T.

A-CatalDnueQZflLeTibetanBuddhint
University Catalogue

Canon. (T6hoku
the Canon)

of the Derge Edition of

edited by Hakuju Ui et al. Sendai. 193b. Taisho. ? Ed. J. Takakusu. K. Watanate. et

-26W.

al. Tokyo: Taish6 Issaikyo Kanko Kai. 1 9 2 0 - 1 9 3 2 . ~ i b . Tibetan TSHR. Michael Arls and Aung San Suu
Kyi.

eds., Tibatan =ydAris and Ptiillips.

liugh RicharnsDn. 1980.

Warmicster:

TSWS.

Tibetan

Sanskrit

Works

Series.

Kashl

Psasad

3ayaswal

Research Institute. Patna. Bihar. X ~ l o . Xylographic edition.

Part One
Introduc+ion

1.

The rNyin9-ma School and the Three Inner Classes of Tantrn:

The

mandala

..

of the hundred peaceful and wrathful deities

flrst

ettrected attention o ~ ~ t s l dTJbet through popular t r a n s l a t l o n ~ of e the
us-QQ

w - n r o l ,
1
0 .

a seetlon of Karma

gLlng-pa'e

a1-khr-0

1,lttJe is known,

however, of the t h ~ + r eor, The text
m ~ a -

which this mandele and itr gter-ma cycles are bosed.

..
a

~

a

t

+

v

v

i

n

I

#

c

~ is v

B ~

p.rinclpa1

of

the

JU!, the

oldest tradition 3f Tibeten Fuddhiom whlc3

has

matnd,lrlng Tndian

tained the

the teaching-cyclee and texts jntroduced to Tlhet dynaatjc period through t o the epoch of the

royal

scholar

Smrtijri&nakCr*l end prior to that of Lo-chen Pin-chnn 2 bZang-pa (958-1055). T h e rNying-ma-pa are thoee who have adhered to this **eapller
propagation" ( m - d e r )

and

c~ltfva~e* its medl tetl on, tres?llrt?S

traditions Compnsdtion,

over ~ u c c e e d j renturjes through study, ne and the revelation of conceeled texts o r

(Her-ma).
and

A comprehensive account of the phllosoph?ct3J p ~ s ! t l o n
hackground of this school Is found In my edl ted

hjstorfcal

translation

of bDud-' jomr Rin-po-che* s modern

cornpi I at1 O F ,

3l&

USchoalTibetsnBuddhiem: 3

aul
the later Buddh+tt

.

In which

contrast, spread

the

adherents of

lineages

forth In Tlbet

during

the

"et~bseqlren+

pro~agayionw ( p h v i - 4 ~ ) - - t h e bKe*-pdams-pa, Ss-ekya-pa and b!Ce*brzyud-pa-- ars commonly known as pSar-me-pa, "fol!owere of the & 6choolsw. Whjlc t h e desjgnetione wrNyine-man and HgSar-ma"

were

retrospectively

applied.

by the eleventh century the become

two

periods

of Buddhist expansion in Tibet had to

sufficiently oteer-

distinguishable vatlon

Prompt Rong-zom Pandita'e

in the dkon-mchon

m. which
5

.

following

*

attributes six

superior-

ities to the ancient translaticns: First. concerning the greatness of the the benefectors the who

i ~ ~ t r o d u c e dthem:

Since

benefactors of

ancient

were translation period were the thrse ancestral rulers. w h ~ the they sublime Lords of the Three Families In kingly guise.

were cnlike the benefactors of the

later

translation

6
period.

Second.

concerning

the

locatione

in

which

they

were

translated and established: were

Since the ancient translations
and

accomplished in such emanated temples as bSam-yas

the .other doctrinal centres of the past, high and low. are today unlike those translated in the monastic zrottoes

they of

.

7

Third, Those

concerning

the

distinctions

of

the

translators:

doctrines were translated by emanational translators. sKa-ta dPal-

the translators of the past such a8 Vairocana. brtsegs. Rin-chen unlike who 1Cog-ro klu'i mChog.

rgyal-mtshan. Zhang Ye-shes sDe, rMa Thus, they of 5-?e

and gNyags JEKnakum6ra.

the translations made by the translators the summer in Mang-yul and travel to

today.

Pa8E

India

and

A
Nepal for a short time du?inu t h e winter.

Fourth.

concerninz

the distinctions of the

scholars

(who

supervised the ancient tranalat?one): introduced by

Those doctrinee were on

buddhas and sublime bodhiaattvas abiding

the great levels.

(namely) the scholars of the past such as Buddhsguhya. the great Thus, master they

the preceptcr Shntaraks ita. Padmbkara

and the great pandita

..

Vimalamitra.

were unlike the scholars of today who wander a b o ~ t in search 9 of gold.

Fifth, concerning the distinctions of the blossome as the basis for commissioning ( t h e translations): the doctrines were requested with offerings

(offered) In the of gold Thus, of) the

past

weighed out in d e e ~ s k i n pouches, they were

or by the measure.

unlike the requeets made (by disciples

present day with one or two gcld bits drawn from under their 10 own arms.

Sixth, The the

concerning the distinctione of the doctrine

itself: when India.

translations of the past were completed at a time doctrine of the Buddha reached its zenith in

Furthermore, India

there were tantras which did not even exist in which were retained by bodhisa+tvas.

pr?per,

accomplished masters, obtained lands, their

awareness-holders and dbkinls who had They were taken from pure

empowerments.

and from regions of Jambudvlpa

such a6 Singhala and

Oddiyana in th'e weet.

..

through the arrayed miraculous powers Padmasambhava, (in Vimalamitra Thua. and many

of

the

the and

srcat master then

othere.

tranelated

Tibet).

(doctrines) and

which were completely unknown to masters

the

scholars the

Of India arrived to 11 meritorious fortune of Tibet.

accomplished

become

Furthermore, the

concerning the translations themselves: of the past were emanat:ion~.

Since they

translators

establisaed the meanings

correctly.

For this reason their

works are easy to unCerstand and, the blessing is great.

on plumbing their depth&. later lexical of
;A :€

But the translator-s of the made

period

were unable to render rhe meaning and fo1;owing (merely) the

translations

arrangement

Sanskrit texts.

Consequently.

their forced terminology is

hard to understand,

and on plumbing the depths the blessing 12 is slight. Therefcre, they are dissimilar.

To

understand Rong-zom-pa's

final point,

one might well make the

a

comparison and

between the simple versification of

Guhvevarbha

that of the

ePitomise linguistic ologies

which is considered by many t o 13 the most complex of the later translations. Further distinctions between these two translation the methoddebate

.-

will

be considered bslow in the context of

surrounding the origins of our tantra-text.

Despite

Rong-zom-pa's to

entrenched position the prejudice

which

was

designed the

Purposefully ancient

counter

expressed the new

against

tantrae

by. certain advocates of

translation

system, the rNying-ma from the
subsequent

tradition for the most part remained aloof sectarian rivalries of Tibetan political or

life-- whether

in the conflict between Sa-shya and 'Bri-guns

in

Karma-pa-backed 11 1 6 d m l n J ~ t r a + l @ n nnd t h e d G e - l u g * - p a hj e r a r c h y . Their

the

clvjl

wor

hetween

the

gl'~ang..pa phi I o o o p h y

and sp~rItlral!ty h a v e h o w e v e r c n n + J n u e d t o e x e r t i n f l u e n c e on + h e later tr-dj + I
-119

untj 1 r e c e n t r i m e s

.

Tmpnrtant fipures ~ ~ t c h as

dPsl

!1?8&-1365).
dBnng 2 0

Dslsj L a m e V ! 1 6 1 7 - 1 6 R ? ? . ( 1 8 7 n - 1 8 ? 2 ) a n d 'Jam-mgon

' J a m - d b y a n p s rnKhyen-

bptse'l have

K o n g - ~ p r u l (1813-3Rg?) the

c o n t r l b v t e d j m m e n ~ e j yt h + h e d e v e l o p m e n + o f dcspj+e

teachines

rNylng-~a 15 t h e i r a f f i l j a t i o n w l t h o t h e r echeols. Ad 8 Tibet's great thinkers. tesch

stuly o f t h e y h o s - ' b v ~g e n r e rev- el^.. o c h o l a r ~ end

rnedjtatorf f r o m el1 traditions c o u l d f r e e l y 16 each o t h e r w l + h o u + e c c t a r l a q i n h i b i t i o n s .

It

it

in t h e r N y j n g - m a ny?+:em t h a t t h e F u d d h l ~ t t e a c h i n g s

&re

clsssified l n + a a h l n r a r c h j c a l gradeiTjan o f n l n e v e h l c l e s o r n i n o sequencee of t h e v e h i c l e !Then-pa r i m - D Y

a;. S.G.

K e r m a y jn h i s

"Origin a n d E a r l y D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e T i b e t a n Reliejour? T r a d i t i c n s of tPte G r e a t Pe?rPectianw h a e t r a c e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h j ~ j n e n f6ld c l a s s ? PIc%+ion through a comparatjve study o f t h e wrj t i n g ~

Of P a 4 m a s a m b h s v e . eKs-ha d P e l - b r t e e g e . shes, lined klonp-chen In the

gNuhe-chen Sknpe-rgyms Ye17 ~ab-'byams-pa end athers. T h e Rynthesie outtext

Anuyogn

E D Y~

elaborated

by t h e e M t n - g r o l - g l j n g

+radjtion refera t o the

--

'due-~a

and fjrst

three s c q u e n c e e !Srlvakay&na.

P r a t y e p a b t r d d h a y ~ n aand Bodhl s s t t v n Cb311Rr of

~ B n a ) un4cr
suffering"

the

heeding "vehicles which control t h e -an-~a'l

( u*hrune
of

m),t h e to

mlddle

thr-e the

!Kpiydtantra. Outer tantrae

Ubhayatantra

e n d Y o g d t a n t r b ) a# " v c h ~ c l e s of

a r ~ s t c r ca w a r e n e s s n ( W

* -thU

l'i=-na * i

~.V-I W - D k ) .

and t o the las:

Three ( M a h w o g a , hriuyoga arrd

~ t i y o g a )as "vehicles o f overpowering means" -d b(

18

kYi S . ~ P P - D & ) .
of nine

According t o Lo-chen DharmaSrf. itself provisional because t h e classifi

the

enumeration mey be

is

structure

simplified.

9.9. into the twofold

'-on of Hlnayana and

~ a h b i n a . o r extended. e.g.

by adding the m u n d a n e Manueyayhna o r

~ e v a y i n a . Indeed. in this overview of t h e Buddhist path there may be as many vehicles as t h e r e a?e thouphte in the mind. while,

from the resultant o r absolute standpoint. t h e r e is said t o be no

19
- ~ e h i c l e at all. The following verses from the ~ g & i w a ~ u t r y 20 (T. 107) are ~ u o t e d in support of t h i s position:
As

long a s there are perceptions.

T h e culmination o f the vehicles will never be reached. When the mind becomes transformed T h e r e i s neither vehicle nor mover.

The integrated structure of the nlne vehicles i s a l s o referred tc in baeic texts. such as the principle w m s - s d e t a n t r a ( m ~ of the

Great

Perfection

m )system. a

Kinn

-(

wal- DO'^ w ,T. 828):

the 21

--Arc-

Existentially t h e r e is only Gne. But empirically there are nine vehicles.

The

distinctions

between the above mentioned n i n e sequences

of of

the vehicle a r e discuesed in t h e r a n y phtlosophical txbeatises the rNying-ma school which focus on Bpil-itu&l and
(

philosopt~ical

systems

or ~
mdrpd.

u - mtha' b

)

. e. a .

kLonp-chen Rab- ' bvams-pa.

nrub-mthr'

Lo-chen Dhrrmabrl.

n.nnn-bdan *-

and

b~ud--jams Rin-po-che.

-tan-os'i

. approach

22

The motst

funda-

mental djs+inction is made hetween the first thrze or e0tra-based vehicles (--chub) tantra-based which advocate a causal to enlightenms~t

or btrddhahood - ( ) vehicles whl ch

and the last 9ir or maintajn the resultant view that and

buddhahood i~ ~ r i m o r d l a l l y or atemporelly (ye-naa) attained. realised as such by the removal of the ohscarations

cnvertng

enlightened mind

( a

m.>.
refera to three contjnl-\a of meanine en9 of that

The term "tsn+rsW !) four

cla~~es of texts formjng the literary expression The former
are the ccnrinuun of

meaning.

the

ground

(m

w). of

the path

( a - n v i

m )nnd
reellsing

of the resul? ('br.-q-bu13

rnuud). which respectjvely indj.ca+e the ehiding nature of vealjty
(mno-l-),

the

means

of

it

(w). and

the

Culminating

buddha-body

(m) and

pristine cognjtjon

(ye-=has?

resulting from thet realjsatjon.

Tt is t h ? ~ structure of groun4.

Path and result around which the tantrs-texts. both rNying-ma and PSar-me are developed, 8 s w e will see below with reference to the

m.
texts of KriyBtantra,

23

The four clasaes are

the

Ubhaybtantre (or CaryBtantra).

Yogatantra

and Anutttrayopatantra. which are djfferentiated and ~ ~ R c u et R ~ ~ S 2 11 length in the ebove treatises. The last of them, accord in^ to the rNying-me school, and Atiyaga. the comprises the texts of of averpowerine &--nnurq)-rNyinp-ma-pe Mahayopa. means" or Anuyoga three the

"vehiclee

claeeea Principal

of inner tantrae euhject It

(nau-rnvu
of the

which form

matter

commentarial these

tradition.

ie important that the distinctions between

three

are

comprehended because,

a s we ehalL see.

the

-both

U r a ~ a m a h i a t a n t r a has been interpreted M a h e o g a and Atiyoga perspectives.

from

When the three classes of inner tactras are contrasted. is said to ernphasise the ground of the Vajraykna or

Mahayoga resultant

mode of Buddhist experience. 1.e. the abiding nature of reality 25 . ) ( Anuyoga the path or skiLlful means of realisation and Atl.yoga the result itself. and prlstine cognition on the creation stage
the
! (J!-.). w ~ r l a

the presence of buddha-body ( & k l J Alternatively. MahiWoge focuses
)of

contemplation. and Atiyoga on

Anuyoga the

on

perfection

stage

( ) .

Great

Perfection (~1dzoz6-chen) .

In the words of Me-nysgs Khyung-%rags. 26 of the rNying-ma lineage: Though present

an eleventh-century hoider

27

tCe three aspects of creation and in them all.

perfection teaches

are
the

Mahkyoga emphatically

creation stage. stage.

Anuyoga emphatically teaches the perfection

and the Great Perfection is effortless in both.

klong-chen

Rab-'byanis-pa. 28

in his Mind

Rest

(qemq-nvid

n an l

PBP). adds:
MahCyooa emphasises vital energy and the skillful means of

the creation stage. Anuyoga emphasisee the seed and discriminatir-e awareness of the perfection stage. Atiyoea emphaeiees the pristine cognition in which everything ie without duality.

29
And according to sKyo-ston Sgk-ye of Gong-bu: Mahayoge leya ereat emphasis on conduct. AnuYoge lays great emphesis on contemplation, And Atiyoga lays great emphasis an the view.

A = these authors stete, MehByoge does emphasise the ground in Its
persgectj ve, ritual the end the creeti on atage In te medj tetive technique end Anuyoge emphasises the path,

actSvi+ice in its conduct.

perfeetion

stage of meditative technique and

contempletion, the

Atjyoea emphesises the result.

the Greet Perfection or

view itself

W e shall observe however that tantre- text^ such

as

rhe G u h V a n a r b h a t a t t v ~ v i ~ t a n t r q , despite their c l a ~ fi~ i cation three, within and Mah&yog&, is necees~rl ly contsin that
element^

of

a13

J+

for this reason

divergent

exegetical

30
t r e d i t l o n ~ later developed.

The

d i ~ p o s i t i o n s of those who would aspire to the

three

inner

c l e s s e ~ of tantra ere also indtcated in the Tentre pf

ArCW

(bkod- ~q c h e n - n ~ ) ,which says:

31

For one who wollld transcend the mind There is the creative phase. For one who would posseas the essence of mjnd There is the perfecting phase. And for those who are eupremc and most secret There is the Greet Perfection.

And

by klong-chen Rab-'byams-pa

in his Great Chariot

(ahlnp-rta

m):
The father tantras of M a h b o g a are the natural expression of the skillful means of appearance. requiring training who are intended on mostly behalf of and

32

those

hostile

possessed the is

by many ideas;

the mother tantras of Anuyoga are which of

discriminative awareness of the perfection stage the reality of emptiness. intended for the

benefit

those who are mostly desiroue and delight in the tranquility of the mind; and the AtiyogB is revealed as the natural

expression of their non-duality.

intended for the benefit of

those who are mostly deluded and who are energetic.

?hn :e

these

three

claeses are coneidered to its essence.

distinctly.

each

is and

analysed

according

.w-erbal def iriition

classificaticr.. Dharmabri 's

as in the fol1.owing account derived from Lo-cher, which represents the Tibetan

n a a n n - b m zhal-lygp.

33
bka' -ma tradition.
Mahayoga: The union
)

essence of Uah&yoga is that liberation is with by

obthined

through

nnuip-med the indivisible superior truth ( U - D B ' ~
relying emphatically on the creation stage of

aklllful means ( L h . & ~ - k ~ll&YrfI-rilu). i
XQga

The Sanekrit term

mah8-

is defined to mean "great unionw of the mind with The classification
8 entrance

non-dual

truth.
-(

include6 the topics

of

empowerment discipline

-

( ' ~ u E - D ~ ) . view

(m-bg).

1( .-

meditation

(m). conduct

( m o d - D & ) and reeult

311
~t

the outset,

four anpowermenta are conferred,

anabling Mahhthree

yoga to be practised. contemplations, purifies purifies seals and death. the

The vehicle is then entered through

namely: great emptiness (efPnn-Pa~ m n - ~ p ) which great compassion
(--rJe
~ P ~ - D Q which )

intermediate

state after death (bar--) mandala-clusters

and

the

attainment of the
)

..

(W-rby

which purify the three phases of life

35
estsblishing one's true nature to be the mandala

..

of

deities.

The view of Mahiiyoga holds ultimate truth ( spontansous relative energy body to be awareness

W e n - ~ a )to be
elaboration. oxb mental buddha-

(pin-~e) without conceptual

truth

(U-rd7m m e n - ~ a ) to be the

ideas

of that awareness which manifest as a mandala of

..

and pristine cognition.

and the superior indivisible truth pure appearance.

the unity of these two-- emptineee and

Discipline refers to twenty-eight commitments in relation to meditative practice,

(dam-tahin) upheld
and attainof

renunciation

36
rnent. Meditation comprises the non-symbolic contemplation ultimate reality and the symbolic meditations of the creatioa and Perfection stages. In the creation stage. the mandala ie gradual-

..

1Y

vieualised thrcugh the three contemplations.

in which

deity

and thought are indivisible.

In the perfection stage,

visualis-

ation concentrates on the energy channels, Pbints

current8 and seminalthe **upver

( r t ~ a - r w ) own body

in the body-- either in

door1* of one's (sexuai The

(v - B P O ) W
partner1@ body

or the "lower door*'

37
centre) of one's

(

w

-

l

u

~'

p

e

-

~

)

.

conduct of M a h b o g a implies that defilemante and ~ o n f l i c t i n g

emotions practices

of aamsnra.

rites of "liberation"

(m) and

aexuai

be experienced without attachment because 38 they are retained as ski?.lful meane. The result indicates that 39 the five buddha-bodies ( U u - w ) are actualised in this lifetime or in the intermediate state after death.

(w) can

Anuyoga: The essence of Anuyoga is that by relying on the perfection stage of discriminative awareneaa ( W - r & xdzfi=q-~&fl) obtained reaiity duality. sequent which
( )

liberation is expanse
of

I1

through

the and

unifying realisatlon of pristine cognition

the

!

(ye-EbE),

without "sub-

u0

The

Sanskrit term 1.e.. that

is defined to

meen

yoga",

which links MahByoga to A t i y o ~ a OF subsequent on dis-

reveals the path of deuire 1( -

u1

criminative awareness.

As to the aforementionec! six claesificatory topics.

Anuyoga

has

36

basic and 831 ancillary empowerments which refer to all nine u2 eequences of the vebicle. including the eiltrae; and it is through the npontaneouely perfect non-duality of the

entered expanse are
1

and pristine cognition.

The view is that all
(Xi2

phenomena

the
-

primordial mandala of Samantabhadrl

..

li-hZhin-d

k

the

uncre,ted

awareness ie the pristine cognition

or

spontaneously

present mandala of

..

Samantabhadra supreme bis 1.

(rann-lzhin
of their

dbyil-*ktlnr).

and

the

0ff4yring I s the fundamental mandala of enlightened mind. without of expanse and pristine cognition (burnn chUh f~ 3 W i l - *hhpr). Di8cipline refers to the nine enumerations duality

..

of

commitments

described

in

the sixty-sixth chapter

of

the

mQp

- ~a

4 1,
(NOB. Vol. 11).
Meditation compriues the path

of nkilltul means ( m b a - a ) which utilises the energy channels. currents body or and seminal points eithe? with reference to one's and the path of own

in union with a partner,

liberation

( ~ 0 1 - a )which

comprises the non-conceptual conternplatJon who are from

of
said the

reality and uymbolic contemplation of the deities. to

appear Instantly "in the manner of a fish leaping 11 5 water. " In the reeult. the twenty-five resultant
(

realities actuaiised

chas w e r - m ) of the buddha-level
46

are

within one lifetime.

The

essence of ktiyopa or the Great Perfection ( W s - n a is that liberatian occurs in primordial buddhahood

then( y 0 - m

PP)

-~ R Y ~ B - D B ) , without
The
Sanskrit

renunciation. acceptance, hope or doubt. "hiphest union".

term rtivana ia defined to mean

because it is the culmination of all vehicles and of the creation
8 perfection stages. A S tc classification, the empowerment

of the con-

1expressive power of awareness ( a - ~ a ' L 47 ferred, the entrance is without activity,
thinas unique reality

is

the view is that all in the of
G :

of aamsara and nirvana are primordial buddhahood eeminal

(1 -.

point (-o -l w a n an- ) or buddha-body h8 Discipline inclubss eaiiitniente apathy. uniquenese the three and apontaneoua presence. spatial

-

a9 nothingneam. Meditation esoteric laet of

comprise'e inatructionai which

classes- mental,
-)--

and
the

(same -

of

includea the crlebrated

tachniquea

Cuttine

Through

R e p i s t a n c e (khr-yes-chod) e n d A l l - S u r p e s s i n z ReaJ?satlon 5G (mod-ru). Conduct 1s wjtho~rt acceptance end rejection, and on

the

r e s u l t i s t h a t t h e g o a l i s r e a c h e d at t h e p r e e e n t m o m e n t 51 t h e level o f e p o n t a n e o u a l y p e r f e c t S a m a n t a b h a d r e .

The

prime

distinction the besia,

between these three

is

therefore

that

Mahayoga,

c u l t i v a t e s t h e r e a l l a a t I o n of Anuyoea doen
80

p r i m o r d l a3

b u d d h a h o o d j n a prafiual m a n n e r , o r perfect m a n n e r . both a p p r o a c h a e - -

i n a epontenc@l>?

a n d A t i y o g a l a t h e G r e e t P e p f e c t l o n underlying t h e goal itsel f.

2.

Compilstlon

o f t h e b K e * - l e ~ w n n - r n v u n and the m

-

ypyu.1-

* bum:
of theee t h r e e I n n e r c l s e e e s ip r e p r e s e n t e d i n tantra-texte-the BKal-*nu= and the the coq-

Each

~ i l a t i o n s of

a e c t e d

Tantra-s~fLhincludes a W Neae-gi by
n r

-

-

( F n v i n n - m a * i l l ~ ~ -u d . 'hum

Thn former ae

-

u e e c t l o n (T.

8 2 8 - 8 h h ) w h i c h m a y have.

dBang-fa clelms, bLo-nasl

dBu8-PB

b e e n I n s e r t e d d u r i n g t h e lflTh. c e n t u r y 52 S a n ~ r - r n v a e 'Bum. Therein the ~rincioal contained-- t h e T . 828) the

texts

refrepentjne each o f these categories a r e
Qf

BXCkB
which

_thg

All - A ~ c o m r l i s h i n nfSine ( W - b v d rPYal- OQ ,
af

e x e m p l i f i e s t h e M e n t a l Clarrs ( m - n d e )

Atjyogs,

SQtra
829)

~ h ~ r h

u

Lnsentiona ( m - 4 - u l-GathsFinn ~warcnsss ( U n - ' Q u a l

.
-

T.

a n 4 i t s ~ o o tt h e ~

rin-na.

T. 8 3 1 ) a l o n ~ i t h t h e w
330) which represent Anuyoga,
to t h e U a h b o g a class,

pL

SDlsndour ( y e - o h m
en3 s scrlee o f tantrae
832-868.

.

T.

belonging

v i z . 1.

on which Ere b c l a w ,

pp.

32-61.

Owine

to

the eecrecy of the rlying-ma tantrae, in the

which had

been

recognised Catalogue

early ninth century when the 53 was compiled. and in consequence of the

controverey

surrounding Ye-shes-'od

them In the eleventh century writings of Lha bLa-ma 5a and 'Go8 Khug-pa Lhas-btsae. these texts were, not Included in the kJh'-*nuyy. which was

with few exceptions. devised chiefly

as a compilation of later or new 55 The 7 in fact e w s : Because

tranelatfons.

of their great strictnees the inner tantras of

the

secret mantras are not here set forth.

Certain as

key texts representative of the rlying-ma tantrae

wePe.

we have already seen. and a

inserted in the b ~ a * - * a v at an early u (vole. these 82-83) tanti'as.

date.

the Peking edition of the b T n ' ; u sa-nvr substantial number of treatises on

conteins

Throuph the determined efforts of the Zur family, the bulk of the rlying-ma tantres were stored at the era '00-pa-lung in gTeang. which was the

main centre of rlying-ma activity in Central Tibet from

of Zur-po-che (lete tenth/ early eleventh century) until the 56 fourteenth century. Zur 1Zang-go UPel utilised the material resogrces. which he had obtained in the form of commiselons arid

gifts from the Mongol emperor Buyantu (r. Printing-blocks ancient incluc;ng its for

1311-1320). to prepare of the

twenty-eight doctrinal collections which were preserved at

translations tho

' Ug-pa- lung.
(T.
832 )
0

and

57 celebrrtmd commentary by ~ 1 1 P v a J r a .

the

so-called

sPnr-

printed students.

a
58

thousand

copies

of each until the

and

distributed

them

to the

Nonetheless.

fifteenth

century.

continuous few.

lineages of these rNying-ma tantras were

exceedingly

The various transmissions o f these tantras then converged in treasure-finder Ratna gLine-pa (1U03-1071). in Lho-brag.

the

a native of Gru-stlul quarters.
(~g&L!&k

He persevered to collect texts from all

including
-)

the abbreviated set of the

m J u Q Tantras

which was preserved at 'Ug-pa-la~ng, and he received.

with

great difficulty.

their complete tronzmission from the aged Meswho alone held the continuous

spom bSam-gtan bZang-po of RTsang.
59

lineage.

Later.

Rarna gLing-pa compiled the Collect-

Tantras

at Lhun-grub Palace in Gru-shul. and had new copies prepared. the earlier onee in ink. them many and the later onee in gold. continuity. He transmitted lineage was

time^ to ensure their

The

maintained by his elder son. Tshe-dbang Grags-Pa. continuing down
60

to the present in the following succession: Tshe-dbang Grags-pa (elder son): Wpag-dbang Grags-pa (younger son): Wgag-dbang Nor-bu ( g r a n d ~ o n ) : Nor-bu Yonpa-grage: rGyal-sras Nor-bu dBang-rgyal: Pad-glinp g S u n g - ~ 3 r u l 111. Tshul-khrims rDo-rje: Gar-dbang Tshul-khrirns rGyal-mtshan of Bon-lung; Pad-gling Thugs-sras IV. belan-'dzin ' ~ y u r - m e d rDo-rje: Rig-'dzin gTer-bdag sling-pa of SMin-grol-gling: Pad-gling gSung-eprul IV. Ngrg-dbanz Kun-bzang rDo-rje: pad-gling thugs-orae V. ' ~ y u r - m e d mchog-grub dPal-'tar: Pad-rnr Don-grub Grrge-pa; Pad-gling gSung-sprul VI. K u n - b z ~ n g bnTan-pr'i pGyal-mtehan: r8r-khr Kun-bzrng Rig-'dzin rDo-rje: Pad-gling gSung-sprul VIII. Kun-bzong bsTrn-pa'i Nyi-ma; rBr-khr Rig-'dzin Khuno-pmum Yong-grol; 0-rgyen Nun-grol rGye-mt8ho: bGe- 'dun rGye-mtrho; bDud-*jom8 *Jig#-bra1 Ye-mhmm rD0-rje.

Other Figures Connected with the Collectad

n :
61

Gong-ra LO-Chen gZhan-phan rDo-rje (1530-1650): Gong-ra Lo-chen was a student of Pad-sling gSung-sprul 1 1 1 Tshulkhrims rDo-r3e and mKhas-grub bLo-groe rgyal-mCshan and a teacher of gSang-bdag Phrin-las Lhun-grub. He prepared c o p i e ~ of
(

the on the and and

U r t e G
three

-aand of so the teaching. that his

-

-

--'bum)

occasions,

on two of them,

in consideration of Kham Kham

continuity Kong-po.

he sent those copies to both

t r a n s m i ~ s i o n penetrated

Central Tibet.

' ~ i g s - m e d gLing-pa

(1730-1798).

a native of 'Phyong-rgyas

and

student of dPal-ri monastery. of
-. )

is celebrated for his
pf

revelations (khnn-chm

the

lnnermast

SDiritualitv

kLC)I13-chen-DB

During the eighteenth century when, in conseouence t n e rNying-mh monastic been severely

of the incurgione by Dzun-gar-pa Monsols. centres dmaged, of
63

rDo-rje Brag and sMin-grol-gling had he made copies of all the tantras of t h e

rtdying-ma-pa

tradition which were to be found at eMin-groi-gling. some twentyfive volumes. and had the first five pages of each volume written 60 in ink made of the five precious subetances. and the remainder in black ink on a white background to
(-a-rhns).

H e was the first collection.

prepare a detailed catalogue and hietory of thie

entitled the - t i w e

HistPrv

pL

a PrefiDUB CDllected Tantrae
XUOrnuncnt

Pf

ms

a n c i e n t P S c h o P 1 :
(

J-muuim

m*pyYT -udd

@

--Cdverinp

. *Jigs-med gLing-pa's new redaction of the Collected Tantras subsepuentlY Ga-je-bza' waa carved on wcod-blocks under the patronage of Queen 66 Tshe-dbanp Lha-mo of sDe-dge. c ~ ~ ~ r i s e s of which vole. prepared an lndex for the sDe-dge xylograph edition. the Kah-thog dGe-brtse Pandl.u r u . lj in the Bodleian. Library (vol. 1-10 include the trntre-texts of Atiyoga. 11-13 include the afitra and trntrr-texts Anuyogn rnd vols. Copies of the celebrated sDe-lee xylo69 and catalogue are also to be found outside Tibet. ~01s. . All later compilers have relied on this ~ 3 t a l O g u ewhich la Included in the nine volumes of 65 h3..8 collected works.--... entitled. graph new the twenty-nine cf in 3 0 vclumes 33 which are housed in the 190U-5).ta 'Gyur-ned Tahe-dbanu mChog-grub.-med .4 r A c -. In 1797. Contains 18-33 include the texts of ~ r h i y o e n . India and the Office other in London (Waddell Collection.. thirty-six volumes. - -). Of .* d z m . Volume 3u gting-pa'8 crtrlogue. b k b nehPns-Da9k B P ZdQALh? ~ There is an extant manuscript of the rGyud u.t. a student of *Jigs-med =Ling-pa's 'Jigs-med main disciple end lineace-holder rDo-grub I.~ Y & 2 c s dG=n-sc b y r e g . vole. pertaining origin all^ to the aforementioned eDe-dge edition.. and a reprint of the -acted patronage TIntras was 70 prepared in 1973 under of Dingo Khyentee Rinyoche based on a ~ t . while v01~1ne8 35-36 *Jig. 67 Phrln-la8 'Od-zer..n mm .-- .). . 4a manuscript Dreaerv+d at g T i n g .

to this edition of the A modern Eiichi ZU~L~AE by 71 Kanrko haa boon published in Japan. Bhutancae e. however. an advanced study of the literature contained contribution to our know- in vo1s. are drawn. 73 esoteric practice%. voln. The texts of M a h b o g a : The texte of Mnh&yoga are divided into two classes-. the the latter (NGB.FW the orisinal nt.. of the since it ie wlrhin the ~ a h b o g a ~ ~ ~ ~ h a t n t t v ~ c e connection lat~r with category -m has been that the mrhatrntra cycle Atiyoga which fs to be found.tantrao ( m u b .g.w . m e The ) and mean6 for (NOS. At this juncture. p c u .13 would make a definitive ledge of Atiyoga and Anuyoga.l. vols. the rnuinn-ma'i variations. e. Volumen 31-32 a l q o contain the Panoral tantram ( rospoctivoly Particular with m ) and the tantrae 1 ( of tho aesociated l p r u b . from which the later cyclom of tho Eight .contain catalogue the index Of 'Gyur-med Tshe-dbang nachos-grub.* ~ Q u s k y Trans- a. attainment I&-19) fornsr compriae the exoteric corpus of literature from which 28-53).r-ml roconaion UA 1 ~ a . and others which contain considerable the IXLS B n r 72 OL and the manuscripts.u.w (revYd-sde/ dLdh4-j. The praaent research. In addition. will focus on the texts of Kahfiyoga. drawn deapite the by some Tibetan 3.. there are other extant compilations of the PNying-ma tantras 8ome of which correspond to eectione of NGB.

~ h YgrseP QL L k ~ p r n v a . B .~ L J F wud-ede-T?-. n p -k n a e . (u a = ~ ~ W R . xum BzunP . a g of on 78-75. 76 attributes. 20-22. end Vajramentrebtr¶ru/ D r a g . . NGB. speech.r n e f l Pbdud-rtaA yon-ten-PYi r g y u d . T.r g y a l a n d o t h e r s .w e ' irnvud-s4e D.t s h a b P a d m a r N a m . mind.~ g ) by K u k k u r l j a . T. m d dzonP h uchen-mo . 77-29).b s t o d ( N G R . 26.' (apyu-*~hrul m whom gee below. ~ h ' > r .n d e . v c l 30-31.b o d y . vol. - ma-mo ass-rnvud W * - a. 32.ma'i .c y c l e o P t e x t s t r a d l + i o n a l l y held t o have been oubdiviflefl f r o m t h e Hundred. c o r r e s p o n d i n g 75 t o t h e f i v e eupramundar\e m e d i t e t i o n a l d e i t i e e . pp. v o l . and g e n r r a l l t y aa follaws: . T.e n g a g s ~ ~ 0 1 32.~ b ~ .~ NGB. L o k e u t a t r a p Q j a / m c h o d .u d . n c t l v j t i e ~ .c h n n R e b - chen r O y a 1 . In t h e ./ V a j r e k u m B r a ( b r o m .' m dnal . 33. T h e iol l o w i n g three m u n d a n e m e d t t a t i o n a l d e i t i e p a r e a l s o lnclufled: M b t a r ? (ma. 'Jcljr8- mrta ( a . claaaifies t h e e l g h t e e n n c c o r d i n g t o b u d d h e . vole.r n m .Da 8 d . 883). 887).m n . viz. . v o l e . The m e a n 8 f o r s t t a j n m t n t h a v e f i v e m a i n Bectionfit. NG (NGR. The clase of tentrae ?t? o t h e r w l n e k n o w n 8s t h e e i g h t e e n tantra- ~ i t a k s eo f M e h a y o e a . 8118). Vol. 25). a besit. e n d Vajrakfla. . 881). NGB. NGB.r n w vole.a r u h chen- RUUu d .b r p u a d ) derive.mitted P r e c e p t s ( U a ' .. d u c ~ . T. D3Pferent enumeratlone thee0 trntrngitakau h a v e b e e n r e c o r d e d In t h e w o r k 6 o f k L o n e . T. YamBntaka ( .

h . t-e - RllPmadbmn-chan: t i . dPa'-bo gTsug-lag 'Phreng-ba.na'l W '-st=. pm - - - rnYud s u m : -- .l ' d . enumerates the eighteen differently.U . mkhaa.ud r s rn-Q&.n. but w i t h t h e same b a s i c e i x f o l d class- 77 ifi c e t i o n : .

839). T. T. 4112-3).The which sained acceptance from the time of pTer78 bdag gLing-pa onwards and which corresponds to the etructure of the Collectad Tlntrae ei: enumeration r-aa. (NOB.h . 18. (NGB. 17 : the five tantras concerned with means for attainment are vol. 18. T. T. 19). hzu&n vol. dm- - (MOB. and activities are respectively (NGB. 4 - 840). . T. vol. V O ~ . 181. vol. r k p 1 (NOB. and vol. - and inferred by bDud-'joms Rin-po-che. - To 830). 16. P87). vol. five tantras concerned with conduct are vol. ace rJhrrr-DIchu-plW1rn-m (MOB- voL. U vol. u .n (HOE. 12). 12. (NOB. U-'dzin- . 1177). attributes (NOB. 16. vole 17. is that given by Zhe- U m w J A s A U. (NOB. 18. rta-mchan -D& - (NGB. vol. 6). vol. T. T. 890). 366-7). 17. r l q - (NQB. hi (NOB. un n i.

and nlann-chen --*ban are (MGB. these systems o f enumeration in common give precedence to the GuhvaParbhrtlntra and its cycle o f texts. This is indeed suggested in the name basic tantra from which the eighteen w e r e n D u t c d l y subdivided. (WGB. and tne single tantra which summarises all the others is W a n a r b h a (WGB. 832-837). *va-b 066) and thrbs-kYi- vol. whether it 1 s c l a ~ e i f i e d ao general tantras tantra (-) . . 19. ( known as the the u v u. 19. 8 3 5 ) . 8). vol. T .. t h e general tantra among general which all s9ui-rnuud).* D W ). supplementary tantras (NGB.(NGB. All. the two vol. vol. the others . 1C-16.( or - the - single tantra sunmrarises wud-aPf bndus-don Lta-Lu*l of the a). T. vols. 19). T .

and A hictorical with a3 t literary a references to agecific texts the the cycle are found in the Tun Hurng manu5cripts. Among =Nubschenr6 compositions there is reported to have been a in an zhs R li l i n elrtp QfMe E1amY c-- nmPicrl nsx =-cal-pr*i provide the what s) shich i o ( a w u. Early connected - 1iCeraturu by E.r w m gLing-pa (1323-c. Y a r m r y has indicated. well as writins6 of gNubs-chen Sangs-rwas Ye-shes and Rong-zom 81 Chos-kyi bZang-DO. various M a * .G. it would merit the attention given to the Conze nnd othesr. 0 . pa This moat sionificrnt cycle of the rnying-maienored 80 oral tradition ham until recently been yet by western scholars. are perhaps and to eightfold fourfold --uCrvntPlw m extant (Dndan 8ource attributed to P l.m b' t --mn).w ) references Yap-rje recenmionm of the m m & (w the earliest specific The divisions. ?he he .- Cycle: cycle of texts to which belongs the .*DhPul 82 The no longer eui-vives.v t t m comprlaea both an eightfold and a fourfold division. 1360) contains the following 83 Utatement: --h~ r-r-rua -w u * u -b - brrvld: . an S.h.

Sanss-rws6 providea division 85 text: ling-pa (1300-1396) in his ua*-of 7 .m t m h u r (1552-1621). have boon accoptod by lator himtorIan8 d~r*-bo sTmus-lrl: 'Phrons-br much . bzlos-pa blo-grom W r l . the eightfold of each the Sollowing comvlete enumeration the of W. and Lo-chon Dhrrrakrl . r (1501-1566). ao. sisnificantiy. in the enumeration of the m d U comenSoe- to ttr. indicatine the emphasis This.The 4-w 6 - text additionally ammertm that the eiehttold diviaion of the Prdramubhava cycle himeelf the up with 80 tranmlator8 mKa-ba dPrl-brtmeea m d 1Ca-ero kLu*i rOya1-mtshan.

-tnn-n& pdo-p*r r neb.a set o f f o u r exege*lcal +anYras ( U p d rnuud - .. m h s . which do not carrespend t o t h e so-called snuu- m. 2.Qzrll-bcu-*a: c x u P ~ Y u . MOB. --char stan-=a rdq-r'c w-lox: 3.ion o f t h e -\I- The ttsndnrd 4s that Prom of given by hjs klong-chen Rob-'byam8-pa in t h e f o l l o w i n e passage -b This c ~ .: B I.r l * 1 -ha. reveals namakly. dPa*-bo. ' ~ h r usbt-btM 8.'Phrul.n v i n btnn-nfi y e . pol -be mh&Ea uw - u 3 .~ aa m . 86 p r i m a r y r e x t s in t h e followlne terms: describes t h e s e eight 2. 19) w h i c h extoneivrly r e v e a l s t h e rlturl .r n --nu& e t o n . m k h r 4 3 -*-stpll.ch- . m?il-@w ton-pb P. van-tm mthar-vhuln-nar a n . --ku-D*: * ~ h r u The same a u t h o r a l s o prevlde. s i n . V o l . enumeraf. LLU Pi 166.s h e . .. a11 thing6 nrnical flaf eatombra and nIrvCna the to be aelf- nrrnlfe+tlng (1.D a E * . a n 8 lndivi6ible.at1 .I (165P-1717). namely: I. ~ ~ ~ 5. e? -1-lam a m . aUne #trn-bnr 6. of and already lmpljed In t h e writlngs 83 Yar-rje 0-rtyan gLlnp-pa: (cycle the the of ) also comprise8 Four which sections.* D ~ ~ - m-.

vol the 14) which reveals the the m t v . Vol. (T. lkt ( 7 . 836. the Einht-XhmW -CAIreveal6 the mandala: (NGB. M ~ K ~ BLLf (NQB. the Jnrtv-rhrpt9r nnnicnl (NGB. NGB. NGP.C E W U a A IP%tL (T. 10) which perfectly reveals enlightened activity. the VoL. 836. klong-chen Rab-'Oyuoa-pa additionally claims that the w u . the erpowerments. the glorious itaelf comprises eight eections. 14) which clearly reveal6 Vol. 15) which clearly reveal. 832. to be 16) which reveals mind and pristine cognition manifest in and of themselves. Vol. vol. 15) which clearly reveals A L the path of skillful moans.. NGB. 15) which clearly raveals the d i y ' et.activity and feast-offerings: the WIpiCil &UL Qf U. 15) which all-pervasively reveals the vehicle. NGB. 833. Vol. 837. 16) which extensively attributes. and the the Qccrnic nnnicll the creation mtage.e C)6ddaee (T. 15) which actually revealm the displru of reality: and the (T. 360. IG9. and symbolic hand-implements: Vol. reverls enlightened (T. body-coloure (NOB. Vol. Vol. nirrPr pjL Indcatrutiblt Rsrlitv HOB. Vol. . commitments as supreme. llef (NGB. 111) which P9rfeCtlV the WIpFCrl .' p h r u l bde-brw is 8 subclassification Of the Wanicrl &C$i Q f -. The 89 providing us with a different enumeration: m namely.

i n and v h i c h i ma14 t o r e v e a l a11 t h l n g m to bo r a n i t e m * . far entlrr re-tion ROB. The d e t a i l e d c o n t e n t 6 o f t h e t h r e e v e ~ c i a n ~ t n particular a r e g j v e n i n t h e t a b l r r which the of the and follow.m.-pa -'-D Sangs-~gyse So(-b~log-pa gLine-pa. 1-611 the cycle. 22.p a an3 dPae-Do *?mug-leg. I&: I.-d. aI*hough t h r e e o f t h e l e t t e r a r e h e l d t o be kLong-chen-pa and a n o t h e r two a r e he16 +o be The a b y Bangs-pgyac g L l n g .m ) i n NriB. thm~s*lves aC I t l .' o U ~ubstltuting ar f and t h e e-w.- yda-CjJ a. ammianm t h a to tho Ihr- w u . w m . c 4 srnv hm-l - - ).of the t e x t 8 I n c l u d e d t n t h e r l g h t f o l d d i v i m i o n b~ and l a t e r by & P a q .n ~ n i t e 8 t 2 n(~ t . and The tentre-text8 two of thir wu-'ntLCIl.0-chon Dharmabrq. along w i t h a aubrtanPia1 p o r t l a n t h e y a r e assangod roat of volume 16 end one t a x + I n volume 19. Chr. kLong-chmn Rab-'byam.9 r .ESKU. V O l . pp. voJ*rme 111. ~ n t d i The b a t j c t a n t r a o f - . I&-15). to include @a a3 t h e t e x t 8 a c c e p t e d h y b a t h system@ a@ tantsas ( r t s a . o r *a r e v a r l m i n d and p r i m t i n e c o ~ n i t j o n o b o 8 o l f . v o l e . and r t b h j e c t sl t h i m r o r a s r c h .L u d ncw e~t8nt c y c l e which a r e compriac c o m p l e t e valumecl o f t h o qL {HOB. and t h o c c r a g r r d r d as e r e g s + i c a J t e n t r a s i n volume Foot-tantram mat-tantrau by 1 5 .h o ~ T u u g . them t h r e e e x r g c t j c r l t a n t r a m . with b r i e f risurnd o f each.nlz .l a g 'Phrmng-ba. bnd 1. along titles a f these e x t a n t t a n t r a s a r e l i s t e 3 below. t h e T i h e t e n r h a p t e r t i t J e m and p a g i n a t i o n n a y be f n u n d f n Kaneko'm catalogue.

~ l y y ' ~ Viralusitra and alyaga - Ch8. in aupport of the Ch8. 67-317. of two verrion are camoarre9 with lonear ver8ions in the taDlec balow.h a ' A Thi8 intemediate - empha818ea anlightened activity. - Q0 ). 46. the I Sea below for a com~ari8onbetworn i. 6 9 . .6 7 : for re^. tranalatrd by sWyage JAinakuaira and r)ta Rin-ehen mChO8 followlna the 3nrt~uetion of Vimalaaitra. enerqy inotructionr on 8earinal p~inta of (m) and 91 the puritisatlon tho cowonant8 Tr8nllated by ~ f i b U s 4 ~ b h a and lot8lwa Vairocana.Aha r l l. 5. and vital . 4. 9 9 . the tablo b O & ~ w . r n l . t chapter6 of the 82 chamtact en8 tW@nty-two f by trntrr in tabular fore. It8 n m d a l a I8 that . .m&?haaiaer the deoendence of all attainrant8 on the unique tudaha-body. . Tranmlatmd Jll&nrkurira. It8 4 6 chapter8 . 2. Ch8.~yu-'- Prtyad-hcw. 8i8@8 the lens v e r ~ i o nof the rrrnr-br'i .r .ca a180 outlined in . 3. @aQhQ- This... of the and fifty-eimht wrathful deities corpilation8. pp. the vpoda!ctien 1 -( 01 the mandela. 82. 317-1158 len8th ~ . ep. cola- The detailed ccntonta to* h. Thiu text.nuint-p9.m r oeetaful forty-two brated in later of thi8 ahortar (-j. the enli8htened sttPfibut@8 lyan-tm) O? buddhrhood.

the external and 92 wat aeerot rrvmlation burn% o f thm r m d a l a . o t ~ u c t u r e t o those of a . - absorption of fho moat 8ecrot r m b a l a urd -velation Of its hisher contorplativo irases. 015-5L9.lmstlrl palace (1 -. ovmr lonaavity. . vol. tho eonatruetion o f mtOpa8. the absorption in the seal of t h e inaub- buddha-body. 16. in the ite their rapture which a r e inexhaustible adornrente. These of the the gatheping of ail things in t h e expanoe conmoPt. and the t h e presence of t h e aeed of reality S n a11 bainqa differsncea of intslligence.I 5. sathasins all thine8 in thm arpurmm. (- the attainment of Vajramattva. tranafornation Q? all thins8 Into by the wrathful deitism and purification cognition. guctory a describes in its introand chapter z h o gathering of all m i r a t 0 creatures ~ I inanimate things of the ten d i ~ e c t i o n sm d four tirrs in the Great Identity. . and and the cyclO8 o f buddha-body. the gmphasiaing commitments. r e m i n i n g chapter8 closmly cor-rpond and th$rfy-two titlos. tho emanation of t h e seala. mind Then.Cha. the e. @atharint . content. d i 8 c l o 8 u ~ eof eovopt 8yrbols through macraactivitiee asaociatmd with the seals. at. the fire of their grimtine with the tho further ritual a e ~ v i c e roaociated wrathful deitios..r l p concern female 8tanti. 94 elumta. 33. raking of rmdicino/ olixir -1. tho twenty-on.' ww. aents and m n r . up.l PQ-b* 'i rnvud in WQB. attainment e f )(rhQdevr and of tho mandala of t h o four 93 turrdiana. u v u .d i 8 ~ l u r o f 8pirituality = = the power offeringf# raoociated w i t h t h e Sour ritrm.. speech.

. m d the plessing o f t h e - .of and the sr-atnemm m d rind throughout tho ten bubblu-a-ch mubjugation of demons buddha-bow. the mpoech of Oirectionm. ~LP. d deals with the conferral of clu8ion 6 . cloud-like buddhawr6thful .. B L p h ~ 8 i ~ i nempowerment. in levels. Chs. pp. u n d a l a.*DM - . thie text teaches union with emanation of the the Great of Perfection. a bliss. t h e u e r g e n c e of the mandala of luddha-body. basic 8 ancillary commitents. emanation of the m a . plea8inc the through the -.. epaech beitlee.rpouerrrnt. ble - - .. . and it8 secret Mntroe. 5 7 2 . Che.. Emphrsisirrg natural undala the mandala. 13. . mandala dimcipline mecret c o r r i t m n t m and conferral of throush c o r p u s i o n . the emanation & abmorption of the mandala .e. clarification o f f-amt-offerincm. . 8. the attainment of the nature of rind in the non-dun1 disgomition of expanse m d pristine cognition. t h e vision of Vajrasattva. the most mecret accomBliehaent. explanation the of the c o m i t m e n t s . 589-571. g this text concerns the recognition the superior met-et of the e x p m m e and primtine cognition .. wrathful deitiee and o f t h e mandala oP .. conmort).6 3 8 . critnnta. PB.YU * D aoaociated with t h e feast-offerings o f the the cornitrent of offering. an .. mandala Woeom and t h o in48atructiblO . el. and the the tantra conby conmitment8 which ~ 8 8 0 C i ~ t ewith the seals. 4.of the perfectione. apyu . mkillful H a n s and buddhafields In S u r n t r b h r d r a and intellipcnce m d phenomena (1.

r t6th6a6t68.thbrt+8. mecret yog6 6 a s o c i 6 t e d w i t h t h e body. ~ 1 1 & ~ o c u r 6 t i o n 6 n ~ e l @ t i o tn i t .and t h e supreme b l i m s o l b o d h i o 6 t t v 6 s who have t h e e s s e n t i 6 1 95 instructlone.*. 1-96. pp. spetch 8nd r i n d o l a l l ollering the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o non-du@litv. rho p6nc. operah. diecusfea t h e a m d a l e o l t h e t 9 t h f g 6 t 6 a and t h e remov61 . t h i s exegetic61 tantr6 o l o l mph6618ing the dimploy o f c e @ l i t v . mrnd. Ch6. the e e c ~ e t ~uddha-body. . 8. b y . urd the to thr d i @ o r s r i n @ t i o n f t h e f o u r o orctions of .h gt . ouvr-e a c t l e ~ l n g oC r e a l i t y end c o ~ ~ p 6 s s i oo l 611 t h e ~ n 8 m u m t i o n o r t h t w r a t h f u l tt & . which p l e a s e t h e supr- vow o l 6ecret b l i s s 6asocirted w i t h a l l t h e tsth&gates. t h e wheel o l p r i s t i n e the which r e v o l v e 6 l ~ me OecPet n a t u r e o l 611 th t h e U ~ C P ~ B m o n l t h o 8 r 6opect6 which p l e a o r t h e t h e w n d 6 1 6 which i o r e c r e t n a t u v e o l a11 t h e t a t h & a t a s . WU- * .. 13. o i o the b l i s ~ l u cycle l . I r e a t u a t h e v i n s o f Chr Ii8Fukas u o n s a l l t h e t 6 t h h a t e m . t h e be61 n a t u r e o l o f l e r i p s s t h o i n c o n c r i v a b l r p u r i l i c a t o r y deeds o l p l l the t a t h 4 . the secret . undo&. cognitios C. uong o r 611 t h e t e t h f i g e t a s . t6th&gatae. 611 t h e t 6 t h i g 6 t 6 8 ..

. . topics throush 360) in i. Its ( m . the MasicaL Not. 119-3102 m1i e U~~pholiming tha immediate attainment accordins to the oi liberation path and ( m Etr At8 ) or the -( coloupa m ~ m b o l i c hand-im&lement8 oi tho buddha-body -1. rfilightaned attributes and mantra. concern the enliahten*d P u i l y . pg. enlightened ritual8.. with emanation oi the iivr manifemt awakrning mind.fm Chs.. mandala. the radiance of the areat meal. ~0ntemVlati0n. 8pesiiic co~mitmentm. 13 * root-text. anlimhtened eulo8iea ammociatad primtina cognitbonm. -rr. mmpowerment. errur reveal8 the five ampectm oi meminal the e u r @ e n c e or opirituality and the cycle oi my11able8. epentanaeur Jhhakumlra. Tranmlated by Vimalamitra and gNy-8 ~ V h a 8 l m i n g the gradual ampect oi the path 97 oi liberrtion (u mit *enliahtened mindn.rhi. 10. and activity. pi %ha l m u pL H@UbS later trurmlation.attainment. ond duct. a180 known a8 the 7. eert.-dnab -drrhr- m . conmecration oi awa~eneem or mecrat mantram. primtine cognition. t Mphami8e8 the cohemion oi a11 the pitalcam or vehiclom. uremence. the oi the meal8 or mupreme bli88. tovicm l ~ c l u d e the view.

feast-~fCerings. T r a n s l a t e d by gNuba- . t h o m e without . 22..' ~ h r u Emphssising means ( r R V 8 . 339-420: the immediate aspect o f t h e path of sklllful ( w e b - cin-char) o r text concerns the the creatton five stage of u). ~1. 3 .m . 621-538: Emphssising t h e gradual aepect of t h e p a t h of skillful m e g n s ( rim-a it c ~ n c e r n a the the vfew of flve aspects 3f seninel wenlightened minda.r g y a ~ Ye-shes (rDo-rje Yanp-dbang-gter). the descent of pristine c o ~ n i t i o n .i s th aenlightened emergence thelr 09 the aspects seminal the wlth mindu. the e s t a b l l e h i n g of all things.8warenass. '99 secret centres. nature speech throuch attelnment aerns. s p e e c h and mlnd alone with their c o n s c c ~ n t i o n e .. and t h e secret mandala. chen S a n g r . Chs. its s e c r e t mantras. the path o? t h e eecret vehicle. mlnd mandala^ o f buddha-speech e n d . emergence o f the indestructible wrathful n a t u p o in body. aeans. u 2 6 . gel?-manifeet akjllfu? -enthree Ggpsarciice o? conismpla+lve images through the liwhtened mindw. e m p o m m e n t s . actual skillful means. Che. T r a n s l a t e d by Vfmelar i t r a and S N y a p s Jfi&nakuaars. t h e pIbactice 98 of t h e f i v e impuri+ies. great skillful and mind. d i s c i p l i n e i n t o t h e aecret path of skillful skt1lPul entrance aeanr. of rwarmnestl. Pp. the mandala of . and s p o n t a n e o u s rites. 12. anuw-'bhrul --baei m. e x p a n s i o n a? t h e commitnente. c a n s e c ~ a t i o n s .. syonta- neous presence. relt-manifesting of the buddha-body. W U . pp. t h e eecret meaning.

T r m m l a t m d W Viulrritra gNyrga Its topics include the rind which e m r e e m according t o its sonnmctlon with the mandala. ConQdmForm o f thm oamt a yo+inm of thm premmnt who a m libmratmd through mkillful n m a .ult orimtinm coenitlon of the 8mrla. phmn-na thm muinal oointr. thm ai teaching. emcrmt tmaehinem.mano who arm unlihratmd. the chaotmrm and thi8 corr~e8oond in wu-'- mtructuzw t o thoae of the a. thm *me-t objmctm. of in 8mn. Trmalrtmd concmalmd and cnragr Vi-lamit~a A180 mntitlmd. . thm natupal mandala. a m. thm . . of a dimclplinm thins.. thm pur. unerlencm of conduct m d thm by . comitaenta. which havm a l n r d y bomn mv-rrsimmd. thm ruraala of wrathful dmitima. mnlishtonmd activity. ~ m t a b h a d rm d conmort).e-orcur8 intmlligmncm and atability and and and in eathmring (- S ~ .. attainment.. QAr of titlm -11 tmxt w u -*- w nurbmr.

Thi8 M text $8 rl8o known as the aKruk . offerinrm. m a r moot vlauin8 aulow. - -mael 0 - rtpbp ~ u d .16. and mault. 18. mi8 text in rlmo known u avr-Qa - l v r-l Du m d I8 also extant a8 a later. -ub- 17. Ita topics - -. natural eXDrmS8ion. rttrinrrnt on of primtine oerlo. 8 DD. Tranmlrted Virrlraitrr an8 Vrirocmna. Instruc%ions.u r ~ v u d .. -a-rn --DO-P=~ -VIA-'- w - k & r r . the wrathful aeitieB the net of emoteric who suixlue thought. translation 166). undrlr. -rnvinr-W - 138-1L2. ky 142-147. unfoldIra8 of tho offerins VFistine the cognition of the recret mantras. A - frsgment. the path cWcl* of wrrt?.Ch6. it8 h~h~iminr rituals m d feastentrmce. pp.. Rin-chon bZane-po (T. vp.r = . the auie8cence of reality. the tne of t o v i c ~ concern the grrdual conterglrtion. rttrinrwnt through .* a w a - m. v r L . ground B concern cruse 6 condition. 147-163. . - u v u-'nhrul m. secret arntru. cognition through the wditrtion oalishtrned rind. .n p y p d m - - - v u . the rbmorption of =round.lul exorcism.

82. 10-13. a * i PP. A. . r b ' --*r l l . Ch. - . 8 -U-'- s r b t -u - - - PP. pp. 321- Ch. 89-90: .u 80- = e . 323-325: C. 7&. 86 and 2 2 chapters. 328-331.Da a - -bYi hyaiu=chub-bui remr. m.~ B. Ch. .Table Short Comparing the Chapters of the Long (A). nui-ehu -*=-t. - 70-73: = B. pp.~ a * i Ch. pp. Ch.n D a . -. pp.-?$: = B. 73-71: = W p d . 84-87: = 8.. Ch.-a - - - = xQ&D*dML - - .pp. % c 3 d . chs.pp. pp. pp. ~i-ne'i 84: . ntdium (B) and ( C ) Versions of the e m d which rekpectively have 82.lo T + khema m. 67-31?: Ch. 9 n l . 78-80: B. pp. * u. r u - nrr . 326-328. pp.* pu hl 1 pp. C. & a--ahAD - -Da*i m. 6 u. * pp. 335-336- PO. pp. pp. 13-16. 5 ehoP w c r c l J . 11.pp. 6-10. 87-89: = 8. rpyU pp. 7 * &wil-*kh9r u. 67-70: = B. 323: C.~ a ' i 1 & ~ pp. voL. pp. 317-320: C. 331-333. Ch. are contained in I G B . 333-335: C. 2-6. 2 nlenr u. - R. 320-321. 17-18. pp. pp. pp.ri b d .

Ch.351-353. m.gyi = . 20 -27-32. pp. chPa t r -n h l e crd a n -r i m : i. pp. 18 spuu-'phrul-~RbL&&--le(u. 99-101: -11-1- - pp. 21-24. 21 355: W . 123-126: - . 90-93: = B .~U u C. Ch. - J U L i ULu. C.3 & & . = 8 . 3&6-351. 118-121: Be Pp. * 21-27.n 15 . eu 8.Da * 95-97: = 8. 97-98: bvin pp. e -a n n S l'. 338-300.~ a ' I'.b . 3 6 2 . Ch. u O . 16 a S i l PP.2. 18-21. ! ~D. Ch. 105-111. 13 dkyil. 300-311. - gaar.* m f X . 110- 316-351. 12 21-26. ~dn-rir bkod 118: = B . = B. Ch.* h . ir u C. Ch. eu B. 11 93-95: dkU&-~a*ithrbr = B. - 27-32. - - 121-123: . Ch. . pp. - = B. VV. 17 . rrr. 10 --*m~r~pyom& 336-338. 10 dPn d r a a Q Q l. C. d r ~ . yyum rpyd nsunn n i . pp. d m . C. U DR. pp. 101-105: 306-366.ba * il ' . pp. 22 = O -PA. pp. pp. 111-11: Ch. Ch. PD. UuB . Ch. DD. C. pp. PP. * w. L P C.b 6 . 32-38. 380-382: pp. n - - -m 98-99. pp. pp. Ch. 353- Pp. pp. .* - * m. pp. pp. OD.* khor PP. PP. pp.t e h-i n u. 19 Ch.* i khl.

= 8. pp. .m 130-133: Ch'. -D e ' i 41-02. Ch. C. pp. C. - ~ u il8md pp. aRxhrnamUaZ EQX'os Dm - : MJUbrC. PP. le'u. pp. tahone --~a'i 360. 146-108: = B.3 7 3 : Ch. pp 37-38. -n a 'f 148-151: = PO. 151-153: = B. PP.i y 153-157. Ch. pp. I C. - ' u. khro-bo*A 3aAmu chen - neunnvil pv.pp. eY PB. Ch. 8 - aclron_ - U. PP. 8 i . 360-362. wbo B. 136-137: = R. 3 5 5 . U. i l - ' u . pp.Fpya --'- m. pp. Ru&pal_i 133-135.3 6 4 . ru . pp. - - - -~a'iI ' .Da - Ch.iI B.pp. pp. pp. 129-130: = B. 3 6 2 . --DO*& C. 373-375. 357-359. C. 34-37. 51-52. 42-51. Ch. PP. Ch. . PP. pp. h -y n o n . mir~~fl-~a'i 135-136: = B. pp. l'. 52-53. PP. - 38-bl. - 137-146: = B.3 5 7 Ch. 364-365. pp. 378-379. m d b u* . 3 5 9 - C. 3 6 5 . 126-129: = B. PP. -a-bo'i u. DP. pp. 375-378.

. 168-173: 8. 40 u.n r a .' ~ t r r urbDn-cf' ~ A r l = R a Z bzunn-aa l L~SLUfl-rtel ~11.-r. 03 181-152.b z i p - le'u. ph. pp. 00 &a-baqi w u - q P - -a a -hya -ba'i l ' .k v i W i n .h a q Ch. chen-Da baed -in - Ch- 35 pp. 173-176. 39 ~ u .s . r U ' b ~ u u ~ Ch.-ha'i - Iply. p p . t l b h l - -' d - a -wip ~ 187-190.~ n r m a%-bani Ch. 30 157-159. eu pp. ~ o ' Ch.bua -hA.lr 167.pp. 07 W U * D ~ U. 176-181.. ypn-tan ch. s m a n . 05 ~ u - l ~ . Ch. vp.- Zbrs .pa.~ eu ' a h r u 182-186. q l'. 38 ydo.D a q i l ' . . p p . eu Ch. 380-385. w d e ndun- . 4 1 de b h n n s h e . pp. p p .Ch. b zeh a- 167-16&. wil159-160. - 165- Ch. -1 a chan-pa - .D a q i u.p p . pp. 4 2 - u.!A Ch. 0 6 I ' . cu - 186-187. zhes.

pp.hamL JLu-0. pp. 51. pp.'i - u. pp.3 9 8 . 57 393. 206-219: 54 srua mams-cad . 222-22&: = 8 .b a ' i khrn . Ch. B. drpp Ch. 3 8 5 . 392- = B. 2 2 6 . pp. 3 9 6 .- - - d %hi-b. 387-388. Ch.b a ' i u. Ch. 60 .b o - khro - = meEsbvonna 1 389. - C h .m a d m s u m-W a - FtSB-hB b+ l n m m d w . .a c d . pp. PP. 09 50 kka' -drin &an. p p . . . 390-392. p .3 9 6 . 5 . 58 hPma evi.. PP 193-196.a= B. 203: B. 52 203-206: Ch. 18 ahin-tu 'dul-har pyur ~A.2 2 6 : Ch.p a h a d -.DQ homa.~ a ' iU .w221: = B. a.pp.1 9 9 .3 8 7 . 219-220: = B .2 2 7 : Ch. . 51 mchod-ebuln 379-380.W u pp.Ch. e r Q B 'l pp.~ k ' l . 228- Ch.PP. C. Ch. 389-390. 221-222: m. 199- 203. 3 9 5 .pp. U . 2 2 1 . Ch.a . bh. pp. pp. = B. p p . p p . PP.ba we . 1 9 6 . 5L-56. 3 8 8 - h o m a . 53 = U t a n ~ a 'i - uh. pp. 5 6 B h i D d n s t n n . . a& p.pp.pp. 227-228: = 8. u.bax b n u . i pp. *n-DU bud-med u . u. C. 393-395.!A U. 59 -11 -M mwal -mdzlld ULXML -no'i = B.

230-237: = €3. 398-1100. 1106-1109. . = 8. r - Ch. P P . 611 $she-'1 pp.F prft-w hehadY ~ 251-2511.p L L L u. 67 eku'l 2113-21111.m~ pat- bnrop- u.n u 'd"s-*ar u.p p . 71 m U . p p . Ch. .~ n l . pp. 73 .b m & u e . Ch. hO11-106. pp.bb-~*'i Ch. 69 70 - u pp. 58 m .~ a ' i -k ~ i - % : u.cu .t u &fa-beVi Q a P P a -n r u b B o b .p p . 72 d a k Z a h k s u m . 62 PP.n a b c u dann: $a-hru-danpL fk mchon-denn: fSYi zhinP me-lugr - Yfd-cvuls m e . ' h r k o - r&um~=Ua p e bua . 2511-278. Ch. O 1102-0011. 236-239: 2311-236: d.PP. Ch. pp.6I p ~ u b . pp.kyil-'khmwes-na'i ma=. c.P P . 63 -na'i ~. pp. P m e @ . 21111-2117. 57-59.' k h a ' ' PP. t E m m u b .m a r * bus_ba Ch - iIfl-ll. pp. 65 66 le'u.~ a W u b .D Q --~a-dbnP: & ~ Q . '1eVu.p f n gw 009-1113. Ch.h e - 1 u. ~ F Y . 267-2118.LhhZ nal_i m.~ ~ ' ih ' m p . 239- 243: Ch.p p .pa sh-n-no bzhf'i dbyi). 228-230: = 8.d yr h v f n . 800-1102. pp. -bin tu-bann-ba 'i leru. = 8 .~ e ~lnh-pq -em-bua-ba'i m. 232-2311: = 8. cno-ne = B. 2118-251. u b . p p . p C n .

22. 9 . 1 r a b . 31. 11. wrathful deitiea. 33-50. 2. 33-39. twelve of the f o m e o (Ch8. 305-314. 413-414. ch. 78 Ch. DO. 80 y n s r 9 n _ u - . 81-82).* -ba 2 OD.. 2627) but forty-mix of' the latter (Ch8. 17. differ far 1888 in their vrementation of . 81-50. 00.pp. DO. 60-61. 81-82) rnd the shoot veroion omits only 67-78.316.. 338-315: R.. Of the 82 chapters of the longer vereion. 81 Ch. 26) but thirty-one of the latter (Chs. 7 . 79 . . 14-15. 53-60. 17. pp. 59-60. 5. -ga'i Lpfy. pv. while all t h r * ~ the ~perceful . the fiost 28 concern the mandala of peaceful deitiee and the remainder the mandala of .ma ' Ash. t Vep8ionm fullemt exprrmmion. of the foomar (chs. Ch.pp. The intermediate vermion omit8 onlv three 18. 82 C. 62-78.a l ' i w. C..ty u-nyur-ba * 316-317. w a s . 20. DD. 77 303-305. I ch.i Ch. snvud - - rhinn. h l h - 415. xt im thorefooe in the longer vermion that t h r mandala of wrathful deitirm reachom i. - ctlar u. 315-316: B e 00.

versions whether the ?h~-+er w e r e abridged from t h e longer t o facjlitati= ~eci+~tlon and memorl eat1 on. thjs summit kingly and g l o r l o u ~ H U h Rc. AccoP~I~SIY. MOB. o r whether t h e precedence t ~ a d t l onall y 01 ven l to the shortes+ I s valid. pp.= e l as : Qf . BEBL !T- -832) klong-chen #ah1@ J c-crct JJucI-u -- + h e furthest trsns- t h e s o u r c e o f all literary misajons.Dcct b o f 013 vehlclee.mandala. . which !r consldered To be t h e barlc text o f t h e cycle. . However It le difficult a? t h s prcsent time to m a k e reliable assertions regarding t h e h i a t o ~ l c a l statug 100 of these version8 with rcepect t o each other. the Oreat short-cut o f t h c v e h i c l e o f a11 braddhar OZ t h e t h r e e tlmea. 1-61). teaching-cycles such as t h e . uol. And * Ju Mi-pham ~ N s m . Among Secret them t h e prese3t study concerns t h e . T. 832. I & .b c a u a m a h B t m . and t h e most eecret o f all.e With BLpncct SQ m Real (nelnn b * * l - 3attvavLnj.r ~ y a iln hj* W 102 * ad-- elaborates: It I known from l l t e r a ~ y ~ o u r c r athat "tantrsr ape t o be known In comparison with o t h e r tantrasa. t h i s . the on t h e majority analagy of of practitjoners. It w a s t h e short version whlch w a s moet assertion guarded tha+ t h e fully elaborate wrathful r l t e s w e r e corefully and not c o n s i d e ~ e d advantagcous f o r One could also speculate. 'byarns-pa s p e a k s of it in his ohvaPa m . Slpnlficantly.e a t QL W Deiinit1Y.

the general cormentary on l i t e r a r y trmamisaions. . appropriate upiration are v a c a n t r a a l i f c l e a a c o r p s e . of and m e d i t a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e u n a u r p a a a r d u n t r a m l a a unique gematone of the three worlda inaamuch as it gualitativrlv e a t a b l i s l s s t h e i n t e n t i o n m d m o r n i n g of the e n t i r e v e h i c l e of i n d e r t r u c t i b l e r e a l i t y .u t r d i t i o n t h e r e f o r e regards t h i s t e x t mental or tantra. all t m t r a a .p e a r s those texts t o be t a u g h t o u t s i d e % h i 6 t a n t r a . minute instruction profound verse i n d e 6 t r u c t i b l e r e a l i t y i n t h e m a n t r a . therefore no emsential Point which .t There $6 intention t h e tath8gata.great view t r n t r a w h i c h c o m p l e t e l y d i a c l o m r s the enoentlrl.8. the all all teachings.m a tmtra-tertm ne dealrrble object of 6ophirtcy to mstiafy t h e prPcreaB a of o n e ' s own i n t e l l e c t . mource of I t l a t h e k i n g of It i m t h e f u r t h e t a t a u n i t o f a l l v e h i c l e s . the 1% a i t h a t f o r t u n a t e b e i n g s who pom0s6m supreme ahoulb e v e n et o f t h e v e h i c l e o f indestructible r e a l i t y exposition earnestly attend t o the o f a u c h trntrar. md t h e great s h o r t . which on have each been cuhly md Knwing t h a t eiving of com~osed. t h e c o a t of t h e i r own bodism o r o f l i f e i t a a l f ! The r l y i n s .o. W h a t h e r i t i a i n t e r p r e t e d am x ~ i a s t it.c u t o f a l l buddhne. attributes of i t i n endowed w i t h t h e w o n d r o u r c n l i a h t e n a d of all greatneam w h i c h are t h e g e n u i n e 1nnepl. funda- ~ W O I L O u m A t i y o ~ a mource.

Structured Content. Title and Introductory Words e ) The Pmacvful Mandala: i . Generation of Ultimate and Relative Enlightened UInd -( Prletine Cognition b v m n - Ch. 1 2 ?he Introductory Scene -( - * 1') py ao Ch.' m 7 Ab8e~ptAon of . While klong-Chen Rae-'byus-pa presents a mliehtly different account in Pbrann-hcu r -n u (mat below p. the following ernera1 etructure 1s obmerved by most bkl'-rr cornentatore.Ch.I 5. 513). - * U) the Mendrla and the Secret W u r t r u (m . 3 The L8tablishment of A11 0ha-u (w s a J u n u B p f . n P rn - Qaa2mQrLh - -1 the w i c a l Met ( m u a. 6 Cb. which have been outlined abovm. twenty-two ) chapters ground. P'I ' ) li ru k cyclical Arr- of the 0mr1-d of Syllables (Yi-nl' h . Contamplation tbat Attrinm -* D ~ U banatLon of the W d a l r ( p k y i l . or the The underlying structure of the Smtra*. 5 Ch. cor~rspondm to the three continua (~ul - of the path and result.

oby of W P ~ t h f u lDoitior (h@a-haeL . the Oreat chrn-~o*i Ch.~ a ' U . dlcvil-'LhPr &h) . 13 Nucleuu of Maat Secret Laoteric Instructions (u CPntinulrr~~Rarult: Ch. 9 Socret Conitrent . 17 Rmvrlation of tho Clrndala of Wrathful Doitie8 (hJhra-bo'i .. 15 . Cloud-like LIanatian of the Natural Mandala of Wrathful Ch..Ch. of the Feaot-offering8 (t. 11 -in-U u) & Conferral of Errpowermtnt I Mmdala .-: Ch. 52 Attainment of the Feast-offerings (trhpnr ..~ r ' i -1 Ch.' - ..hpna-kul u I l . 10 Ch..b ~ * i of the Indeatructiblo Arrw (rQP* W-na'L Ch. 1 4 The L u l o w Which Pleaamo ( m . 16 muration of tho ManOala of Buddha-apooch of &sal . Ch.* Uuu rPu .n a ' i -1 i b) The Wrathful nuleala: sonuubma+h... il ' ) y au Ch. 8 Consecration of All Lirba a8 the N m d a l a and tho Subsrquent E m m a t ion of the Sea18 ( XULUS I 1 P thrrr-erdil .

22 That which ia Pleasing m d Retained ( ~ ~ ) v eDI s .ch. - c f Spontaneous Enlightened Activity -hi -yn (u - - - a*= - h A 3 -1 CantinuullpLwRaault: Ch.pp --Mi h h 1 . 20 Cmitmenta Conmacrotion pri. 21 Uulow to the Wrathful Deities ( wbo .tan*~ r*gardina iurdiatolv trachinam.l a - r Conclusion: Ch.9. and m m a 1 Y a i s of its 6. Origin of the Any di8cu88ion - t t v a v p : of tho himtorical pomition of thm tho auhulnrrahrcontrovor8v crnturiea Buddhimt of tho trttvrvinilrlurrrh. 19 Ch. it8 rust taka note of origin which prevailed i n Tibot i n tho the lrtor propasation notmd that of the tollowing Wm have alnrby dismuinrtion . V h i l 0 8 0 p h i ~ ~ lcontent. 18 A Toaching on Ocnuine Offorins m d Liborrlity -1 ( - r 4 u i n.u Ch.. the historical background derived from the biusrrphies Of it6 Indian and Tibetan line-e-holders. In the remaining part of this introduction this celebrated trntrr is to be examined in t a m s of the controversy aurroundins ita orioins.

including the was subjected to critic is^. The Guhuanarbhetattva- .ancient tantras was reetrictcd in conaeqtaence of their secrecy and the danger of their misapplication. Lha bLa-ma Ye-shes-'od In the eleventh century. Noneas we shall see in our examination of the text itself. 105 weight to Rong-zom-pa's early critique. of engaging in one accusing the adherents of this tradition practices. giving some An incident from the life of Zur-chung-pa Shes-rab Grass alludes When four students of the Zurhaving t v this controversy with aome humour. theless. will certainiy . Grags-se who kills one like Zur-chune-pa. particularly of its Anuyoga and Atiyoga texts. to the the expression of these techniques in the Guhvanarbha appears have overt a particularly subtle intention when contrasted with sexdal and macabre descriptions found in certain other 103 tantran Further study of the Tantras gL rHYinn- . . teaching and others sought to outlaw the and practice of tuntra. -a- were paradoxically exempted from this attack. who hartoura ververmr opinions and leadm everyone astrry. of the main texts expounding these methods. reveal that the the ancient and than would. Other such texts. bKal-gdams-pa chung-pa understood announced: "Anyone teacher Khyung-po Grags-se were defeated by hi8 dieciples* KhyunS-90 in debate and asreed to become the 105 profundity of hie view. it has been to translations a literary rigid appear style have their own distinct terminology suited to rhe Tibetan language better the formalism present in many of the later translations. ra-pa. suggested.

-( other trntrrm it had no 1. that r it to have r flawad introduction 1 . he mmwered. rrttvr rpperrm m d when r fl4 109 .8. in his innernoet heart. of bodhimrttvrm. m d claiminu that it was not 108 known in India.e. ~ on herring thim. --&la Bought to refute the authentic orisin of the trntrr. silent without thought of rncer and wrm later meen On leinu asked the rermon for hi8 mirth. He im1. 1. been )( - reputedly instruction nursing by grudge bec8uae in hi6 refused Zur-po-che. such thrt a the dirlecticirnm do not think so. for it8 indicrtins vrrc t ice. is it! m y secret mantra-trrdit ion of the greater mantras vehicle. . tho8e of teacher.rttrin b ~ d d h r h o o d !Zur-chung-pa... he has turned to doc trine. So. For it im the tradition of mecret attained by that maintrine that buddhahood m r y be "libaration". thrt it opeaka of four time8 instead 1. text 1-( bcrume it refern to other trntrr8 ru8vicioua time8 m d Ow.. "A8 for doctrines. that Vrjra- r flrwed u n d r l r (&yil-'w -1.. remained 8miling.8. imputing it to have "four faults** (&on . - -1. locrtion. puted unlike teaching and time. Now. Therefore* I am delighted! " Another eleventb century a figure. thim.h u . . The trntro wrm generally considered by * G O B to lack the five excellencies (Phun-rum retinue. at the centre of the the u n d r l r lnsterd of Vrirocma. audience flrcred time (. 1 of three. 107 *Go6 Khug-pa he hrd Lhes-btsao.9.. even maid rttrin lay great dialectician as rnyona Khyuag-po Qraas-me hre will who kills one like Zur-chuna-pa 106 buddhrhood.

m~f - No longer extant u r dimtinct work. 110 - error of its mandala which is said to have an immeasurable ground .Slirht variatione on there "four faults*' have been reported in the later writlags of Sog-bzlog-pa bLo-gros rGyal-mtahan. The rNying-ma response to these four flaws.8-bteas to ( ) .b U d .n s u m.. - & s o . in hie &?is-- p. run-gpya. and others.b ~ rdo . to be flawed in word flawed by contradiction (w i WM) and flawed by disconnection (ma-'brel . faults or errors is disclosed in the course of the appended commentary by Rab-'byams-pa.b a ' -1. speaks of *'four errors" the s ' explanation" -1. in particular kLong-chen Vigorous counter-refutations have also been made. and the afore- mentioned authors-.w the time -. by bCom-ldan Rig-pa'i Ral-gri. gTsug-lag 'Phreng-ba. the error of of this the introductory statement "At ( ' d i ..rje mas-- - a). have flawed imputed the in meaning (. holde * G o 6 Lha. (lUhi t h d s p u-Da). - the error of its explaining w the three times as four tlmes ( m . momt of it aurvivem OF is citod . 'Phreng-ba and Sog-bzlog-pa bcom-ldan Rig-pa'i' Ral-gri's ( commentary is entitled E m r : lnvinnubwan--? w g ) pL fbe .a d u a . ) -~ a ' i .dPa*-bo gTsug-lag LO-groe rOyal-mtshan.Da mi of rine-sa) and the error of Vajrasattvr being the central deity the manaala instead of Vairocana (pbyil-*- . ) PA*-bo Sog-bzlog-pa. namely. 33.

.ram Thuga-mchog-rtsal. f.. And al8o: In every inconceivable (world-syatrs). .' h u w . 1. there forth with is hi8 of celestial pristine palace limitlema blazing complately jewelm cognition. rOyal-. Vol. viz. n the E a 4. saction 6 ) . speech. SULUA!A c h u V01. 500-509 and 52&-526 ( = Writinnr pf S a s A u h ~ - - 'hrun - ). Rig-pa5i Hal-sri ie quoted re I I This trntra 1t genuine for the follow in^ reasons: The master s Vihvamitra in hla Ctrart M Xha QloriPua a a m k t ~(dnUsaumAa'du.-DI'nral courae of him -than . a a . the ten uninterrugteb i.. 1804). tne radiant wheel of priatine cognition that is the ground.(Ch. T." sitam the auhVrrrrbhr as follows: In on the abode of Akanirtha without extremes or . he appearn and mind. 11. 'fp.I in other texts. I I I In I I Sog-bzlog-pa'a 112 sollow8: version. --a. aection 3) throughout directions. and kLong-chen I11 bKra-mhim rNam-reyal. univermally a8 biver8r bubbha-body. pp. p. - PUUUX . Reference8 to tala treatime are also found in 111 dPa'-bo eTmug-1'Phrane-ba. Dalai L u a V. 20. 1. 178. (Ch.. p . 357-61. Y 0. in the the coamaenta on the vaaaage (from - aamuA): %ow far does the Being of Pristine Co~nitionreach? . centre... u 397.

commentins on the pasrage.. ten not rmdalas . section 3 ) Then. ." he Emaho! This wondrous marveloue reality IS the secret Of all the perfect b. "Th@ speaks of -..ubdhae. in comaentine on the (QUhYaama) pamm-e: "The mtQva should be known to be Tha palatial abode of all buddhaa. 6) Then..a ' ha 8wa. scarlet. while explaining the meaninu of "8ecretW he revs. (Ch." he cite8 the -h ha Its in spire which a8 follows: 1s the pristine cognition central all and to the are all.. the there are In thrmr m d all other much inmtmcrm Vi4vrritra br8in. 10) Moreover.. and wAccordinp to 113 three rmalitiem.Then. up to: extreme6 or centre. Of the buddha6 of direction6 four time6 without exception distinct from one mother..[Pervrsive] without [It i8 m unthinkable] apontaneoumly prorent [mandala]. on inrubmtantiality. based m d are of a single esmence." dark (Ch. 1. (Ch. ell ow.. 2. All is created through the untreated. white. . Their he uuotss the passaee beeinnine: [body-colourr] art blue. by mntionine thr titla . At creation iteel? there ie no creation. "Substantial existence is sivee: .

In accord with this explanation. And so the beine who propounded it Was that tantra' s outhof. w: composed by marter 115 That tbe most radiant tantra. et cetera. impossible all the Qf the tenth level bodhisattvas to compile teachings of the buddhas. - Had aa its cornviler Tne spiritual warrior called Lokedvara. lab&) saws: "Thus.The four perverse faults. As it n a y s in the VcriiiEatiPn a Sccrct (Srlnuhuasiddhi. But by the kindness of m y venerable guru I Itnow that the compiler of the glorious Could not have been any other. -. Saroruha as a commentary Most mastera claim 01 T. y 2. Concerning the LpUp m vibvuaitra's orart -trru : the fourth timhould be known to (T. The indestructible reality of mind. 3. there ie a tradition where116 b the exponent himself is the compiler. (criticised b y 'Gos Lhaa-btsas). . A8 for the nrpund: the AbhidhBmIB. too. the 2217). The plorious . *- (When texts 114 it begin with the words) means that for it is 1 they have were traditionally compiled for even by the buddhas themselves. are also to be rejected: 1. explains that Akanlmtha is immeasurable.

t l I s p . (Ch.. Rig-' a l argument thus 8eek8 to emtablimh the authenticity o f the . directly While in the have bean written down .W CYCA~. . h79i which had been 118 deliverad fir8t.n trmmlation8.rn Moreover.. four ao. .A..rchaici8m. y t i for !"aearurino 1lnew).a am being e~uivolent)to h U. 0t Regarding Vajramattva'm appearance at the centre (of the mnndrla): . ( the duhurllrbhr): the tantras expounded Such am the 117-8). found later is on. I & expAain8 117 ir m . en. 4719) for the reference to other tantram (which i8 All (7. . - citing euotbtionm from it which occur in celebrated lndian text8 of the Certain tmtrr8 I. ( p n . &ad f m u the phrame. cosaentarv (&.lrha'8 P . i8 a180 B u d d h ~ u h y a explain8 that it refer8 . 4 .muenemm. 1 5 ) : the I n d i m rurumcript of the Quhvanlrbhr read8 ("threadn) i8 the Su8krit word SOryrgrabhL. even the new trmmlationm explain that the fore- figure in the randale m w changr po8itione. almo refer to the PL tLU UaU I. & a lPrdl a found in the new to the U. ~. a w l.

rur Per Tlhmtan . Further yoga critlclrmr levelled by '9ri-gun# in general and at dPa1-'dsln nt t h e Ati- wyotem Paflmsoambhavalm -.*one theme. qnfl 119 rccently by W . t h e y bmcamm doad 1 r . Indmed. not f r a m t h e M a p a d h e heartland O P but f r a m C%dQiyina and adjacent reglanm in t h e nerth-west. Norbu and S.G . thus sources b r i n e u n c Y a a e r to t h e t r a d l t i e n a l v i e w r thet the text war jntroducad In t h e e i e h t h century. Warmay. h e ha* bralrght t a o u r Prom SOryoprabh%sfrha's Indian as reproduced by Rang-tom-pe. h4ra-ntrn -. attention commentary.jng-pa. and t r a n r l a t e e t h e q n t i r c t e n * I n addition. m n~ T h e o a r l y 11 t c ~ a ~ and y h3 s t a ~ 3 c 6 3 W u a n q documents. The the argurnontm ralmad by Ye-mhoa loat 'ad a n d ' O a r Lhrs-Eteas and controvmroy atrinat hy the t h c i ~ impact f ~ u r t o o n t hcontury. The Tun certojn the t 130 pasmaser t v ~ n m a ~ ~ a k h y h n a~ at p . . on a virlt t o t h o l l h ~ a r yof P e h a r dKor-mdrad g l * I n ~ a* bsm-yam. been euamined by Sog-trslog-pa a n d 'Jjtr-mod g1.. Atlba. T h e l a t t a ~ h*e pnssaaea from thlr commentary w h i c h o c c u r in ~Yuhs-ehen's early work. have more noted a celebrated commentary o n c h a p t e r t h l ~ t e e na? a u r teut. in known t o h a v e m a r v o l l e b at t h e o x i 8 t m n c m o f t a n t r r r 123 which n o l o n g e p m u ~ v l v o d In Central Indla. of impertcd century Tibet. That many af t h o rNylng-ma tantras w e r e unknown in eleventh fhejr the jnta Nnrbh century India lr not rurprlslng w h e n one considers a r e attributed t a t h e b i c h t h c e n t u r y and them w e r e ehnrldered t o h a v e bean that thrt translattont majarlty eighth India.

sou+h 123 of bSam-yap.1 in Ral-grl of who the composed tantra. scqulred the Sanskrlt manuscript of In consequence. rnam-Far perhaps iollowinp w* 128: Therein. T h e tests were then kept at t h e Kc-tshane In bSam-yas when no l o n g e ~extent in India.Lots&wa's account of t h e discovery pandita of the S a n ~ k r i t manuscript (1127-22?5!. whom it in bSam-yas by t h e great jakyadrf T h e latter entrueted It t o rTa-ston gZl-brjid. from thence +o passed int@ the handm of Shs-ge L o t ~ g w asnd Rig-pa.-Pa cashna p.historians persenally much a6 * G a s LateBwa ~ Z h o n . l Lotsawa reqranslated the Sanskrit varmion of t h e roat-tewt 88 the rPyUd -I--. P* +hea repeats 'Go. rmfraee t o debate conmidering that t h e past . Later rlyjne-ma writmrr like *Jlgr-mod . the bCom-ldan commentary eforemen+ioned Thar-pa kn9w-t depence Subseq~ient y.F P V U slob-- nrwl.n u dPal (1392-lh81) the who root-tsntra 122 which had been rediscovered at bRam-yae in the Interim. and thewe were m ~ v i e e d by ' ~ o s~ o t s & w a gZhon1.2 I nu dPa1 In person. tha? t h e Sanskrit manuecriptr o f the -2 taken ade-brnuad were f ~ o m Nalanda Vihara by Padmasambhava and then trsnslated through ml racu? ous ebi li t y at PGye-dkar sGra-bsgyur gtinp. 3 3 8 2 4 ) for the first time. with two additional chapters (Chs. Sop-bzlag-pa could crebibly present + h e iollowlng siutecnth his century account of Its introd-~ction anfl t ~ n n g l a + l n vIn I ~ ~ ~ .Line-pa the specific point8 o f 'Qos Lhea-btsas.

refutations unanswerable. But the great one8 who c u e before in Tibet. accomplished maeters frow various. . And which were not translated in India From their respective volusres: For it is said that with Vajrasattva's consent The compilers of those transmitted precepts Were themselves pexmitted to teach them In the language of each different country.. The proof of their validity is infallible accomplishment 126 Through their supreme and cormnor3 attainmerlt. 125 (1428-1507): It is not necessary to prove laboriously that The rNying-ma-pa doct-ines ware translated from Indian originals. Although they do not conform with the mantraz and symbols 9f those translated from India later on. new of bCOm-lean Rig-pa'i That Ral-gri and Sog-bzlos-pa were the this view was also held by followers of translation schools is evidenced by the follow in^ dismiesive Zi-lung-pa 38k-ya mChog-ldan response of the Sa-skya-pa scholar. great lands. The rNying-ma-pa doctrinal traditione that definitely w e r e frrnslrted from India require no proof. Brving formulrtrd argument8 one might prove The indefinite onre to be treatires. It -1s enouprr that they are proven to be The teaching of the emanational master (Padmasembhava. concrpturl path. Discovering thia to be an rrtificirl. They m e y be compared with the d o c t r i n c ~taken By supreme.

auch rs the followintz . 7 . tnntrw 18 the umocieteb uith uho is considered to be 8ubdect of various prophetic declaration6.znr.h 6 e.. a and the by the lefmdrry historical appearance of the Mnh&oge Kinf 31 of sahor. Aa they thesaelve8 have explained. 128 t t the~: s One hundred end twelve Yearn from now. Theme include: *Go6 klong-chen Rab.* byum-pa. Book 2.kiove a v o i d e d wrnbrring upon it. :- The Indian historical tradition of the p the present account of the Indian and Tibetan lineages arsociated *Jigs-bra1 Y .e rDo-rje in WSTB. Pnvinr U-bu * A - -- r-ar i aforementioned catalo@ue h r n d w PhPann m b index of the m . Uhrn I have vmlahed from hef*.

received Thus. he intuitively understood the chapter entitled the "Vieion of Vajrasattvaw and practised meditation for seven months. 366-3671 and an image of their compiler Guhyapati reportedly fell upon the royal palace. The Anuyoga tantras will emerge in the forests of Singhala.. 130 and J&landharip& .e h f a nsal utan -oa8i mahs-kwi 129 I q y S . he from came As o result he had a vision of Vojrasattva and him the empowerment of pristine cognition. his son.Renowned in the three d i . While ferred the identity of this figure is Obscure-.he has to as Indrabhiit1 the Great. . or even been a relater Indrabhdti Saroruha.~ i n e realms. Kambalapada.o a 8 i rnvud ( N G a . Will be revealed by the Lord 5f Secrets To one who is named Kine Ja. a volume con- taining the Mah&ogatantras. just as in his dream.8): The M a h e o g a tantrae will fall onto the palace of King Ja. having performed prayers.the tradition clearly recounts the king was sitting absorbed in the meditative cultivation of the yoga of the lower fantras. relying on that and on the image of Vajraphi. And in the bun-bzann y e . Vajrapbi. 131 that: While contemporaneous with KukkurB ja. Who will appear by virtue of great merits A t Jambudvlpa's eastern frontier. Then. including the Buddhasamrivona !T. and to underntand the 8ymbolic conventions meanings of that volume i n their entirety. Vol.

KukkurCja.eema vol. P r a c t i s e d t h e M c a 1 Net. but w i t h o u t acscess.'Phrul LaAmam{P. B e i n g e m p o w e r e d i n w h o l e s o m e action.King Ja first taught t h e s e t a n t r a s t o Uparhja. 0737): I n t h e e a s t e r n d o m a i n of IndrahhGti. a n d r e c e i v e d a p r e d i c t i o n that meanings of Guhyapati Vajrap&ni would subsequently reveal t h e this tantra. the celebrated scholar O f Sahor. He t h e n d i v i d e d t h e Mah&oga texts into eighteen great tantra- pitakas and t a u g h t t h e m to K i n g Ja. taught the known ae t h e "king o f dogs" becauee he reputedly thousand d o c t r i n e by d a y i n t h e g u i s e o f a d o g t o a . f r o m t h e (NGB. I a c t u a l l y r e a l i s e d Vajrapiini. 7 0 ) . t h e n o b l e Indrabhcti. He t h e n t a u g h t t h e m a s t e r w h o i n t u i t i v e l y u n d e r s t c o d t h e c h a p t e r O n t h e "vision ( w a d . Ch. H e himself says - r 33 (p. H a v i n g b e e n taught by t h e Lord o f Secrets. 4737) and t h e which a r e c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e the a p y u . W i t h h i s r e t i n u e o f f i f t y thousand.~ a . 1 0 ) . 11771) in kkQd ( P . I.h c u . himself. I w a s f r e e f r o m sin. Kukkurhja. of vajrasattva" . i n India. commectaries The latter wrote many famous ~ p y y o n t h e tantras including t h e -a-w~&kh .l n h r u cycle. At Vajrakata. Br t h e p r a c t i c e o f d i e c i p l i n e d conduct. a n d r e a c h e d ( a n e x a l t e d ) level. A c c o r d i n g l y K u k k u r a j a i s s a i d t o h a v e b e e n e m p o w e r e d 132 by G u h r a ~ a t i and v e r b a l l y i n s t r u c t e d by L i c c h a v i Vimalakfrti.

P736): Then.. Tosether with SimharEija. had including composed the many which he treatises.warriors with them anC yoginZs. on Mahbyoga. and others. .. or UparBJa. five o n inner tantra-pitakas of (T. 135 The lineage then descended tc LIlPvajra and Buddhapuhya. a 366-367) . to the east of Jambudvipu. Daughter G o m a d e v ~ .. 18 said in the H. The maetcr LXlPvaJra. and He transmitted the . m d a11 the tantrrpi takas. U p a ~ B j a . of ~ the ~ went to Oddiysna where he gave a detailed explanation . In a holy palace of precious gems. Kukkurdja and IndrabhQti.g. And manifeetly reached the level of Vajradhara. the MInicrl W in . Sakrabhati. Which rests on the Indeatructible Seat. the S d && nm x n p (T. eighteen the tantrapitakas of M o h b o g a to jakraputra. waa crrdained in Oddiyana .. a native of Saarrrara. where he studied the Tripitaka and became in the philooophical tenezs of particularly ordinarv part- learned ~ a r n a a . the m e. In an auspicious and sacred room. who was the king*& son: he to or IndrabhGti he to younger. (T. . 1660-1669). to perfOmD and by night w e n t to t h e charnel grounds feast-offerings and other sacramental practices. Received the empowerment of the They actually attained the mandala as an assembly. Sj-mhar&ja.&&L&l- and finally to the daughter Gomadevl. As 13a (P..1670). . the sciences.

#uclcur -i .k h m h 360). 14-16). prrticulrr. Five Inner Unsurpm8Bed T m t r s p i t a k u . 1718). the . ( . 2533) accordinr to the intrrpretr n m ation8 of the Unsurpassed (Yoga)-tmtra. at Ullurba. 4748). he composed many treatimes pounded them in detail. the P~S IAs sarrat ( . 4720). Those concerning the -w .d m . the fnaarr msuL Paint the S r o d ((Krrrli i l pi 8atbs. and 8tubird Yosatmtru. He t and She works. he travelled to the . P . Among the students of Llllvajra. a native of Centpal India. On attalnino Oddiuba.. . 3705). 6745). p . e.-t P. root prominent were Buddh-uhya and BuddhaJfi~nap&a. he m e t the u r t e r Llllvajra. rp r r"r y L C L P. P. the 7. composed a great uny ~ ~ ~ ~ ' I l . L 136 Volr. The M s t e r Buddhapuhya.. During and ex- inclubo. d m .. On m island in O d d i y h a called Madhima he practised and b e c u e accorvlirhed in the P (1. 8761): the md ( m i t r a Lpr the ( P.. who atudied the maclsal m (HOB. thr . -eraf thaw . accorplishment mere the in including: the through HaiilulrS. 4723). him ten years at Ukilanda.iculrr.T. P. was ordained disciple8 where ht m d master Buddhrhhti were both of BuddhrjiiPnapPdr during the early pact of the latter's life.

entitled the -pLtrptrrlcfn. The hCmya latter l0 principle teacher of Paama8unbhava. 0726) to King Khri-8rong lde-btaan a d hie fortunate 8ubjacte.tructipnr(- JALamuu - . 4733. Yimal8mitra ma8tered the and 8cience8 Srerter m d their brmchem. and in Tibet he a180 tausht hi8 treat180 on Ch. lk-16). SIaurncr a i Dz.A t &Lh . ( (Arvr-rU. the miitram of the le88er vehicle8. 4734) and the . ( s O k . Vol. v i u l w i tra: A native of H u t i v m a in wemtern India. P. 4 7 3 5 ) i the rrr. the W M f P . t the Smamu8 01 P.P. W * P. 1). a received the U crcie directly from Buddhaguhya. antitled o r & corgo8ed in8turce: the c r n t a r y On tho (rtuu- 3uuu A C r . Pabauunbhava compo8ed the the -tr tvcelebrated OL Grrrt m --( - - 1 on yhlA~~~amdAtmktrm. am we1. -0 including Buddhaeuhya. 13 of %hi8 t m t r a . l i n e y e of the HahQuopa tantram a180 p u e t d from Kina Ja to Yajrawaa a Kukkurija through Sukhuidhi (-dOa*-rrb rDo-rje) m d thence to PrabhChamti of Sahor. -a P.' P h r u l Ira cvi treatime8 on other tmtraa. who . treati8m8. He and the t m t r a m under many mamter8 we8 particularly learned Vol8.rl. P.1 a8 Pabu8ubhava: Another md - SunaAe. 4736) urd the Laagm~ ( m u . in he the rruicrlIrt many BOB. U (mu-'Phcul . 4739).3 .

6725): the P.. h. an-rr*rlaartsrYr. (P.* m m A ) and exagetical commentaries SFoup ( u t l . 1755).tivs Ahuustian ip Zh. volm. .*- comprlamm the great Indian treatises an the knd Vimalunitra. * Qpanint ( SalainllE!~ht( m):the and . *EFI~ P - and- ~ncludea ceementarir8 on the other text8 of the cycle .-I * - -11 the - m Q n 3 m ~ U u l e t U . 82-83.. P. - 107 if. The mecond much a8 .8 HUrAa --( w-tcllL). According to Lo-chen DharmaPrf. The latter include root-comraentaciss 1. I i l are praservmd in the Peking edition of the includine the above. . gaum- M A & a h . 8 7 8 2 ) : nrdit. they are divided between gcnecal -1 (u OM Vimmlrai tra'8 - such as LflCvajra*6 and LrhPn-mum tarl-mn~an.. . 6 7 5 6 ) : the M orrvrlacr*6~uordebnbma.h m ~ PPL axegetical tracts and cammentariea 1 . The extant Indian colwentariea on the cycle of the M ncl W.rur-'tuu. The f iret W b h a - ( W r . USuY ~~u ( Wbfiu--*A P.

~ a * m&ue-'-. (P. Vimalamitra's snpan-me'i 'nrcl ( P . F - (P. 8 7 2 5 ) .thmh729).(P. 8 7 6 7 ) . its awn c o m e n t a ~ i a ltrabjtion: 1. 1766). a.* k h = .~ h mt a .yil .c-dm (P. 6. 5 3 5 7 ? ) . 8738O). and V i m a l a m i t r e * s m r y . 8733-1. (P- - U (Pa - w --w . - -~ e v p a ~ c t i v i t y1 : ( vimalamitra's (P. mJ 1- (7.r s b rt?@-rjc*h . (=Y@~-D&) : h c u . N & g E r j u n a * s a u . 6 7 5 6 ) .rle I s s 3705). 6. - 3tmQ (P.r h (k.@ a * i w o n -p u l sambhava 'B ~ a (P. a722). and sKa-be dPal-brtsegr* Tibetan t r e s t l s e l t a . yhc-chw amaQ ( P . 8 7 2 6 ) . Empowerment (n ): ~ b -r l c o Buddhaguhya's 6721. &-PQ (P.h e ) : d G a * . Padmea-9-m man 1t 4-ohrc- (P. each of t h e "ten aspects of m a n t r a u ! 137 has m!. h 7 k 5 ) .b w 2. COFduCt wad-baPyE (P. 4749). - -* - - 3 . View ( U ~ . (P. b74h). 5 . ): Buddhsguhya's 00s-Qnn ydn . 1777). 1720). i - In addition. a738). 4767). Commjtment 1 -( : LilbvaJra*~ a. 8761 1.Mandale (dk. and W a d c u .. b 7 2 8 ? . C L P + - (P.t ~ h i pnsal-bkra (P.h i c h w form t h e suhjec+-matter of t h e tantra-text. hl g g mp l (P.

.a - - barn- h77-9).m - 6737).p h vejrs's * . m o . Vlmalarnltr~'~ - (P. Q???!.DP . rnvan (P. It had been translat-d b y B t ~ d d h s and Vmirocana. Attainment (-ub-D&): IndrabhQt I ' e l a m . Prevloumly.Pava ) : --ha brnuad- 8 . Appearmcc a T r m r l a t t o n of t h e 1 4 . in h i s Catelanut p. h 7 3 1 ) . (F.b k o a ( P . ( ~ h771). 6732).d a n n yhya* . 8736.7. h733). DZ. Bu0dhagubysts Q r v a r C : w !P. Cirp-. (p. Buddhaguhya * s lam-rim she .d .b s Dhuan-ypya . U W c l e In T i b e t : L y j I 'Jigs-me0 =Ling-pa. 1). Collcctcd Tantrae gL was m *a . e. Q 7 3 5 ) . ptse-ec- .D e * i - V l r n a l a m j trs * s (P. V O ~ . mnd i n an I n t e r v e n i n g period by Psdma- Euhye aambhava and gWyacr Jfiinrkumira. 6 by 1-3. and Rin-chen mChog. ~ I E I W ~ ~ . 10.u. . s t a r e s that t h e ~ N y a a sJfi&nakum&rs definitively translated Vlmalamltra. Wantpa R Seal ( n . u h7b1). 8 7 3 1 ) . Contemplstion (w a ! : -*d Qsarn-ntan (P. mvn-chcn ( P . ~llab7&2!. y (P.d ~ (P.

l o Nyd-ma rbyal- mtshen and 'Gar lotsSwe gZho-nu d P a ? . the Their version is therefore 1 latest of three. snd it la knovn ae t h e basJc translatjon. Buddhaguhya instructed nBas * J a m .O p a l mnd Branka Mu-kt1 a m o n g o t h e r s on t e x t s belonging to the cycle. h737). Rig--chen mChog. in- sde-brwa.. I n addition.Sec. Tozether they made the Intermcdlate dPal-pyi translation. incl*~dine the - b k o d . T h e i r v e ~ s i o ni e c ~ l l e d t h e acreative tpanslatlon" )-( because t h e y had n o ouFer- vising prndita. A W m n & Inet- ruct- (man-nqh~. cluding t h e of hh i c h I s t h e root .%. Vlmalamitrs t h t ~ expounded pL w a t t v a ( w u . Vole.~t Mount Ksilash. . lta-nhrr-.'@hru the EiPht . w . ausis*ance.oa (P. JfiBnakurnBra with instructed the Sogelan he Ye-ehes: Z h a n ~ rGya1 .ti~xlE Qf MOB. 8 7 2 6 ) . Instructed gttuhe Sangs-rgyas Ye-ahes. w Fle expounded t h e m to rMs t h e Elohteen Great Tantre-pltakas. the menuscript w a s translated by T h a r . h e m a d e t h e earliest translation o f Paclmaeembheva and in Instructed e N y a e e Jfi&nakurn&i-a in ?he Pt~hvrlerebt~q hi^ own S i b f l m ~f Yiows: P. and translsted t h e m w l t h t h e latter's anfl that o f g M y s g e JfiBnakumBre. net 1 h-1 5 ! .b a * 1 Yon-tan. I LaYer. and. t h e twenty-third a n 0 twenty-fourth the chapters w e r e alsb *ranslated b y Thar-lo in n c c o r d r n c e w l t h redi8covered S a n s k r i t manuscript. In colYaboretion w i t h Vairocana.

Therefore it is clear that the Sanskrit redactlone. the Should manumcriptm anyone themmelve6 had a number of wi8h to know that thim I6 the cram.r u m Rin-chen gZhon-nu into those which have appendices and Those which do not. havinp examined the extant Tibetan his the in great detail. PtpPrrtLPn m n a t i v m Trmrcrnd- . They are present in the later transand lation which was made by Vimalunitra. and that into appendice6 the the who vereion with appended presages had them translation by rMa Rin-chen mChog. there are some who hold that the v e ~ s i o nwithout the was translated by gNyrgs JfiOnrkurn&ra.klong-chen-pa version (1308-1363). inserted There are even some saw that M a himself concealed them out of envy at La139 Osum rGyal-bo Byang-chub. made the following obmervation in certain appended vermes of 138 tmtra: mun - concerning Now. and that the text) were divided by ~ T S U P . certain persons bold that theee appendices are absent in in the this root-tantra but were extracted from other texts cycle of the and inserted into their (the resvcctive versione of chapters by rMa Rin-chen mChop. plyogs Jfi&nakum&ra *a Rin-chen mChog. Again. But the truth of the matter Is that the appendices made are lacking in both the earliest in the translation by Buddhaguhya and Vairocana and intermediate translation which was made by Padmasambhava and LNyage Jfi&nakum&ra.

which comprisem those cycles This wdistant discovered anew in each successive generation. Anuyoga and g ti yoga introduced from India and gradually passed down in an and literary tradition. . who both instructed Zhang rGyal-ba'i Yon-tan and D a r . such as in the three redactions of the manuscripts.a'-m lineage: The succession known in Tibet as the "distant lineage of precepts" and -( - transthose which oral mitted texts were ma'-=: encorporates all inetructions of Mah6yoga. lineagea la identified preeminently by its eynthesis of MrhAYosa. and in certain texts SitPtPDatra (T. 3083. The bJ&. or as "the lineage of esoteric instructions". the and sDe-can.fhausrnd Lints (T. 8 ) itself had a number of extant sbyangs. Therefore it is not certain that these (variant passages) were ineerted by the Tibetans. Numerous redactions of Sanskrit manuscripts occur beca2se there is a distinction between those meaning version^) in which the is clearly expressed and those in which it is not. 920- 'Phreng-ba-can. 9. It is contrasted with the "close lineage of treaeuree" (we-brwlrd m). many in Central Tibet. and the lineages of descended from him became known as "the transmitted precepts mChins-pu". atsang. M a Rin-chen mChog instructed gTsug-ru Rin-chen gZhon-nu and Kyere mChog-ekyong. One should know that the discrepancies in the translations ot this tantra were to be found in the Sanskrit rnanuscsipts. 592: a number of redactions is similarly found.~ j e dPal-gyi times Grags-pa. The former taught this tantrh and KhBEIb.

of the principal text of each-.Anuyoga.the Manical the SDPra u k b Gathtrs A. --- the Sogdian dPal-gyi Ye-shes. and Lha-lung dPal-gyi . named ~ - a ~ v u - a after s r ~ tr8e titles (EiUU). and inner mantra-texts. secondly to gNubs Sangs-rgyas Ye-shes and finally to the Zur family. Oar-rje Gra dPal-gyi sNying-go. of the l e translated many siitras and i of of the "four great derived from the rivers of becoming distant lineage" teachings Padma- 1110 sambhavs.sems_pgym. he transmitted the Manical "eight N. - and above all. 181 rDo-rje. dialectics. Vairocana and pYu-syra eNyine-PO. the confluence which and in the outer tsntras. The foremost were known as the ~ 1 0 r i 0 u s adepts of Vajrakfla". and Thag-bzang dPal-gyi roo-rje --- and --- Lam-mchog dPal-gyi roo-rje. hie four later disciples d p a l . Vimalamitra. sNyags JiiHnakumSra was fully ordained by Shntarakeita and he became s celebrated adept of ~ a j r h r t aand ~ a j r a k l l a .U ULemLnu (m&) and the A U of Kinn Atiyoga. through interpretations and expositions. ONyan-chen dPal-dbyangs. logic. and acquired great learning in grammar. in Tibet (m)which This fell represents the Mental Class ) ( common heritage of all the rNying-ma-pa lineages first to gNyags JiiEnakumSra.eX to numerous students. his four earlier disciples '0-bran dPal-gyi gZhon-nu.He followed the most learned and accomplished masters of India.w i Grage-pa. and Atiyoga. ~ N y a g smastered the u his . namely.

c. . and outer accomplished 8 a n a t i v e o f G r a p e .s h e s " ~ y u n g . tantrss.m t s h a a n d Lhe-rJe HQm-chrlng ( t h e former's e o n ) .the Dlsnutant's Sword Which Cutp Throunh Pifflcultirs .P! ~ 3 2 Greet ~ P r e t (z!lz(~rd~~~p-chen-evI e i c PNuhs-chen's 3 h3 moet authentic student w a s Khu-lung Yon-tan all hia empowerment?. . WYanp Y e . rGyal-ba'i S o p . esoteric Vimalamitre.the the pa'i 7is a vaet c o m m e n t a r y o n whlch .g ~ u b s . r4yeand mtsho..r g y a a Y e . and p a s s e d t h e l i n e a g e o n t h r o u g h : P a d m a dBang-rpyel (his sons): Ye-shee r G y a .t h e m e n t s i r u o n t h e R-nli- Eiphtu-rha~tcz Menical hz (snuu-'Fhrulon-ma . inner tantraf? including under the Padmasambhava.g n a s o f c h o s . lnetructions V a s u d h a r a and K a m a l a & % l a . .s h e s a n d Z h a n g 3 112 Hj6 Yon-tan in par+icular. ~ i b e t ~ n i n t h e m a n d a l a o f MafiJubrl. -UP compoeltione include: . Lha-rje Zur-po-che.- w h i c h b a n W-IC islut1r nt.- '=re11. was e m p o w e r e d He etudied and SrT many their S?mha.r a b m r h o g .p o dPal-pyi Y e .s h e e . who received eeoterlc i n e t r u c t i o n e . = All I n t e n t i c ~ o ( ~ d o ' l 'nrel-chen no-chq) . S t l t r e w h i c h Gattu?~ . Nyanp S h e e .l u n g . a s well ae t h e tranulator g N y a g s JfiBnakumAra.c h e nS a n g s . a n d - the L a m n f o r t h e B e of C o n t m l a t l o n .

w h o w a s a contemporery o f by am^-pa in Zur-po-che.r j e b D u d .r j e gZhon-nu. in lower of gTsang. and t h a t o f ' ktong-chen Rab- r e l a t i o n to the Guhuenarbhatattvavi-tpn-. . Ronp-ban Yon-tan. rhos-kyi hZang-po: . t h e celebrated eleventh centrlry gandlfa of t h e rNying-me school. a sign that yorl h a v e completely You s h o u l d c o m p o s e a the nalieed each. m&hG- w a s a native o f sNar-lung-rong. Pu-lag. -ecelved which the had ljneage been oi the He instructionR Padmasambhava. interon he had prepared o f t h e Q u h v m . wonderfult those Amonp It is doctrines. or else the t r a d f t f o n o f Nyang. e . 25) called becauee o f i t s introductory w o r d s w h i c h may: . hip f a t h e r ) one w h i l e studying t h e ancdent t r a n s l a t i o n s u n d e r Senp-ge.. Val. Rong-zom Pandi t a . Zhang-zhang Yon-tan G r a g s .* joms. Chos-kyi SZang-go o f Rong. s G r a r b o . h e o n c e dreamed that he w a s eatj n g a p o r r j d g e w i t h a v e g e t a b l e broth who made said. mKhar-chen dPa3-pyl dBang-phyug. a f t e r t h e i r clan came. H e told t h i s t o h i s master. and Rong-ban Tshul-khrlms Rin-po-che In hjs youth." Tibetan commentery first compositione therefore was major commentary on t h e (dkan-con pa an^ ~ n v i r l o * c r r l-. transmitted successively from t h e latter through: sNa-nam r b a .-. B e f o r e c o n s i d e r i n g the importance o f t h e Z u r family w h i c h msintained t h i s down to t h e seventeenth century It i s "distant to lineagew examine appropriate t h e r o l e o f Rong-zom Pandlta. hie . NMKMG.4) - -0 the B e ~ f n y e~ 0 1 = m J w t 80 *-..This lineal descent is known a s t h e tradition o f Rong. of "How the BuMhasarnBv0n-s. mDo-ston ( 1 .

was 105 scholars Tibetan the noted opponent of the rNying-ma tantras 'Gos Khugbut he is reported to have subdued these critics the dPal- Pa Lhas-btsas. Vol. in debate.e.u R U K A Z E E ~ ) clearly elucidates commenting on it accordinC to the tradition of the "king vehiclee" commentary great expanse Tibetan (1. ) (phuone b . the all-knowing Rung-zom-pa appears like a cheet that is sealed tight.The ntture of the Three Precious Jewels Is enlightened mind. novelty of indieenoue composition in the critic8 in fact found that he adhered eleventh to the . Rang-zom-pa's criticised including by role as the first major Tibetan from the four commentator provinces.s&eulIUz lthe QazUeaa o f (the -.. 26) arve regarded as the two major expositions of the tantra in contrast to those of the position. This commentary and kLong-char>-pa's phyons-hcu - ( NMKMG . of reality. Prior the hie eNyan dpal-dbyanpe. commentaries vastly commenting on the the main the Knowing that these two are on the Guhvanarbha provides intellect with the potential for great power. all-knowing klong-chen-pa. On the other hand. . by Atiyoga! of this . "distant lineagew which emphasise the M a h b o g a 1 11 1 1 'joas Rin-po-che Says of these: The commentary by the great. Direrti~ns entitled Qi. One could argue that Rong-zom-pa merely revived tradition established in Tibet by SKa-ba commentaria1 brtsegs. bDud- according to the Atiyoga standpoint. despite century* ecriptural to the later diseemination of the teaching. and gNubs-chen Sangs-rpyas Ye-Shes Yet.

Concerning 106 adds : This controversy. too. So. the trenti8es composed by him sho?>ld be valld. dicted could bear lopical examination. it a exiom. bDud-'jome reasonen argument appeors to be a learned fairly. H 1 e life story is preeented In 1 O? fsome detsil by bDud-'jome 'Jigo-bra1 Ye-she8 rDo-rje in NSTB. merely In because general. One origjnated in Indie or Tibet meke9 no difference. Amonp his many compositions which firmly eetahllshed the 108 termininter- logy of the Gseat Perfection system. no when more . TibcYan treatfses are @c+ter than Indian tpeatiaea. selves on learning in prammar and logic. from the Atiyoga perspective. s under four teachers. it la proven that whether they Sometime?.authorltles. .4 scr:l+lnieed impor+snt doctrlne is in oripina?ed Tndis. those whose pristine cognitjon was manifest.ae 'Phage-pn. and that he contraqyllogistic this prooi nar the teachinpa their Rin-po-chc neither gurus. should regard ar reliable those composed by accompli~hcd Tibetans. dietinc+lon of good end bad treetlaeq on The haeis of cauntry ls not known I n lc6rnefJ c l r c l e ~ . includinp Dan gZhon-nu Don-grub. there is an Pretation of the V t f i n t r . Th% celebrated rlyinp-ma-pa mapter klong-chen Rab-'byams-pa (1308-1363). a native of Wean-lam. rather than who bssed them- written by ordfnary Indian 8cholarr.enuu-sand the Dllcrtrd TantI. and Myom- mthing-ma-ba Sange-rgyas drage-pa. studied the &. If the author was one who abided on the level of ec?omplishment.

of the Guhvanarbha contained in the present study ia based on and accompanied by this interlinear commentary. . which in Vol. U ( NGKMG. 2 89 folia analraes the teachinge. The i translation . -u the ppri - vol. which in l a folia provide8 an ansly818 of the chapter- divisions of the (NGKMG. mun-pa gel-ha scope and and the (pp. structure of the Buddhist and non-Buddhiat 629) * m.r A ~ *W ) .entitled the his Which compriaea the work a a . which in 313 folia of p ~ o v i d e s both general introductory explanations and a detailed interlinear each section of the commentary of its "verses of indestructible reality" ( a . 2 7 ) . -yid - (m rkar-eaum). .dnn .

a native of Yar-rdzonp or received the three stages o f ordination 1b 9 from bLa-chen daongs-pa Rab-gsal.m k h a * . 1 As he himself aald: stones.~ d t . mountains and rocks of pescefve all the earth. the cycle he studied the eGtra & tantra. Rlnchen rGya-mtsho.The Zur fsmlly: Lha-rje Zur-po-che S&k-ya gSar-mo in mPo-khems. vieions and constructed his temple in that place. the in and their means for attainment: and he applied the- 150 F o ~ c m o s t among his disciples were the four "summitaw: - - Zur-chung Shce-rab Orage. the root-texts and their commentsrice. of 'We-pa-lung in the Shange valley for many h e had Zur-PO-che inhabited Years. f l 7 3 6 ) from 'Bre Khro-chung of upper lyRng. who had arrived a+ the e u m l ? of vast knowledoe. . who hsd arriveC at the e~rmmtt of the exegesis of +he m a a r b h a Zheng 'Gas-ehunp. where of the Forty-t. receive6 instruction the #aPiral and the Mental (--ma) from N y a n e Ye-shes 'Byung-gnae of Chos-lung. Zur-PO-che is known to have broueht together the roct B exepetical tantrae: tantras Practice.uo Peaceful Deitiee and of the Fifty-eight 151 Blood-drinkera. and intention. Under his grandfather. 'Byung-gnaa.text^. and on the (P. 14-16). 'up-pa-lung to be the host of peaceful and wrathful dei+iee. and hZang-sgom Shes-reb rGyn1-po. who had arrived at the SUIIIWI~~ medltatlve practice. including Then he Clsse on the of the n nc l a i a on (NGB. Me-nyage Khyunge-grege. Vole. who had arrived at the summit o r the view. khBP) and the Great Ferfectfon from N a m .

and those on . Zur sGro-phug-pa Sbk-ya Seng-gt the -tattvs- (b.b & rh. to hjs r e ~ i d e n c e . and mDa*-tie Jo-&Ak of Nag-mo-re who wae the pillar of rltuel an@ meen9 for attainment. ft wee Zur-Chung-pa's son. mastere3 and Zur-t-hung-pa Shes-rab Gregs ($014the **dirten+ 11 neage". "four pillare": tke Foremost among hie students were sKyo-ston SRk-ye of Gung-bu who was the pillar of Yane-khtng hLa-ma of sKyong-lung who was Plentel ClaFB: of the the of PIIIsF - 3us-oa. 1 0 7 h ) howsver who effectively popularieed jn Tibet. the greet accomplished masters ware sald completely thqt means mindful of p r e ~ e r v i n g secrecy. in snd from recejved the entire exegctfcel tradition of the Zur fam41y of Zur-chune-pa. the 10?h ) widely propagated including the .tho left were of the blazing wrathful deitiee. deltjes. commissioned according +radition of the *antraft. who were the other three main student. His invited is a c c o a p l i ~ h m c n t in the .But in particular. He beean hje study of thie text his iffteenth year u n d e ~eLan $&k-ya bZene-po of Chu-bar. were The freecoee painted to the rjght of the peaceful deities of t h e nsnical m." the past. Val?. ser-mo 1 always see this uouthern peak of dBenEnlig?ttened 7amiliee. g L a n SBk-ye bZang-po Chu-bar who waa the pillar of the MaPicel M e t (NGB. Ih-16). S3nce in I shall build a temple of the peacefuJ. MI3 main student end nephew. Zur-po-che It was improper to make images according to the secret Por attainment and in places w h e ~ e many images people to would the congregate. as the Buddhas of the Five Therefore.

. 10. on a11 sidee. Vols. Anuyoga and practical i n ~ t r u c t i o nfor ~ Atlyog~. actually the . sGro-fhue-pa could reportedly *od an6 gather *Go9 five literate students Curi-ng the summer end w j n t a r and three during the autumn and epring. and under aGro-phug-pa Prom the age o? thjr*y owins to his intellectual abili*ies for and tevts devotion. and students e u r r o u n d ~ d hlm Be appeared to be faclng his audlence in a31 they were convinced that he was of he directlone.c_ i Nt o Therefore. a n d the ?cur wgrandfathers". when he warn teaching the doctrine jn sGro-phug. and 8Qro-phue-pa breitowed upon him the fundamental Mah8yoga. the Pepresentrtlve of the lord of the yAA=&-attv~ (WGB. he s a t on a backleee teaching-throne.152 illuet~etcd by the following lncldent: Once.b t ~ a e . the two mainstream lineapes diverged from hlm. Desefte the recent critjcisms of Lha bLe-ma Ye-shes Khup-ee hundred hundred L h a s . The Your *black oneen (m. 16-16) and became renowned as an undisputed emanation. mandsja . The Zur Lineage in pcntral Tibet: In Central Tibet. so-called because their names all cantajned the element nap. inclrided ICe+he the main l l n e s g e . 2ur sGro-phug-pn*e principle disciples were known as the four "black onesw: the four wteachersw. . wblack") aton rt3ya-nag oC Upper Wyang. Wing t o hie maetery of this tantra.. 1. MYa-nae eleven studied yearn.e.h o l d e ~ of Central or wVpger Zur Traditionw. the Zur lineage of Central Tibet and the Khama lineage of Eastern Tibet.

Zur Byams-pa Seng-ge ~Yung-eton-pa's own teacher. .s-pa ~hig-po. based an the exepesj e of the - - - - - sGfo-phug-pa: Byins-etan of p T ~ s n gand Nye-aton Chos-kyi Seng-ge of s G a r g drj ngs. at 'Us-pa-lung. and hie own nephew. rTe-s+on gZi-brjid (compiler of t h e biopraphice a? 1i neage ! thlg latter also composed his own extensive commentary ot: the pYung-9ton-pa rDo-rje dPal. Yon-tan gZungs (b. however.* d u l : mDa* JBk-ya *Phel: Zur Byams-pe Seng-ge. of t h e 2 ~ ~ s His many students included dBus-pa . he became the moat complete lineape-holder aTon-b8k. was the ZuP Wyi-ma Sang-ge and great grandson hie fifteenth year.Fcr t h i s reason. he studied the Ouhvanlrbha in hie seventeenth year. yon-ton gZungs and dBus-pa Zhfg-po: Zhig-po bnud-rrsi: rfa-ston So-ye (compiler of t h e former's ?eachings!. Ron of In of Pak-shi S&k-ya-'od. Pak-shl Sak-ya 'od: 1-78-nag b D * ~ d . dR. gTsang-nag 'Od-*bar: Mes-ston mGon-pa: bta-ma Srong. and then. The lineage thus descended ae follows: - The Ice-ston rGya-nag. he under m D a l Sakya 'Phel. gYunp-ston-pa roo-rje dPa1. Z u r Byame-ps Scnp-ge. in hjs cammertary on the ?allowing divergenr lineace. 1126) who studied the three c l a s r e ~of inner tsntre under him for thirteen years.

ancient and He became t h e g e n u i n e egiritual s o n o f Kar-ma-pa I T ? . . rcpreeentative of t h e "dintant he composed t h e W h t l n n M i r r o r l ~ ~ don u d nfenn-ba*i envina- - w -bvrd m. a commentary other exepet~csl on the suryarsed traditions j n i t 5 popularity. 1736) and t h e Great Perfectjon from 1Ce-eton Grub-pa ampowemnents af beneficence. H e subsequently recejved t h e w . af the pLan clan (328D-1365) was learned in Abhidhamna. new.* D ~ u . which Zur became a point ofJ etudy f o r later m a s t e r s such a s Later cornentatore such a s N@m-mkha' Choe-dyinga Lo-chcn Rang-grol. MOKMO. h e ohtninod ljnesge". end rfs-nag eGro1-ms-ba hSam-grub rDo-rjc. the . Byemc-pa Sene-ge himeelf hed dieciplea. gYung-ston rba-rje OPsl : gYung-ston-pa dialectice. however.D a w (P.~ t o d . 0718). ability. foremost disciple of his later y e s r e . ? 8 ) . and profundity acccrding t o the z u r trsdition of *he cnl N e t ( p n v u. Rin-chen. the and EQ!i m p b - - . Foremoet anlane t h e m eerly gYung-eton rbo-rje d P a 3 .1. and t h e mantra-traditionn. t h e penlor disciflc of hie the years. nurneroue and msny o t h e r teachjngs. 4eneFrom Zur Byams-ps Sene-ge. H i s approach i s 4escribed a s clasificatsry focal and h e rearranged t h e fifth chapter. + h e -brbha and t h e Her-khm ~ommenta-~ w ( w e e e t w . P. h736). which Val. by*)?lg rbo-rje. includlnp s i ~ + e e n h 3 had mastered t h e W e . r -kvf phnp-nus-w-nsum-PVI w )r o m P rTa-sten pZi-brjld af L a .composed m m ) a rjcP-tivt Pretatat-n at t h e Tan- -( !P.m a -D 'Bum.

i l ( Pcl I& b i n c l u d i n ~ the Slk-ye 'Byung-enas.g r u b rDo-rje: bSm-grub rDo-rje from rTa-nag gttae-gear (1295-1376) studied the Nya- extensively under Zur B y m s . At under hi8 own frthrr and Zur H a i n the agr of fourteen. to 11718). the -ma his fifth Year he delivered an aetonishing public exegesis of the 158 Under Sa-bzang Mat1 Pan-chen. ewowerrrnt on o h r .b m v u Q ) and his own son. including (P. Amons his students were Zur Ham Sbkfrom whom iseued the so-called "Zur lineage" ( t y y . maatered the sGr31-ma-ba bSun-grub rDo-rje*s son (1350doctrinal cycle6 of the I. (T. 1a31). ye 'Byung-gnas of Yane-dben.p a Seng-ge and became learned in . and the the jrlnuhvAnarbhatattva- a . He v extensively including P. rTa-nag isGrol-ma-ba b S m . Sangs-rgyae Rin-chen. tantras and eeoteric inst~uctions. He also received its empowerment from gtan tshal-pa %Sod-name mGon-po. and *Jam-dbyanee bsam-grub rDo-rje he made a general study of eiitras.mt--( Propagated the -.b r u ) . te. 11736).m p -n U l 832). Sangs-rgyae Rin-chen rGyal-mtahrn dPal-bzang-Po: S a n s s . g~un~-ston- pa. In v . he was able to confer Hr then compo88d a arrrt pa fihL . hi8 students.r w a s Rin-chen. Zur Ham was the eon cf the aforementioned Zur bZeng-po dPal.153 *~d-zer were frequently influenced by hie intrrpretatione. from whom issued the "eon*s lineage" ( w . dialectics.

and en extensive exegesis of the 8737) the accoreing to his own commentary.-pa) and na r - - a Detailrd CercmonvLpy&he E & t e e L n . 8301 and the 'Gas Lote&wa pZhon-nu dPal: 'Go8 bzhin gZhon-nu dPal (1392-1U81) was a student of Karma-pa V. He received the and 80 "distant became lineago" from sarol-chen Sangs-rgya6 Rin-chen.bo l a m n n 9 n .r t ~ g g w . m 155 . r rnratrr and lineaee-holder of the r ~ y i n e .n h .b r u . m the exefeeis of the Guhvanarbha&FPV tantra and it8 commentary. (lam other aL - -1 include HIS (a i r compositions E. - P. and the great De- pandita Vhnaratns.7! ( Q f 'urcl-eh-p). 111). of the Illurninatinn He also bestowed on pf him transmissions Punaamental % {khon-nzhunn . the author of the Blue Annals as a discivle wrathful and granted him the empowermer!t of the peaceful and deities according to the the ~ h r * (BS.~ a ~ . In his seventieth year he accepted 'Gas-lo pZho-nu dPal. the m t v .YU-'D~F~ of the 'i -1: longevity-empowerment Manical NPZ ( w u -q --dam).b r l rpa .m a school. 360).c h a ~ t e r Maniral NPJB. . k~ea - T.uteneive DescriDtive Basis a Bi Wrsthiul Dnities (kbro. W bu&aU I & % Vol.* D W d . gshegs-pa. He .. 11739). and other texts. and a Detatlcd rn ArrrYPLLkPathpLmsManical when an he was about forty. (T. rNgop Byanf-chub dPal. k&( ~ g y u . He corrected and retranslated the the .* o h w . the m - ( m u . e z k u 2 m e H i n h e J 2 !l a 1 cho-narnuaa-Q&).

Choa-kyi Grape-pa (i153-1525): A native of Tre-shod Khans-dmar. . I (true) doctrine." His main students were Karma-pa VII. - Rans-erol Wyi-zlr Srnea-reyam r mantur of the 'Khon family: 'Khon-aton dPrl-'byor ~ h u n . Chos-kyi Grass-Pa. 1V. was never polluted by the defilement of rejecting So. the l i n e r ~ edescended through: - . Chos-graps rGya-mtsho the latter being and the Zhve-dmar-pa principal lineage-holder. the tranamitted precepts (m1-=).T8he-dbang Nor-rw. exemplified the and t 157 by the mqp-rnuud- and the treasures 1 ( P C L D ~ associated with the ElCpht Epyr ~ran~mittedF ? im*-brwad). and to adorn them with the eeoteric in8tructlonS of the 158 trea~ure~. his custom the tranemitted was to disclose the central points by meane of Precepts. he studied the tantras of the Ancient dPal. Zhva-dmar-pa IV. and New Translation Schools under 'Go8 Lotshwa gzhon-nu and conferred the former on Zur-pa Rin-chen Phun-tahops of Rin-chen Phun-tshops from 'Bri-guns SKU-gnyer-egang mastered both sems-aaum.8. From him.156 himself said: "1 acquired exceptional devotion towards the tradition renowned as the rNyinp-ma-pa echool of secret mantras. - art m 'Innerrnosf (snuinn-thin(gter-kha - : h In e w with the ur--trovra Ponp-'on1 accord tradition of the mNpa'-ria Pan-chen Padma dBang-rpyal.g r u b (the former's eon).

l d z l n . t h e The the o f Brag-sna and Z u r Chos-dbyinpe Rang-cral. C h o n .- t h e &Par-b718). of ( - composed a memorandum o f t h e flrst f l v e chapters gYunp-etan-pn's Commentary ~uhvanarbha a c c 6 ~ d i n g t o -a). i n t u ~ n . ary on t h e -- P h v . 'byms-pa's commentary-. Padmamatt. Late in 11 fe. its commentary camposed by gYung-ston-pa.* ~ h o n . In 1622 h e studied klong-chen Rab-'byams-pa'e commentin 1624. dPal. w h e r e h e definitively established i t s extgesie. V at his retreat Zur-chen Choe-dbylngs Rang-grol He (160h-1669): Don-grub dPa1-*byor and a direct he was the of in son o f Zur-chen gZhon-nu From descendant received t h e Z u r lineage. n Vol . and C o m m e n t a r y fh r .lbyar 1. Lhnn-grub p a r t l c u l a r t w a d a l l y s e s s l o n s o f instruction which combined t h e .hr the Tibetan HMKMG. 28). and. 160 t o sfag-bla Padmansti o f p ah-tho=.d b y i n ~ s Rang-grol Rig'dzin 111 expounded t h e Whyanart&a t o rDor-braz 159 Mgae-qi dBang-PO and o t h e r s at t h e s e m t n b r y o f PTeee-thang. Then. commentary PYung-stan-pa (bod.hun-grub instructed Dalal l a m a in Pha-vang-khe. . o f t h e M nc l c y c l e . H e composed five a memorandum o f t h e t e a c h l n g h e hnrl rece3ved o n t h e first chapters.--bcu h e taught kl-ong-chen Rab- -s r l . enana+*on of 8Gra-phug-pa. a i a commentaries 'bysms-ps's such as ktong-chen hjs - under fat he^.b.u ~ c - .s t o ndPsl-'byor 6Pal.* n ~ + l Y w t f h . by m a h ~ t m P. doctrine-master former he w a s regarded a ? 9n He instructed 0-rgya? C a T a n . . and ln consequence o f hi9 learnfnc ln t h i ~ Cycle.* byor Lhun-grub Lhun-grub (1561-1637): ~ t u d l e d the and + h e o t h e r Pnh- tan+ra.

gNyoe-st on gSang-bdag Phrl n-I sc Lhun-grub. 162 Lhun-grub in C h e . and g Y l r l g - stsn-pels Commentary lineage* t h e r e t o r e contj nucd from: Yo3. Tt was Kah-thac-pa Dam-pr bnr- hovever. 161 i t s f u t u r e continul ty. -G. From thir time on. lineages spread empharisinp the msh-sevu. f n e + ~ u c t e b P h r i n . the momentum of this Central- Tibetan eveestfcal trafljtion hae continued without interruption. vha originally m a d e t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e Ancjent T ~ a n s l e t l o n School w e 1 2-known in that pcgjon.l a s !bun-grub In accordance with t h e e a r . . 11.offered ensuring Rang-groi Phrin-la8 thir exegetical transmission t o Lho-brag gSunes-nprul. and Rig-'dzin Lo-chcn gTer-bdee Dhamad~f Forth.Zur Chos-clbyings Rang-era1 and Dalbi L a m e V. T h e Khame T r s d i t f o n o f Kah-thog: Vairocana +ranolatsd master SQryaprabh&sishe3s extcngive Khamc tshegr. . !16&6-1716) great m a n y (1654-1717). Late In life. T h e " d I ~ + a n t . - Lo-chen C h o s . 28). owing t o OSans-bdag KLjng-pe Phrln-lss Lhun-grub's 'Byor-med from rDo-rjc whom a t w o eons. Chon-dbylnp~ where he i n ~ t r u c t e d gSang-bdap Dalsi Lams V also lived in Oung-thong. P.r e a l bsTan-'dzin. h7191. and he cxpounaed f t there.sea^^.k m Conmen (arvaGuhvanarbhfktAttIk&.

Mustang. I n 1159. - the Mental Class. 8321. 1 that Kah- Kah-thop-pa a l a o e t u d i e d t h e 4739) unde? Opal-gyi d B a n g . u n d e r * D z a m . t o s t u d e n t s f r o m A-mdo. Tsha-ba-rong. rnO 80 Kah-thog-pa on. Zur tradition. K u n .p r 'bum: spyan-engs Ueng-phu-ba bSob-nams dBu-'od Ye-she6 'Bum. he founded the temple o f Kah-thog.p a i n person. and U o n .p h y u g on o f La-stod. nt K a h - thoe.rub Ye-rhea rQyrl-mtmhan.a g a * 'Bum-pa. 3 6 0 ) and o t h e r tantrae. B y a n p .D n . NGB.0 0 '1 ChP ~ thop-pa wet s G r o . Khrms l i n e a g e b e g i n n i n g f r o m Kah-thop-pa . -3- h e expounded the &va B p t of *s - -b a . Bymg-chub blo-gro~: B y r n s .roe * Bum-pa: bLo-sros Sent-gi. I n c l u d i n g a l l i t s m a j o r and m i n o r all according t o the Indian and T i b e t a n c o m m e n t a r i e s a n d texts.c h u b Seng-fe: Byrns-chub royal-mtmhrn:. etudied t h e . h e laid the foundation for the The teechino of t h e secret mantras in t h e p r o v i n c e o f mCo-khams. 'Bum-pa. There. D a l a i Lama V also statee in hie 163 a student of Z u r aGro-phug-pa. h e s k i l l f u l l y r e v e a l e d t h e G r e a t P e r f e c t i o n and t h e Guhvanarbbntrntra !T. In t h i s way. 15.gTeang-eton-pa: c o n t i n u e d through: - - - - - B y r m s . Val.A maternal c o u s i n o f Phag-mo-gru-pa and a n a t i v e o f Bu-'bur-sgan~t in mDo-khams.p o . T.p h u g . dBans-phyug dPr1-br: bLo-.s t o n 'Gro-ta*i e o n .c h u b dPa1-ba: bSod-nuam bZrng-po. a s i t e w h i c h r e s e m b l e d t h e l e t t e r KA. mKhrm-. ( In addition. . ( W .

His campasitions incluOe4 n & 3 4 outline (a-o*i end s y n o p s i ~of t h e *nrcl-pa!: x s SccrcP p Wucle. H e r e c l a r i f l e d t h e root-text and c a m m e n t o r i c s o f t h e -am t a n t r a in Khsme.m ! - h L i snvinn . PeacePU commehtary. and the w e ?C proparated d u r i n g t h e fourteenth-sixteenth in 4. ( -a 165 ).r ) - mkha* my.e.la ' = ~ e l ~ a ~ a . was r etudent o? Byang-chub r6yal-mtshan and Br¶*o Choy- 'buw.l o e l ..-mt@ho miso compaaed c a m m e n t a r i e @ o n the mhuana~bha andthelu'rkvPLmwafhaWluicalIlaf. and t h e l e a m o s i l t i a n qL st- lba !t.A t Kah-thog.nn.b e eI / ~ - - - - : e Cammcntarv h a - ) : the ~ ~ p l l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l l ~ ~ u m i n ~ ~ >el-~a).m t s h a n . t h e learned and a c c o m p l i s h e d m a s t e r o i B u - 'bar. . rise ni Ye-9hes r G y a l .h9ns-J~i w . t h e -distant linestea o f t h e centuriem. ?he period b e t w e e n t h e z r e e t n e s s o f 'Ug-pa-lung t h e ? a t e r m o n a s t f c c e n t r c e in C e n t ~ a l Tibet.

+he (rQYud- Padma Phrin-lan o f r D o . I n h i e th$r+e-nth year. h e mastere* t h e scriyture9 o f t h e ~ M u b stradition. and r multitude of other atudente from Tibet an4 167 Khams.z o ~ Pandita. brom-ldan Rig-pa'i ( Ral-grl*- rbl-nri'i h e la s a j d ta have In p a t i c l r obtained unimpeded p o w e ~ se f in+eYlectual a n a l y s i s b y 6lligently investlgatine t h e s c r i p t u r e s of ktomg-chen Rab-'byams-ps.1659 st a t i m e o f d e c l i n e i n 166 Centrsl T i b e + ..~n-grub.B u- lineage o f a-earn. tranzwi+ted at sMln-0"-1- h e himself founded 1.r c y a l : and h S 8 daughter. an* ether texts. Drin-chcn Pin-chon r N m . .ha. rDzags-chen Padma Rig-'Rrln IDe'u-htcan. and recelved I t s oral cxegc-cs f r o m his F a t h e r . .@z&xpX l. = L i n g .k -?ah-3. T h e r e s u r s e n c e o f t h e bka'-ma lineage in Central Tibe*: Ris-'dzin pTer-bdap gLlng-pa: ~ T r r . gline.0-chrn bthln 1.r j e Brag. It I F d u e t o h l s e f f o r t s and t o t h o s e whLch of his Fuccessors that t h e ndistant H e transm$tted llneapen has continued es rallcrttq a living t r s d i t l o n .b d a g gtlng-pa !16h6-1713) from Dar-rpyas chos- i f 1 Rip-'dzin gline in Grn-n*ng.s n ~ . tTer-bdag preceptsN. T h e closest s t u d e n t s w e r e hlr y o u n g e r b r o t h e r 1.12.p a restored t h e "distant exemglifled by t h e m d o . Fcllnitlve . w a g t h e son o f gSang-bdag Phrin-lme I. In8ceB. 1 is studie3 ef the dnctrlnc C O V D P ~ ~ a extent tr*nwvittsd i precerts of n h o f t h e Ancient T r a n s l a + i a n School. Includjng t h e ry-le he mew@rleed the i I the b b t - m. Later. t h e Y u r tradition and o f R o n g .0~8-grub.

' ~ h v u l - . When. 881. A m O n g them a r e t w o authoritative commentaries o n i t role b d r l . h e understood t h e overt and hidden m e a n i n g s of that tantra and composed r volumlnous serien o f texto. an4 eight t i m e s he conferred t h e e m p o w e m c n t o f t h e peaceful and wrathful Oeitiea of the perpetuate lineage of t h e distant lineage o f tranemiitted precept6 and c l o s e t r e a e u r e s h e composed t h e elghteen (m'-bm). and g i v e n instrvctlon by h i s e l d e r in t h e w o r k s o f klong-chen-ph. he taught t h e behalf of about alxty mmnbePB o f t h e gllng. gter-bdag snd those and gLing-pa. p. of the Z u r lineage. NnKMG.' b \ . ~ ) ) . pp.- (rnvinton M ~ u d .s-m I I . Subsequently. - ( p Consentary (t. In order to voiumes of his lpdp including coamentariee o n t h e -D B m heard which his - ~ and t h e nanicrl a m.The translator nharmadrf (1656-1718) w a s fully ordained by Lama Dalal V. of 33-36. brother. the he brother d e l i v e r a n oral exegesls o f auhvaPsrhha combined t h e 4718) 28). -U ~&~tfk&.I their root-. + i n particular. collect- I ively known a 6 t h e p * u . and pyung-iston-pa'a m. Rong-zom-pa. Vol. Vole. vols.ffi yit-cha.t h e Callccted rantrarr pi . 11- 32-31). IRIKWO. which a v p r a i ~ e s trdition t h i s t a n t r r within t h e rwying-ma as r . H e received t h e e n t i r e bdo m - u . - community at snin-grol- -.U .

n - which w u corpomod in 1730.u (IW. tho -in tr.b m * i - . latter bv him ctudont. and tho i h a l u a n a . viz.a m * ~U m * u .ntary on the antitlod 171 - - b ' r d . of tho Dzun-gar-pc 172 incurmion and during tho era csntro of activity for gLine-pa.wholo.Vol. 36). following mucco8mion: the "distant linergr" ua8 transmitted in the cOp. w h r ~ the aMin-gr01- . which providom 6efinitive readinem for tho root-vmrmem thenmolvom . 1676). tho "dimturt ~ f t o rtho l i n o ~ o " wam deprrdationm of tho *Jig8-mad rlyins-u extonmivoly propyato0 throu~houtK h u o . tho - rm-nru I -i .diSion la frct w v o d outwrrda to Kh-. 13. txtonmivo Propagation of tho "dimtant llnoasow in K h r u : From tho tiw of Dalai ku V. and In mMln--01-cline. 169 Thore are a180 extant colpwntariom on tho 0-rwan Chom-'phel (b.- 365.

m o Gof the * d i m t m t lin@u@" until - - continued without decline -cent the lonUterU of Krh-tho8 roo-rje 8Den. the tr.r w r l tha end wrra p r o p u r t e d in Kh~mo-pr ~ p r e r d i n g am far am W r l . ie.u teaching in Khamm from the t m l f t h century onwrcdo. r mtronghold of tha w u r a v i n g .rjm. T h e latter'm student. on the F .b d u rLine- Dr Of .r a n g in ramtern U h u m m d the log m a i o n o i A-mdo. Throueh hi0 oucceomive incrrnationm. U . rtoho e. b S o d . Dri-nard urd revitrlieed the exegeticrl tradition. o? Kah-thou.. Krh-thoe dam-brt me Prndi tr. down to recent tercherm. 1764 corpooedn r o v u t ' . md klong-earl oNying-PO.W i -amen-chen Rig-'drin New-dbure dPr1-bran. t u r QameAA entitled r -r r - UD-Fa .gling l i n e ~ e u m t m i n e f~ ma-chen 0-rwm bmtm-'dtin -11-mrrm Rin-chmn r l u .W - a ~ h o g .e r u bcrta&oeued thu 171 . Krh-tho8 Si-tu X X Kun-grigm C h o m . g. !1880-1925).Win-e~ol-elina. ohm-db-g Among them. and in c..n r ~ m lde'u- bfaan. thim l i n e a m ham continued . racoiveb the Central Tibetan l i n e u e froa e f e r .n o . Surge-rwu 'Wur-mmd Q t L roo. basinning with -on-poo and through the rfiortr of Zhing-mkyong Rig- m d Pmhe-dbong mchog-grub. In theme regionm.

Zh*-chon R r b .c h o n IV. - l r t t r ~mntitlrd n ' s fi-vr-br*i -k v i . life ti^ o f ~ D z a c a .c h e n Nyi-rr Qrras-pa. ntahan. Thim monr8tery wr8 founded in 1735 a 8 r branch o f rDzoa8-chen by iI ' W u r . th* IncluCinc the .a w ..the behest o f Drlri Lama V. ~Zhrn-phrn Calletr at rDtoga-chrn and.cDzogsTheg-nchot bsTrn-'dzin. including the cycle of the volume. and now in India by rDzoga-chon Myrl-srrs VII.9 brine n i lp ) r repetition o f the intmrlinerr mectiona 171 of kLona-chon R r b " b y u 8 . et. mrintrlncd by T h e #eat w a s dPon-slob h i 8 mtudrnfs. ro the ~ @ q u e a t a? mNin-elins Khri- p ~ ~ e p t a " . *a-kona rl irs mKhan-po nKhrn-go =than-phan C h o 8 . ehen I1 and thererfter by hi6 auccemaive i n c r ~ n r t i o n a . in about ten 8 1 8 incrrnrtion.' .b z m c r N u .g t r n Chos-glint at Ru-daa 8Kyid-khrra in 1683. including Zhe-chen .r a y r l . U. r~rots-chon I I I .z l r . *Gyur-md bkal Purine Byrne-chub the rDo-rje. aZhm-dare c o m e n t r r i a 8 o n thirtren major t x . wrote aNrnc-br. a h r .~ dK u n .W i (1871-1927). m d founded t h r o t m a t ~ centre of G u ..v r e 8 ahvPtr bru - - . u n .' W u a Y1a rrintrinad by Thm meat hi8 8ucce88ive incrrnrtion8.

s n ~ m g e beTan-'dzin associa+cd with tn the inetltu+e the annual extant hrench- ceremony mandalaa twenty-sevt- a? t h e . dPa1-yul.p o and m C h o g .sngags beTan-'dzin (3871-1977).dt h e ./ saa.s p u b gLJng in 4-mde.~ q ~ a g b S h a d . p1 chen Rab-'byams I V 'byor r a y n . o f w h ¶ c h v o l u m e s 21-&O include orls3nst i n c o ~ p o ~ a + ecorumente~irl l i t e r s t u l u within d 175 COl lection. a n d )re fa~:ndr?.B t o b s r l a m . and rOya1-tshah Padma rWaw-rgyal apg] -YUI: In 1665.m t ~ h o (1771-1809).* o r l n a . successore tradi ti an.* w u r gLlng-pa encouraged ~ S y s m b o . Zhe-chen 'Oyur-med dysl-tshab 1 sang-. The s llneete of dPa1-yul of 10 n o w m a i n t a i n e d i n S o u t h In433 by thr ?ncarn%tion &Pal -yul P n d n a Nor-bu ' Jan-dpsY Grub-pa * J lineate I! ? 0- tras.r w a n mfa-snergr Chos-ky3 Wyi-ma.r m a l .d l ~ + b n t Ilneapca. of Rig-'dztn Kun-bzang S h e s .* b y a n s I r I r1r. The s e c o n d o f t h e s e l n d i a n editions. The extant texts canstitutlng the ndistsn+ of trsnsmitted precepts* w e r e r r p ~ ~ b l i s h e in s n a c t w e n t y valumef by d and t h e s e h o v e heen reprinted 0 . t h e the B b a * -M kk Wns-m newly comprises 4 0 volumes. and by Zhcthe 'Oyur-med m l h u . . *Jam-dbyavgs 6 B s n g .monastery o f bar-thane m b o . 190a!. At enphasieing tresau~c-cycle o f aKhyen-brtse'i sprul Padma pl lng-pa.r a b founded the doc+w3nsl where his the cen+re rWam-rgyal Dynng-chub pLinp et upheld hi 3 Ra+na teach1 n g dPsl-yul.

Opal-yul P a d m a Wor-bu 'Jam-dpel Grub-pa'! 177 Among and rDzogs-chen V Thl~b-betan Chos-kyi ri)o-rze.m e . an woe e l a b o ~ a t edc.p b a m Kun-bzsng M)o-~je.~a (rnuinnZ=f?14-*-).. commentsry on t h e .ta the .Dil-mgo. FUW-rwel an6 wrathful d e i t i e s of t h e w e a l ( P ! l mihu-stnhs along with ite e m p o w e n n e q t .sl t n r s gL ZQe zUins .rt3 a-khro). entitled . from 'Cyur-wee o f Zhe-chrn. . rol l*c*e.z.* m u In p a r t i c u l a ~ .1m - w - 3 - pp. t e n t r e e i n c l u d ~ nt~ e h w m and received t h e t r e n s m i e e l o n a of ?he bKa*-'~~u.n &u¶ .m g o n Kong-sprill a n d beeurgenee century mChog-'gyur *or n!nsfl~?ly o f t h e rUying-ns and e t h e r t r a d i t l o n e Khans. in wap with * J a m . eMln-grol-glln~. mDo-khans. 24b. He the existing ex~getl-a1 tradjtions of mvrr sOtras.!ng-pa. thirteen +he end the other^ h e studied all and tres+feee yeere.o on t h e m e d $ t o t i v e technfgues. . h e received t e a c h i n g o n . H i s foremort s t u d e n t s w e r e 'JIJ M i . along the sDe-dgc district.ba'i w h i c h he@ The tex* pin s . In h i s twenty-flra* y e a r h e a preceptop o f tecnth ordained by Rig-'dzin an9 bZang-pc. from t h e Se-skya-pa PDO-r3e Rin-chen end vowe the recefved 176 o f t h e cultivatfon o f t h e enlightened attitud*. w a e d i r e c t l y responsjblc. pesecf. gL. dPal-ldan.

* byamp-pa * s -bcu mun-eel. which examines the in terms OP the ten mepecte of mantra.J 8 8 7 ) . l a . the ~~egeti~al tradition of thin tantra accorling t o 178 lineagen wre taught during winter eaminers. he pecefved lnstpuc+jon in h i e t tradl tion primer1 ly from Q P s l . down by gTer-eton bSod-rgyel et rDo-grub Chen'e +he In the Ouhyeearbhe Temple at rDo-grub Monastery. inevitsbl~ by the vicieeitudee of time. - we must a by 1 take ~note ~ the @rigins1 of the various nttr-mr traditions inspired taqtra-text. who dlsscmlneted c * m t ? Q ~ e 4 commentaries on + h e .nr A native of * J u .v p r r . *fllB+. kLong-chen h l ~writings ' Jam-Obyongs of Buddhist sQtra end l ~ c l l ~ d een important commentary on en+i tled 1 R a h . -d o n . 27. The Treaeure-Dactrine~ associated with the In O u h .s p ~ u I Rin-po-ehe mKhyen-brtae* i UBang-po and 179 !1808.int lineage preceptsn of trensend mftted (rfnn-brw! ~ ' .m c l ! .b h e l a addition to theae holOers of the ndi~t€. NMKMG.! I/ ! 1 I written dictation. Canenjral support for the practice of cnncceljng aqd redlscovering text6 in the form of trea~ure-doctrines 1 ( 180 foun4 i n many a S t ~ r 6a n 6 ?en*ree. Whe~e~e the weakened vitality of the djytant The rationale lineage is is +ha+. 1 . 1 3 7 . fl. near rDe-dpc. the purity of the erclent *cloate lineage of tpaneleti~ne i r aid to be retained in the trea~urer* (we-brPJLYP e). Penown@& tor hje anslyees tentre-based philasophy. a srriea of doctrines which are a o r diecovered r n e w in each generation and which h w e .

it is F R I ~ the wild thet owing to past aepirations b o d h i s e t t v e ~continunlly heer sound of the 4ortrine In the elements and in +he ~ a u n d eof heaets. f reasuree nf intention 1( . rearrsnglne them on five kinds of yellow serfill of (eymbolising The five buddha-fa mi lie^) in the symbolic script the d&kinfs. a zicz). to be rediecavered future generatj ens. King Irhri-srong 1De-btsen. Anuyosa and Atiyoge 1R1 to his c a n s e r t Ye-shes mTshn-rgya?. are prlrnarily associated treasures with Pedernesambhava transmitted a masp of teachings on Uehhyoga. Buddha and will behold the visage of the Transcendent hear hir doctrine even though they Lord In reside another region of the universe . 0 Vimalatejas! the great bodhisattvae who are desirous of the doctrine and who are endowed with perfect aepiration and reverence. Padmasambhava. a?r it says j n 183 ( ' 136): 7. a S u c h doctrines a r e c1 ass1 f icd as e9rth- treasures (pa-nt-=I f .P ~ ) recollected . B u d d h a ~and bodhissttvar may reveel themselves in vision9 and teach the doctrine. the earth wha rediscovered treasures (XaIl. We*- Nysng-ban as Ting-'dzin of ~ 182 bZsng-pn and other* ape eimllarly t.c. Concerning treasures of inten+lon and pvre \rielon. a~ well as Vimalamitra. and to have inserted them in in varinus sealed *reasure-che~ts. gNubs Sangs-rgyas Ye-shes. Vsirocane.i more l~msdj t e jmpact.- pure ! ! visions or ( $ J ~ P . She ? s s a i d tc have retained theme. treasures (pj-n-dran Among these. the -ng ny. Ye-shes mfshn-rgysl. r while the Future regerde4 are concealers rediacovererff their cmanaticns.~.E-nt*ll).

. ~ t t n t l o n s . corresponding to the 049. The most their notable of on the baeia of Kong-aprul's biographies century recorded compilation. 1360): Behind Shel-brag in Yar-lung. once frepuanted by Padmamrabhava. hrr l Among the treasure-findera t h e m are a n e whose diso! coveries include text8 associated with the mandala of tha hundred peaceful and wrathful deitiee. t h e (-*-- -.revu - - of the "distant lineage". From the throat mpecifically he di8~0vOPtd the drthrlrinl Qf X h . the herdm and other body-part6 of that 0 .lr./ This * literature a180 developed a mynthetic tendency.r w r n gLing-pa extracted several cycle8 o? texts.= the Lirht TFpnemittaB PPftPD'CI.31- (m-) - D u n Up 1. which is that of the auhvanarbha - . Rahula. tantra tbese and are the cycle of the mentioned below. in a cave on Padna brTmeg6-pa Rock. and and the fOFemO8t of theme mhould almo contain texts ce??=err. there were natural stone irnaitea of the peaceful and wrathful deities. nineteenth U e a PL %he WunaMd w - a Yar-rje 0-rgyan sling-pa (1323-c. From guarded by an itnate image of of Rhhula. Great Perfection and nahik&aunikr (w 4 rdrona -1. concerning In general the major diucoverie8 should include text8 Guru Padmasambhavr. in 'Jam-ngon the 1Yftf.

a~ ~ d m ta w .9.Karma gLing-pa (c.ttad to only a slngle it wrs disseminated by am-nrkha' Chos-kyi and the line- flays-ntsho. Dvrgs-po the 1327-1387) extracted from Mt. aclrinlt ateF rrdiPtc Stala ( a . RTD. vol8. m n g He diecovered the Px&& ( ~ 0 1 DL L i Q m r t m W E e a s U d mid 188 lkkXt&U - rhi . 1-261). there 10 the e8pecirll~ in the Kong-po lu=ion.d a xhom-n~olchan-po). AXiA pp. transmission of its empowerment. 1. RTD. mhsuld be tranamj. prmSent. the ~ rtr ) i i . Hn Oave the laat mentioned fourteen 1 studrctr. 11).khI. One and guidance has continued until the the erslt By seetian of it. a - . third tenerrtion 8uccaa8or. Vol. maom-go-=bar in $bS YharltlPn&LtsSa&m(--8. Ona: chen-~a - . the many trer8ure8 which he di8covered. the practlce of which wrs eaphrsimed rt his monastery in 'Phyone-?was dPal-ri. the generrtions Then. is known in its English 187 translations rs the bard. and other treasures.p i a ( h to 186 ). but: conferred the parcaiul a I?aities: 3Ae I I hi8 son Wyi-tla it Choa-rJe rlone: demanding that for three person.

~- & 315n0: w l t h i i Llnht m the protectors+ o f t h e 3 e t r a n o a j + + e d p r e c e p t s (-u-*nhryl zhl- eytrected from M o u n t gNam-lcags * B a r .p a r e c e i v e d f r o m 'Jam-mgon tradltlans. Val. end t h e WU-*-). WU-R--.1 5-6 *.l-m- fleitiee - .b e I n sPu-bc by +3e yogin I oa Di13z-phrenp-can. accbrdinn XQ %hs Z i &Qfsun2 S 19a whjch uphold t h e tcrminalogy rrcs ul. a n d p u r e visions. A r n o ~ g hi€ there are some such 5s a treasr~ree. 60.~ p r u J a5st & @f rWylng-me of t h e pcaceF111 wr4t+1T1. PTP. .m .[ Be obtained + h e c y c l e t of t h e P t * c c f u and o f t h e )JI. profound which the c o n c e r n e d t b c "distant l l n e a p e w oT t h e 197 + r e e ~ u r e e . mChog-'gy~r the = l i n g . Re succeselons. lncl u d i n g t h e <8p:rtl~-*pw K o n e . Bio prolfflc discoveries anmountjng to twenty-three 191 volumes i n c l u d e t h e p g r m . the G r e s t 'Bum-rdrang.? h a s 7 h l . (--M?UI 195 and p h i l o s o p h l c s l s t r u c t u r v s o f t h e a d i s t e n t l i n e a g e m .

ful- unwavering contcmpl at ion. Ten Philosophical Top1 cs of t h e G u h v a ~ s r b h s : The philosophical content a? the ~uhuenarbhetBttvevfn~~~ is penermlly eXp0Qlnded in accordance with t h e ground. enlich+&ned actfvlty w h i c h 4 0 fi llmcnt of ampiration. mtsho. . - T h e e e t e n awpec+e e r e A view o f the real. which bring dlsplaycfl. By contrast. deter?inate ccnduct. and a l s o been eusmj nee in terms of t h e t h r e e cnvtfnua 198 (i'pj. offer3 n e s and mantra recltatian t h e goal to fruition. pL and t h e P e ~ c e f u l WrbthW 1 5 . commitment which is not t r a n s p r e ~ s e d . array. i n c ~ u d i nt~ e h ~f m U KeZ eL L k Thrce Rbots mwu-'~hrul drva- w.~ empowered and lnetructed by Padmasambhsva's the -'--) 3r+el l-tc prepen+& ~ rea at l&ltiee.W '00-P199 said to he: . 7) w h l c h h e ertracten from Si-nprr pY11rr)70ne-Bbofl bpe- in a pure vlsfon. euccessive eradatlon o f e m p o w e r m e n t . h e vtstted t h e Stiipe o f S e n k e r s k G t s w h r r a h e w e 3 eieht e m a n a t i o n s i n t o ( ~ I J E .Re was a proljfic dlsrn~f?rer of treasure-. Vol. mandala . 196 RTn. t h e present a n o l y ~ r swill seek t o it has jn t e m p o f t h e ten practical ~ s p e c t s of tantm examine t h e PO-cht In h f s m ~ 1 . which h a v e been outlined above.ud rn lm).. w h i l e r e s i d i n g ~ s h c g e 'Dus-pe. Alp?. 1 9? path and reeult o f M a h A y o g a .

the axiom of the four modes of eamenese and the axiom of supreme identity ( - Ehan- MI. and those who do the adherents of understand genuine reality (1. respective adhercntr of 200 Yogatantra and Mahhogatantra) . 2: The 8ingle bamim m d the manner of meed-mYllablem. ~ beings is this of eetabliahed. kinds of ( - the axiom of the the axiom of the realisation ( w). 66-113: intellectual perepective of vl*w(-)* i. the intention. aecrecy. . c. in terms The Btatue i sentient of of the no II 1 i eetablf6hment standing. Ubhayatantra. pp.e. In that particular the view of Mah&oga Dhenomenal existence ie epitomised in this tantra to be is I ascertained nrmely. All thing8 are the great king.. . (1. ae well as thoec who understand the meanings of diecipline. and the naturally secret truth Kriyktantra. M). 11. ?him is uenerally defined am the I # reality by once exaperation a d depreciation have been cut throush of true undernot the means of discriminative a w a r e n e ~(.B rpyi-bon. view. The ble88ing and the direct perception: Through (theme) four kindm of excellent realimation. purities ( ) . 1) The four kindm of realimation are indicated in Ch. fundamental four three reality by maana of four axioms. causal vehiclee).b-tU&). Sullr of to comprise those those wrong understanding. manifemtly perfect.

coalescence of appearance & emptiness. that of the manner of seed-syllable8 ( y t g .1 . purity. - 21 01 The ascertainment of this io indeed the fundamental view o r goal Of M a h b o p a . namely. ii) The view of reality jtmelf is that .I i i The axiom of the single basis ( w eetabliahee all thing8 to be naturally preeent and uncreated. establishee all thinge eubsumed 2 03 in relative and ultimate truth a8 a great sameness. and it8 logical proof is explored by M i . of eupportive buddha-body and supported Vriutine cognition.p h m Rin-PO205 che in three topice which he outlinee ae followa: 1) The view of apparitional reality ie the view that the container-world and its oentient contenta aF8 a meat purity in the mandala . conceptual freedom from elaboration and sameness itself.1 (yp= (mn v U 1 . Qvln-=is that of bleseing or an consecration indivisible and that 1 - e e t a b l i ~ h e e all thinge as esecnce of uncreated samanees and pure appearance. 202 Ir f ! i 1 ill) The axiom of the four mode8 of sameness. I1 ivj The axiom o f supreme identity establishes all thins8 to abide Primordially in the identity of a ainele pristine cognition or mind-ae-such abiding nature ( p n a s .. ii) The axiom of the three purities estnbliehes the its eentient contents and the mind-etream a8 containera great world. emptiness. all of the direct perception )-( eetablishee 201 thinge to be without intellectual characterietice. establiehee all things to be a u ) an unceasing ( t display of pure appearance.' b r ~ x t h .

pp. buddha- In 'od-nsal w. contemplation stage stage SPefifically refers and the t o the contemplation of the creation contemplation of the perfection (PakYgd-rim) (rdzPna=rim). effort. Then. Plation withbut 0 b ~ ~ ~ r a t i o nagitation. 206 radiance and non-conceptualieation. mantra--view indivisibility concluelon (pp. and In ten over comprising a proof of the superiority of that of the sGtras and s proof with reference to the of sameness. m a n t r a view purity itself. T h e former has four modes: an exteneive one which .'qZin ) . he sets forth the the proof of the view.all things are a great indivimible namenems. giving rise incidentally to experiences of bliss. awareness of the present. other view. 113-127: is essentially defined as the balanced Intelligence abiding with reference to or in harmony with a visualised one-pointedly object. recollection. 107-113) he shows how each of sameness the of aspects of mantra depends on purity and Contemplation This ( t i n -p e . and equanimity. 69-10?. ~t the outset. 111) The view which behold6 intrinsic awareness is thdt in which one is to become individually Aware that t h e muperior truth of the i n d i ~ i 6 i b i l i t v of purity and anmenerne is the great body of reallty (mahpdharmakilve). PP. contemor is attained through appropriate inclination. the experience of tranquility (barnatha/ zhinnaa) is refined by kinds of skillful means which enable the mind to abide in - nine its natural state. According to the Inner classes of tantra.

which applies the instantaneous recollection 210 a c c o ~ d a n c e with Atiyopa. Here.12?-136: Conduct is essentially defined to include all activities of body.Lam 2 11 Bovad-pa) In periods of meditative absorption. is classified into the conduct of discipline on the path of conduct of careful restraint on the path of liberation ( u n l. -. of the imaginary or effective meditation. an intermediate mode which enacts the in of -( skillful means 1 and seminal points on which the enel*gy channels. and the perfection or instantaneous contemplation.ng w) in the body are or connon- trolled and the coalescent path of liberation ipynl--) conceptualisinp yopa. includes delight the and The particular conduct of ~ a h a y o g a (-or-b) which generate are the rite0 of **sexual union" pitee of "liberation" ( ~ 0 1 . which . but 212 it concerns the phenomenal of z~editation in the display which arises before the mind. indestructible 208 an abridged mode which creates the spontaneously three rites: 209 and an extremely perfect contemplation accordinp to Anuyoga. currents !rtna-rlu.1 I refines develops ~ r ~ p e n ~ i t iaPseciafed es the five with the four places of birth. the yoga yoga of known as the Yoga of blessing or devotional meditation.b ) . contemplation occurs in three steps. conduct aftermath is said to refer to contemplation itself. Conduct (1 P P . The latter includes the path abridged mode awakeninps in life and the four rites of 207 reality. speech skillful It and mind which arc to be performed in the application means ( 1 and discriminative awareness of (p -hes-rab). .

ry--kwi ' - dbmn) which purifier the and seminal point into the buddha-body of reality 1 -. wrathfui rpplicrtion of compamrion.w ) . 136-108: Mandalr .I i 21 3 . ground. . pristine c o ~ n i t i o n . m d 210 buddha-body die junct ion. pp. It i s generally classif led into vase-empowerment -( - ) which purifies t h e body and energy channels into t h e emanational body ( w u l . ( the empoweranent o f word and tneaninQ .. is emaentirlly defined a s a central deity embodying fundamental reality rurrounded by peripheral c l u s t e r ~of deities. cognition rmpowrrment o f di8criminatinp ( h . the firet referring t o t h e primordial the presence of t h e container world and its sentient coatents a s eupportive deity and supported prietine cognition... . or am the baais on which the essential enlightened attributes are apprehended. of and result. while t h e third refers the "rank of Samantabhadra" whereon or to the conclusive reault. Ilrabala ( W i l *khaz ). . ..( three in equal proportion - into m) which the e8srntial DUrifie8 theme . path It is classified according t o the mandalas . epeech and mind. pristine cognitioa are without conJunction Empowerment stains mature i s eeeentially defined a s the initial disipation epeech and mind and the conferral of of the its covering the body. t h e secret empowerment enerw into () - which buddha-body of the purlfie6 t h e epeech perfect rapture and vital the (1Pnne-n~~o primtine mind and i -1. the second to the Symbolic o r illustrative images o f meditation and the genuine mandalas of buddha-body.

accordinit to ~ah&osa. mind ( %he cultivation of enlightened - ) and the commitments of the gSar-ma-pa mantra-- traditions. Attainment and common pp. three empowerment-and profundity to 2 15 the vase the ability ( u . Attainment ( a p r u b . cla8sified commitmenta including the vows of prxc&2ms&eg. - . essences (creation & perfection stages). common). plishments verbal (supreme & It is classified according to accomsupports (material and physical and mode. mantras. beneficence -( () -. Commitment (-3. of attainment .p a ) . not to interrupt to have loving kindness for secret and not to expound the meaning to unworthy recipients. 68craments. those entering the genuine path. 185-202: supreme skillful ie essentially defined as the a c ~ ~ i s i t i oof n accompliehmente through the extraordinary mean8 of the eecret mantras. The ten anicllary commitments are not to abandon 217 the five poisons and to gather the five nectars . (w-bn-nuid . mental contemplation. Commitment is 2s. 152-185: defined there as an are object general not to be essentially When transgressed.Lr). or one of five basic and ten ancillary commitments.kyi m).~ a ' l two of which correspond first empowerment and the last to the three higher ones. there is an 2 16 enumeration of twenty-eipht commitments. Poetures).buddha-body particular. to venerate the the continuity of mantras and seals. The five basic ones are not to abandon the unsurpassed. According catepories of to Mahboga in there are ). and in particular.

and its Drovieional there inner blissful results. ( Vp.Q&R).A Y ~ -1.B D ~ Q & . lr) into seed It is clasmified according to its objects of attainment the former generating the supreme and common activities. are activitiea of benefit to mentient beings and . Offerings are classlfied into outer offerings of enjoyment (phui L W ~ F . of liberation in other minds and the lattrr manifest in^ mupports. through the four which is expressed for immeaaurables the (wd-mfid rzd. secret of sexual union and "liberation" (gumsJ2a-U sameness (am-- - . sake of 220 learned others in ekillful meana. and real offerlnps of great -na - a * n -DO'L m. According to aapectm. Enlightened Activity 1 -. Then according to its are outer activitiea dependent on external sacraments activitiem there of bodv. mpeech and mind.=bod-~a).. These are 219 intesrated in the course of the feast-offering ceremony. a ) . 215-226: E~lizhtened activity is essentially defined as the extraordinary action. whereby male 8 female yopina attain the rank awareness-holders by the four 218 service and rite8 of attainment. inner offerings offerings of commitment (~BDP -k ~ i mr$~od-~a).(ritual service and rites of attainment). classified according to In particular. of the aapeets of ritual Offering is essentially defined €8 3 the means for venerating and producing delight in the deities because it precedes all virtuous deeds and the attainment of all activities. it of la the the extraordinary attainments feast-offerings (LE~.

a n the 6yllsblcr .r = ~ q 1. hntra ! s m m z ~ )p p .p e e l of r h o e . ev4 particular accordlne t o + h e seele of t h e path. 237-759: Rantre I R ensentislly defined ae +he extreardjnary uklllful mean? ?2h which protects the mind o r discrirninstive awareness. enrichment (-1. 221 stage OF through the recitation of mantras.rev& &en -FQ!. pp.e. 1. female consort !! .r e v q ) . subjufation ( 1 and wrath (-1. the four reeultsnt these fal~r seals ere secured by meane c f a l by t h e coltlvm+ion of t h e path.? . . the dactr?n%l . Thene eealr ere 223 sYmbDlics1ly made eCfec+lve by t h e h s n d . Sealint ( W a c . which in +he case of the crestion ftaee of Mahdyoga include the great-seal of budflha-body buddha-epeech hudflhe-mind Of (w ! - m a n . according t o which they either #bide ar b s s i r I-yllabl-s in the body. t h e crestion self-centred These may be ettained through t h e perleetion stsge. t h e comwitrne~+--eel ~f end t b e ec+q e p . there are common other-orient91 ac+lvitiee. O F by 272 prietine cognitfone.g e ~ t u r c g . the four rites of rlscifice- tion (-1. speech. At-cordlng to motivation o r o r + l v i t i e ~and suprema attributes.r . es the syllables of the divine palece. mind and actlvl ties.~r kinds of etVainmcnt. 226-237: Sealing is e ~ a e n t i a l ydefined a e t h e meane of reeolutely securine the buddha-body. +he$r fnl. It Is cla9si fie4 generally eccording t@ the reale of erorlnd.w w a r .r n v a ) huddha-actjvity l e e . In the case c f +he perfection stage. their result: T h e vocalic and consonantml eyllmhlea hove four modee.e e a ) (thuRf dav-+~!-In-1% w . in psth end result.t h o s e which eranicate GbsYacles. Tts toplcr caneio* of the syllshlcs.k u i & e p .

of three kinds: secret mantras -( -( mantras are said to ) be is snostic mantras 3). In the course of this analysis.texts the which narbhatantra interpret the Guhvaperbhetantra in the context of "distant lineage of transmitted precepts". force.&xl lPd-PBp1 anvinnsp. namely the exegetical method which 18 extensive and common. according to which this tantra and texts which interpret it in terns of the resultant vehicle. the Great Perfection. ! ( -7 retentive mantras ) and so-called because because its the the first second skilliul means secret. Their four of attainments are associated either with the essential nature with the nature of apparitional reality. 16. exegetical methods which apply to the meaning comprise two great traditional paths of of . its essence js awareness or pristine cognition. As Hi-pham The rNam-rgyal 8 w s in his apyi .1 i 1 I of miraculous emanation. or with thcir unimpeded potency and of The result includes provisional and eonclusjve levels 225 I # realisat ion. Mi-yham Rin-po-che concludes each section with a statement indicating the interrelated nature of these ten aspects. In terms of their practical application.. i representative of M a h w o g a . MahByoga and Atiyoga Interpretations of the Guhvawarbha: In Tibet the commentarial literature associated with the broadly falls into two categories-. 227 this tantra conveya:lce. . or as syllables of symbolic Bound. and the 226 third because coneecration occure when it is retained. ! I consecration of the buddhas. Atiyoga. with the i reality.

The accordance with Mahiiyoea'a second of refera to the unsurpassed tradition of the two lions speech-. and klonp- chen Rab-'byams-pa. For in the secret Perfection there are three categories of teaching. own textual and is explained tradition. . And he continuee: While these two exegetical methode are of a vinele eavour in that their intentions are directed toward8 the conclusive e s ~ e n t i a l meaninp. it is essentially among the identical. At1 or highest Because this tantra is classified as the division of R l a h h o ~ a . exposition sccords with the firet. creation & that which reveals the mandala In which . as the nature of and that which manifesting in Among regard priatine itself buddhahood.. in the context of thia work. that which reveals mind-as-such to without reveals and of thia the natural expreeaion of primordial buddhahood for creation or perfection.. them. three Great namely divisions of the Great Pe~iection.and The the expository method which ie profound former and uncommon.Rong-zorn Pandita Chos-kyi bZanp-po . poemtoeing the eesentials of Profound oaoteric instruction. perfection are indivisible and mind 8 pristine cognition are manifest be in themselvea. cognition in its essence. to the MahH classification cf Atiyoga. transkinga refers to the wondrous tradition of the were mitted mono in preceots of the slorious Zur family who all the holdera of tnostic mantras. the exegesis aCC0rde with the latter tradition.

While Of the standard techniques of Mah&yoga. Indeed. manifest in and of itself.I j I These two exegetical traditions do not therefore uphold contradictory dogmas but they Indicate a subtle difference of emphasis. Anuyoga realises &il things to be the expressive power of mind-as-such. 229 And Zur-chung-pa Shes-rab Grags: Mahbosa appears appears as as the miracle of of awareness. ~ t i y o g a . intrinsic Anuyosa the expressive power awareness. . are indivisible. the naturally present pristine cognition which Is without creation or cessation from the beginning. ground stressing the nature of the creation the and the gradual visualisation stage. perfection the tantra-text and the comprises seeds of Great and stages. in which the expanse and pristine cognition and Atiyoga realises all thing0 to be manifest In and of themselves as mind-as-such. indicating that there is no fundamental contradiction 230 between these exegetical approaches. Atiyoga ie awareness. this text equally demonstFates the of creation and perfection stages and the which selfare integration manifesting features creation of nature of mind and pristine cognition. 228 In the words of Lo-chen Dharmrbrl: Mahayoga realises all things to be the miraculous events mind-as-such of ! 1 in which appearance and emptiness are indivis- ible. are of course present. Perfection.

rwah [NMKMG.b b a n Mfbe Vol.dbwe M and the . gaans---i- -.d b m gmChop-grub (c. rDo-grub 111 '~ig8-med beTan-pa*i Nyi-ma (1865- 1926).The t3e firat method ia exemplified by thomr treatimam derived "dietant lineage". 6718). mGrol-ma-ba bSam-grub rDo-rje.b n ' i rnvfnn Vol.b d e ' i 'Od-zer ( c . (NELi5. klUgdh& ~ Vol. m'u-192111. . 36). Lo-chen DharmabrX (1656-1718). rP. n. (NMKMG. rTa-nag 28). 33-31). namely the Indian conaentarie8 by from ~flPt w vajrr. ~Z Y L ~ EJ *'by#.lnn-br'i 20).* -D*' m-mhrd m . Padma 'G~uP-medrGya-mtsho. Padaamunbhava. h e second 10 exemplified by SQryaprabhP8imha. YP I n r 6 swan-lung-pa MI-bskyod rDo-rje. (NMKMQ. vol. extant Tibetan commentiriea by gYung-aton rDo-rje dPal (128&-1365). dn&J. e r y p 1 a Lank Elm s v e. (P. W .b a x m . am 5 .IP. (NMKMG. m - ~ n * mud-don ~4. - (NHKHO.1 y u i b - - (NMKMG. . ~ Vol. Kah-thoo *Gyur- (NMKMG. and gamu~ - f l i m n .* chcrel . Vol. 35).M *i - (NMKHG. 1760). Vol. ~~ 321. (P. &al nsann- ba'i rnvinp - D - P - P - P -=-apea-~n*i - r p ~ a L d 3 . and Buddhaauh~a. .~a . 35). 6726) and 0719). mtd T ~ h t .D I * ~ (NMKMG. and '~yur-med ~ h m .k u l - -M- 29-30). am-nnrP - - . m .dmuz Vol. 1653). 31). Vols. nunn-h&!A tnsrl-Pr (P. Ham-mkha*1 Rin-chen (c. Vole. *=pal . Rons-tom-pa (c.

elaborating the eoeential. Vol. and - (NMKMG. Nonetheless the ltpacy of hey latter ham left its imprint in the rendition of certain (yr--1 * terms-. gZhan-phan Chos-kyi sNanp*va-ba'i b 8 (mKhan-po gZhan-dea'. accompanies our text. of The approach adopted is and traditional emphaoia one philological. &g. The variant rai~e by m . Quenther.b c u readings further m. . edition and translation of t h e This h Rob- largelv folLowe the interpretation of ktong-chen 'byema-pa (1308-1363) in hie celebrated interlinear commentary. ' Ju Mi-pham rNam-rwal (1846-19121 Vol. kLonp-chen-pa'8 mun-acl nr Vols. 1871-1927). which difficulties. of the extant manuscript which and xyiograph editions often been resolved have consultins the definitive Clearly a established by Lo-chen Dharmabrl in his - -r -- . g.r w a . r ~ ~ u d . the reader's attention these two will be drawn to specific points which differentiate the approachee.mmuUzdi l - ba'i-DO ' r l (NMKMQ. In the couree of the textual annotations. 25).V. literary historical in contraet to the phenomenological by inter- Dretatione pioneered the B.1100). often covert meanings.bl - ( NMKMQ .priatint cognition 232 and discriminative awaren868 1( - amone 0thmr8. first tending towards reductionism and classithe fication with emphasis on the Itroctural basis of oecond Mahboea. apyu-'phrul 231 p y i -zla*i -). 26-27 1. 27).

an. edition of Gtin-ekyes Dgon-pa-Dyan Monastery me. The aDe-dge =a'Ca *w '-LIT u . which is a 1975 reprint based on the xylographe of the A-'dzom *dzom 'Brug-pe (1802-1930). 457 The Peking -*--pi. The root-verses given in Lo-chen Dharmabr%. V O ~ . b) myQe. - - -.d m w m a R a - -- NGB.17. T. . Waddell Collection).6. prepared by A - 1) The spa-gro edition.. ) The version utilised by kLong-chen Rab-*byams-pa in G.-- -- D.T. lo me. 10 (Thimphu 1973-75) (IOL. thia edition of vereiona.. The Karma Chos-sgar Block-print 8. ( l o l l e c t e d . The editiona consulted in this study: a) a : the root-tantra is derived from the following extant Tibetan In the abeence of the oriainal Sanekrit manuscripto. Vol. A.hcy n : 'Brug-pa Choe-mgar. Z. ii) The dQa'-ldan Phun-tshogs-gling edition (British Library.NGB. 832 P.

and by Francesca pf Freemantle PfaQ. Book 2. Oxford 1927.n r ~ lare in W. See also Detlef Secret ~ o c t ~ i n epf rr uu~ Tibetan a6e)ts pL r . bDud-'joms hIL .che'i .Y1I . the Kapstein.he Dead.ton. -1 pp. 6. vol. Buddhism: The most a com- 0 Pundam-ntale and -tors. .~ t p gh gtrs.rAt= l&e&-~a'i cinna1-bnc U r R - tshul dan - - d e s n u . The translations of the bar d o o s .: Delhi: b.*nvw *do . Ch. x ~ -y rIn -chen 'JigsSLQnQR- ~&x&!A bra1 V. 1975-1976. Boulder/ tondon: Shambhala.Y. . Sherab Lama. G. York: The = . 1-281.18. Inso and ChBgyam Trungpa. 3lE NYinnme SklUxS Qf Tibetan Pt. Ye-shes rDo-rje. Annotations: 1 On the life and works of this p t e r . 3-1TUb. pp. r ~ . but refer also to RTD.f. n b e t m Book a Berkeley/ London: Lauf'. 3. London/ Evans-Wentz. pp. Dorje 8 M.= ypynl-ha'F bn. 1977. Shambhala. University Press. I see 'Jam-mpon Kong-sprul. 1975. k w.. and the edited translation of latter contained in Dudjom Rinpoche. I a n Book M. 6. 588-589. 12ba. Oxford/ New of course those by Kazi Dawa-Samdup. prehensive PB- edition of the Tibetan text of thi-hhro dnonnsappears to be that publiehec! in - 3 vols. ed.bo .

b 5 2 . Book 2. that since the fjnal paeina+ion of the English vereion has not yet been determined. therefore. Ysr-LyJ DYnestv end NSTR.m a . cnntmjns two texts which were compiled by v . see E. Matthew Kapstein. h e was 9lso s teacher of 'Elram-aton-pa.n m a n . Here there is no connection with t h e . whose floruit was in century. . As stafed in R.bshad hap). mulj i-l t m -aLAaLUr rda-rle t .~ r + i n . +he afore- bDud-*jams Rjn-po-che frnm older sources. r tshul g a r .ho . he is held to have Pone-z~m-pa the ~ a t eleventh l o pp.h m hpind-pa m&Aba_ag l - uunp-ha'i lzY!Jk title: Las mal-ba'l aos-'hv-1. Smrtijfi&naklrti and 3 TbJs editod translation. V U ~ hrjod-nq snann . the gjven page references acbord with the origjnal Tibetan texts.c h e * i m .n 7 .h s t m yonns-rd7o=-kyJ. prepared in collahorstian wjth Dr. end the m n . Preciae dateR far Smrti'Jigs-bra1 jfihneklrti are unknown.A.~ a ' i rnsm .rip -che h o . tlist very little time actuelly elapsed betweet? Lo-chen Rjn-chen bZang-PO. Stein.b a * i &R*-ston Henceforth [short m Pa n -pa to *J 43 the work will he referred NSTB. Tibet-q ~ 72-73. pp.* Q .fshnrt b ~ t a n .cine g s ~ .2 On the early kings of Tibet. 3. however. I ' Notethat t h i e d e s f g n a t j o n n g S s r . Note.3 . Haarh. n been elther e previoue emanmtjon or teacher of Chos-kyi bZang-po. Pt.m .p e " a 1 s o a p p l i p a t o t h e bKa'-edams-pa echool. mentioned m2 C y p y s l . It appears.s n ~ ug a g 4 . According t o bDud-'dome . b mdo -tsam title: I lens . Ye-shes r9o-rje. .

.n-po klnue of the royal dynasty. 1 723-726. Pt. ancestral rulers are the celebrated three three religious sQ8. 7. See NSTB. The expres%ion "high and low" (gtod - ) doctrinal centreo refer8 respectivel~to those in Lhasa (the Jo-khans and Rama-chel and near bSam-Yae (the dPal b S a m . Book 2. 7. pp.U b r P Y u d of the dOe-luge-pa. trmmlrt. -- as quoted in NSTB. Pt. Book 3-5. the former being earlier and at a higher elevation than thoee around bsam-yas. Pt.y a ~M i . Book 2.* ' w y y m d d. V -. the bodhisrttva of power. m. The pp. 723. revered Khri-srong 1De-btean who ie the bodhisattva of ae an emanation of Hafiju4rX. P. See MSTB. w 2 P . who is revered as an emanation of the bedhisattva of comvaesion. See NSTB. 3. namely: Srorig-btean Avalokite4vara. the holdere of the dGe-lugs-pa lineage. who are de~cribed by the term Rong-zom-pa. - m u d -*hum.h r w u ) when contrastrd his succeaeora.* w u r Lhungrub Lha-khanel. in which the dKa*to with gdamm-pa mastere who preceded Teong-kha-pa are referred as the ancient onea ( e . Book 2. 151-169. who in turn la revered as an emanation of Vajraphi. t .iona prepared bv each of the88 raya-dkar illu~trious mgra-*gyur Extant e i ~ h t h m d ninth century fiaurem in line at bSlm-&fa6 and elsewhere are premrrved in the . discriminative awarenese: and Khri Ral-pa-can. .

in this context. skrit edition: Kallchlkrs . 285- 288. trane76-78. For more details. Book 2. . syllable' verses of the m r t a n t r a Hopkinm.*- also * Jiee-med m pp. The standard seven-syllable verses of the OuhvaParbha in are reproduced below one transliteration. 61ling-pa. 158-166. a . Ed. or tranelation of meaning. See below. & n .Tlntra & and the San- -. a&nn 332.* n ~ u . Refer alsc to T l r a ~ G t h a . see NSTB. Dr. The charge ia commonly made by the rNying-ma-pa that those of Vajraykna texts made during the earlier a Buddhism u p.or translation of word. . pp. Pte. on Which see J. refers to the Magadha region alone. mission of the GuhvenarbhA are outlined below. 3. translations Propagation and unaltered by the ninth century revisions which read more lucidly in the Tibetan language than those conformed to the strict conventions of lexical translation. Pt. drawn from the underarm poekct of the Tibetan garment. m 362). Contrrmt the twenty(T. ypyud. pp. is here contrasted with 62: m a . see NSTB. 2-6: and elso for information on the role of Santaraksita in Tibet. Book 2. : Literally. . India.The contributions of the last three figures to the pp.

nTsang. 33 bet. - pp. affiliations respectively. V I6 revered as one of the major discoverere of gterammounting to twenty-five volumes in hie mKhyen-brtse and Kong-eprul. tory. 82-83. . pp. brgyud the with Sa-akya and bKa*of were the architects u-m or non-sectarian movement in nineteenth century .1 . .ona1 class of the Great perfection (-then. Dalai to the propagation of the tantra in particular. Lokesh Candra. Pt. Stein. 1285 led to the victory of Sa-skya and the of L 'Bri-gung in 1290.A. . pp. who had founded the I dynasty in Iran in 1258 and extended his own patronage the *Bri-guns-pa by 1267. k.Raghu Vira and Dr. 236-238. pe &. Lama RiB. and R.& m 70. gYung-ston PDO-rje dPal contributed greatly lineage. 1 I I 14 The conflict between Sa-skya and *Bpi-gun. Shakabpa. See R. developed out of who exercise6 Sa-skya. 78-79. and the Karms-pa with thelr petrons. archy. civil war waged between the dGe-luga-pa hier- with the military support of Gudrl Qan of the Qoaot the lords of Moneole. D. Stein. Book 2. p. in The military campain which began sacking a . - ~ITVR - ran. led to the enthronment of Dalai Lama V in Lhasa in 161)l. as we shall see and the Guhua= below. The See T. Ilkhan to authority and Tibet through his association with I his elder brother HnlegU. 1 15 Karma-pa 111 Rang-byung rDo-rje was a major lineage holder ! Of the esoteric instructj. Pt.. II See NsTB. a personal in quarrel between Qubilai Qan. 1. W .A.

25h-31h. the role of 'Bri-gung Rin-chen Phun-tshogs and Zhva-dmar-pa I I l7 IV in the ma'-- lineage. the relationship between Sa-skya Pandita's and the Zur family of *Ug-pa-lung.. founded by h i 3 brother gfer-bdas gLinp-pa in 1659.p.G. Pp. 18 The basic Anuyopa text gpyi is - M ~ Q XUS-DEJ. naasim. Dharmabrl. "Origin and Early Development of the Tibetan Relipious Traditions of the Great Perfection*'. pp. and these were by no means confined to the aforementioned masters or to the rim -m-d activities in nineteenth century Khame. Book 2 . NMKMG. to name but a few. ~ 0 1 s . 102-105. tradition have and the treatiees aesociated with this the become the established authorities of pp. Its branches covered Western and Eaatern Tibet. 'duB-DB vols.Khams. See elo ow. association with the yogin 'Dar-phya-ru-be. S. L C S ~ . 16 There are countless incidents of this free exchange of idea8 and instructions. the subject of many commentaries by Lo-chen YIU-PU. See NSTB. 10-12. achool. e. T. Refer to WSTB. I&-16. Karmay. 6. Book 2. The sMin-grol-gling monastery. 829. Sa-skya or . Pts. Both were major holders of the rNyins-ma liqeages. 658-693.. Pt. quickly became the most influential centre for the study and development of rNying-ma philosophical ideas. 8-6. .

=U . Book 1. lh6a-b. Dharmahrl. 59-61. It ale0 forms the title on the of a trdkati~e br klonp-chen Rab-*byam#-pa the term commitments as8ociated with Ativoga. Pt. 229. v. This verse is quoted by Lo-chen ~ h a m a 4 r S . for e k p l e . Ch. Ed.g. e. n. T. 1969. bDud-'joms d - Sikkim. ca. v. 0.pe 23b. - ' mdzpd. Guenther. . b58 a-d. Book 1. W - . . 202 a-d. LO-then Dhrrmadrl. Dodrup Chen Rinpoche. in DO-~Jc. Pt. 32. 5. 25 For a definition of this term. re the means of that realiaing the fundrmental unchanging buddha-nature in given. 1 held to be rhitr). Pt. NSTB.V. 21 aeverai authore. 4. &. in WSTB. 828. oee H. 0. 23 See below. Vol. NMKMG. Book 1. pp. 59-83: NSTB. 19. 10. The definition of the yair* -~o-Ehe*i w. 0. chen n r a n..P Qangtok. Buddha-nature ia described a8 a undivided 1( - in the 80n80 that it and i~peri8hable (. m. pv. KalFmpons. U. 24 See kLong-chen Rab-'Cyams-pa. PP.1 m . pL Mvetaru.the edited English vereion of the latter contained NSTB.b s i n * ye-ahem See . .: m d L h L h k Q K pp. 152ff. Lo* i *el -p m 'Jige-bra1 1966. 257ff.I 20 :- Ch.. 1. 2. Book 1. vp.Sr .

QuoteC i n Lo-cheri Dhali~nobr-1. 9.r i m . 1 between these techniques. in Lo-chen Dharmakrl. Book 1. 23-27. ( W R . p.. 123-127. appended commentary o h u o n s . 158. Also refer to the structure of the s' ly indicates chapters. Pt.g. Pt. pp. pp. (bshxek a m ) are the meditative techniques of the creation Skt. ktvattikrama). See below. in Lo-chen D h a m a b r i . p. n n l n n . Book 1. pp. 156a ff. ) . 11-13. -. Part One. 69.d . Quoted in Lo-chen Dharmadrf. s e m i = -lurid .b e ~m . Quoted 70. pp. 69. 6 9 - The eource for the entire section which follows is Lo-chen Dharmrbrl. h . - Cr t . This is a frequentiy clted quotation. nsann-bdan thal-lunn. P.- PP. ver-ses A V I I I as translated by H. 11. kLong-chen Rab. p. e. and the See stage ( w . 70: NSTB. perfection stage and Great Perfection ape integrated in this tantra.s e l . 59-61. also NSTB. nsann-bdan.D ~Skt. perfection p. . outlined on pp.-( Skt. The three aspects of creation and . Guenther in Kindlv a E _ f e m. . Chs. the perfection stage and the Great Perfection For tho distinctions see below.' byams-pa. which clearthat creation stage. 220b. sen-DO.b&&g -1-1- .V. 70-83. -P .b d f i n .

Pt.9. 313-332 and Ch. the moment of birth to adult maturity r-so--~a'l m). in w ) .k y i ztue-ha'i I which and twenty-five ancillary ones: (ft~~ad-uar pya-bq five of five are practised u). 4. pp. i Bock 1.~ a m a .~ o ' m ) .31 1 On the four empobierments. p. dam-tshin - P. and from adult maturity to old age m .m u m ) respectively moment those from conception in the worn3 to of birth (mnnal-du --ha -Da WIL. speech and mind - . namely (W-DU kinds of ritual concerning rites of "liberation" practices: five not to be renounced and sexual -a-be five to be -1. They comprise three basic commitments of (au-ns- buddha-body. 36 These twenty-eight commitments ( w i . see below.b a r elements. namely the five nectars.n u m ) . from (nnr-an--nas 159. Ch._ RrPyBd) are outlined by Lllavajra. sacraments of meat. 0744. the sense-objects. and five to be propcnaitics . S e e NSTB. ~OYD m p l - A ~ E O refer to the appended commentary -6-bcu pp.8hL rtea. 1 0 for a detailed explanation of their role in the . 9. namely the five conflicting emotions: ma-ba adopted (--bar five m). namely Ponents. the com- to be k'nown ( m . pp. 119-120. 1&7-8.are the 35 The three phases of life or birth (ahYkba'i r i m .n m Ws-oa'F ( m a s . . and their pure nature.

Ch. Skt. 281-289. U53-463. ) - u. Ulb-66b. . Pt. ~ . Far the distinctions between these. the expanse of reality. . Pt. pp. The int&gration of the sexual practicee desire )( - (m) or path awareness is according of a to with part diecriminative eignificant of the perfection 6tage. Pt. speech. 1. n U ( w~ a ' i w. - - and indestructible reality ( r d o . ~ . see NSTB. 13.ws-sku. namely. & perfect rapture ( ~ P D P ~ . &0 dbuinne. pp. Book 2. See note U3 below. 2. 61-62 and note 103. 1 Skt. ( & a ) are those of reality (sJ. especially 60a-63a. represents the apparitional or . Skt.b a -1. Sody. account of how the wrathful rites of "liberation" (1 - were practically applied.( .m a r m a . -. represents the emptiness while aspect ( p a m . 38 These 11.~ h e apristine cognition. enlightened attributes and activitiee. 5. Alao refer to NSTB. biographical - b c u w . Skt.s e L . Book 1. 162b-163a.s ~ v emanation i-W . mind.r J e -).attained ( w u b . Ch. For practices see described in w pp. mental aspect () -.. BOOK 1. pp. pp.h c u myg-eel.c h a ) of the fundamental buddha-nature. a 386-b02. 39 The five buddha-bodies Skt. I 37 A clear account of the dietinctions between these practices is given in the appended commentary e . ) awakenine . see the life of ~ N y a g eJriknakurnbra I n NSTB. Also see below. PP. 1 -.

I U3 The emptiness aspect of phenomena. O. 192:3:fl. 2. bhadrl. four enemies . Ch. twenty-three Mttainment. intelligence. O. Vol. These comprise definitive twenty-eight c o q o n commitmente. five MAras which a r e to be renounced. l62b if. Ch. is united represented by Samantaaspect of with the pure apparitional -!ntelligeQce.~a . 2. as &#A Ch. 66.b z h i ) in the tantraa. refer to i NSTB. includinz the siitras. to produce the enlightened mind or Pt. discusses the general integration of the four kind For Anu- of desire ( 3 n d .b a . twenty concerning path of relating to continuity of the conduct. 758-76b. 97. 162b- 5 i ! I 12 1 For an appraisal of these empowerments. represented by Samantabhadra.m o . four Vol. which speak of SamantabhadrP . 166b. pp. Kong-sprul. four euperior commitments. aad for a discussion of the application of Anuyopa empowerments tc all nine vehicles. pp. fundamental NSTB. yoga in particular ?efer to NSTB. 9. buddha-nature. the objective aspect of phenomena or reality. 190:3:3commitmente. Pt. and the appended commentary. pp.6 ff. pyub-mtha' U&LQ~. Pt.. klong-then Rab-'byams-pa. 7 . pp. 2. 7&8-7b9. pp. y h v o ~ .b y a bun-- refer to 'Jam-mzon mdzod.c h a n s m u l . Also. 1152. Book 2. a P. s h e s . relating four to diecipline. 292-&. the subjective aspect of 118 & w e - ~ -B-D~. Book 1.DQ . pp.Anuyoge.h r u u mun-ma. see the present tantra-text. Refer to Book 1. end Samantabhedra as w e d .

See NSTB.to be destroyed. untreated expressive words. It is contrasted with the gradually constructed visualisations of the 165a. intentional (m symbols. Book 1 . and rapturous enjoyment. -1. and those of sameness. 2. Pt. 162a. 11 5 The ability to visualise the deities instantly is associated with the perfection stage. and provisions. Vol. namely. gloseary of enumeratlons. palaces. m. ) the five kinds of buddha-mind pristine cognition of reality's expanse.g emerges without effort. reality. and the commitment of the view. See also ISTB. ness. discernment and accomplishment. name- ly. train. pacification of suffering and it6 causes. k . pp. See '3am- mgon Kong-sprul. Pt.b -1. . thrones. 11 6 These the twenty-five realities of the buddha-level five buddha-bodies above. 182- Refe? also to NSTB. the and speech of indestructible and indivisibie awarenamely the mirror- the speech which has the blessing of (. like pristine cognition. Book 1. enrichment of excellent training. wrathfully overpowering those who require uprooting those who are difficult to whatever p. under their respective entries for an Er~glieh version. Bpontaneously accomp1ishin. anC the five enlightened activities ( h r i n . -). -*--by& 192. the five enlightened attributes (yonpure buddhafields. b . creation stage. ccmprise: have been 1( - which enumerated the five modes of buddha-speech meaning. limitless celestial ltan namely. pure light-rays. p.

m. 2.47 On this empowerment and its aspects. for their respective lineages. of course. the Great Perfection. 120-la3. pyub-mtha'i eee klong-chen Rab-'byams-pa. Book 2. The terms and H.~ a . - - p .i n . . glossary. p h y a l b f i. a8 otherwise known commentary celebrated - . unrelated to their usage in mundane doctrines. Matrix pL: W s t e u . p. 1 1 ! i a8 The term in thiP-le (Skt. 430. For the Indian historical backgroun3 refer to NSTB. pt. 190a. ) See NSTB. pp. . through which the Great Perfection is entered. Pt. 370-372.r. appended munsrl. 19 1 1. For a deto the explanation of these commitmente accordins see klong-chen Rab-'byams-pa. Great Perfection.. pp. p a a ~1 - - m. and - . 5-211b: and Book 2. & . gp. pp. Und~!. 51 Thie refere to the sixteenth buddha-level.. tailed m d ~ q . 2. Book 1. Pt.V. pp. on whlch see the 12. (mod-r&.the subtle before seminal points of light which appear internally and the eyes during the practice of All-Surpassing Realisation Skt. Pt. 130-137. 238. nothingness and apathy are. 50 On these classes and meditative technique6 of see NSTB. The . thin context refers to the eeed or nucleus enlightened mind. Guenther. 4. rendered here as seminal of point. 187-277.. Ch. The term also indicates the white and red seminal fluids within the physical body and . ibid. p.

were advised to employ the utmost secrecy with respect to these highest and most potent of instructions.. neither revised Consepuently these texts were See 'Jigs-med Indeed. is a catalogue of thoae texts which could be widely disseminated. U36&)." who to had been involved in the translation of texts relating the three inner classes of tantra. has brought to our attention this claim made by NgagdBanp-po i n the rpol . compiled the by sKa-ba dPal-brtseys and Nam-mkha'i sNying-po during ninth century. of m. is named after this highest buddha-level S. gi Religious Traditions of the Great Perfection". associated with the three classes of tantra were not widely RropaOated pa's time.rh- 1 D a n .' n v u r . .~ a 'D B t a n I aesertion were true.r t ~ g h z l o ~ . Lalou. 360 ff.m l o n . Tibetan 276. before the late eleventh century in sGro-phug- see also NSTB. Karmay in his "Origin and Early Development of the p. See M. 5. these Even if the texts would have coincided with the flnrvit of Bu- aton Rin-then-grub (1290-136U) t who helped compile the M a v - u in its later farm.commentary by khrid-yin y e S. 'Jigs-med gLing-pa on - meditation. lineages nor catalogued.es Textea Bouddiques The same translators. au temps du Roi Khri-sron-lde-bcan. the inclusion of w. the gLing-pa. "L. 285-288. . lY&~ud-'bUm u pp.. The m ~ ' .G. Book 2. Pt.u (T. p.

bnok Pt. - 6 0 . 6. 2. . 3C. **The Litany of Names of Mafijubrf. F e r ~ a ~ l . see also helow. "The Ordinance of Lhe Ala-ma Ye-shee-'ad". 57 The conventianal rendering of L l l h v a j ~ ahae b e e n challenged by R. 159. b)ta'-ma s e e NSTP. Book 2. their Stein. and for the b i o ~ r a p h i e s of the Z. On objections p ~ a e t i c eof W . "An Karmay. 6-7.r t ~ e and of the retree+ centpe of the Zurs in the Shanga ~alle:~." p.etter hy Pho-brang "A Open hi-he-'06 to the ~ u d d h i u t sof Tibetw. pp. * ~ e. p p . n. where he argues that Vllaeavajra is the correct 18. fn =beto-Sans- u - J W R ~ P F ~ .b-&29. .o n r d and on the 'busms-Yin of * G n s K h u g p~ Lhas-btsns.M. 5 p p .ur femily whjch majntelned the lineage through to the seventeenth century.entral-. h~ve been discussed by S.k a . 55 QT h a m . see NSTB.5 tl The polemics of Lha-bla-ma Ye-shce Pho-branp Xhi-ba-'od.t lea of Z u r hZang-po dPal Pt. 100-105.p n ~ i e . 1. &3&7. 5. *od and the prlnce of Gu-gc. Davldson. ~ivilization. Tlh-tqp to the the lOth to the 13th Centurjes". 58 Or! the set iv1. p p . 71-72. On the location of +his monestery near g Z h i 9 . Gvide L l E W m Q C f . 61-72. A . 6 6 .s d m n pp. I & & . Discuesion on the Doctrinal P o ~ l t i o nof rl?zogw-chen from and R . pp. Sonam Ancdu.G. see A . 56 On the founding and development of 'Ug-pa-lung. Ed. Sanskrit name. T.

30. 6h The five precious substance6 ( a . "Rig-'dzin 'Jigs-med ling-pa and the w . 65 he catalogue is included in NGB. 6. 5. pp. pp. are pold. Vol. 1. Book 2.D. and others. pp. Tentrae in pTsanz is recounted in 'Jam-mgon Kongwva-brtea. no. NSTB. Pt. 580-583.C h e n -n. act of obtaining the books would have been meaningless if he had not manaped to receive the spir-itual transmission connected with them from Wee-sgom. coral and pearl. also S. and in err-st= Book 2. According to tradition. 63 In 1717 the Dzungar Mongols occupied Lhasa and killed Lha-bzang Qan. Book 2. 61 62 Refer to NSTB. 3-128b. 5. 007. the Pt. turquoiee. Refer to NSTB.59 The atory of Ratna ling-pa's eucceesful salvage of the W e r t r d sprul. pp. the Qobot leader who had previously murdered the regent Sangye Gyamtso and helped the Chinese to the Dalai Lama VI in 1706. vol. . Petech. ma-Pa monasterieB followed. Rig-'dzin remove rNying- A great persecution of resulting in the deaths of LobZhi-pa Padres Phrin-las of rDo- rJe Brag. OooQman.c h c n aria silver. 3 . Book 2. Chine a Tibet i n EaZuXYIIIthcenturu. 6. See 5 . and in JLSB. chen D h a ~ m a b r t . Pt. 60 Refer to NSTB. 501-502 for this lineage. pp. 083-086. Pt. 127a. 636-606.

The Bhutan. 1973-1977. 88-93. pp. 3 8 Vola. preceptor. Q . I-Tlb 73-906636. T~ULCIS lthe W L u m a ~ . Driver. Thimvhu. Now u. 23-20. pL eee Tulku Thondup. sDe-dge W l o p r a p h edition in 2 5 volumes plus cataloaue preserved in Rome and elsewhere. 1821) the rDo-grub I. D. Vole. Smith. I. See J. The is other composition on the t a t t v a- see below. 105.g ~ u b I. a. 2. The art ~ u b l i c a t i o n details of theae alternativo as followe: Smje ~ollO~ti0n8 vola. - . SSS. with led to the 1798 eDe-dse See E . after which both of them were exiled. 36-36. Vcle 1-36: Thimphu: Ngodrup. 1973- Eiichi Kaneko. Tokyo: Kokusho Kankakai. of the Queen woodblork~. Regardins this figure's wc-v-.T i b 701982. civil war. 1982. Library. b6 vola. of Mtahuna-brag National manuscript . un- ypyud-'m. Delhl: Dorje. p~inp-pa's (17&3- 'Jigs-mod Phrin-lam '00-zer that the Queen of aDe-doe offered royal patronage to of the her rNyinp-ma tradition and mponsored the carving This rDo-grub alignment Rin-po-che. Royal Oovornmont . Survey of the Tantras of the Old School". "A Preliminary published ms.v v . _tp On r D o . Phrin-ias '00-zer. 926537. This index is contained in NQB.h R4YUd16-23 (1971 1.It was largely throuph the efforts of 'Jiga-me0 atudent. ~ntraduftion Konntrul'e EnwWaadia.

This Is t h e Tentrs pL p h t h e r i m pf Einht Trap?- &tea It P ? . 2 . Pt. 0 ~ (RTD. VajrakumBrg a r e eafd supramundane plishmen+s buddhahood. . h . s u c h a s Nyeng-ral (RTP.b r W bfle-n?hepe b n e r . which subsequently P a d m a s ~ m h h n v o j ntroduced into T i b e t .w h o confer common . see NSTB. end m C h o p . and !yl-Qm? Yamfintaka. prsctices. Book 2 . On t h e i r etructure. Hsya~rlva. Nyl-ma vol U s ' . PadmagLjng.k u L ~ u ~ 3 L[P P1 231. T h e distinction between t h e eeoTerlc c l e s ~and the Zur- exoteric t a n t r s clase I s emphasised by t h e sccount o f po-che's conetruction o f 'Up-pa-lung monastery. Vol. tn be Srqheruka.MBtarf bhTru-. . revealed in the context wa. Stotrepil ja. . On t h e I n d j a n hjetorlcal hackground t o s e e NSTB. Volt. p. in t h e s e n s e thaf t h e y c o n f e r s u p r e m e accomand (m m z ~ ~ . and V a j r s m ~ ? t r a (mun-monn-pi these accompl~ehmenta .p y u r bDe-chen gline-pa's b k a q . 103-112.pa*^ b k a * . 162. (RTD. 25) u-ds The meditationel d e i t i e s Vajr8mrta.h r n u a d b8e - h n ' u (RTD.Bhutan. b k *~ -hrwea m a w n u o . 21 ) . Bhu-Tib 82-902165. pp. pp.? of ~ s n y 'Od- important zer's CU z t e r .' d u .n u cycles. Pt.b ~ f b~ n s . 90-91. B o o k 1 . 612- Chos-dbang' s 22-23].n r l ~ o f d b! They are enligb+snment three con*ras+ed wjth t h e mundsne mcdita+l onal del ties-.r d 7 . Vol. S e e below.

I Bee NSTB. Varanami.the . ~uenther*~tudy. The text ia 4 of Dodrup Chen Rinpoche's also published in vol. 620-636. 27-28. ok. 238. 2. Zha~nfloumlamhkinhtThPullnd . 1975 onwarde. n -b m g. Book 2. the founder of the sMin-grol-sling (l6Y6-17Ph) tradition which penetrated and I Khams and Western Tibet from its mtronghold in Lho-kha became the dominant rNyinp-ma echo01 during the century. eighteen tantrrs which reeemblts this in a Amoghavajra's pn l~b p . on P . There exists another Delhi editfon: Delhi Karmapae Chodey Gyalwae Sungrab Partun Khang. =Ling-pa in his 117. pp. 869 (vol. p. 6. one might note Ztm P/i. ' wOPk to draw heavily m . 1983. edition n l of n r of eee - . Sutl?r M Conte*a w r . Pt. pp. Lokeeh Candra.76 Ed. 78 On the Life and works of gTer-bdag sting-pa. 77 Ed. For an earlier Yogatantra tradition few cases. y. dPa*-bo gTmup-leg 'Phreng-bt.irctuaam. 2. Book 2. 1968. Taieha. Tarthang Tulku. 1 the firot wemtern Among E. 18). Paro: pf nineteenth Pt. . however foltowe - * the earlier enumeration of -in the vol.V. Delhi.h--rhwI Neodruv. 'Jiga-med I P. 79 The first of these texts is contained nu p ' u . 83. The eecond reference is to NSTB. 80 H.

& PT. chen On K a m w l s rcferencee to the writings of Ye-ehes and Rong-esm Choe-kvi gNubs- Srnge-reyae p.to the effect that Pelliot Pte.Q. 42. Xha Lire AULiberatiDn pf PadmasamDhava. P. . The reference given here is to the traneletion from tho 0. S. Part XI. b719). to SQryaprabh&simha's -c b - (P. 2 1 . Bee below. -. n-&u r a PRS 81 . Pct. R. notes references in Macdonrld 31 0-2 a 8T: u. Lrncrster. 298. mkhra-~a'i m* 239. p. of Ouetavc-Chrrlee Tcuieeant by K Douglae and Bays. moat of Pt. Z h L i A U LibarlltiPn ie Pldmasnmbhavr* Port 11. 86 dPal-bo eTmug-lag Phrens-br. Padma n u c i n for further details of the xylo- cad eravh edition and the French translation. Bee the bibliosravh~ under l j n t P pL. VPXI c?rrceponde . 537. if. R. 1. &. - See rleo L. note 120. Pt. 239. 5. 1970. nn.. r t ~ DR. 0. bZang-po. 69. . French . 308-317. Karmay. i . 82 83 See NSTB. VIIX & IX correopond to eectione from the p Among them.L i n a r ~ ~ ~ S u n r m r ad-. and Imaede. . 238- 87 o . Kalimpong: Du jam Rinpoche. 416. 81 1 Yeahe Tsogyal. Book 2.

P. 90 This phra8e indicates. (w -be phunp.88 ace the appended commentary - - . See NSTB. habitual t e n d e n c i e ~which are pSyCh0-phY8iC~l ( ' d u . -.boy m. that the in the view of klone-chen the RabMahP LPIlP. Skt. p. 120. -h) aa. the appended and 053f f. enrichment (-1. 5-6. p. - 1 . and conacioumneee (rnrm - W .y ! phunp-pa. (nzuna!! 1 Phunp. 270-275. 2.b. PC. Skt. Pt. mubjueation (a).n Skt. purificaticn namely feelings vcrceptione form ohuaps-bca and - . The of the components refers to the -andha. On the sionificance of Commentary Ouenther. See below. . lbyams-pa.see PP. af . h n .k v i Phunn-pp.. w a n d h a . - u. viz. The term eelf-manifesting or manifeet in and of itself (v ) implie6 that the pure appearances of buddha-level with are manifest to buddh88 alone. skt. pacification note 06. g. am a1 -. Skt. u) which tenth refers to the perception of level b0dhiSattvaEi and so forth. ( * du-ehQs -h i o u. five 140. 91 60. H. and n . 6. ) 92 The four rite6 are the firot four of the p. . 06b: Book 2. text 16 representative of d i v i ~ i ~of Atiyoga. the OD. Pt. 2. It is contrasted the term "extraneously manifest" other (mbeings-Book 1. V. hinds of anlishtened activity enumerated above.

VirQpakea in the went. pp.'~hrul u hlLlZYld . smell taete touch form. r b t r a in the eaet.. a brief instruction on the appearances of mind in ita natural mtate.b O U . 2040-2058. namely. 95 At ha6 the end of Volume 111. l - c a t i k a ) .. esr. of the and of of intellect. directions Dhrta- k than hzhi. 121-2. phenomena consciouenees In addition. h57. the consciousnese of and the the body. inserted the compiler of the new edit. enlightenment is accomplished.I (1 below. the the sound and the coneciousneee of the ear. and the conaciousneee cf the eye. V0l. and the .o. 639-665. which givee riee to bliss. viz. thr apvearancee of bewilderment. QKa-'wu.a a ) . the present enumeration of twentywhich one inciudas: 19) the identity of all the tath&gatae is the eource of the preceding eighteen.1. 94 The ( - ~ t a n d a r d enumeration of eighteen peycho-physical basen Qcp-br-) ie given in Mvt.ion a veraion of the thuns-lsui thinr. 20) the field in the the causal which base and 21) See e. 83&. intellect. 10. T. note 221 ! 93 I Theme ( ~ are the four guardian king8 of the four Skt. 39. Thin trertiee ha0 three central topica. and wrath (-1.Da * i man= u . and and of the coneciouenass of the tongue. those of the eye. VirOdaka in the aouth. P. and the con~cioueness of the nose.3. Einhtv Chant%F am&L&l ( ~ p y . . body. of The of the nose. numoly. See also pp. the tongue. and vaihravana in the north.

t (hulnn-rhub-kYi rrm. in connection with the &or-rn rab-'byams-pa. 69b.ll.l. p . 1-69.. non-cessation. Lrf. they refer to an clrborathe five verses on non-reference.appearance8 which purify thoee to be trainmd. 1985. lZ!g. par =-ba'i practices and in kLons-chen u ~ n ' wi i Q lennM b. ( Q x ~-~ s sem Pf The m Boulder/ . RmQn-Ra -c u -h b hxaCSh~ann-rm -I a u e .0 -ha).hrd-pr'i. n coming to reat in the srcret centre demcent w . There text. Chlntinn -the London: Shambhala. In the latter case. R. it8 - 3US= P) .M.P h U h and m t w .D U (--mu P." McB 20 (1981).~ bupnna 1016.I ESm8. As such the five are known as sYa-ldaIu GhUh -. wayman. five aspects of seminal "enlightened mind" be explained according t3 either u)may pro1 - OF -.~ h y i n . 10. n . ae deecribed below. Davideon. "The Litany of Kames of MafijuDD.l-l3ll. tion of In the former context. these five refer to the arousal of mindv) from its the seminal po8ition and fluid (vanlightened natural i. non-creation.-~r). 0738. . Vimalamitra and L11&vaJra. and it8 porva8ion of thm body (m W . it8 retontion in the pmni8 (--FA= induction u p w a ~ d 8 (4vrn - bzunn-bar nnl.nmn-brrryidInbuLM - - adzha. are now two useful editions and translations of this viz. 8ic). 6-10). p. . a text of this titlm is attri- buted jointly to Buddhapuhya. I n P. a%pp~.-( respectively give rise to the 2. and A. 3. Vol. which Ch. QXuUk non-abiding.~ a hYAtU . and abaence of motion.unr.

n - snuu?. rnttynA&e&a). nm . impurity of mentient beings -( - - - . . . 72-75. . 80-83: and for the traditional account of t h d r orisin in India. the problem of chronoloeical cannst of the in thia case be remoiveb. E.See - .b c umun-eel. - - . p.. T i ~ ui i t c t ~ ~ trrnrirtians to the eighth three varmionm rre all attributed Sae bmlow.Innr* he five i m p u ~ i t i e(v Skt. - m ) . and Lo-chen D h a m a b r Z . the Sanakrit manumcript6 of our text. mequence not available. Dv. x-xi. Skt.( Skt. DD. . ~ h v a n m .. pp. impuritv of conflicting emotions . 2335-2300. 99 The three 6ecret centres (namn-babeclm) are the indeo- tructible realities of buddha-body. speech and mind. Ch. ~ impurity of life 6 1 are (. py i Oretl-kleka). m d that both the veraion in eight thoueand lines (T. Skt.13. 1. that on the of the Sanekrit the basic Prajiiap&ramita aQtra is 12!. 87. made by Ch..m a . and i m ~ u r i t yof time Mvt. . . 106-108. -ah).Fi th' - . century. (dus-kyi- - Skt. pp. pp. Conze claims e.8 h ) . Skt. houeed are In the Pa-her dKor-mdzod-sling which were Since formerly library at bSun-yam. 98 . e. the longer and shorter ver6iona are derived from it. .yyhAL86h). * in Xha Parf*etian af wiraom Vqtrec ln E U h t Linae And Lta evidence Summasu. impurity of view (ltn-bn'i @ n u i ~ . 0 5 3 if. 100 This a6sertion regarding the wrafhful mandala is klong-chen Rab-'byams-pa.

Skt. .1 U 8 .to pp.102 'Ju Mi-pham rNem-rgyal 10-11. clear and e x p r e s s i o n o f secret teaching I n t h i s text which caught t h e attention o f L h a bLa-ma Ye-ehes-'od. 1 Refer t o NSTB.. 1 U 7 . in The passage Skt. pp. three are wc-Ids w)referred desire realm this tllose Of t h e (I-dPd->aWi m. I 5&.. and a detailed examination o f i t s usage and m e t a p h o r would b e a valrtable study in iteelf.snrol by practices t h e later tantras clearly respected a Cistinction in purpose between apparently found in ahocking coded o r twilight language ) a s ! tantras elaborate like and t h e Und-eu. and t h e formless (nzuns-rne- w. . and t h e of the Guhvanarbha's lucid presentation -roOne direct practices within t h e context o' advanced f can only speculate that it w a s the meditation. coded thereby c a u s i n g him t o in eleventh century the - language a160 o c c u r s in e a r l y translations. from that c i t e s a relevant F a e s a g e indlcatins also prominent Yet the there in is c h a p t e r sixteen o f t h e the &or . 'Jigs-med yLing-pa. are schools. t h e form r e e l m ( m . note p. 1. . Pt. link Tibet. I 103 Reference has already been m a d e t o t h e s e polemics. however. - * w u d - ' burn-nui id. (--rten 'od-neal .. kamadhgtu). it with t h e abuse o f &vor ~ n c i d e n t a l l y . -1. 28. Book 1. pp. -. .k u i reelm m. Skt.

pp.. has already been made. . 102-103. 5.. Book 2. in jest. vv. I I 106 Zur-chung-pa. 396-h00. PV.. Pt. See g p s -t. Book 2. 105 NSTB. 53. n.' b u &?IR pp.p. who emphasises that the terminology of the doctrinal the language . is absent in and in the lower mantra texts. contrasted e. 288. His argument that the language employed in in higher vehicles rje. 735. 281 ff. Pt.g. Pt. to early translators who sought to render meaning rather Their original translations of tantra-texts are with the revised translations of sutra-texts. pp.1. P. 285. in 'Jigs-med gling-pa. than word. associates Khyung-po ~rags-se's mundane eelf-interested forceful rite of desire to have him killed with the "liberation" (-1. --adan cusses yoga Zh&l-l-. the 17. also NSTB. 12-13. 7. dis- the distinctive terminology of the Anuyoga and Atitexts. acting out of compassion. r p y ~ l d .pu msel. and the terms of the Reference latter do not much occur in Anuyoga arlCAtiyoga.1011 Lo-ct~en ~harrnaari. p. 28. Book 2. vehicles is not the same as that current is taken up by bDud-'joms lower 'Jigs-bra1 Ye-shes rDo- NSTB. which is explained to transfer the consciousness of another from the body into a buddhafield. n. of the lower mantra-texts such as 1 6 not found while the in the Anuttaratantras . 5. 352-353.

. A s to the fourth point.. Pt. states the central r mandcla . DR. ~ h . rotate. BP. Pt. rmmertm that in the view of the new trrnalrtion 8chool8 the around of Akmimthr 10 rloo conaidered to be immermurrble. 11.. *d*- he ale0 explain6 that the introductory U*fl-Qa*i due-na referm to the Phraee time. 917-018. 18-25: T h i ~ p ~ . he ksuclrim8. pp. RR. 132. 60-72. who ineists Vrjra- he is the only commentator on the on Vrirocrnr beins the central deity. it manffcets in and of iteelf the buddhae alone. Rab-'by~s-pa in where This problem lo d i s ~ u ~ ~ e d by klonp-chen - - ~ h . 16-28. ? 6 4 .bru - . .e. am mtrtrd note 11. 5 . u. India. that there had ~recedentsfor trntras referring to other8 which been delivered errlier in time. reasons for so dointt are outlined in Ch. His - rather than sattva. p urnabove.3 4 1 . Ch. 3 6 0 . Book 2. 109 The trntra clearly has no audience of bodhimattvae it is hela to be r self-manifastinu expraemion because buddhoto or nature. 1979. . many . asnreness thrO~phOUtpast.1. p.e. rkaP fourth 1. On the third klong-chen-pa a 4 pointe. 110 klone-chon-pe. Intereetingly. i. 7 .107 108 #STB. 'Qom Khup-pa Lhas-btsas's w o ~ k in contained in pp. M. 1. p . refer8 in thim context to the n a r d h a region alone. 1. of G o Lhae-ttnaa'a deity of present and future.

i included unons the fifteen ordinary sacraments of ~owerment. pp. Karmaat. pe a. One mhould note that theme are not the actual The word. a chain of meed mvllablee and brmim of the iacret enlinhtened mind. the mpontaneous am Smnmtrbhadra.~ a 'dhang -1. particular .. The firnt of theme text8 im commonly attributed to klons-chen-pa..2 7 7 . the empowerment of which is that of Akaobhva. The . to be the untreated reality which im the caunal bamis of the mandala. pp. note 23. and the realitr im the which caumrl appear. and ( w i n. See They are namely.-nnuu I question are explained in SQryaprabh&~imha'm commentary (P.O. of introduction raploved in thim trntra-text. the meditator (-E~ -D' --ht-u w) which three rarlities ( am the which om- Ch. the empowerment of the listener (=-~a'i which is that of Ratnasambhava.JJUJ -kui the empowerment of the king of indestructible reality (a in r L w a l . 10. 0 . the empowerment of the expoeitor ( that of AmitPbha. the resultant reality which is . funilir~.a o ' i w ) which is that of the five enlightened . - ' which is the empowerment of enlightened activitv ia that of Amoghaaiddhi. 4719).Refer to S. The following reproduce# alaost the entire text of this 8hort work r e preee~vrd in Wbitinnr p~ The iive are five empowerment8 referred to are alao known empowemants of rbilitv ( W E . 2-3.. 372-376.

3061. 57 for this specific reference. 118 See the above note 109. 'Bri-sung dPal-*dzin*s text. 117 The punctuation dots. 1. which delimit or measure the Sanskrit word are. Jta * D p. 228. pp. I t I 115 . p. L. The author Sororuha or Padmavajra is regarded as a form of Padmasambhava. 2217. Snellgrove. a2. where his contention that m is a commentary on the temnino- and hie rejcctian of the rdz9ns-chcn . the . d - is reproduced in ~oe-bzlog- Pa. note 90. at the time of this explanation is discussed by klong-chen Rab-'byams-pa in -6-bcu afl. 189.b c u --eel. 116 The that exponent i e identified with the compiler in the such advanced tantras sense in are said to be maniPented See the above and of themselves ( . &vaj~a the Anuttarayopatantras. exemplified by the Tattva~amprahs(T. of course. explanation of this term. p.b a ' L rah-tu U e d Da .11.that T.r l ~ . chas-dnnn rhpa u n - ~ mama ~ a 6l w e . the mrn - . P. v. See the explanation in w . Ch. 119 11. 68. are considered to be earlier than See D.reason behind the * s usage of the words: Thus. vol. 16-28. 2 6 5 . Note the last verse of the Peking version reads We-rSe I I ! & for thuns r d o . The Yogatantras.7-8. -. 479).

v. pg apag &. See H. 2. PV. pp. 6. that B u d d h s J ~ B n a p h d a ' s ~ . P. For pp. dEangOn w . 53. M. U. Karmay. rtad. 136. mud-'burn-UYL . vol. 2116-251. that two pessagee from msnSangt-rgyss Ye- l t a . Rnam W r u s n. note 81. vol. ff. Pt. pointing out 2716. The e n t i r-e text --kvl is Writinns QL reproduced in W P + . .t w w. P1 its redie- covrry.-r 133. QE&dm&sn. n - a commentary or? the and vows. . p. Book I . u.~ h r e u are cited in pNubs-chen ~ h e 'B s . a b . refers to Atiyoga i n a celebreted line: -I-Y~ rdzoPa-Dm mis-lclll.. see intearetion of NSTB.1.2. 127. end P. 2311.ls. G. 65.logy are refu+ed. 8-9. pp. 19hb-195b. Roerlch. 706 see N. 120 Karmsy notes. 6. 121 The comments of Atlba on this subject are recorded in his biography. and a . Blur Ann.@ a Pt. Smell lhlhctlnn a Hidden m c c ~ t s . 10.* bym p. repeate the refrrtation. thie varse and mNga'-rie beginning of his repetitjon of it at the E. p. PO. For the Tun Huang referencee.- Ch. 37. he also quotee mNga'-rie Pan-chen Padma rgyal's rejection of 'Bri-gung dPa1-'dzin'e Pan-chen's poeition. In the a u d . 122 ?or perhaps the earlleet nurvlving account of mee ' 3 8 (0 Lotm&ws gZhon-nu d. 103-lob. Book 2. Elmer. see above p . recent criticiams. tiorbu. 'Jjgs-me0 gLlng-pa. . pp.Q bann=. pasease 076. p. P.

These and other eourcee are listed in a epecial section at the end of USTB. However the colophons of the concur WU- * ~ h r u and was b i o g r a p h ~ c a l sources that Vimalamitra See NSTB. ~ J J m vol. 2. . Book 2 .G. "King Tea/ Dza and Vajra- D3. 1. pp. the twentyare third and twenty-fourtti chapters of this later version contained maLj in the sDe-doe xylograph edition of the Vol. see L.J. This particular passage is cited h . the bibliography for further information. The text does not appear to be contained in NGB. Pt." Bee S. supreme and common accomplishments (mchon-datlg thun- -. . rnuinn- --*bum. X I 1 ( N a ) .*Go6 himself was involved in the retranelation of the roottext. I O U .W. e. note 75. On this veree. Accordins to G . Pt. 1 See on which see above. 519- I. Blue Annals. 835-837. y6nr. 0 . P. pp. Roerich. Karmay. the translator of the whole collection.520. to der ptrilosophical van ~ u i j p .C o n t r i b ~ t i o n s_tp LU a ~uddhist . by Sog-bzlog-pa in his ( -. p. pg. 197-199. On Zi-lung-pa Sak-ya mChog-ldan and his contributions controversy in Tibet. 10-22. 179- Book 2.

Karmay. 3811. appearance of Anuyopa in Srf Lank&. See NSTB. states that the of the b i o g r a P h i e ~ of the tantra-master Buddheguhya and exponent of the Great Perfection Buddhagupta were by *Go6 ~ o s t & w e aZhon-nu dPa1 in the confused deb .8-120. Peking -Tan- ' n v u . 83. 120.2. 83. pp. p. Vol. pp. See N. the h . gp.e V.2. Pt. Kcrrmay. 2. Thurman. Vol. For a traditiona3 account of the see WSTB. . S. "KIng Tea/ Dza and Vajray&na." bhQti. Norbu. h10: and NSTB. Teachinn pL w r t i : and the translation from Chinese by Charles LUC.th-r snnon-~o. Peking &Tan-'nvu. it is probable that the figure in gue8tiOn here it3 Buddhaguhya sirhce the text8 outlined In the b l o ~ a a p h y are based on Mahkyoga. 3. 72-77. pp. Pt. 4.WGB. Lamotte. on which see E.. ISTB. l i ~ U R. 103. Pt. Book 2. Even if this were the case. Bietorv pL Buddhism ip ~KuIU. Book 2. 176. no. Pt. see For other references to intermedjate Indra- T€iranbtha.5-1 03.3.e. Book 2. The traditions concerning this figure and the intermediere IndrabRQti have been studied by S. 109-112. Small Collection eL1 Hidden prep--. pp. 1.5. p . p. Book 2. 2. Q6. Vimalakfrti is best known to the Buddhist world through the magnificent #ah&y&na sQtra bearing his name. 80.5.G.7. 78-79. 2.G. T. u. 201. Vol.

a pp. anQ U b e r a t m pL . Pt. along with the wrathful mantras of the protactorb of the teaching.s ~ r a aNyine- .Yeshe Part 11. Book 7 . the river of instruction of the aural lineage. h . 283-0 . .s e LCh. Book 2. within commentary 9pyi- fpsmework of 'Ju Mi-pam rNam-rgyal's dPn 'ad-peal enuinn-Do. 130 These so-called "Pour greRt rivers of the distant compriee: with the lineage" long the river cf conventional textual exegeeis. a180 NSTB. See NSTB. was able to assume a meditative posture in the sky. Dowman.136 See NSTB. Pt . the pp. 185. p . and m. La-=sum rGyal-bs Byang-chub. pp. p. rites of enlightened sct- and a t t a l n ~ e n t . by Padmasamhhava af Khra-brug. 110-123. Ts@gyal. the river of blessing and empowerment. the was seven em- one Of the eight major t r a n ~ l a t o r sand one who were originally tested for ordlnatlon. 592. 5 . llkc rMa Rin-chen mChog. On the tranolatorn Vairocrna and p Y u . and :n consequence See K. 137 These ten aspects are dlecussed below. Pt. writings and along with the essentla3 Sare the teaching the guidance whlch lays (dmar-khrid). c o m m e n t e r i ~ s an6 ieciure notes. p. P. 2116-2118. was monks powered who. along With the means for conferral and the introductions: and the river ivity a? practical techniques. 6. Book 2. 138 139 pbvone-bcu y ~ ~ n . 2. 282. 87.

4. m 5918). on the relatthe between the Tlbetan s i ~ . Tlbetan Religioue Traditions of the Great Perfcction". 290 2. 2.ba la2 On Srf Sjmha see WSTB. see S. A.D O .Book . 5. h . 1h1 On these figures. f TUCCI. and on Zhang rGyal-ba*i Yon-tan. eee NSTF). ionship u.-vaa: . pp.. Book 2. 130-137. see NSTB. "The Orlgln and Early Development of the Pt.~ a tradltlon and Hva-ehang. G.G.yo. . Karmay. Pt. On VasuChara. the lta-ha ~ a n l . Pt. 5.htantra. Pt. is recorded In sBa-gsal-enang. 5919). pe See also S. (P. was a pro11 f 1 c WYR- gNyan-chen his viz. PP. Pt. u. Pt. which Is a summary of the BionraPhY pL M r n c w (zle-bfsun m .. IT: and J .m a (P. Book 2. Book R. dPal-dbyangs commentator. **.c h e aprnn -ma Book 2. Book 2.bzhed.c n r . pp. 2. Chroniaue Anciervre Qe man. khams. Ih3 On thle flgure. a. 300-304 lb5 The four provinces of stPd mnztt'-ru - dbus- ntsann.* h u thams-cad m h b ~ e . Stein.~a n bai . 289-290. 187-190. 187-390. "Early C h * a n In Tibet. the snron=ma ( p .1. Winor Bvddhlst Pt. . and the lta .5923). Pt. pp. mh. 353-190 pp. p. Broughton. Kamala&fla*s role in the bSam-yes debate g b e . pe ff. 5921). Among them. pp. works including treatisee on the the - a ~ (P.. Pt.n a * i rnam-thax a -1: also WSTB. p p .r ~ . QL 7. Karmay.t e. 291.d a nw o n . 5.G. a-mda.

Pt. Pt. ktonp-chen Rabin teacher Kum&r5dza also playeC a major part ~~2~~ the establishing of the terminology. are the S P V P ~ 1. Pt. Pt. 1h8 According to WSTB. NSTB.1h6 1117 WSTR. ~ o o k2. Book 2. pp. ~ t . a See In n- Saicltualitx the bibliosraphy for details. p. Book 2 . and gave vitality to subeequent generatione of scholars within the lineage of . 150 151 152 WSTB. 'byeme-pa'e Book 2. p. 169-173. 235. 11. 11. 770. 238-277. the persecution of gLang Dar-ma. 5. nsrs. Tn addttion to par)tnesa. the novitiate ( k a g l a n m ) . 153 ~t was g~ung-ston-pa's commentary which picked up the Mah&yosa theme6 of the Gyhuanarbhatantra. who (~~avraiix&). 315. Pt. p. Book 2. 5. 1 -. the sost celebrated treatises by klong( W d- chen-pa. the a - Wrlral Liberation !-~hIuuum Further - . 3. 5. BOO^ 2. p. 313. RsTB. ( maintained On bLe-chen clGongs-pa the Vinaya lineage in north-eastern Tibet after see NSTB. p. the ZLUAJW Pf Res ((2-USQ -or-e8um). PF. Pt. Which which occupies nio9t of the preeent study. 7. Book 2. Id9 The three stages of ordination are those of the renunclate and full monkhood Rab-gsel. ( an4 the Tnree&or -nsum) . 3611.

. R h e Among the - ~ t o -c b . 3-6. o~b-th-x 'GOB Lotsawa.(vole. states that he had in his Sanskrit manu- the remaining fragments of the script for the w . Indian and Tibetan oral texts of the tradition which he received w*-*PFR .troves ( g t ~ r . the final revisions of the who made .' o p ) discoveries of Nyang-ral Nyi-ma ' ~ a . 153- L-er-m cycles there are diverse collection^ based on the unified form of the eight meditational deities known as the T r a n s m m.as. The are Elrlier those and Later Zrsnawe . ).p. Sa-bzang Mati Pan-chen was a leading Sanskritist. and z .pp. w . vols. d p. 1-2). (G. See --Dart w. Roerich. (hbq'--) . 6. also NSTB. 136. Annals. note 711.h a - (vols. P. 1116. 10-11) and his own pter-ma W1-'nrq (vols. 776 & 10115-6. Roerich. 7-9. 1011. vols.p.k h ap .The Soiritualitv (snuinn-thiy the esoteric u ) comprising 1 3 volumes of Perfection insfructional class of the Great (d It includes a) was the compiled by kLonp-chen Rab-'byams-pa. He also wrote philosophical works. 'Gos Lotsawa. possession &Lyg . Lo-chen Dharmabrl in particular. Book 2.z e r (1136-12011) . 190: G. gtod-rh. l b -a (m .transmitted precepts. p. several influential commentaries on See G. Pt. Roerich. cycles known . 12-13). Some of these have been enumerated above. Annals.

pp.D S A treatise mantra (NMKMG. Book 2. . 159 In the seventeenth century it was this figure its who re- established the locatim Period of in monastery of rDo-rje Brag at present & dBus after that community had endured persecution at the hands of the long of governor ~ T s a n g . His major bodhisattva P . On this dispute. vols. Pt. eu 3kQZ mol . PD.* d z i n y p n n s . See NSTB. 61-227). the 37).'debs l ' m . pp. p. 158 mNga'-ris important and also Pan-chen Padma dBang-rgyal (lh87-15h3) transmitted was an figure in the lineage of the fif-r-stma'-'dua precepts. - 1 2 30. . 123-1b0. 6. Vol mm - ~ 'i ~ .' d u ~ . p. on the integration of monastic. see NSTB.p u . See NSTB. 11. Pt. 161 The Lho-brag pSunp-sprul 11. Tshul-khrims rDo-rje (1598- 1669) wae an emanation of the buddha-speech of Yadma gLingp a (1050-1521). 567. 5.e t p n Zhig-Po gLing-pa. 5. h22. 160 sTeg-bla Padmamati of Kah-thog was an important figure in East Tibet. Book 2.8 m and vows.and GU-ru Chos-dbang (1212-1270) re~pectively. Book 2. particularly influential in connection with the lineage of the gter .b c o s the has been highly influential within rNying-ma trsdition.. work who discovered an important entitled phyi -ma rin . PP.k v i chos6.m a ' i apyub-thabs (RTD. Tshe-brtan rDo-rje. Pt. 501. h22.

see NSTB. Pt. Book 2. 5. 6111-620: and on Rig-'dzin u. enumeration of texts studied by Dalai Lama V. Pt. Tsering. When the lineage had disappeared in the central region. pt. pp. "Abte und Lehrer von Kah-thog Kah-thog Monastery. ~ook 2. 1970. 168 Among the children of gTer-bdas gLing-pa. pp.. Pt. Pt.. 886-889. 051. 167 On Dalai bLa-ma V. and increasingly in the eighteenth century.m p lineage all concentrated in east Tibet. was but and the propagation of the m a ' . Pt. in her own right and the author . 5. it was his 877-879. 183-885.'I. b28-825. E i m e r and P. Kah-thog monastery in general. see H. See NSTB. Book 2. his gTer-bdag gLing-pa for brother Lo-chen Dharmahrl became responsible $88-506. On the lineages of \I 1 I The texts are not presently available.. pp. Pub. see NSTB. . pp.hakhar.162 On =Sang-bdag Phrin-laa Lhun-grub (1611-1662). 1l 6I The commentaries by Ye-shes rGyal-mtshan are not available. . 6. see NSTB. Pt. Delhi: Nechung and 1.. and "A List of Abbots of U30- also NSTB. ita restitution. PP. Book 2. 5. 160 In the seventeenth century.-'gyur dPal-egron. Book 2. for Mi. IV. 165 presently I r For more details of his life. pp. 5. daughter. 163 This is the neen-yin chen-mo an nenn-na 9 - in four volumes. 5. who was largely responsible the reetoration of 8Min-grol-sling monastery followin&r She was a brilliant of several teacher important the Dzungar invraion of 1717.". 5 . pp.

the firat twentv volumes of MMKMG. 213. the new bmiinitive fortv volume U'-M mbition. H. published partiallv onwardm. 171 He ie an important recent figure in the lineape of the transmitted precepts and a teacher of bDud-'joms Ye-shes roo-~je. 172 173 170 See above. and backaround of information Tibetan text.snvan are published ~n r 1. 'Jigs-bra1 099. 175 The twenty volume edition.bdap dnonPs. . tion by bDud-'dome according to an oral communicahad It been was 'Jig#-bra1 Ye-she6 rbo-rje. 31. --'_nral.~ u l monamtrry. note 8.a KUUI ~ f b ~ r P e ~ m Vol. See NSTB. 30.. Ouenther. See above. D. monssttry. Book 2. . 170 These the second for it8 presentation the commentaries in on the ~ T . reprinted in a fourteen volume edition from 1969 ~owiver. LluhuauQSb Xan3z. ~ l o e r a p h i c a l l yat d P a 1 . note 63. Pt. 169 These course text6 have both been repeatedly consulted the first for in the of the present research. regarded natrix in pL rbeoge-chen p. p. 6. maintain thm contmnt and mtructurm of thm orieinal compilation.meditation manuals. On this which is etill highly see 0.V.

al. . 100. 121.176 T h i s i s t h e bodhisattva vow ( b f m . HoPkinm. Thondup.ons. O n dPal-sprul Rin-po-che.c h u b IR--~D&'~ m j maintained by all Buddhist traditione in Tibet. Rx2mSka iD&Awmm. Within the rNying-ma-pa tradition. Z k Tantric Tr_Bdition qf 177 O n these fieuree. himself gathered together t h e tradition o f the tradition o f Maiijulrf naitraya MaiiJudrf three s u c h tradit$. 179 X U TLlntrif TlraditiPn d nuinPmrDk. u on which . p. Hagarjuna and Candraklrti. 15-16.b o . PP. eee NSTB. T. s e e T. H e i s t h e a u t h o r Of a celethe brated commentary o n preliminary meditation practices. Pt. . m. &. 6.. 178 There is a good account o f rDo-grub 111's activities in 98- T.c h w urd J . 6 9 & . via via klong-chen Rab-'byams-pa namely. vol 1. 102. and t h e tradition o f via Naggrjuna and/ o r Santideva. nl- S e e the G a a ~ rln af Glaz= - - VV. trmmlation by Christian Bruyat at. . Thondup. p. Book 2..b c y -. Asanga and Yaeubandhu. T h e author o f m . ThonduD. see the French urd rxcrrpte i n Khatmun S u r e v o R i n . the r i t e s f o r the conferral of this vow are found in NMKWG.

and P a u s i m . Future pt-F . P.1/2!: the doctrinal treasures of -bodhisattvas.1. pp..at= or discoverers of treasure-doctrines See are considered to be emanations of these masters. And: For one whose aspiration is perfect emerge from the midst of the skw. 519. 802. 182 On these figures see Yeshe TshoWal. Book 2. 181 On Ye-shes Tsho-rgyal. The Liie anQ Lib-~ati. 5. 6. even though no buddha be present.180 For example. Vo1. la3 100. p. in K. NSTB. which arc set down In books. Nrang-ban Ting-'dzin bZanp-po and hie role In the see NSTB. 32. 130. Dowman.Qn m. Pt.2. DD. Thondup.7-1110. limitlese approaches to the doctrine. Book 2. Peking W ' . T. ravines. 802. . Book 2 . p. Pt. 140. a . Book 2 Pt.' u . 6. lineage 215- of the Great Perfection. - : - +4-- a Lhe NYinPmBPB: m. Vol.1. NSTB. see the biography by sTag-sham Nustranslated pf 1655). and from walls and trees. 216. Dharanis and the doctrine will Vimalatejas! great spiritual warriors who desire the doctrine. 5112 Pt. 32. it says in the gifta -sir 0 (T. P. blographiea in NSTB. ldan rDo-rje (b. will also came into their hands. and woods. 065 if. For the ff. py. e anQ lf Padmaanmbhabva.2. Dancer: also Zhe L . . have been inserted in mountains.

gter-st= a*i 189 On 'Je-tshon PP. n o t e 2 .7 5 9 185 This no longer hut a rediscovered treasure qber based on it. O n 0-rgyan gLinrx-pa in general. 235-U32. . 186 O n t h e flrst o f t h e s e texts. NSTB. T h e Dadms - fr n o longer avaj 1 o b l . avellable.r e h *Od-zer. T h e r e d l s c a v e r e r wms dBsng-po. On bDud. d-n-nq s e e above p . pp. 165a. discoverer Vol.C k X ! ~ text ~1 is ~ a- ' .m g o n Kong-sprul. 10. 6. Val.t s h a p o d . pp.d r u . t h e ' d a . e .1-91a. 3Q. Book 2. d b y a n e s mKhyen-hrtse't 187 S e e above. t h e -anvin~ - poo r . - . 6. of t r e a s u r e by this name. pp. s e e 'Jam-mpon Kong-eprul . WSTB. 880. 2: pp. mm-rlt? However. p ~ . 598-604.* F u l rDo-rje.1 3 7 ~ . s e e NSTB. pp. H i s collected works. Book 2. original gl-in=-p-. pp. 6011-610. dbang-po. 557-563. n o t e I . 13. 3-1D8a. pp. NL. 188 On S h e s .b ~ u lm I n RTD.m p o n Kong-sprul. V a l . 1 3 5 a . by 'Jam-dbyangs mKhyen-brtee'i 23. Pt. see * J a m . 6. p.. pp. Pt. 6 . 1. Book 2.p o l s e e * J a m . of the Karma 'Jam- w h i c h w s s s descendent named Nyf -me Seng-ge..2: 6. -. 2 9 1 . 209-hP9. there i s a rediscovered vereion ( u . Pt. RTD.n t e r ) o f a RTD. pp. s N y i n g . n o w comprise seven volumes. a.

198 . p . Bonk 3 . pe a.3. pp. - ~ecoll ected vislon9 () -. Vols.~ f i transmltten reconcesl en (-1.9 0 . 2lla. PP. 6.4-195a. Pt. t h e mchoP blblioeraphy H I S collected rediscovered *eechinps. occupy thirty volumes.6 7 6 . 196 RTD. earth t m 1. S e e RSTB. H e received fifteen v o l u m e s o f c o l l e c ~ e d known a s "celeetial doctrinest* (of visionary teachines. m b . 185a. 1 . pp. pp. r terfor W. 177a.m ~ o n K o n g . w ) from Z h e s e e o f t w e l v e until h i e death at t h e a g e twenty-four. Ci3. S e e absve pp. 20-25. treasure? p r a D .6-213a. 11-12. RTD. 193 11 91 S e e CLTC. See the details. Book 2. PP. pp. Pt. 6. Vols. ~ ! . S e e CLTC. 39 lb-19. Kong-aprul. 7.e p ~ u l . 606-658. Vol. 6. 0 9 . RTD.. Vol. 59-61. h ~ t e e ' i dBeng-po. - treasures m!. 6 5 8 . P u r e ( ~ ~ Y and aural trsnsmissisns 651.b m m) comprlse (pe-~t~~). t-errsllre~ intentj onel I (mn - (dnonns nt-r . pe 195 On mChog-*mur gLlnp-pa. h-18bt. I97 S e e above. NSTB.pp. .2: O n t h e l j f e o f 'Jsm-dbyangs mKhyen- refer t o 'Jam-mpon WSTB. eee ' J a m . 192 These seven succeaslons preccptp treasuree (gke* . Pt. Book 7 .

202 This axiom also Occur8 In ch. PU. PP. WOESview. mun . 11. and their appllcetion.200 The of rclatlonshlp between theae qualities and the adherents the nine vehicle8 is explored in Chapter mun-srl. --. namely that the five components are two superior axiorrre. eee -5-bcy el80 for a aynopaie see hlSTB.p h ~ m Rin-po-che's deflnltlon sllghtly differs from thet given by klong-chen-pe in . 4. according to which there are two ordinary axioms that ell phenomena of sem%&ra and and of saneneee. 8ecrtT 880-b88. 2 fi. are namely. p p .sel . Book 1. 1 1 . On these axjoms. Tn klong-chen-pa's to Atlyoga as truth refers an extension of Mahayoga.w . 380. pg. buddhae and the elsht esgresates of consctoueness .1-3811. 8 0 8 . pp. Thjrtecn of of the the 201 on the basis of the opening verses See correepondlng chapter of the root-tantra. 13. 203 W j . u.b c u 808-809. 1 5 6 ~ ?f.1: Pt. which form the introductory verses 09 Chapter Eleven. naturally Ch. For e n explanetion see one-bcu -e e l . Ch. nirvana the same In their llncreetsd disposition Pelatively and are the e m e in the manner of a magical apparjtlon.

35. nine kinds of balanced absorption Skt. -. 9. pp. - P. 206 These nine kind6 of skillful means. The four places or stations of birth ( m l w e . 207 For an explanation of the wry6 in which the creation purifiee and transforms living creatures at stage different pp. h . Book I. birth from and The creative the lunar max8d&h). 0 ) nee NSTB. nee . in ( ) -( otherwise known as the m. Pt.r w a l . a180 WSTB. Book VQ. - Ch. They are as follows: detril. joint aOsorvtion further absorption (we-- (wun-'Am) (w 'Jon-pr) and auieecence present. absorption -1. 1. the w).n r 9 n l roimture ( ( ( -lhrr - . 158b- B t m e s of development.. 6. 1. diecipline ( 1 1 ( continuous by which are effected by awareness of the quiescence and (m 1 contemplative which is perseverence. effected -1 and dhich are effected by recollection. - Skt. l DYjdpn* - 205 'Ju Mi-pham r W m . - Skt. 1 miraculoun birth five awakening8 - .of 1.1 which is effected by experience. meed-myllablem buddha-8pOech .w rinrare womb-birth ( esg-birth ( n . Skt. Pt. equipoine (v. .204 On thie axiom.o r 8Oeps in vimualination. which I8 effected by study. 4 . are discussed by Mi-phuu Rin-po-che 117 if. continuous absorption which im effected by thought. andah). 156b-157a. throne ) are emptinenn -( .. Skt. 65. J&hkda). .

Pt.' ~ h r u l -1. contemplation or blessing ( bYin-rlabs). Pt. PP. pp. Ch. Book I.(m yin-'bm). pp. see NSTB.1). naid BOO^ 1. ate NSTB. consecration empowerment 1( . -( namely.- and offering (mama-vs) . l60b-161a. and buddha-mind of meditative concentration See NSTB. the buddha- speech in the form of seed-syllables the ( m -1 yin .-1 .~ a . There are to be eipht divisions of the conduct of careful Self- . 1). 1). - -* 1. 209 On the contemplations of Anuyoga. Thondup and K. in question ( W -1.rhop 1 refer to dPal-sprul 0-rgyan ' ~ 1 ~ s . the distinctions between these modes of conduct in 211 On Mahiqroga. (m -1.m e Chosd kYi dBang-po's commentary on dGa9-rab rDo-rje.and its English translations T. 2x0 On the meditative techniques of Cutting through ( - Resistance . elossary of enumerations. 13. ~ t . -ss nv by h X d @ ~ . pp. On All-surpassing Realisation X%al). 208 The three rites ( visualiaation -1 are in the intermediate mode the body of the deity of in creative ~ u e s t i o n in its entirety (& y n s r z n ) o n . 190a-211b: also Qu s m u. Book 1. mind deity the hand-implement= eyabolic of buGGhathe of ( w1 -. a reality (rds-rde r a n -1 here refer to the four miracles ( r h o . h63-477. Dowman. and the complete body of The four rites indestructible h . 161)b ff.d o a . (s see NSTD.

p p . derire. The five nectars (Edud-r t a L m) are excrement. envy end aelusion. concernine mlrRc1110us ebill ties.d d ~ ~ t brden-*~. conduct provlslons. 370-379. 211.restraint. 333-332.p m b l a . with cornpasalon. 1 1 . 212 The aftermath of meditation referring perlods See. 386-koz.eel . 213 A detailed and clear expl.m . 216 See above. path end result. . 10. 215 For a detailed explanation of these empowerments nnd correspondence. y e . of to the (rle~-thob) is a technical term of pure appearances been when experience medjtative absorptjon have dPa3 -sprul 0-ruyan interruptefl. . 9. see & their . hatred. note 36. $. 210 The ch. Ch. namely. dAane-PC. 141. and immediate conduct. - namely.bet) m-eel Ch. PP. p. e. concerning one-sided the conduct. "rank of Samantabhadra" refers to the sixteenth huddhn- level. 217 The five poisons are the five conflicting emoti0nS (Jjvon- -1.. The . prid-.anation of these rites Is g J v e ~in . note 51. faj thful persevcrence. on which see a b o ~ ~ ep . conduct in harmony with discrjminative awareness. . conduct in elaborate conduct hermony conduct. '3 igs-me0 Chos-kyi tshln-nsum ~ l l . structure of the root-tantra itself corresponds + o the arrangement of the mandalas o f ground.

euperior skillful neane.r w a l . desired raptures. at cl l- See 'Zu-Mi-pnam r N a m .urine. from thence dreams: -). and treat either in actuality. 402-008. U - Padma . 379-039. 'od-paal .r~-m n . -1. esp. pp. offerings include many aspecta corresponding to offerings. mental The outer offerings compriee dance. entailing that accomplishments are abeorbed and or the Susatas of the ten directions into the deity into oneself. (w -?hen. i 'od-naal adds: - . the feast-offerings see y - ylyn-eel. 218 On Chs. which is the ultimate realieation of primordial Purity experienced when body. w e 96 prayers that the deity's Skt. speech and mind into the three attainment (sub-ua. the recitation of mantra and one-pointed prayerfurther ritual t ful devotion to a deity that is visualised. 204-206. e0tablishment inner Outer of phenomenal existence as the ground.DQ . Skt. p. attainment meditation Skt. See ' ~ u Mi-pham rNm-rgyal. 11-12. and flesh. wondrous and the The the of 1 C B r c ~ r i a t e sacraments. semen. The four aspects of service and rites of attainment ( w e n are ritual service ( ritual YBLL=. blood. 22-23. contamplation. m ~ s e v 6 ) . 166. PP.. -). entailing the will descend and blessings transform the mundane body. (-). a p y . Skt. 219 A8 'Ju Mi-pham rNam-rgyal. w) entai3ing - . speech and mind sre Identical to thoee of the deitg. service (n. eong. pp. and in particular the pure offcringe . syllables o f indestructible reality.

secret of sexual "liberation" cogcltions transform the five poisons into five pristine and the three poieons Into offerings of tuddhe-body. pa. 1. 9. as erplelned In Book 1. The real ofyerlng is descrlhed act >'tho RlJpYemP bliss of purity and sameness.r l c ' i &kll) wjth its network The of e n e m y channels. m e & ) . a 221 These four rites sre expialned in nhvons. sppcch and rnjnd. 2 5 7 . and eyuaSee e.r d e . PP. inner and secret awareneee of the outer. Pt. o . X U Jewel Qmmusn2 Pt. FP. IOa-llb. within the context of the home rltual .. . See ale0 Tadeuez Skorupeki. myditfi). Ch. lLberaYion. Skt. 333-315. nimlty (btang-snvoms. 227 The NSTB. " The fouF lmmeasurablea ( m ~ d .the body of Indestructible reality ( m . p. compesslon ( u .n) 'SLh. glff. 2611-775. sympathetic joy (-'-ha.po.h c ~ - . Sgam. four resultant prlstlne cognitlone. h 8 e . Ig. . rulf SZTlrl. Book 1. 220 a) are loving kindnpse Skt . are reepectively outer. Beyer. Skt. Skt. "Tibetan Homa Rites" and S.: NSTB. PP. mal trl!. offeringe current8 and seminal union and points. 2.r n e d (bynm~-@g. inner and secret major R mlnor marks on the bl~ddha-body: of reality and the pristine coenition the (w -na ye-eh+p ) which I s aware of Bupreme merks of the Great Perfectfon.

. 91.Lp-'-1. Z&e Cult pt u.the awareness r. oripinating from the KriyBtantra. Book 1. 276-290: also S. to protect. u u b .p. 103b. .bcu mun-sel pp. mind. b .u )and the awarenees-holder of the great seal (w dn-'-)-- are considered to be provisional results in relation to the conclusive awareness-holder of spontanecus presence iuUh ZAALklaiJl . who gives this description on the brais of a quote from the dnonn. however. and Atiyoga. see HSTB. 9. from manaa. pp.~ m @ i - m. 8. p. between the latter and the complete buddha-level. mantra. and secret mantras the non-dual prietine copnition. Pf . Both this text and NSTB. oripinatinp from Mahwopa. holder of &2&-835. and ILZbXa. pn08tiC mantras are the essence of skillful means. Book 2. DR. Beyer. rpyud Anuyopa. 1. iI I &. 12. RR. ( The first three-. distinguieh. pp. criminative retentive mantras are the essence of oripinatinp from the teachings disof awareness. which are dis- cuesed in phyo-s . . 225 The realisations referred to are those of the four kinds of awareness-holders -( Ch. 161a-16213. maturation power over the awareness-holder with the lifespan ( - d = . pa. which derives the Skt. See e.I' 1 I t. see ohuone-bru myll-8~1. t r [ L 228 On this definition. 226 Alternatively. ch.'b m . On the formation of hand-pesturee. - (u Pt. p. 331-332: Ch.are -. lU3f f. 'Jipe-med pLinp- .

230 I Within the section on the mandala of peaceful deities. the reader should refer to the glossaries of technical terms and enumerationn in NSTB. is a exegetical see for this diecusi~ion on the khan-go two traditione. . 1. According to Ehen-mP. 60a-63&. pp. 2. the pp. note 170. gZhan-dga' commentary. As along with the definitions provided in NSTB. 11 -12.. the tern Ye-shes is variously deac~ibed ae (~e-n. A - indicated by the in definitions ISfB. it 10 the perception of . above 232 p. Ch. pp. 106.227 'Ju Mi-pham rNm-rsyal. five kind8 of primtine cognition Book I * Pt.&a pristine or primordiallr a b i d i n ~ cognition - t - ) or the awarenees of coalemcent minds of *mPtFneea m d radiance abiding naturally in the all being6 i of the c n rrrd l 1 rin-p. Lo-chen Dhamnebrl. -1-d~n 'ad-- . . English technical terms are not explained or Whenever accompanied by their Tibetan equivalenta. the expreesion nwisdom" does eeem inadequate. major eource On --bdag - .). 83 if. Book far as the two thrme mentioned here are concerned. * 13 concerns the perfection 8t-e 23: and the Great Perfection.

pa. dimadvantagee perceptual reeolved -( of anr object of reference within one's at the conclusion of which doubt0 ylll-pyl-u I own are range.s i Ugkn&l a 8 = s a n . and dietinctlono. advantages 8 general characteristics.m i mthar- d ' wei .a n v i ' i r dmU hlrnn &h--t&uin dar-*e-naE Aed-Pa'i ahell - Zab-kvl z o . 2 0 2 f f .(1Be9 u . ative awareness thrlueh thought or contemplation. PI?.4 - . - iDO .po.the buddhas rather tnan an accumulaticn of factual knowledse. . lnP' is eaid to be Droduced Discriminstudy.~ a > .aaIu b b v a n . Orna- m a & Of . The term s l i m 8 8 wisdom as the or - is described discriminative particular 8 awarenese of the eesence.~ r . See Sgam.

.

The T i t l e [rgya-gar ekad-du : Sr~guhyaparbhatattvavinibcayamahatantra- bod-ekad-du: dpal geang-ba'i 1 nges-pa' i rgyt~d chen-go : [I] bcom-ldan-'das snying-po de-kho-na-nyid rnam-par dpal kun-tu-bzang-60-la phyag-'tshal-lo: (21 Chapter One 'dl-skad bshad-pa'i dus-na:[l] de-bzhin gshegs-pa yang-dag-par chen-Po rdzogs-pa'i sa.~ a yon-tan dpag-tu mad-pa pa: lhag-pa'i ye-ehee 3 ~ o Y ~ s .?ga-rgyae bcom-ldan-'daa: longs-spyod gsunp-dang thugs rdo-rje'i bdag-nyid: Pa thaqs-cad-dang ma-lus mi-lue lue-pa med- so-so ma-yin tha-mi-dad dbyer-med-pa'i rang1 bzhin-te:[2] 'cg-min-gyi gnas mtha'-dang dbus-med-pa-na: gzhi 2 tshab-med-pa'i ye-ehes-kyi 'khcr-lo gsal-ba-la: ye-Bhes rin-POche 'bar-baqi gzhal-yas-khang: rgya-phYOSs bcur Yonge-eu ma- 1 ~ h a d .P * ' P ~ Y f2ru-bzhir gYur~ P glo-'bur-gyis mdzes-pa: rin-pa-che'i rtse-mo phyoge-bcu dus-bzhi'i sange-rgyas-kyi dkyil-'khor ma-lus0 pa tharns-cad: so-so ma-yin ngo-bo-nyid pcig-pa'i ye-she6 kun-tu 5 'khyil-pa: ye-ehee beam-syis mi-khyab-pa. ye-shes rin-PO-Che'i dbYibs-dang kha-dog la-sops-pa rnam-pa tha-dad-pa'i bye-brag-dang Ye- 6 khyad-par-d~ gyur-pa: 'phags-pa: tehad dpag-tu med-pa: ( 1 3 phreng-ba-dang: 7 rin-po-che sna-tehogs-kyi c h u r ..r3h~ang- .

l a : mi-oprib10 rgyan bsam-gyis mi-khyab-Par ego-n&s 'jug-pa'i klubs-pa: 11 rnam-par bzhi'l pa brgyad-kyi r t a .d a n g : thogs-pa ned-pa 13 ktlri-clang: dang: danp rang-bzhin-gyis 'od-gsal-ba nyi-zla'i gdan-la: [ 5 1 thal-le-bar dkyil-'khorsku mdungos-pa m e d .p a p a d m a rin-po-che'i zhal rgyab.d a n g : Qane: de-bzhin gshegs-pa d e .n a t i l .s v i @any-bu bzhin-du dbylngs kun-tu .med-pa: mtahan-dang thams-cacl-du 1lr dpe-byad-du ldan-pa: gsal-zhing thamsthabsskyilrin-pomj - bsam-gyis mi-khyab-pa 15 cad-du.d a n ( ~ : dro-ba'i teh0g8- d b ~ i n g e .d a n g r n a m .g n y i s mnyain-pa'i mo-krung-du che'i bzhuga-pa: ye-shes drug-gi phyag sku-gsung-thugs phyag-rgya ' bar-ba-can : bsam-gyis khyab-pa'i OBhegs-pa dbu-gsum-dang ldan-pa:[6] bcom-ldan-'das de-bzhia de-bzhin gshegs-pa rgyal-pode-bzhin r n a m .p a kunmi-'jigs--pa seng-ge'i rdzu-'phrul rta-yi nam-mkha' khri-dang: khrP-dang: lding-gi Bgo-khyud-can: tu yang nang-du g y u r .m o d a m .p a .b c u r par gsal-ba'l thar-pa r o sna-tshoge-dang: reg-bya 9 * k h r i g ~ .b z h i n g s h e g s .p a : phyi-dang n a n g m e d .8 den=.p a tshor-ba'i 'du-shes-kyi rgyal-po-dangi khu'i danp: mdog-tu 19 'teher-ba: [ 7 ] b t s u n . 8 k u .t h u g s sna-tshogs-par kun-tu snang-ba: brtul-zhugs-kyi ye-shes 16 dang shes-rab-kyi z h a b s .p a r enes-pa'l rgyal-po-dang: OZUgS-kyi r g y a l .b a b e .g 8 u n g . s h a r .d a n ~ : bekyod-pa'r dbyings la-sogs-pa btsun-mo*i chos-kyl 20 a a n ~ Onyis-su kbab-.pa-ni: med-par * dl-lta-ate : mtha'-yas-par 21 d p e r .p o .b y u n g .n a : [ A ] stobs glang-PO-che'i khri-dang: dbang rma-bya' i k h r i .b u r i rgyan-dang: e z u g s sna-tshogs-dang: asre sne- t~hoge-dang: d r i sna-tshogs-dangl sna-tshogs-kyis p h y o g s .p a r thar12 l d a n .p a rr a n g .p a enang-ba'i dbyings- era-ba'i dbyinga-clang: mnyen-pa'i d b y i n g s .

.r j e reg-shes-dang:[13) rtag-par ma-yin-pa-dang! chacl-par me-yin-pa-dang: bdag-tu 31 ma-yin-pa-bang: mtshan-mar hs-yin-pa la-soge-pa: de-lta-bu'i 32 t8hogs b r j o d .p o r d o .p a r bya-be-dang: mnyan-par bye-ba-bang: bsnam-par 26 bye-be-dang / myong-bar bya-ba' 1 t s h o g s .k y i ~ mi-lang-ba-dang: gnyis-su med-par bzhuge- 33 30 : [lb] d e .R ~ I med- de-nas ~ a ' i gsang-ba'i sku-dang de-dsg-nyid-kyj 3a gsune-dang thugs-dang yon-tan PhYung-ngo 1 e e-ma geeng-be --.22 be-nae then-po byang-chub chen-po rdo-rje mthong-ba-dang: byang-chub rdo-rje thos-pa-dang: bysng-chub chen-po rdo-rjc snom23 2 11 pa-clang: byang-chub chen-po rdo-rje myong-pa-dang ! [91 b t e u n 25 mo m t h o n g . . - 'dl-nyid .d a n g ! [ l o ] byar~z-chub chen-po rdo-rje mthong-byed-dang: byang-chub chen-p6 byang-chub rda-rje chen-po rdo-rje 27 thos-byed-dang! byarjg-chuh pa-dang: snom-byed-bang: chen-po rdo-rje myong-bYeC-dang:[11] brsun-mo 'daa28 29 ba-ltar-bang: 'byung-bs-dang: ma-byon-pa'l tshoes- clang: [I21 ' jon~s-pa 30 30 chen-po rdo-rje reg-pa-clang: ' joms-pa 30 regbtsun- chen-go r d o .b z h i n g s h e g ~ ..p a btsun-mo'l dkyil-'khor tshogs-clang g n y i s . phrin-las rda-rje-las [a51 35 e-ma-ho: 36 de-bzhin-nyid-kyl dbyjnge-nyid dbang-egyur ngang: tlng-'dzin 1161 ezugs-brnyan apyu-ma rnam-dag ye-shes dkyll'khor thugs-rje'l rang-enang-be-nyid .r j e bya-dang ! mo reg-byed-dens: ' joms-pa 30 chen-po rdo-rje 'jome-pa c h e n .

c h o s : .r j e m c h o g .n y L d .d u bzhin g s h e g e .g i ' phrin-18s sel-med-pa-yi I I 38 39 gnas-nyid-do.r j e gsang-ba'i ngee-pa-lae tshig-tu'o: 1181 glens-gzhi'i gsang-ba'i snying-go de-kho-na-nyid le'u-ste dang-po'o. -zhes r d o .l u s chon-so-cog: Bang~-re~88-n~ld-l&~ ezhan-pa'?. i [19] 1 2 bcorn-ldan-'das ma-lue-pa'i chos byed-pa-po rdo-rje y i d kun-tu bzang-poi de-nae theme-cad bya-ba-mo 3 rang-bzhin-gyi tshul rdo-rjes: pyur-to: ma-lus-pa bteun-mo zhugs-pas thama-cad Run-tu bzang-mo-la de-bzhin ' jug-par phyogs-bcu dus-bzhi'i gshega-pa de-bzhin 4 gcig-gi r a n g .d o : [I] e-ma.l a dbyer-med-pas gshegs-pa-nyld. de- ched-du brjod-pa 'dl b r j o d .I I 37 sku-gaung-thugs-dang yon-tan yid-bzhin mi-zad-par ldan-pa yon-tan rin-go-che: r g y a n .h o : reo-rje phung-PO yan-la9-ni: rdzoga-va'i akye-mched byang-chub sangs-rgyas lnea-ru grage: kun: khamo-rnsme mang-po sema-dpa'l dkyil-'khor-nyid: sa-chu epyan-dang mb-ma-ki: me-rlung gos-dkar egrol-ma-ate: nam-mkhr' dbyinge-kyi dbong-phyug-ma: thams-cad m a .p a .g ~ i 'khor-lo r d o .b z h i n .

g i s n y i n g .p o .s h e s .n a s : 9 ched-du b r j o d .e u b s k y e d .r g y a s .c a d ye-nee e a n g s .n a s sange-rgyes- a e .p a r d e .p a 'dl g e u n p e .k y i c h o s : rdzoge-pa'i e a n e e .p a r g y u r .p o s y e .8 0 : I51 e-ma-ho n g o . 13 phung-po lnga-nyid r d z o g e sange-rpyas: theme-cad m c h o g .d o : [31 kye-ma ' o : 10 phyogs-bcu stone-khams ye-nae d b e n : 11 s r i d .b z h i n e e h e g s pa-nyid-kyle m k h y e n .p a gsurn-ni dae-pa'i 12 zhing: s n y i g s .r g y a s kun-pyi g e a n g : .b a s chos mi-btsal: nyid-las g z h ~ nzhes-bya-ba'i c h o s : 15 16 bteal-kyang rgyal-bas mi-brnyes-so: -me6 brjod-pas t h a m s .p a 'dl b r j o d .s u med-pa'i Pa'i eeme y e .b a s : 11 1 gzhan-du r g y a l .t u bzang-po-dang pnyie-eu m e d .t o : [&I bdag-nyid c h e n .m t s h a r r m a d .m a lnga-nyid bde-ldan g n a e .n a ~ g n y i e .5 6 mi-brnyes-so: mange-rgyae-nyid-kyle to: [21 7 de-nss btsun-?no bya-ba-mo C h o s )tun-tu bzang-rnos: bcorn-ldan-'daa 8 yid [byed-pa-yo] k u n .

b a ' i c h o e : sna-tehoge snang-la rang-Szhfn =sane: ngo-bo-nyld-kyle gzhan-du min-lae rab-tu 25 sang: ehln-tu g e a n g : .e-ma-ho ngo-mtehar rmed-kyl c h o s : rdzocs-pa'i s a n g s . e-me-ho ngo-mtsher rmad-kyj chos! -Ces b~jod-pas: de-bzhln gshegs-pa thams-cad-dang bt~un-mo'l tshogs thams-cad-kyang mnyes-pas khyah-par gyur-to: Llll be-naa 23 de-bzhin gehegs-pa thams-cad btsun-mo'i tshogs [thams2u cad]-dang bcas-pas ched-du brjod-pa 'dl brjod-40: 1121 e-me-ho ye-nae ~ e a n g .r g y a a kun-gyl gsang: dmigs-pa med-la8 the~ns-cad d m l g e : P1 dmigs-pa-nyld-na dmlgs-pa-med: 19.~ .g y e skun-gyl g s a n g : 'gag-pa med-la8 thams-cad 'gag: 18 'gag-pa-nyid-ne * geg-pa-med: [?I e-ma-ho ngo-mteher rmad-kyl c h o s : rdzogs-pa'l sanga-rgyas kun-pyl ysang: gnas--pa mcd-les thams-cad g n a s j 19 pnau-pa-nyld-na gnas-pa-mcd: [8] e-ma-ho ngo-mtshar rmad-kyl c h o s : 20 rrlzogs-pe'i a s ~ g s .

m e n .r g y a s c h o s : b a t e n .r t o g l e e .k y i ss p r u j : s n a .€ O r 'd?.in : sua-kyang m e .p a s ! 1131 ye-nee de-bthln gehegs-pa thams-cad-dens: chos thms-cad ngo-bn-nyld-du gcig-pa'i 26 mtshan-nyid y i n .b s n e s l la-sogs-pa: b d a g .b e i n g s b c l n g s .p a r yrol-med-pa'l! ye-nas l h u v .d u brjod-pe 29 sengs-rgyaa-kyi ye-shes chen-go [I&] 'dl b r j o d .g i r s o .t e h o g s lus-dsng l o n e s .s u bekyed-pa'i le'u-ste OSang-bati .s h e s .p a ne-kho-na-nyid nges-pa-la6 don-dam-pa-dang 33 kun-rdzob-kyi byang-chub Seme y e .p h y i r spro-ba e n s .p a rr t o g - sengs-rgyae-pa'i 27 pa ma-rig-pa-lee: 'gro-ba lnga' 28 r i ~ bsam-gyis mi-khyeb-par smiil-pa-la: skyes-nas: thugs-rje chen-po c h e d .b a rnam-rtog bdag-tu nan-gyis mKha'-la yod-ma-yin: 31 'Czj n-pa-yis: 32 m d u d .d e : 1151 30 bclng-bar b y a .t e h o g s m d z a d : -CeS de-bzhin gshegu-pa-nyid de-bzhin gshege-pa-nyid-18 ched-du g n y i n g . .d a n g b d a g .r d z o g s s a n p a .s p y o d .d a n z : gnas-dang e d u g .p a s dbytr-med-na'ang: 'ern-ba'i ~ n a m .-zp.p a 'dor : [I61 bcings-med r n a m .d o : e-ma-ho bde-gahege snyine-pa-las: rang-g? r n a m .ee b r j o d .

d a n g : zag-pa med15 16 Pas k u n .t u bzane-po'i s p y o d .b c u mtha'-yas 6 atone-geum-gyi 7 bcom-ldan-'daa mdzad-de:[2] mdzad-pa-dang .de-nas de-bzhin g s h e g e .c h u b eems-dpa'i theg-pa-dang! blo-nh .p a . kvi etong-chen-po re-rer : thub-pa chen-po 8 re-re6 'dul-ba r n a m .g i p h y o g s .l a e 2 byin-gyis drug: lea 5 brlabs Zthee-bya-ba' 1 : 1 thugs-rje chen-po'i 3 rig-pa' 1 ekyes-bu thub-pa : a d e .d a n g : kun-tu g z h a l b e a m .p a .p a b z h i ~ 'arc-ba lnga'i don 9 bltame-pa-dang: rab-tu byung-ba-dsng: bdud-htul-ba-danp dka'-thub 10 eangs-rgyaa-pa-dang: 'khor-lo bskor-ba-dang: cho-'phrul mya-ngan-lae-'das kun-tu la-aogs-par aton-pa'i thama-cad-kyi chos11 chen-pa aton-pa-dang: 12 thub-pas :[31 dua-bzhi sems-kyi rgYud kun-tu kun-tu : mkhyen-pa-dang: mkhyen-pa-dang Sties-pe-dang : 13 rdzu-'phrul-gyi rclzu-'pbrul-gyi spyan-gyis thams-cad anyan-gyfs kun-tu gsan-pa-dang: 1A l I-4~9-'phrul-gyi t e h o g a kun-tu d o n .a p y o d .p a rdzogs-pa'i mngon-par shes-pa Chen-po kun-tu drug-pang : : [&I kun-tu s k u barn-gyis mi-khyab-pa-dang : t h u g s beam-gyio m i .b z h i n gshegs-pa'i 'thon-to: [l] yen-man-gyi eku-dang geung-dang thugs rdo-rje- 'thon-naa-kyang l a s .g ~ i s 17 mi-khyab-pa-dang : kurr-tu esung bsam-gyis mi-khyab-pa-danp 19 18 Idan-pa.k y i d b a n g .c a d .p a t h a m s . bsam-gyie mi-khyab-pa grange-med-pa phyops-bcur thams-cad-kyang 'dl-lta-ete: 20 'dul-ba'i d b a n g .g i s lha-dana mi'i thee-pa-dang : nyan-thoe-kyi thep-pa-clang: rang mane-chub21 k ~ i thee-pa-clans: b ~ a n g .p i e enrel-gzhimu-rned- deng pe'i 'jig-rten d r u g .k h y a b .

r n a m s .n l : 2R log-par r t o g .b a r [lo] rang-bzhin n y i d .s d u g m y o n g .b a n g : las-dang las-kyi 'dzin-pa'i: phyi-nang-gi 25 'dzin-pa ' k h r u l . at-dag thams-cad-kyang gzung-ba-dang rten-cing 'hrel-har 'byung-be: 26 (rtogs-pa) .d e : bdag-dang bdag-gi g z h a n .p a taam-nyid-3aa: yod-ma-ydn: Vhra-zhing zab-pa'ang 29 lag-rtog n y i d .22 med-pa'i 23 theg-pas : (61 ma-rlg-pa'i rnam-par tog-pa nyon-mongs- pa phpag stong-phrag brgyed-cu breyed-cu rtee-bzhi'i rtsa-bzhi gsungs-so: gnycn-por: geung-ngo: chos stong- gaung-bar 21 .y a n g m e d : (121 .d e n s bdag-gi p z h a n .p a .1 8 nyid 6 p y o d .m c d .l a 6 nyams-pa-med: M a g .p a e : 30 ezhan-du =Yo-ba c i .l a 8 'doge-pa 'bras-ht~ c h u d mi-7.8-be-dang: med-par ston-pa'i mthar-thug-go: [81 ched-du brjod-pa 'dl de-nas de-bzhln gshegs-pa thams-cad-kyjs ma-rig rtog-pa'i gzung-'dzin-gyisi gnyis-au 'khor: 27 'gyur: phyi-nang rten-'brel ml-mthun b d e .

b c u rnams-su rab-grage-pa: rang-bzhln gsang-ba'l snylng-po 'dl: 37 sde-snod kun-dang reyud-kun-ayl: 'byung-gnas gtan-la nges-par 'bebs: [I91 38 choa-rnama mlng-du btogs-ba tsam: Eton-pan don-dang mthun-phyoge-su: mine-drne tmhlg-tu btrae-nae batan: .b a raton: [I?] 'dul-ba mdo-sde choa-mngon-dang: dam-tshig sgrub-dang grub-pa-dang: sku-dang gaune-dang thugs-kyl rgyud: 36 ~ h y o o s .a dbang-agyur-nyid spyod-phylr: bdag-dang gzhan-deng rtog-pa'l rnam-dag bla.gzhi-rtea-med dbyings skad-clg-ma: 31 rnarn-par dag-pa'i dbylngs-nyid-tshul: (131 nyld-1.-med thee-pa'i rgyun: [I&! mchoe: 32 theg--pa bzhl-yla nges-'lyung-la: 'brae-Sur gnes: 33 thep-pa gclg-01 [5 I1 rang-bzhin med-las clr-yane 'grub: C6 11 34 sangs-rgyas mya-ngan y o n g s mi-'da': 35 choa-kyang nub-par mi-'gyur-te: ma-rig smln-mdzad byung-naa mya-ngan 'dul-ba*l phyir: * d a q .

b y e b m e d .p a r d r a n .b z h i n g s h e g s .m t s h a r sku-&sung y o n .p a .d b a n g .d m i z e bdag-tu r t o g .s umed-pa'i 'dl-nyid: dkyil-'khor de-dagyon- nyid-kyi g e a n g .w i d bdag-med ye-mkhyen rang-rig thugs: dnigs-bya d m i g s .b a 01 sku-dang gsung-dang thugs-dang [21] tan 'phrin-la6 rdo-rje.c a d g t a n .b e n g a l log-rtog-nyid-las 'khrul-'khor la-aogs-pa: 1221 43 gzhan-du cl-yang-med: s t o n .l a s c h o s t h a m s .39 ston m i n g .d e de-nyid d e .l a 11 0 -ces de-nas brjod-do: [20] dngos-yo med: d e .b s g y u r : 14 1 n g o .la^ p h y u n g .P a e n ~ i s .l t a r y i n : -zhes r d o .l a p h a b 11 6 pa'i le'u-ste gsum-pa'o: : 1261 . C2 srid-rtsa'i n y e a .l a 8 'phros: gnaa-dang a d u g .t s h i g .t a n zhing-khams-las: gzhan-na n e d .n g o : a-ho .r j e gsang-be'i tshig-tu'o: [231 -zhes-brjod-pas: de-bzhin gsheus-pa thub-pa drug-gi sprul-pa geunps-pa grangs-med-pa-dang: 85 thams-cad-kyis yang de-dag-tu SnYing-po de-kho-na-nyid n g e a .

a h e s rgyu-yin-no: [3] K A K H A GA GHA N A 1 CA CHA J A J H A R A : T A THA D A DHA N A : . T A THA DA DHA N A : P A P H A BA B H A M A : YA VA R A L A : SA S A S A HA: KSA: .r3e1 d b y i n g s .p a r brtcin: de-las m i n g .g y u r a-dkar-las: u shin-tu phra-ba'i a-rname s p r o : 5 phyoga-bcu g a n g .p a g c l e .t u chen-PO' i gyur-nas: t s h u l rdo-.P a thams-cad d e o n g e .s u : i c h o s thams-cad 1 sang~-r~~aS-Pa'i ting-nge-'dzin-la8 mi-gYo-Sari chos ming-tsam-du 'di: gnas-pa'i yi-ge 'phreng-ba'i 'khor-lo phyung- thams-cad zhes-bya-ba s k u .z h i n g badu-ba'bng kun: [2] de-bzhin-no: 'di-ni r d o .g r u b . A: 3 rab-tu b r t a n .d a n g g s u n g .t s h o g s gsal-'bar s p r o . .d a n g t h u g s rdo-rje-la6 nool ill 2 . .C h a p t e r Four de-nas myam-pa ye-nas de-bzhin g S h e g S .k y i : 8 brtan-'byung A: y e .r j e d n g o s .b a r gflkI-gyur-naa: 6 7 bedue-kyang 'phel-'grib m e d . .

11 9 dngos-med y i .n y i d .p a * i g n a s ] sna-tshogs don-=hen emra-zhing e t o n .r t e n drug-gi phyogs-bcu mtha*-yas-pa: chos 9 eYoe: rab-tu O Y o 6 : kun-tu gyur-to: thema-cad ming-gi m t e h a n .1 'di-dae rnam-pa phyung-bas: drug-tu * J i g .m a .g e * i rang-bzhin s e m s : bdap-med mtha'-bra1 mi-dmiga-kyrng: 11 1 dbribs-dang kha-dog ming-tshogs-kyle: 15 pol-pa cir-yang mprul-cing s t o n : [lo] Yl-ee mgo-nrs ksr-la rdeogs: [ill .d u gYom-n-a: 10 ho: [5 1 de-nas de-bzhin gehegs-pa thame-cad-kyle ched-du brjod-pa 'dl brjod-do ] 11 6 11 a-ni etong-dang mi-stong-tti: dbu-ma'ang dmige-su y o d .y f n ] thams-cad ming-Seam mange-rgyas kun: a-nrid sna-tshogs-par snang-ba'ii ka la-soga-pa bzhi-bcu-gnyis: sgra-yi ming-gis thams-cad b s d u s : 12 mngon-rdzogs reyal-po de-nvid n g e s : [a] e-an-ho ngo-mtehar ya-mtshan-gyi: 'phrul-chen bzhi-bcu-rtsa-lnga'i m i n g : 13 tohie-rnante ma-lus * d z i n .t a m .

e u g c o d : 21 [I51 a-nl s k y e .t u ngyu-'phrul-nyid: 25 [ 17 1 the-nl d r r .r a b m i n g .n y l d en.b e h l n . ta-ni enang-ba'l da-nl sgyu-'phrul dha-nl agyu-'phrul 23 rnun-dag-nyld: 24 na-nl k u n .b r 'kh.ril-ba-nyid: 25 ' ria-nl d r r .b r 25 mnson-rdzoge-nyld: brtrn-pa-nyid: 26 lhm-me-nyid: tr-nl d r r .b r 25 dr-nl d r r .b r N u n .t e : tig-ni n h e 6 .same-kyi rang-bzhln yl-ge-ste: 18 yl-ge dngos-go yod-ma-yin: [12] drnles-mad d e .-tshoge-pa'l: sku-geune-thugs-kyl 'khor-lo che: sku-smung-thugs-ni ngo-mtehar-syl: 19 ya-mtshan 'phrul-chen rab-'guge-pa'o: 20 {I31 yl-ge zheu-nl de-phyir brjod: [I&] mgo-nl m a .t u 'gyur: (181 .d u s n r a : ehrd-nl t h r b s .b r 25 dhr-nl d r a .n o r l a m .m e d d e .c h e n t e h l g s .y l n .n y l d : [I61 thr-nl rgyu-'phrul 22 rdo-rje-nyid: egyu-'phrul-nyld: yid-bzhin-nyid'.

k y i thus.b a r bved: r r .w i t h u g s .0 1 mchoe: b h r .n i ye-mhum t h u s m .k y i mchog: 27 nr-ni thugs-kymg 'jig-bved-pr'o: ti91 c r .w i g s u n g .n i g a u n g .khr-nl m w r n .p a drg-pa-mte: 35 8r-ni chrd-pa vod-ma-win.v m o ' j i g .n i rdul-mnrod lhr-rn-8-mu: .ha-ni ljags-kvi t h u g u .p i mchog: 30 u .p y i mku-vi r c h o g : p h a .x i mchog: b a .n i a n y a n .p a r dae: 31 32 (211 va-ni gnra-pa rnam-par drp: rr-ni 'jig-pa bag-pa-eta: 33 la-ni atone-pa dag-pa'o: 36 h a .n i .n i mpvan-wi sku-vi mchog: c h r .n i r t r g .n i ljage-kyi s s u n g .n l mhansm-kvi e a u n g .: i .We-br r n u a .k y i mchog: .n i r n v a n . 36 k 8 r .

~ j e .g e ' i * khor- ee ' ~ h ~ ~ n g .z h e s brjod-do: a-ho: [25J de-bzh¶ n gshegs-pa btsun-mo'l tshogs-dang ~ n y s-eu l medh1 ~ 8 ' 1 dkyil.b a ''khor-lo i bkod-pa'i le'u-ate bthi-pa'o:: (281 .I-nl rdul-snycd lha-ma-yin: u-nt rdul-snyed mi-rname-su: G-nl rdul-snyed byol-eong-rnam8: e-nl rdul-snyed rl-dvags-su: ai-nl rdul-snycd dmyal-bs-rnams: [23] 37 o-nl thams-cad 'jig-par byed: 38 au-nt thams-cad zhig-pa-yin: (24 I 39 yl-ge 'khar-lo tshogs-chen 'dis: PO sku-gsung-thugs-ky% phreng-ha bsdus: .b a rmi-mdaed dbang-med rpyu-rkyen tshogs-pa'i in a9 : ' 0 : ho: -2hes rdo-rje gsane-ha* 1 tshig-bu brjod-pas: 1271 50 de-'bzhin gshegs-pa thame-Cad ~ i .t s h o e ~ bahl- : a8 'due-byas rdo-rje dkyll-'khor 'byln-pa'l 'dus-ma-byas-nyld dam : mbhu-then * d e V .* k h o r de-dag-nyid-kyi gsang-ha 'dl-nyld: nku-~s~ng07 h3 thugs yon-tan 'phrl n-las r o o .l a p phyung-ngo: C261 de-nap a-ho: 4D a5 byana-chub sems-tshoes thabs-dang s3es-rab dgyes-sprln rgyu 'khor-lo: 46 'bras-bu rgyal-be omln-grub bcu-gnyis ngo-mtshsr m l n g .

n y i dyl-ge'i yi -pe yid-bzhin rang-bzhln-te: rin-chen sprin: 121 BOYu-'phrul dra-ba'i dkyil-'khor bzhi-bcu gnyis: dkyil-'khor mngon-rdzogs--pas: longs-spyod 'b~une-zhing ngan-song sbyong: [b] 7 ci-yang gzhaa-du 'g~ur-ba *grub: nam-mkha' r d o .Chapter F i v e lphro-ba 'di ched-du brjod-do: [I] chos-rnams k un-gyi r t e a .r t t n khame-ni *thar-ba-danp: 11 thams-cad s t o n g e .v a n e t51 .~ j esra-'byung-zhi ng: a 'tshig-pa-danu: 9 chur-'gyur 'bab-pa'ang de-bzhin-te: 10 ' 3 1 ~ .s h i n s ltung-bar ' w u r : 'bar-nas m e .b a y i n : f ~ e m 6 .

dam-tshig engage-dang phyag--rgya-rnams. 'gyur-ba 15 gser-'gyur sman-gyi tshul. 19 rtogs-pa'i dbang-bsgyur 20 tang-'dzin yin. [ii] . 21 'jig-pap 22 dmigs-med shes-par-gyis.mun-la snang-byung ji-bzhin-du. dus-gsurn rgyal-bas thugs-churl-pa'i. ma-nnams shes-ahing yo-byad-ldan. 18 dngos-po'i sprint [9] sna-tshngs rnam-par 'byung-zhing 'gyur. dngos-grub mchog-gi snying-po-nil zad-pa'i dus-med yid-bzhln mdzod. 17 'Phel-'grab med-par dngos-po med-las 'byung-ba-?te. [10] de-phyir dngos-dang dngos-med-pa. [71 ston-pa mchod-brtson rtogs-pa gsa1. dngos-rnams nyid-na dngos-med-par.

le'u-ste [15] de-nas de-bzhin gshegs-pa thams-cad-kyi rang-bzhin gcig-dang du- ma iced-pa'i bdag-nyid theme-cad-la. mnyam-par bzhags-pas btul-nas-su. . nyid-kyi 'jig-rten drug-&I phyogs- the-ba'i dkyil-'khor [1] dbyung-bar bzhed-nas. [13] 'jigs-med kun-bzang phyag-rgya'i mchog. de-bzhin-nyid dbyings ye-shes-te: (12) thabs-kyi phyag-rgya kun-gyi rgyu. dkyil-'khor beam-.gnas-su ma-yin gang-yang-min.vas ye-shes rol. 27 sngags-dang phyag-rgya rab-brtan-na. ched-du brjod-pa 'di brjod-do.vas lhun-grub-ni. gsang-ba'i snying-po de-kho-na-nyid nges-pa-las 28 sgyuinga- 'phrul [dra-ba] bsgrub-pa'1 tang-nge-'dzin-gyi pa'o. 1 thams-cad-kyis. 25 thabs-las thabs-byung 26 thabs bsam-yas. Yyur-to. the-dad min-las tha-dad-pa'i. rdzogs-then rtogs-pa'i rnal-'byor-pas.. dkyil-'khor beam-. nang-dang nang-gi phyi-rol-gyi.

gru-shad bzhis brgyan bar-khyams-dang. [8] . padma ral-gri dril-bu 'bar. btsun-mo'i tshogs-dang bcas-par gnas. rdo-rje 'khor-lo rin-po-che. mdzes-tshul mnyea-pa'i yo-byad 'dzin. bar-knyams-la-ni thub-drug-dang. [3] seng-ge glang-chen rta-dang khyung. nyi-zla padma rin-po-che. myong-clang btsun-mo'i tshogs-su bcas. nam-mkha'-lding-gi khri-chen-la. 6 7 gYas-nas 5 mthong-thos snom-pa-dang. ut-Pal klu-shing la-Bogs mtshan. kun-tu gru-bzhi ago-khyud-ldan.'khor-lo rtsiba bzhi mu-khyud-bcas. thos-byed snom-byed myong-byed-rnams. [5] 'khor-lo rgyal-po rgyal-mo-dang. gru-chad-la-ni mthong-byed-dang.

de-bzhin 16 dbyings-1as ma-gYos-kyang stun-nyid agyu-ma mig-yor 19 18 tshul tshul-nyid dbyings-1as gYos-pa-med.17 mthing-kha dkar-po ser le-brean. 211 [14) . [13] dper-na me-long chu-zla-bzhin. de-tshe mi-mthun sna-tshrgs-)a. snip-apong gzugs-au rnam-par bstan. ill [10) mtha'-dbus Mad-Par- khvah-pa-yi: (11) dkytl-'khor bsam-yas lhun-gyis grub. sku-yl phyag-rgya che-mchog-ni. so-so 20 'dra-bar snang-ba-ni. ma-gYos bzhin-du sna-tshogs-pa'i. 21 22 de-bzhin-nyid-las ma-bcos-kyang: las-'phro'i dbang-gis so-sor snang. 23 de-tshe 'gro-drug thams-cad-la. 13 [9) bang-khu la-8098 sna-tshogs-pa'i: mnyen-lcug 'khril-ldem zzhon-tahul-can: LRal-'tsher lhun-sdug gzi-byin-ldan.

26 [15] [16] rang-rgyal-rnams-la bse-ru'1 tshul. rol. 27 sku-ni rnam-par snang-mdzad-tshul: byang-chub sema-pa'1 de-bzhin 'khor. '09-min bla-med gnas-mchog-tu.nyan-thos-rnams-la 25 dgra-bcom gzugs. dngos-kyi mdog-ngan thaws-cad sel' 30 'khor-gyis de-bzhin sku bltas-na. 38 de-la-loge-pa 37* beam-. [21] . longs-sku[/spyod] zad-med yid-bzhin[/rin-then] gter.-rnams-ia: gsung-mchog ml-smra-te: me-long bstan--pa'i 29 tshul bzhin-du.vas mchog. gzhan-yang theg-mchog rim-pa-bzhin.36 tshogs-chen gnyls-kyang rdzogs-par thabs-dang shes-rab sa-yi mchog. byang-chub agrib-pa sting-dpag-died. 34 [19) aprul-pa 35 bye-ba bsam-mi-khyab: spyod-yul kun-tu mandala.

[251 gsang-ba'i snying-po de-kho-na-nyid nges-pa-las dkyil-'khor spros-pa'1 le'u-ste drug-zhes pa'o:: (261 . 44 mnYam-dang mi-mnyam kun-khyab khyab-med khyab-pa'i dbyings. (221 'jig-rten drug-&I phyogs-bcu mtha'-yas dkvil-'khor brjod-kyis mu-med- thaws-cad-du 42 mi-lang-be: zhing-gi rdul-snyed-du de-7as pa'l gsal-bar gyur-to. (231 43 gshegs-pa btsun-moll tshogs-dang gnyis-su meddkyil-'khor de-dag-nyid-kyi gsang-ba 'di-nyid sku-gsungde-bzhin thugs yon-tan 'phrin-las rdo-rje-las phyung-ngo: 1261 a-ho. pa 41 kun-kyang rdzogs. Ye-ahes rang-rig dkyil-'khor ena-tshogs brjod-mi-lang. de-tshe sku-inga -zhes brjod-pas. rdo-rje gsang-ba'1 tahig-tu'o.thaws-cad mkhyen-pa'i ye-ahes-sku. 45 ye-nas kun-gsal dkyil-'khor rnam-'phro 46 spros-pa-med. dmigs-bya dmigs-byed mi-dmigs dpag-med bsam-ml-khyab.

Chapter Seven de-nas cad-kyi de-bzhin gshegs-pa btsun-mo'1 tshogs-dang sku-dang bcas-pa 1 thams- gsung-dang thugs rdo-rje-las 'di-dag phyung- OM JINAJIK: SVA RATNADHRK: AM 1ROLIK. HA PRAJRADHRK: MOM DHATVISVARI: LAM DVESARATI: TAM VAJRARATI: KSIM HI RAJAYA: TRAM A GARBHAYAH (3) HRIH HA HUM PADMABHATAMAH JIM KURUPANA HRIH TRAM MALYE SAMAYA HOH HRIH GITI RAGO/HAM: KAI DHARANI SVAHA: THLIM NISARAMBHAYA SVAHA: HUM SARAJAYA SVAHA: .

VAM DIPASUKHINI. OM MAHAPADMADHARO MAHAKRODHISVARI JVALINI HUM' PHAT*: ON MAHAKARMADHARO MAHAKRODHISVARI JVALINI HUM PHAT. ON MUNE SRUM SVAHA. JAH DHUPEPRAVESA. ON MAHARATHADHARO MAHAKRODHISVARI JVALINI HUM PHAT. HO PRAJ$ANTAKItT PHAT. ON NUKE KRIM SVAHA. HUM PUSPE AVESA.MOM SRI AM RAGAYA SVAHA. HUM PADMANTAKRT PHAT. (7] ON MUNE PRAM SVAHA. HUM HUM HUM VAJRA CITTA ON: (6] A A A VAJRI BHADRASAMANTAAH. HOH GANDHE CITTA HOH: [5] HON YAMANTAKRT PHAT. HUM VIGHNANTAKRT PHAT. ON MUNE HUMTRUM SVAHA. ON EHYEHI BHAGAVAN MAHAKARUNIKA DRSYA HOH SAMAYAS TVAM: . ON MAHAVAJRADHARO MAHAKRODHISVARI JVALINI HUM PHAT.

. kun-tu Brags-so. OM MAHAKRTYUPASTHANAJRANA VAJRASVABHAVATMAKO/HAM. 7 6 phyag-rgya chen-pc bdag-sbyor-cig. -zhes-brjod-pas. de-nas bcom-ldan-'das byed-pa-po rdo-rje-dang.yon-tan 'phrin-las rmad-po-che. OM MAHASAMATAJRANA VAJRASVABHAVATMAKO/HAM. bya-ba-Tno 9 gnyi3-su med-pa'i dkytl-'khor-la thim-par mdzad-do. OM MAHADARSAJRANA VAJRASVABHAVATMAKO/HAM. de-nap phyogs-bcu dus-bzhi'i 10 rdo-rje de-hzhin ¢shegs-pa thams-cad-kyi 11 bdag-nyid chen-pos bdag-nvid chen-poll zhes-bya-ba ye-shes-dang 17 hyin-bsdu-ba sgyu-'phrin 'dl sku-dan ¢ gsun¢-dan¢ thugs rdo-rje dra-ba-l asp phyung-ngo . crags-so: ' dig-rten rab-tu phyogs-bcu thams-cad-du [12) khyab-par Brags-so. da-nyid-du-ni 5 mnyam-sbyor-bas. 0 [14) SA ATATi+AGATA MAHAKAYA VAJRASVABHAVATMAKO/HAM. OM MAHAPRATYAVEKSANAJNANA VAJRASVABHAVATMAKO/HAM. [13) OM MAHASONYATAJNANA VAJRASVARHAVATMAKO/HAM.. drug-gi gsung-gi dkyil-'khor 8 'di-dag-zis.

20 taunts-pa-nyid-na brjod-du med.-gyi 15 gsunr. MAHAVAG VAJRASVABHAVATMAKO/HAM. OM SARVATATHAGATA MAHAPOJA VAJRASVABHAVATMAKO/HAM. [18) rgyud-mchog sgyu-'phrul dre-ba-las. [17) taunt-geig dkyil-'khor yan-lag-ni: bsam-gyis mi-khyah kun-tu khyab sgra-dang mine-tshig so-sop Brags. (15) -zheg brjod-pas . OM SARVATATHAGATA MAHANURAGANA VAJRASVABHAVATMAKC/HAM. 208 . 16 grrl-than lam-dang 'khor-ba'i sgra. OM SARVATATHAGATA MAHACITTA VAJRASVABHAVATMAKO/HAM. (19) bsdus-nyid phyogs-bcur rnam-par grape. rdzogs-pa'l sangs-rgyas kun.OM SARVATATHAGATA. 17 theg-re mtho-dman thams-cad-dang: log-'gro ma-lus thams-cad akad. sera-dang ming-tshig kun-las-'das: sna-tshogs sgra-rnams zeal-bar 'byung. bde-ldan gsung-gi den 'byung-ba'ang thams-cad padma'I ngang-gyur-na. 19 sgra-nyid ma-chaps ngang-du gsungs. [16) thim-par-gyur 13 zeal-bar-gyur 'bar-bar-gyur-to. j1-Rkad briod-kyang gsung-mchog-stp. byang-chub rdo-rje'i 18 gsung-du bsdus. 14 e-ma-ho ngo-mtshar rmad-kyi chop. thams-cad gsung-gi phyag-rgya'i mchog.

22 dper-ne de-bzhin sbrid-sange-bzhin. de-bzhin gsung-gi de-bzhin 'gro-don-rnams. . 1jags-kyi rtse-mor ma-phyung-yang. 27 gdul-bye's thabs-su so-sor thos. (22] teal-nyid gsung-ti 31 rdo-rje'i mchog. gsungs-pa med. de-hzhin-nyid-kyjs (21] . &Sang-be 'i [23] snying-po de-kho-na-nyid nges-ps-las dkyll-'khor (24] bodus-ha-dang gsung-sngags-kyi ]e'u-ste bdun-palo.brood-med de-nyid 21 sne-tshogs sgra. 28 ji-ltar gsung-rah 29 kun-brjod-kyang. 2u de-bzhin-nyid-]es me-gsungs-te.vi-ge med-dang rig-pa'i gsung. ngang-las 32 dper-na brag-ca'i sgra-bzhin-no. ma-gYos-kyang. thugs-rje 'gro-don gsung-ti byin-rlaba-kyis: 30 sna-tshogs so-sor gsal..

bru-brgyad rgYal-be 8 [3] banol-nas rtse-sprad-pa. MUM-bsgreng rtse-mor dril-gsil 'bar. sbyar-bas phyeg-rgya 'byung-pa'i rgyu. 10 9 kun-dang mnyam-shyor-ba'i: [4] bde-ba chen-po sbyin-pa'i rgya. u thems-cad byang-chub mchog-gi rgya. hQm-bsgreng rtse-mor 11 zla-brtul 12 rdo-rje 'bar: (5) 'bru-sbas dr11-gsil-zhing 'khril-ba'i tshul-gyis chos-le-brten: 13 'bru-b.hi shas-nas 14 thugs-ker bken.Chapter Eight de-nas de-hzhin gahegs-pa thamR-cad-kyts. yan-lag 1 thams-cad dkytl -'khor-du lhun-gyis grub-par byin-gyis rlob-pa zhes-bya-ba 'di ched-du hrjod-do. [1] 2 sgyu-'phrul dra-bas 3 mngon-rdzogs-pa. 'khril 15 nyi-ma 'bru-inga les-au btud-de 'dzum-pe'i mdangs-kyis bite: . om-dang mczm-gnyis rtse-sbyar-te. rin-chen zle-ba'i dkyil yi-ge. 'bru-bzhi sbas-nas thugs-kar bken. nyi-ma'i dkyil yi-ge. ml-bskyo1 7 inga-gnyis zung-du sprad-pa-)as.

lam-bsgreng nyi-ma 20 19 [7] rtse-mor dril-gsil 'bar: 'khril [8] 'bru-inga las-su 'dzum-pa'i btud-de mdangs-kyis blta. 'bru-bzhi sbas-nas thugs-kar bkan. zla-brtul 'bru-sbas 1r11-rail-zhing. nyi-ma 'bru-inga las-su 'khril. 16 om-bsgreng rtse-mor 'khor-]o 'bar. PAM-bsgreng rtse-mor dril-Call 'har. 17 'khril-ba'i tshul-gyis chos-la-brtpn: 18 'bru-bzhi sbas-nag thugs-kar bkan. 'khril-ba'i tshul-gyis chos-la-brten. 23 [g] 'bru-bzhi sbas-nas thugs-kar bkan. 27 'bru-bzhi sbas-nas 28 thugs-kar bkan. 24 mAm-bsgreng rtse-mor dril-gsil 'bar: las-su 'khril: nyi-ma 'bru-inga btud-de 'dzum-pa'i 'bru-bzhi mdangs-kyis blta. 22 zla-brtu] 'bru-sbas dril-gsil-zhing. [10] sbas-nas thugs-kar bkan.'bru-bzhi sbas-nas thugs-kar bkan. 'khril-ball tshul-gyis nhos-la brten. btud-de 'dzum-pa'i mdangs-kyis bite: [12] 211 . 25 An-bsgreng rste-mor padma 26 'bar. 21 svb-bsgreng rtse-mor rin-cen 'bar. [11] zla-brtul 'bru-sbas dril-gsil-zhing.

30 'bru-bzhi sbas-nas thugs-kar bkan. 34 mar-me byug-pa la-Bogs-pe'i: 18s-la 'khri]-zhing chos-la-brten:35 dbu-rnams 'byo-zhing 36 'dud-pa'i tshul. 37 sgo-hzhl'i 38 khro-ho'i phyag-rgya-ni nr-mgo gdengs-dang rdo-rje 40 39 gnon. p1-vang gar-mkhan mchoz-nyid-de. gong-gi Phyag-rgya chen-po-bzhin. radma dkar-po rdo-rje 'bar. thod-ebrul chen-po rdo-rye anon-pa-dang. 41 42 890-bzhir gnae-pa de-dag-kyang. lcags-kyu zhags-pa epho-ta ho. rgye-gram las-kyis gnon. tam-bsgreng nyi-ma 31 1131 rtse-mor dril-gsi] 'bar: (14) 'bru-inga ]as-su 'khril. chos-kyi 'khor-lo gzugs-mdzes rin-cen phreng-ba-dang. 33 rill-chen myu-gu ral-gri 'bar.'bru-bzhi ebai-nas thugs-kar bkan. rin-cen snye. btud-de 'dzum-pa'i mdangs-kyls blta. hA-bagreng 29 rtse-mor ral-gri 'bar. zle-brtul 'bru-sbas dril-gsil-zhing. 212 . ut-pal klu-shing la-sogs 32 mtshan. me-tog phreng-dang epos-mchod-ma. 'khril-ba'1 tshul-gyis chos-la-brten. [15) gnyls-med dbyings-kyi nS an g-du khril.

thub-drug phyag-rgya ana-tehogs-te: mdor-bsdus phyag-rgya drug yum-ni dmigs-med 45 44 yin-no: [17] chos-kyi dbyings: kun-bzang mnyam-bzhag ye-shes 'phro: yum-'gyur mnyam-rdzogs padma'i dkyil: phyag-rgya chen-po'i tahogs-mchog-ni: thabs-dang shes-rab-ldan 'byor-na. ma-bskyod ma-bsgul 48 thams-cad kun: (20] (21) Phyag-rgya chen-po'i ngang-du gnas: van-1ag bzhi-bcu rtsa-gnyis ldan: de-nyid van-lag sPros-bdag-ste: bzhi-bcu rtsa-gnyis gsum 'phror-'gyur. [22) de-ltar ldan-pa'i gtso-mchog-gis: rgyal-ba rgyal-mchog de-bzhin-du: bcu-gnyis drug-gi 'od-'phro 'bar: de-la-sops-te 4g (23] bsam-mi-khyab: [24] Phyoga-bcu duo-bzhi beam-yas-su: 'dul-ba'i don-rn'ams so-sor ston: (25) .

52 so-sor mthun-byas kun-tu anang.phyin-ci-log-rnams 51 beam-yas-dang. lus-las ma-bkod 53 ana-tshogs stop.1 2 rdo-rje gsang-ba'i dam-tahig bkod-pa-la brood-do. ¢sang. [26) dper-na gar-mkhan-nyid 'dra-ba. phyag-rgya chen-po'i ngang-du gnas. gnas-nyid mi-gnas gnas-pa'ang 57 min.ba'i 58 anying-po de-kho-na-nyid nges-pa-lag yan-lag thams- dkyil-'khor-du byin-gyis brlabs-nas phyag-rgya spros-pa'i le'u-ste brgyad-pa'o. 54 'di-zhes geig-ces brjod-du-med. .. anyoma-par zhugs-nas. [2) phyag-rgya chen-po'i phyag-mthil-du. zhi-khro'1 tshogs-chen thama-cad-la. ched-du brood-pa 'di [1] shin-tu phra-ba'i dam-tshig mchog. [30) de-nas de-bzhin gshegs-pa dgyes-pa chen-pos. (27) mdor-na phyag-rgya thams-cad-ni.

sor-ni bzhi-yi tahad-du bya. phyag-rgya til-'bru tsam-du bri. [4] 6 lte-ba rtalbs-dang ldan-pa-yi.)ogs-ky]. bdud-rtsi-inga-nyid rab-bsnyams-1a. yungs-'bru team-gyi 9 10 [6] boos-hu'J ras-ni 11 ana-tshogs-dang. 5 rig-pas this-ni gdah-par-bya. 14 [8] 215 . rtsibs-b?. [5] sen-zlum-tsam-gyi nyi-zla-la tsa-na'i 'bru-tsam padma'i.b-tu mchod.s re.hi 'khor-10 mu-khyud-bcas gru-chad bzhi-dang gru-bzhi-yJ: bar-khyams ago-khyud 8 7 ldan-par-bya. snying-po inga-clang amen-inga-dang. glu-tshig bro-gar rol-mo-yi sprin-phung ts. gdan yi-Se-las. 4 [3] 'bru-inga spos-inga rin-cen inga. 1&a-bzht'i mchod-pe rab-tu abyin. 12 brgyan-'phreng btung-dang bro-bas bskor. Ji-]tar 'dod-pa'i [7] dbyihs-dang kha-dog mtshan-ldon-bar. 13 yum-dang ago-ma sems-me-yis las-b7hin mchod. zhal-du gyur-pa'i mP-boa-la bza'-btung bro-ba'i tshogs-rnams-kyie.

vas daz-la'ang de-bzhin-bya. beam-. bza'-dang btung-ba'i mchog-rname-dang. 17 16 dbylbs-legs rdzing-bu bro-mchog rin-cen bsil. 20 18 rgyal-mtshan 21 na-bza' gdugs. rang-la mdzes-par brgyan-pa-yi. phyogs-bcu thams-cad Bangs-rgyas-thing.khro-bo'i dkyil-'khor de-bzhin-te. [12) . sems-kyi yid-bzhin sprin-tshogs-kyis. mdzes-par brls-shing spras-pa--dang. glu-dbyangs bla-re 19 tshigs-su bead-pa'i sera. 24 skal-ldan gsal-ba'1 khyad-par-gyis. rgyan-dang 'pag-bsam ljon-pa'i tshul. kkang-pa sna-tshogs-dang.27 28 [11] mchod-pa'i phyag-rgya chen-por bagom. bro-gar la-aogs bsam-yas-kyis. shin-tu phra-la sbyangs-pa-yis. Phyogs-bcu nam-mkha'i khams bkang-nas. 15 mnyen-'Jam reg-na bde-ba-yi. iha-dang lha-mo rdul-snyed-kyis. [9] mchod-pa'i phyag-rgya chen-po-ni. 22 do-shal dpung-rgyan ee-mo-do. kun-'byung rin-cen phung-por 'bar. sna-tshogs rin-po-the-yl gzhi. dkyil-'khor kun-I& rgyas-par dbul. 25 rim-gyis yang-na cig-car-du. rig-pas dpag-pa-tsam du'c. 26 chos-kyi dbyirga-dang [10) mnyam-abyor-zhing.

goal-ldan-ma'am byin-rlabs-la. lug-r_gag-sems-dang chos thams-cad. stong-glum yungs-'bru gzhug-tshul-du. 33 khams-glum 'gro-rnams mngon-du-'gyur. 35 34 mig-yor tshul-du sbyor-ba-yis. 38 [17] rgyal-srid-dang-ni rang-ti lus: bu-dang chung-ma nor-gyi dbyig. ma-lus-dang. 31 29 dbyings-nas dkyil-'khor spyan-drangs mchod. dga'-ba chen-pos khyab-par-'gyur. mnyes-nas grub-pa'i dam-tshig mchog. sangs-rgyas dkyil-'khor ma-lus mnyes. arid-gsum 'gro-ba thams-cad-la. 32 [14] sgyu-'phrul dra-ba brtan-pa-yis. [15] gang-la'ang mi-gnas mi-dmigs-te. phyogs-bcu duo-bzhir sangs-rgyas dkyil-'khor gshegs-pa-yi. 36 nam-mkha'-la-ni nam-mkha' bsgom. 30 [13] bdag-nyid chen-po mchod-pa-yis. [18] 217 . rab-tu gees-dang yid-'thad dbul. [16] 'dug.37 kun-byas dbang-phyug rig-pas de-nas slob-ma gzhug-par-bya: de-nas rigs-kyi bu-mchog des.

41 dkyil-'khor mdzub-gang tshad-du yang. (22] thlg-gdab cho-ga phun-sum-tehogs mkhes-ldan chen-pos Yang-ne khru-ni bcu-drug-dang. 39 phan-pa'i dbang-sbyin 40 nus-pa'i dbang. nye-ba'i dkyil-'khor nyes-pa thams-cad dag-par 'gyur. 44 45 mkhas-pas cho-ca Ji-hzhin-bya. 48 Yang-na lus-gang tshad-du-ste: Yang-na lus-ni gsum-gyi tshad. bsgrims-te bya. 49 gos-rgyan and?eR-pa'i yid-'ong grogs.gm nyi-shu-rtsa-ingar bye. gsung-thugs-ldan gzugs-kyang dgod. dad-brtson brtul-thugs rah-rtogs-na. (23) . [21) Yang-nn sa-gzhi rah-mnyam-la dkyil-'khor 46 47 khru-gang tshad-du bye. 1191 dkyil-'khor thaws-cad mchod-pa yin. phur-bu sred-bu tahon-phye-dang. nYi-shu'.dbang-phyug longs-epyod inggs mchod-na: smog-ci-dgos. 50 rigs-kyi dky11-'khor inga-rnams bsgom.

59 58 smos-ci-dgos-te 'di-nyid yin: [25) phyogs-dus dkyil-'khor bdag-nyid-che. mi--dmigs thugs-kyi dkyil-'khor-las: 6C rang-anang dbyer-med dkyil-'khor-la. 57 sa la-sogs-las phyag-rgyar byas. dag-pe'i ye-shes-kyis sbyangs-pas. [27) nye-bar gyur-ba'1 dam-tahig mchog. . kha-dog nyi-ahu rtsa-inga'am.yang-na rgyang-grags dpaa-tshad-dam. rnam-grol rim-pa thob-par-'gyur. inga-yi tshon-gyis bri-bar-bya: cho-ga bzhin-du dgye: 53 'dul-ba'i (2k) tang-'dzin rol-mo mtha'-yas mchog. 'jug-pa'i mtshan-nyid mnyam-sbyor-bas. Phyogs-dus kun-nas gahegs-pa-yi: 62 bsnyen-pa'i dkyil-'khor rab-tu rdzogs. nam-mkha'1 dbyinga-ni baam-yas-par: 51 sangs-rgyas dkyil-'khor ana-tahogs bagom: ma-mthong rmongs-la bstan-phyir mtshon. 'grub-'gyur sangs-rgyas kun-gyi 56 dam. yi-ge'am brda'-am phyag-rgya'am 55 54 anying-po'am: sku-gsung-thugs ldan-par: byin-rlabs ya-mtshan rmad-po-che.

64 63 gzhan-na yod 'once ma-yin-te: 65 thabs-la brtan-pa'i shes-rab-nyid. byin-rlabs ston-pa'ang de-bzhin-te. ye-shes rol-pa-nyid-kyang gsog. rang-sems bsod-name brtan-pa yin. [31] bcu-gnyis bcu-bzhi bcu-drug-gis. [32] de-tshe bcu-drug tehun-chad-kyis. yo-brad inga-ni rdzogs-par ldan. 72 ma-nyams 'jug-la rab-brtson-na. [28] ngo-mtshar cho-'phrul rmad-kyi chos. shes-rab dbyings-kyi de-bzhin-nyid. 74 We-shes thig-le de-nyid-la: 75 220 . sgYu-ma rdo-rje btsan-po'i mchog. engage-kyi van-lag-inga rdzogs-pas. Zhag-ni sum-cu phrag-drug-gam. ye-shes-la-ni ye-shes rol. thabs-kyi phyag-rgyar gyur-pa'i phyir. 71 [30] cho-ga inga-ni rdzogs-byas-shing. 66 de-lta-bu-yi ngang-du byung.dpag-bsam-shing-dang yid-bzhin-gyi. rgyal-ba mngon-byung 68 69 67 [29] skyob-pa-dang. dbang-bsgyur 73 rigs-kyi dam-pa 'grub. sku-inga lhun-gyis rdzogs-pa-ni. rin-po-che-dang 'byung-ba kun: de-dag rdzas yod-ma-yin-te. 70 bya-byed nus-pa'i gzi-byin-gyis.

ye-shes dbyings-las thugs-rye chen-pos 'gro-drug 'bre3-pas-na. 721 . mi-gzh&n-phyir. Mnyam-pa'2 skal-ba yo-eher-de. Ya-mtshan chen-po 'byung-har nges. rgyan-dang rol-mo'i tshogs. 85 byes-te dad-lden rsb-zhugs-ne. 78 77 rgya-dang 'khor-lo'i bral-ball. 82 mthun-pall ye-shell rang-snang-ba'o. dad-sad nyams-na phung-bar 'gyur. [34) rang-byung ye-shes gnas-med snang. 80 81 79 dkyil-'khor mthong-nas nye-bar hrnyes-pa-dang. gzhal-vas-khang. beam-gyta mi-khyab mtha'-yas mchog. 83 [35) 1og-par rtog-brtats rnern-dag-e]ng. 88 grayer-no nye-bar 'byung-ba-yi. stance-dbyal gnyis-sam yang-ne inga. gcig-dang du-mar bra]-be-y1. [36) 84 dus-gnas ma-lus snang. ma-lus bsam-yas kun.. bde-ba chen-poll dkyil-'khor-ne. thing-khams rnam-dag beam-yas-dang. mtha'-dang dbus-med de-hzhin-nyid. 86 'dod-pa 87 yid-'ong mnyam-par 'gyur. 76 133) phyoge-bcti due-bzhi mngon-rdzogs-pa'1. Bangs-togyas-kyis-kyang ml-gzigs-te.ye-shes thig-ie-nyid snang-ba. rgya-chen gsung-las don-'byung-ba'ang.

'1 lam-nee padmar rtse-nas betim-zhine 6 dky11-'khor bsgyur' nyan-Dyed 'khor-lo'i gzha1-yap-su' 7 goal-be'i thig-]e 8 ngo-bo-nyid' tram-gi phyag-rgya'i tshogs-mchog-lag. TI4AM geang-ba gsan g-chen geang-mchcg-gang. thim:l6 thig-loll 15 Yi-ge 'phreng-be'1.-zhes eked-du brjod-do. 'khyil' [2] 5 rdt"-rJ. 10 geang-be kun-la 11 mnyan-par-bYR' geang-ball don-nyid brtag_pe-las' 13 12 gzhan-du amre-par bye-be min' 13) ga41-ba'l 'khor-lo'i tae]-ba'i is gzhe]-yes-su' ngo-bo-nyid. rin-can dkyll-'khor goal-spro 9 thim. .it hrjod--do' bcie-ha'i shes-rab thebs-kyl phyag-rgya-las' 'bru-tshogs 3 2 gsal-ba'i rgyun. tahoge-mchog-lag' rigs-kyi dkyil-'khor ON gaol-spro due-gaum rgyal-ba'i eras chen-po' 722 .(37] geang-ba'1 enying-po 89 de-kho-na-nyid nges-pa-lss rdo-rje bkod-pa'i geang-ball dam-tehig-gi le'u-ste dgu-pa'o " (38] Chapter Ten de-nas hcom-ldan-'das dg-Yes-pa chen-pos bye-ba'1 1 rgyal-po sbyin-pa tine-nge-'dzin-le snyoms-par zhugs-nas [1] zhes- ched-du brjod-pa .

22 las-rnams ma-lua kun-gyis ship. Arih-yi phyag-rgya'i tshogs-mchog-las. dkyil-'khor kun-gyi byed-pa-po. ham-gi phyag-rgya'I tshogs-mchog-las. mthun-par gsang-hegrag bskyod-cpen 27 26 25 gzhan-du min. teal-ba'i 23 thig-le'i 'khor-lo 24 ngo-ho--nyid. rab-'bring tha-ma'i blo-can-la. rgyal-ba thams-cad rgyal-ba kun-dang mnyam-per abyor. . chos-kyi gsal-spro thim. hfm om sv& 8m h9-rnams-1aa. 19 ngo-bo-nyid. 28 gaal-ba'i thig-le'i ngo-bo-nyid. mnyes-mchod-la. OM khyod-ni rdo-rje las yin-gyis. leg-pa'i 'khor-lo'i geal-ha'i thig-le'i 20 gzhal-yas-au. dky11-'khor OM inge-dang khro-'phreng bsgom. 29 phyogs-heu due-bzhi thams-cad-kyi sku-gsung-thugs-kyi rdo-rje che. [6) 'khor-lo'i gzhal-vas-su.sku-gaung-thugs-kyi rdo-rje gzung.

snying-po inga-yis dbang-bskur-na.[10] las gsang-ba'1 snying-ro de-kho-na-nyid nges-pa[11] hang sbyin-pa'i le'u-ste bcu-pa'o. -zhes hrjod-do. dbu-rgyan cod-pan 31 [8] phreng-ba-dang. gdugs-dang bum-pa bza'-btung-dang. tshe-ring bde-ha 34 phun-sum-tshogs. . ngan-song theme-cad med-pa-dang. go-cha rgyal-mtshan phyag-rgya-dang.slob-dpon mnyes-par ma-byes-shtng. dbang-rnams thob-par 30 ma-byaa-par. nyen-pa le-sogs rtsom-pa-rnams 'bras-bu med-cing brlag-par 'gyur..

131 Yang-na khro-bo'i dkyil-'khor bsgom. 7 ngo-mtshar 'byung-ba'1 dkyil-'khor mnyes.u-'phrul dra-ba'i snyoms-par bsgyur-ba zhes-bya-ba'i tang-nge-'dzin-la (1) zhugs-nas. 6 dkyil-'khor-nyid-du bsgom. dkyil-'khor bsgom. (L) Yang-na khro-mo'i gos-rgyan bza'-btung glu-dang tshig. gauge agra dri ro reg la-sops. 10 egrub-pa-dang-ni sgrub-chen-po. bro-gar tshogs-kyi sprin-phung-la. rgyu ched-du briod-pa 'di briod-do. gcig-pa-dang 3 yig-'bru't tehul. [5) banyen-pa-dang-ni nye-bsnyen-dang. hum-du shea-pas rab-spyad-na. dkyil-'khor-nyid-du bsgom. 4 rnam-smin rdzogs-pa'i om-du shes-par bya. 11 [7) . rnam-bzhi-yis.Chapter Eleven de-nas de-bzhin gshegs-pa dgyes-pa chen-pos rgyal-po 1 at. ream-smin yum-gyi 5 mum-du shes-par bya. rab-tu rtogs-pa theme-cad mngon-rdzogs rgyal-po-che. (2] yen-lag dbang-po rnam-shes kun. byin-gyis brlabe-dang mngon-sum-par.

12 sangs-rgyas sprin-tshoas [dkyil-'khor] 13 ma-lus-la. dkyil-'khor Yid-bzhin sprin-gyi bdag-por 'gyur. 20 [13) de-bzhin-nyid. 15 nyi-zla'i eteng-du mkhas-pas gzhag. iu (9) rdo-rje ice-yis blang. sgyu-mar snang-ba mig-yor sbyor-sgrol bya-ba kun-byas-kyang. [1*) Snod-bcud rgyud-rnams dag-rtogs-shing. [$] dgyes-mnyam mchog-gi sgrub-pa'i sbyin-pas bstim. 16 [10) zhing-gyur mchog-dang mchog-phran-rnams. nyi-zla snying-po-de. dbyings-su thim-nag phyag-rgyar 'bar. dkyil-'khor spro. mnyam-gnyis lhag-pa'i mnyam-gnyis-kyis.yum-gyi padma'i bde-ba thugs-kyi dkyil-'khor-du. ngo-mtshar ngan-'gro Ye-nas Skye-med 19 [12) thar-pa'1 thabs. bsgom. tshul.dul-cha team-yang byas-pa-med. 21 . 17 fill nga--rgyal lag-gi 'du-byed hum-du gyur-pas rnam-par-dag. 18 gtsug-tu rnam-par rgyal-bar bsgom. dkyil-'khor kun-tu bzang-poll zhing. [15] 226 . skur-gyur 'od-zer 'phro-baa brJid. mkha'-'gro gsal-'har tshe la-sogs.

gyja nges-par dgos-pa 23 [16) inga-yl sbyor-ba-yjB: 2a tghofli-hu Inga-yl lha-bkod-la: khro-ho khro-mo tshul-du rnam-par bagoTn 25 'khor-jo'j de-bzhjn [17] rdo-rje'j rlgs rigs-ta aku-gsung_thugs• khpO-bO'l tatiogs-dang gsum-gyj 27 hsgom [18) rigs-kyl rigs-ta rlgs-kyj 28 thugs-tp thugs-kyl mchog tshogo-dang 1dan-pa-yj tehom—bu lhs-rnams bsgom 29 [19) khro-bo khpo-mo'i t8hoga pho-nys Ct-bgyf 30 bka'-nyan ]e-sogp 32 (20) dngos_grub lae-pnams Z'flal-'byor. sngags_'chang (21) 33 el-1.byed-spyod gnyjg yo—byacl idan 22 eho-ga rdZogs-per shes-pa-yl rna]-'hyor tshogs_p89 dkYll-'khor-.'ang thOge_med_pe'j thams_cad 277 .

so-so'i 48 sngags-dang phyag-rgya-dang. 37 tins-'dzin &sal-'bar 'od-zer 'phro. 36 chats-med tahul-gyis bstim-par-bya. dkyil-'khor ma-lus 'bar-ba 'grub.l sel-bar-mdzad.rdo-rje'i rigs-su 34 thams-cad dkyil. rigs-'dzin drgos-grub mchog thob-'gyur. gnyis-su med-par bstim-par-bya. 39 sngags-'charig dngoe-grub yang-dag-ni: thaws-dang shes-rab thaws-cad-kyls. ting-'dzin yang-dag so-sor gsal: [26] . 38 nyon-mongs sdug-banga. chags-pa med-pa'i tshul-gyis-ni.s-med dbyings-kyi ngang-du thim. thams--cad ma-lus sku-gsung-thugs. 35 'od-'phro 'bar-bar rab-tu bsgom. dkyll-'khor 41 inga-dang khro-'phreng 43 44 42 bsgom. gnyi.

(3) . ma-nyams blo-ni rab-ldan-pas. the-tshom med-par bsgrub-byas-na.gnas-dang longs-spyod ci-bde-dang. [2) bro-gar 'du-'phro'i phyag-rgya-yis. [27) bsgrub-pa'i zhag-dang chos-grangs-ni. [29] Chapter Twelve de-n&8 de-bzhin gshegs-pa dgyes-pa chen-pos par 1 spros-te. 3 brtan-pa'i ting-nee-'dzin.. rdo-rje -zhes du 54 gsang-ba'i tshig-tu'o. zhugs-nay ched-du sgYu-'phrul rol-mo'i sprin rnamrgyan bkod-pa'i ting-nge-'dzin-la snyoms-par briod-pa 'di brood-do. de-bzhin gshegs-pa-nyid-la de-bzhin gshegs-pa-nyid gsang-ba'i 55 ched- gleng-ngo. (1) 2 dkyil-'khor dra-ba'i mngon-rdzogs-pa'i. dkyil-'khor thams-cad rdo-rje 53 'grub-par 'gyur. 'dzul-lam nam-mkhar 'gro-bar 'gyur. snying-po de-kho-na-nyid nges-pr--las tshogs-kyi dkyil-'khor-gyi le'u-ste bcu-gcig-pa'o. 52 gsang-mchog dam-pa 'thob.

12 shes-rab mchog-gi mchog-gyur-pa'i. 13 mkha'-dkyil dang-ba'1 dbyings nyi-zla. [5) 7 'bar-ba'i rgyal-po thub-med 'grub: bza'-dang btung-ba'1 ytd-bzhin sku-dang 8 phyag-rgya-yis. rgyal-ba'i dkyil-'khor thaws-cad 16 15 kun. 14 ye-shes rgyal-po stangs-dpyal begom. 9 'bras-bu smin-byed rgyu-dang rkyen: nus mthu-can-du gang-gyur-pa: [8) rig-'dzin rgyal-ball zhing-du ml-dang lha-dang tshangs-pa-yi Brags. (9) skye-ba rnam-dag 'dzin-mod-kyang: 10 [10) khyad-par sa-la 11 gnas-'gyur yin: phe-rol phyin-pa kun-tu rdzogs. sa-yi khyad-par bcu-dang gsum: [12) rgyu-'bras khyad-par lhun-gyis rdzogs. (13) ma-lue-par-ni begom-par 'gyur: 230 . (7) shes-'jug mtshan-nyid rbyor-ba'i gzungs. thaws-cad thaws-cad 'grub-par 'gyur. 6 (d) rgyan-dang bgo-ba'i phyag-rgya-yis.5 glu-tehig sera-vi phvac-rcya-yis: chos-kyi dngos-grub thob-par 'gyur. Ell) thabs-dang shes-rab thabs-kyl mchog. [6) a-li k&-1i'l phyag-rgya-yis. bdud-rtsi 'grub.

(1) ma-rtogs-pa-dang log-par rtoga. 22 skyon-nyid dag-ste nyes-pa-med. de-nas phyogs-bcu dus-bzhi'i de-bzhin gshegs-pa dang 1 sku-dang thugs 2 gaung- rdo-rje'i dkyit-'khor thams-cad gcig-ti chos 3 'd'le-nas dgYes-pa chen-pos.shag-gam ma-tsheng-ne'ang. 'dul-be dgongs-pa gaang-ba-dang.due-bzhi phyogs-bcu gang-nas-kyang. 17 rdzogs-pall sangs-rgyas rnyed 18 mi-'gyur.ge-'dzin-le anyoms-par zhugs-nas ched-du brjod-pi 'di hrjod-do. 121 rang-bzhin gaang-ba'i don-rnams-nil . thams-cad ye-nas rdzogs-pa then-por 1hun-gy1R gruh-ps'i dam-tshig shin-tu gaang-ba'i snying-po sprin bkod-pall tang-r. the-ga . de-khn-na-nyid nges-pa-las tehogs bsgrub[17) be'i snying-po ra'i 23 le'u-ste bcu-gnyis-pe'o.. -ces gaang- [16) ched-du brjod-pas rol-mo'i sprin-gyls mnyes-bar gyur-to. phyogs-rtogs yang-dag-nyid me-rtogs.

thugs-kyi 12 ye-shea lneas blta-zhing. Ye-shea dgyes-la mchod-pa 'bul. bdag-nyid chen-po lhag-pa-yi.-no: it kun-tu bzang-po'i dkyil-'khor-1e. [8) snying-po thig-]. [5) dkyil-'khor dkyil-'khor-las byung-ba. Yo-shea sgyu-ma 16 14 rang-snang-ha. byang-chub sems-ni rdo-rje'i te. [101 .e mnyem-sbyor-bee bde-ba'i ye-shPS rol-mo-yis. 15 rol-mo'i 17 dkyil-'khor mtha'-yas mchog. (6) thugs-kyi dkyil-'khor dkyil-'khor mchog.dkytl-'khor-gyis. zag-pa med-pa'i bsod-name-kyis.hogel dbang-po yul dus rig-pa rna.7 dkyil-'khor lden-pa'i 8 9 dkyil-'khor-la-ni dkyil-'khor bagom.

phyogs-dug dkyil-'khor 'dul-ba'1 mgon. 19 20 dbang-sgyur mchog--nyid dam-pa yin: dkyil-'khor-la gnas dkyi1-'khor-nyid. gang-zhig 'di-la mos-gyur-pa. 22 sgyu-ma'i dky11-'khor bya-byed sgrol-be-yls' [13) med-par dkyil-'khor spyod. [15) 233 . dkyil-'k. rdzcgs-P8'1 dkyil-'khor rgyan-di dkyil-'khor rdzogs-pall lhun-gyis grub. yP-shes rdzogs-pa'1 thus-beam-sgom-pail rang-byung kun-ngam dkyil-'khor-la.gsang-ba'1 thig-le-nyid-kyi dbyings. dkyll-'khor nYa-ba'i Bras-su dgongs-Par 'gyur. 26 [14) sangs-rgyas dkyil-'khor thams-cad-kyis. 'dal-bar ml-mdzad dam-tshig mchog.)or mnyam-abyor-las. 25 sangs-rgyas thams-cad-kyis. de-ni sangs-rgyas kun-gyi dngos: [li) phyogs-bru duo-bzhir mngon-rdzogs-pa. sku-gsung yon-ten 'phrin-]as thugs: 18 ma-lus bdag-nyid zhai-mthong-ba. 27 phyogs-dug kun-nag thams-cad-dii. [12) 21 me-jug thugs. 2u 'di-ni lhun-gyis grub. ma-lus bsnyen-pa-yi. 23 mnyam-abyor-gyis. thugs-rjP'1 dkyil-'khor yongs-kyis 'byung.

rdul-snyed-du. [16] 'Jig-rten drug-g1 phyoga-bcu-na. 33 btsa]-kyang rgyal-bas mi-brnyes-so: (20] kun-gyt phyag-rgya chen-po'i mchog. 29 shin-tu abyangs-la rab-gnas-shing. rgyal-ba'i dkyil-'khor ma-]us-pa. ¢zhan-du nam-yang rmonga-18 38 36 [21] abyin mi-bye. 'di-ni gsang-chen nges-pa-yi 32 'brag-bu lam-du gyur-pa yin. 35 snod-ldan nsang-tshul bzang-la brtan.28 bska1-pa zhing-Ml. 37 lus-dang longs-spyod gtong-la abyin. ma-'ongs thams-cad kun. dkyil-'khor ma-lus benyen-pa-yi. shea-rab mig-ldan-rnams-kyifs zung. 34 thos-beam-hagom-]a rab-sbyangs-pa'i. 'di-las gsang--ball nges-don med. 39 'phyar-bas gal-te byin. brnyes-nas byung-dang 30 31 sku-inga lhun-gyis rdzogs. [22] barega-dang ebrebce-par yun-ring gnas. 1191 rgyal-ba'i dkyi)-'khor ma-lus-la. 40 d'ip min-par-ni aroe-zed-nee. 234 . [18] [17] 'di-yis lhun-gyis 'grub-par 'gyur. 'bras-bu gsang-chen 'di-yin-te. 'das-dang da-ltar byung-ba-yi.

rdo-rje ye-shes dkyil-'khor-ldan. gsang-ba'1 snying-po de-kho-na-nyid le'u-ate shin-tu pa'o:. [1) OM phyogs-bcu due-bzhi rdzogs-pa-yi. ye-shes dkyi7-'khor thig-le che. sna-tshogs sku-gsung thugs chen-po HOH. [4) 'due-pa'i tshogs-chen thig-le-che HOH. snang-stong thig-le kun-tu rdzogs HOH. (2) sku-yi tshogs. OM rdo-rje bsod-nams thig-le che. mtha'-Vas kun-nes sna-tshogs 'phro. gsang-ba man-ngag-gi (snying-po'i) [23) de-ras de-bzhin gshegs-pa thams -cad-nyid-kyi 1 2 dkyil-'khor-la dgyes-pa cher. eetha'-yas kun-nas lhun-gyis thin. ye-nas lhun-rdzogs kun-tu bzang. OM sku-. bsod-name dkyil-'khor. Yon-tan 'phrin-las kun-tu rdzogs. (5) .sung-thugs-kyi rdzogs-pa che.-po'i glu-'di blangs-so.Al -zhes du de-bzhin gshegs-pa-nyid 42 de-bzhin gshegs-pa-nyid-la chednges-pa-las bcu-gsum43 brjod-do.

as (81 [bstod-pe'i] le'u-ste bcu-bzhi-pa'o. sklI-gsung-thugs-Kyle kun-tu khysb.. 'di-bas prang-yang ci ma-rung anyam-pa'i mod-la: Padma-liar rab-tu ebrebs-pa-dang. 5 rgyal-ba'l don-rnams rdu]-phran-enyed. brtags-pa-lq mngon-par zhen-pas. Chapter Fifteen de-nee de-bzhin gshege-pa thams-cad-kyi bdag-po ngo-bo-nyid-Kyle khro-ho'i dkyil-'khor-du mngon2 par 'du-md7ad-de. [3] srid-pa'1 6 sa-bon rtsub-mos 'phangs-nas. thams-ead ma-lu8 sku-gsung-thugs. mnyes-pa'i gsang-ba' i sn.///" de edug-bengal drag-pos gdungs-pa-dang. sprul-pa rdul-phran 6 bsam-. [1] de ci'i phyir zhe-na. rgyu-dang 5 'hrae-bu-la rmongs_pes . 7 [7] -zhes ched-du bsgrags-so . 4 thamR-C811-kyi Bangs-rgyas I yang-deg- De'1 lam-clang bra]-be-dag. rab-tu shin-tit atshams-med-Pe"i tsha-be rab-tu taha-ha'1 dmyal-Dar 7 skyes-so'. gdunge-pa =ae-pa'i sdug-bengal drag-po 236 dag-gis rab-tu . [6] skad-cig yud-la OM lhun-gyis grub HOH.[2]j'bdag-tu rmongs3 Pa'I rtog-P9-dang.vas-kyis. gab-pa'i gsang-he ma-rtogs-par ebaspa'i gsang-be-la mngon-par 'chel-nee. sku-gsung-thugs-kyi thig-le che HOH. sku-gsung-thugs-kyi bdag-nyid-che.!i ng-po de-kho-na-nyid 8 neeQ-pa-l.OM phyogs-bcu'1 'jig-rten rdul-anyed-du.

24 Da. dang. lus-dang yan-lag-dang dbang-po [5] 18 mi-'tahams-par gyur-par de-nas bskal-pa chen-po drug-tu skyes-so. kha-rlangs-kyis. tshangs-ba'i ris-dang. man-chad 32 teal-dan¢: tsdus-so. phyogs-bcu brgya-rtsa-bzhis lha'i 'debs-par 32 klu'i ris-dang. grang-ba 12 la-Bogs-pa brgyad-po-dag-tu. rab-tu 'Jigs-pa'i rlung-nag-dang. 28 30 thams-cad skyi-bung bYed-pa . (6) 'bras-bu che-ba 33 'oddbang-du . d¢ e-r ¢yas-dang.de-lta-bu'l ehin-tu khams 8 Bdug-bsngal rab-tu tsha-ba la-sops-pa 9 brgyad-clang. gcig-pa-dang. 16 gdug-cing rtsuo-pall 15 dngos-po sna-tshogs-au 'gyur-ba-dang yang med-par 17 'gyur-thing. dngos-po-rnams mi-'ong-ba-dang. shir-tu ring-cing skam-pa-dang. las-kyi sgrib brtsub-mo'i 19 rnam-par smin-pa-de khad-kyis mtshama-sbyar-nas. rab-tu gdug-pa gtum-po lus-gcig-la sna-tshogs-pa-dang. rnam-par yi-dvags 14 ltogs-pa'dod-pa'i 13 skom-pa'l sdug-bsngal-gyis yid-du nyen-pa-dang. 'jigs-pa'i gzugs sna-tshogs26 'jigs-pa'i nga-ro sna-tshogs sgrogs-pa. (4] zad-pa-dang. sngon-gyi 20 srid-pas yi21 dvags srin-po chen-po brgya-pa-dang. Yan-lag sna-tshogs-Pa-dang. de-nas dang. 25 dri-dang 27 gzugs-dang ngazhes ro-dang. 32 lha-ma-yin-gyi ris-dang. mgo mgo-bo sna-tshogs-dang. 'khor rab-tu mang-po-dang. 22 bsrabs-pa-dang. 'Jig-rten-gyi brgyud-cing bskal-pa chen-po smin-pa-de stong-phrag bcu-gnyis-su myang-ngo. lus brgya-la mgo-bo yan-lag 23 lus mang-po-dang.

de-bzhin gshegs-pa thams-cad-kyi sku-Zsung-thugs bdeg-po. 40 rdo- rje'i bcom-ldan-'das dgyes-pa then-pos rnam-par 41 khro-ho'i 'phro-oa'i' rgyal-po'i !gyu-'phrul dkyil-'khor-gyi sprin-then-po r1rva-ba'i [$] rgyal-po'i ting-nge-'dzin-la 43 snyoms-per thugs - te.52 gtor-gtor. 'ur-'ur' gyps kuun-tu gYos-so. kun-tu 51 shig-ship-go: gtor-gtor-ro. 51 kun-tu 'ur-'ur. padma hi-hi-zhes dgyes-pa'1 47 gzi-mdangs-kyis. 52 kun-tu chem-chem-mo: gtor'Jig- ahig-shag: 52 gtor. the-be'i rdo-rje bkod-pa'i sgyu37 38 'phrul dre-ba. [43 gnyis-su med-par 'khril. de-bzhin-nyid-kyi mngon-du 46 dbyings-nas. chem-them rab-tu rob-tu ' rab-tu chem-chem. kun-tu "ten drug-ti phyogs-bcu'i stong-khame thame-cad-na 53 gnas-pa'i . 'jig-rten drug-gi phyogs-bcu'i grid-pa gcumgyi hdag-po 'dul-be'i nga-rgyal chen-poll gzl-brjid hstan-pa'i de-nas de-bzhin gshegs-pa 36 39 phyir. rab-tu 51 'ur-'ur. rin-cen rgyas-par mdzed-nas. khro-mo dbang-phyug 44 chen-mo 45 phyung-ste.34 de sngon bsten-pa'i atobs-kyis 35 theme-cad mkhyen-pas (7) gzigs-nas thugs-rtes 'dul-bar gyur-te. 50 khro-boll dkyil-'khor-gyi tshogs 49 stong-glum-gyi 'thon-par phyogp-hcu'i rdul-phra-mom snyed gyurrah51 pas: to (11] 1ig-rten drug-gi phyogR-bcu thams-cad gYos. ehig-ahig. ba'i dgyes-pas thim-nas. (1Q] 'jig-rten drug-gi phyogs-bc_u mthe'-yas-pa 'Jig- khyab-par rten-team. HUM HUM HUM VISVAVA3RA KRODHAJVALA MANDALA PHAT PRAT PHAT 4a HALA HALA HALA HUM. byang-chub sems-kyi sprin-las.

khro-bo'i dkyi3-'khor-gyi sprin-phung [rdo-rjer) de-dag-kyang.eng-phyug 62 po dur-khrod-kyi bdag-po dregs-pa chenkhyo-shug-ti gdan-la brkyangs-bsktjms-su bzhugs-so. btsun-mo khrag-'thung chen-moll tshogs-[rnams]-kyang DO 'du1-be'i ngo-mehar-te. 5u mthu che-bell dbangrab-tu brgyal. keng-rus chen-po'1 60 ri-rab-kyi steng 'bar-ba chen-po'i klong-al 'khor-loll 61 dkyil-na dgyea-nas dt. dur-khrod chen-pcr khrag-gi rgya-mtsho'i dkyil-na.) (rigs-inga'i he-ru-ka gcig-tu 75 bsr. srin-po-dang. de-nas (12) chen-po-nyid: 57 bcom-lden-'dae dgyea-pa 56 'jigs-byed chen-po chin-tu rngam-pa akyl-bung-zhes byed-Pa 'i khrag-'thung sku smug-nag cir-yang 'gyur--ba dbu-dang phyag-deng 7habs stong-khems -gyi rdul-snyed mtahon-cha sna-tshogs 57 'dzin-pa- de db'i-gsum ph y a g -d rug zhabs-bzAir gyur-te. dri-2a-dang. gzi-braid che-ba-dang.dbang che-ba-deng. chen-po 18-so99-pa thams-cad. rngam-pa'i 69 'bar-ba'i klong-na. dbu-gsum phyag-drug zhabsgnod-sbyin-dang. 55 brgyal [kun-tu brgyal]-bar gyur-to.1. L.ims-te bsdus-nas [15] 7u gcig-gis mang- . 70 - bzhls. 63 (13] chen-po-dang. gshln-rje 71 0o-shuggid b ganyas-pa-la 73 (brkyang-bskums-sv) bzhugs-eo. 66 ]a-la-ni gyur-te shar-phyogs-au dpal nub-phyogs-au bzhugs-so. kuun-tu de-dag 68 67 la-la-ni lss-eu gyur-te byang-phyogs-su kun-kyang 'jig-byed chen-po'i cha-lugs-dang.

89 van-lag kun bead-gtubs-rag sha kun zos. brlang-po'1 82 stun-tshic-tu 84 mgrin zcis-tu gdus8i smras-pa. za-ba-mo-dang: 96 gcig-pur 97 spyod-ma-ding. 95 bdud-rtsi-mo-dans. dmar-mo-ding.de-nas dregs-pa cF. zhi-b&-mo-dans: dga'-b&-mo-dans. rJe-mo. [19) 'byung-po ma-lug-pa'i rgyal-po'i yang 92 93 rgyal-po dregs-pa rJo-mo'i la-sops-pa'i chung-ma 'byung-mo grin-mo chen-mo'i mi'1 thaws-cad-kyi grin-mo-ding. yid- 'rhrog-ela-long: grub-no-long: rlung-mo-ding. shin-tu gdug-pa'i de-nas BOMB-kyis khros-nas rnsam-mo. phyag-bco-brsyad zhaba-brsyad-du rngam-pa'i 85 skid-kyis thugs-rjes 'dul- ba'i thabs-kyis shin-tu khroe-nas. 90 [i8] MOM MOM MOM BHYOH E ARALI JAM JAM -zhes brood-pas. MOM HUM HUM HA HA HA KHAHI KHAHI KHAKI -zhes brjod-pas. nu-so-dans. phyogs-bcu'1 'jig-rten-gyi 91 khams-na nam-mkha'- ding bean-p& yungs-'bru gcig-tsam-du chud-par de-nas chen-po Yang bsdus-so. g8od-byed-mo- . tshangs-ma- 'khrug-mo-dang. thons83 de-ltar byed-dam zhes-zer-zhing. 'grin-mo-dans.[17] tshogs 87 86 chen-po'i pang-khrol de-dag-gi kun drangs.en-po la-Bogs-pa gtum-pa'i 76 SOWS-kris gdug-pa'i chen-po 77 sna-tehogs 80 78 bstan-nas. khrag kun 'thungs-nas rus-pa kun 'chos-so. 94 be-con-mo-dans. [16) bcom-ldan-'das dgyes-pa chen-po dbu-dgu gnas-nas.

107 de-dag kun-kyang 108 dgyes-pas rol-pa'i dkwil--'khor-gyi sprin 'byung-ba 109 [21] zhea-bya-ba'i tins-nge-'dzin- ]a anyoms-par zhugs-nas. padma'i dkyil-'khor adud-cing dper-na khab-len-la Pa lcaga 'du-ba'i tahul-du. be-con-no-dang. gYoa-nas. tshange-ma-dang. 115 dang. bdud-rtsi-mo-dang: 119 zhi-ba-mo-dang. bran-dang yang-bran-ding: 103 gYog- dang van=-gYoe 'khor-zhing-gi rdul-en]'ed-kyang bedus-so. nag-mo dmar-ser chen-mo'khril-lo.'dzin nor-nag chen-mo la-Bogs-pa. 'byung-mo'i rgyal-mo-reams shin-tu chaps-pa'i rgyas-par 112 gyur-nas. bcom-ldan-'dae dgyes- chen-po dpal khrag-'thung chen-po rdo-rje'i sku-la. 'phrog-ma-clang. za-ba-mo-dang. yidgrub-mo-dang. bcom-ldan-'das 'Jug-sred-mo-clang. bcom- . srin-mo-reams 'khril-lo. [sod-byed-mo-dang. 114 dmar-mo-dang. 118 gzhon-nu-mo-rnam 'khril-lo. la. yang rigs-inga'i 'jigs-byed snang-bar por byae-naa. dpal khrag-'thung chen-po rin-po-cha'i sku-la. de-nas 104 poe [20] chenchen- bcom-ldan-'dae dgyes-pa chen-po dpal khrag-'thugg 105 106 'dul-ba'i thabs-kyis. rlung-mo-rnams 'khril-lo. chen-mo-dang. dbang-mo-dang. la: 120 bcom-ldan-'das dpal khrag-'thugg chen-po padma'i sku121 khrag-gi myos-ma-dang. chen-mo mi'i srin-mo-dang. ango-nag chen-mo-dang: ear-nag chen-mo-rnams bcom-ldan-'das deal khrag-'thung chen-po de-bzhin gehega-pa'i sku'khrug-mo-dang. geig-pur spyod-ma-dang. 110 sku-dang count-dang thugs rdo- 111 -zhea Yid brjod-pas.

jas 'khod-do. 122 rgan-byed-mo-dang. ngochen'Jigs- mtehar-dang-bcas-nas PO 'thon-to. bcom-ldan-'das 124 dgyes-pa chen-po khro-bo'i dkyil-'khor padma'i 125 de- HGM-zhes brjod-pas. stag-gdong chen-mo'i tshogs-dang. de-nas shin-tu dgyes-nas HE-zhes 135 brjod-pas. va-gdong bzhad- chen-mo'l gdong dang. me-mo123 phag-mo-dang. byang-chub sews-kyl 128 129 sprinrmongs- dkar-mo'1 tshogs-dang. 'thon-nas-kyang 'bar- chen-po'i 'khor-lo'i phyi-rol shar-phyogs-nas 139 'khor-bar rngam_paIi mdangs-kyis 'khod-do. sme-sha-can-gyi ma-tshogs ma'i tshogs-'name rang-rang-gi 131 lag-cha-dang. tshogs-dang. gtum-mo'i tshogs-dang. de-nas dac-als.ldan-'das deal khrag-'thung chen-po kun-tu dang. khyi-gdong chen-mo'i 136 chen-moll tshogs-dang. (26] . 130 tshogs-dang. dkyil-'khor-kyi tshogs bsdus-nas shin-tu beum-par gyur-to. tshogs-dang. chen- mo'i tshogs-dang. kang-ka'i gdong tshogs-dang. 'thon-nas-kyang 134 'bar-ba 132 'khor-lo'i rtsibs-mchan 133 shar-phyogs-nas 'khor-bar [25] seng-gdong Pa'i gzugs rang-gi lag-cha-dang-bcas-. 137 chen-moll tshogsgdong dur-bya'i gdong chen-mo'l 'ug-pa'i chen -mo'i tshogs-dang bcas-pa-rnams. mo'i that-byed-mo°i epos-mo'1 tshogs-dang. tshogs-dang. de-nas 127 1as. las-kyi sku-la. (24) 126 dgyes-te HA-zhes briod-pas. 138 ngo-mtshar-du Chas-nas ba rang-rang-ti lag-cha-dang 'thon-par gyur-to. tshogs-dang. rkun-mo'i tshogs-dang. sna-chen-mo-dang.

[29] OM VAJRA MAHAMPTA MAHAKRODHA AM AM AM -ZhPs brjod-pas.140 de-nas shin-tu dgyes-pas phyogs-beu'i zhing rdo-rje 14i ma-lus-par khyebtahoge-dang. dbang-phyug chen-po ]a-sops-pe ldan-'des khro-bo chen-po de-dag-gi en am-nas 'dam-gyi rays-mtshor 153 156 155 themes-ced. [30] 160 khro-bo'i dkyil-'khor-gyi 159 shame-cad-kyang brgyad-brgya . Bring-'gro-ma'i 142 rje gdong-mo'1 tshogs-dang. [27] 1!16 de-nas dgyes-pa'i shams-cad khros-nas ba-der sprin-les 14. 154 bcomml- 'Sang-pa' 1 sma thud-pa-]as snam-nap u-tsuBierde-dag zhabs kro-ddha phyung-nas 'dam 158 kun 'thungs-te 157 dran-pa tahogs 162 rnyed_nae.44 ba'1 'thon-nas-kyang 'bar145 dkyil-'khor-gyi sgor Rhin-tu rngam-pall gzugs-kyis gnAe- 'thon-par gyur-to. rdo-rje ro-langs-mall tahogs-rnams 143 rang-rang-gi nco-mtshar-du hcas-nAs 1. rdo-rje-late 'di-dag 151 sku-dang gsung-dang phyuung-ngo. rdo-rje 'jig-rten-ma'i tshogs-dang. 161 dbti dgu-brgya phyag stong-brgyad-brgya. lAg-cha-dang. aku 'bar-ba chen-po'i klong-dkyil-na [31) bzhugs- par mthong-ngo. =o. 152 bton-to. rAo- nas PHAT-ces hrjod-pas. 149 ma-mo thams-cad-kyang 148 rang-rang-gi gnas ga]- [28] de-nas bcom-ldan-'das de-dag dgyes-pa chen-po dpal khrag-'thung chen-po 150 kun thugs-rje chen-po bdud-rtsi 'byung-ha zhes-bya-ba'i thugs tang-nee-'dzin-la anyoms-par zhugs-nas. 243 . phyogs-bcu-nas PHAT-ces bsgrego-pasj yud-team-gyis phyin-par bkye'o.

dra'-ho )ha-rje bzheg-gu gaol 176 bdag-cag so-so 'khor-boas-kyta tahoga-kyi dkyil-'khor chen-po 'di'i ming-tgam 'dzin-par byed-pa-yang. 175 dky11-'khor chpn-por bzheg-su gaol. .163 de'i dus-su *Jig-rten drug-gi 165 phyogs-bcu'i arid-pa thabs kun-tu sna-tphogs 1. dmyal-bar -ces ltung-nas 'bod-par-shog. 'bangs-au nan-tan snying ma-brgyis-na. 'bangs-su-mchi. 1331 dkyil-'kh-sr-gy1 gdan-du b2hag-go .66 dregs-pa'l beam-gyia (321 dbang-L+hyug thams-cad dul -ba'i ml-khyab-pnr ao-sor anang-bas due-gcig-tu btul-1 o. 'bangs-su-mchi.. gtaug-gi nor-bu 'bar-ba-ltar: gua-loan-pa'i. mgo-dang lug-ni brgyar 'gas-ehing 160 yang-gas ahing 370 gtuba-gyur-clz rut-myags tahig-nag brlag-pa-dang. 171 'bangs-au. ma-dang Bring-mo hu-mo-rnama. mchi-bar mna'-hor-nas.i bkur-bar bgyi. 17? thams-cad-kyia - mgrin gcig-tu yang-smras-pa 1711 173 bdag-cag-rnama-kyi mchia-brang-dang. 178 &Yo-sgyu-mad-cing same-kyis blangs-te bzhag-ate apyi-bo-vi: gtaug-t.

187 de-nas minx-gi [37] bcom-ldan-'das dbang-bskur-te dgyes-pa chen-poa lag-tu 188 rdo-rje byin-nas bkod-do. 182 de-nas 186 dans. de-das-gi bu-mo'i 185 chuns-ma'i tahogs-clang. bdag-c&&-rnams-kyi mgo lus snyins.emras-pa bzhin-du ma-bsgrubs-na. dkyil-'khor-gyi phyi-rol-du ssanc-ba'i snyins-po de-kho-na-nyid nges-pa-las khro-bo rang-bzhin189 Vi dkyil-'khor Pa'o'.hor-du yud-tsam-awia dpa'-bo then-po'i 'bangs-su mchi. '. dpa'-bo chen-pos bdas-can-la. 183 184 bkas-stubs dum-bur rul-bar mchi. sprin rnam-par apron-pa'i le'u-ate bco-inga- (38 ] . ma-dans Bring-mo- tahogs thame-cad dkyil-'.

DANA PACA HUM HUM HUM PRAT. OM SARVAMOGHA MAHAKRODHISVARI VISVA HUM PHAT. OM VAJRACANDALI HA: 246 . OM . ON MAHAVAJRADHARA MAHAKRODHISVARI JVALINIHUM PHAT.Chanter sixteen do-nas bcom-idan-'das khro-bo 2 dgyes-pa chen-pos 1 dkyll-'khor-gyi phyir. OM VAJRACAURI HA: OM VAJRA PRAMOHA HA. OM KARMAMAHASRIHERUKA MAHACANDASARVADUSTANTAKA HANA DAHA PACA HUM HUM HUM PHAT. [2] OM VAJRACAURI HA. OM SARVATATHAGATA MAHAKRODHISVARI SARVADUSTAN HUM PHAT. OM VAJRA VETALI HA. CM OM SARVATATHAGATAMAHASRXHERUKA MAHACANDASARVADUSTANTAKA HANA VAJRAMAHASRIHERUKA MAHACANDASARVADUSTANTAKA PACA HUM HUM HUM PRAT. tahogs chan-po 'di-dag dam-tahig-&l9 grub-par bya-ba'i khrag-'thung chen-po de-bzhin gshegs-pa tshogs de-dag-gi bcas-pa'i sku-dang gsung-dang thugs rdo-rje ye-shes rngam[1] btsun-mo-dang pa-las gsung-gi dkyil-khor 'di-dag phyung-ngo. ON MAHASURYARATNA MAHAKRODHISVARI VIDAMA HUMPHAT: OM HRESITASAMANTAPADMA 5 4 MAHAKRODHISVARI KHAHI HUM PHAT. HANA DANA RATNAMAHASRIHERUKA MAHACANDASARVADUSTANTAKA HANA DAHA PACA HUM HUM HUM PHAT OM PADMAMAHASRIHERUKA MAHACANDASARVADUSTANTAKA HANA DAHA PACA HUM HUM HUM PHAT .

ON VAJRA SVANAMUKHI HE: ON VAJRA GRDHRAMUKH! HE: ON VAJRA KANKAMUKHI HE: ON VAJRA ULUKAMUKHI HE: ON VAJRA ARYATEJATEN JAM. BHYOH BHYOH BHYOH BHYOH. ON VAJRA GHASMARI HA: ON VAJRA SIMHAMUKHI HE. BHYOH BHYOH BHYOH BHYOH BHYOH BHYOH: BHYOH BHYOH BHYOH BHYOH BHYOH BHYOH: BHYOH BHYOH BHYOH BHYOH BHYOH BHYOH.OM VAJRA PUKKASI HA. OM VAJRA VYAGHRAMUKHI HE: ON VAJRA SRGALAMUKHI HE. . 10 [§] ON RULU RULU RULU HOW EHYEHI AHAYA JAH HUM VAN HOH RAM: [6] 11 [7] ON VAJRA KRODHA SAMAYA HOW 12 ON khro-la khros-bas 13 zhi-mdzad-pa: thugs-rje khro-deal rngam-pa'i tahogs. 'bar-ba'i byin-rlabs rmad-po-che. 8 [3] 7 ON VAJRRMOGHA HOM: ON VAJRA LOKA VAN: ON VAJRA BHASMI VALAYAVATI HOM: 9 [4] BHYOH BHYOH BHYOH BHYOH BHYOHBHYOH.

b-tu] 'bar-ro thame-cad-du gang 'bar-ba'j dkyil-'khor- gang rab-tu kun—tu gang-bar 24 gyur-to: khro-bo'j [10] tahoga t$ang-ba'i chen-po'j Bnylng-po de-kho-na-nyjcj ngea-pa-1aB gsung-gi dk.da-nyld-du-ni 14 bdag-].a ataol ON VAJRA KRODHA SAMAYAS TvAM: OM VAJRJI KRODHA SAMAVA PHAT: 15 ON VAJRA KEODHA SAMAYA HOH (8] ALl IJLI TALl TAPALI: 16 DAMSTRAGANARAUDRA: KHARAM YOGINI KHAHI HCH 17 HOM HA HE PHAT (9] -eas r&b-tu kun-tu gyt tahig 'jig—rten drug-gj phyogg-bcu thams-cad 20 kun-tu [rab-tu] tahlg—go 'bar: rab-tu 21 18 19 'bar 22 (r.yil-'Ithor aproe-pa'j le'u-ste bcu-drug- (11] 248 .

gt'im-pa dom-gyi spar-bas-ni. [3) khyu-mr_hog ma-he gzig-dang stag. 'dig-rten 'khor-yug bcas. dhu-geum phyag-drug zhabs-bzhir bgrad. It 3 gru-bzhi sgo-khyud bzhi-dang i. 'bar-bs'i bar-'khyams gnyis-kyip mdzes. stone-91. 13 (6) rdo-rje dung-chen gang-ba-dang. 5 [2] thod-shrul one-tshogs 'bar-ha'i nyl-mas brjid. 14 rA)-gri dgre-sta gehol la-aoge.Chapter Seventeen de-nag boom-ldan-'das dgyes-re chen-pos.l-dang thod-'phreng nyi-zla'i Chas. bteun-mo 'jige-pa'i tshoge-dang 'khril.dan. smug-nag engo-nag ser-nag-dang. rngam-pa'i sera-chen 10 11 'Jigs-par sgrogs. 7 dbang-phyag :ha-chen la-sops zung. gru-chAd bzhi-yis 2 1 rnam-par brgyan. 'bar-ba'i dkyil-'khor rtsibs bzhi-pa. 6 'phro-be mang-po 'khrug. 12 shri. [7) 249 . 9 [5] ko-rlon gos-ni one-tshogs gyon. 8 [4) dmar-nag bang-nag 'Jigs-pall sku. de-dag-gi [1] dkyll-'khor bstan-Pall phyir ched-du brjod-ba 'di brjod-do. rang-gi lag-cha sna-tshogs-benams.

[2) 3 'khril-be'1 mchod-chen mnyam-abyor-bas. . ci-bgyi zhes-nf chas-te gnas.. med-par bsgral-bar bya'o. rang-g! stan-dang lag-cha-dang. [11] bstan- de-nas boom-ldan-'das dgyes-pa ehen-pos mnyes-pa'i mchod-pa chen- Po 'di ched-du brjod-do. 15 ego-bzhi'i phyag-rgyas rab-mdzes-shing. blo-ngan 'jfg-rten snying-re-rye.gnas-dang yul-gyi phyag-rgya-dang. [1] de-lm mchod-shyin dam-pa-ni: thug-mar bdag-nyid rtog-goms 2 bsgral. [1Q] gseng-ha'i snying-po de-kho-na-nyid nges-pa-las khro-bo'i dkyil-'khor pa'i le'u-ste bcu-bdun-pa'o.7 bs't dkytl-'khor kun-tu teal-bar gy'Jr-to..j 'bar1. 141 bdag-dang mnyam-pe'i tshogs-la 'bul. alas-dang byi-mo bran-mo'i tshogs. bdag-nyfd mnyes-pas mnyes-par bye: (3) mnyam-pa'1 egrub-rdzas 5 then-po-dag. de-nas gnyis-med blo-yis-ni. gnyis-s. -zhes brjod-pas [91 'jig-rten drug-St phyogp-beu thams-cad-d. bc'i-gnyf s-dang-ni brgyad-kyl s mdzes .

longs-spyod inge-ldan thams-cad-ni. lha-srin ?. 10 gsal-ball yid--gnyis med-pa-na: -zhes brjod-..bza'-dang bca'-dang btung-dang bgo. dkyil-'khor-la-ni dkyil-'khor thim. [7] rnal-'byor las-su rung-rnams-kyis. .pas: 11 mnyes-pa'i mchod-pa chen-pos 'jig-rten drug(9) ti phyogs-bcu thams-cad khyab-par gy»r-to.a-Bogs smos-ci-dgos. gsang-ba'i betan- spying-po de-kho-na-nyid nges-pa-lap mchod-sbyin [10) dsm-pa Pa'1 le'u-ete bco-brgyad-pa'o. 9 phyag-rgya chen-po rdzogs-'gyur-zhing. de-nae bcom-ldsn-'das bya-ba'i dgyes-pa chen-pos engage-'chang-rnams don- Yad-par phyir dam-tshig chen-po 'dl shed-du brood-do. [5] [6] gzhan-nas yod-pa ma-yin-na.

yang-dag lam-du zhuse-la byams. ma-lus kun-'dus rnam-par dag: 6 yod-med dbu-ma'ang mi-dmige-shing.s-kar dbyer-med-pas. [6] bla-med mi-spang bla-ma bkur. grog-dang skyes-bu log-rtog-team. sngags-dang phyag-rgya rgyun mi-gcod. [3] ji-enyed edom-pa beam-yas-pa. 11 'phrul-dga'i tehul-de tha-dad min. gzhan-dang ma-byin med-pa'i phyir. [5] bdzun-nyid-la-ni rdzun-epyod-pa. 'dul-ba'i dbang-gis tehul-khrims-dons. 7 sgyu-ma slag-yor lta-bu'1 tshul. 12 blangs-med thams-cad-nyid-ky1 dbyings.bla-med mchog-gi dam-tshig-tu. [4] bdon-pa gnyl. 16 rdzun-zhes btaga-team yod-ma-yin. . 9 srog-med eroc-kyang scod-du med.

26 ye-nas dap-mnyam rtoge-pas spyad. [13] 'daa-na 31 sanga-rgyas ma-yin-no. akad-cig yud-team amra ma-byed: 34 33 rams-gyur nyes-pa brjod mi-lang. Yid-du 35 =I-'ong 36 sna-tshogs-pa'i. 23 [9] yan-lag bcu-yl dam-tshig-ste.'di-ni rtsa-ba :nga-rnams-te. goo-la nye-bar mi-brtson-dang. 37 [i5] 'bras-bu mi-'dod bzhln-du 'du: . 21 Bgrub-dang berung-ba'i dam-tshig mchog: [6] gti-mug chaps-dang zhe-edang-dang. scrub-pa thaws-cad log-par 'gyur. nga-rgyal phrag-dog mi-spang-ngo. [10] mnyam-rdzogs chen-po thob-'gyur-bas. 34 [14] rtsa-ba'i dsm-tahig nyams-gyur-na.

srid-gsum 'gro-ba ii-snyed-pa. bde-gahegs-nyid-kyi yul-la zhugs. rtsa-ba'i dam-tshig inga-la-ni. gtso-dang 'khor-gyis bkur. [16] Bangs-rgyas kun-gyi bdag-nyid yin. Bras--dang spun dgonga byin-gyis rlob. Bgrub-med dam-pa ma-lus 'grub. 41 [20] 39 40 de-la-Bogs-pa mtha'-yas mchog. rtog-'dul dam-tshig de-snyed spro. [19] 'Jig-rten drug-2i phyogs-bcu-na. 44 45 [23] 43 [22] dam-pa mchog-dang dam-pa-yis. [24] 254 . dam-tshig 'di-ni rmacl-po-che. [17] gcig-la'ang gnyis-dang bcu-phrag gsum. gzhan-yang rgyal-mchog kun-brang-gi. 'bras-bu med-cing ngan-song ltung.yan-]ag dam-tshig 38 nyams-gyur-na. thams-cad ma-lus phyag-rgya-yis. [21] rgyal-ba'i 'Jig-rten 42 rigs-mchog 'dzin-pa-de. dam-tshig-rnems-ni rdo-rJe che. gcig-la'ang bcu-phrag gnyis-su dbye. 46 'Jigs-med kun-tu 47 bzang-por sbyor. [18] Yan-lag dam-tshig inga-gnyis-la.

3i-bzhin-nyid-dang 'dul-ba'I thaba. 'bar-ba Stun-chen 3 rngam-pa-la.-dag shun-gyis grub: 49 [25] nyams-na bskanga-pas rdzogs-pa-clang. 255 [3] . etshan-ma sing-du bean-par-bya. Ji-anyed adorn-pa bsam-yas-pa. [27] gsang-ba'i anying-po dele'u-ate bcu-dgu-pa'o:: nges-pa-laa dam-tehig-gi [28] Chapter Twenty de-nas de-bzhin gahega-pa bcom-ldan-'daa 1 2 dgyes-pa chen-pot lhun-gytt grub-pa'1 dam-tshig byin-gyis rlob-pa zhes-bya-ba'i ched-du ting-rge-'dzin-le anyoms-par zhugs-nas briod-do. a-lus 48 rnas. de-la-soge-pa -cea brjod-paa. (2) Bangs-rgyas bsod-name sku-yang bdud-rtai inga'arn zas-inga-la. 'Jig. khroa-pa'i yid-kyis rnchod-sbyin-bya. 50 rntha'-yaa mchog. [1] brjod-pa 'di E-vi tahogs-kyi dkyil-'khor mchog. a bkug-nas rdo-rje phur-pas 5 gdab. rdul-du byaa-naa tshoga-la dbul. [26] de-bzhin gahega-pa-nyid de-bzhin gahega-pa-nyid51 la ['dud-par] 'dul-bar kho-na-nyid gyur-to.

1R nga-rgyal dga'-'phro'i phur-pas gdab. 7 myos-nas gas-te 'tshlg-par 'gyur. 10 rdo-rje chags-pa'i phur-pas 13 11 gdab. mtshan-ma ming-du bcac-par-bya. Yon-tan nam-mkha'i mtha'-dang mnyam. ci-'dod de-bzhin 'ong-Dar-'gyur. [mtshan-mall ming-du bcas-par bya. 16 gzi-chen-la. rgyud-du sbrel-bsdams-nas. rdo-rje gsung-yang dbang-du 'gyur. dga'-ba'i yid-kyls mchod-sbyin-bya.) 17 Yon-tan yid-bzhin gter-du brtag. 8 [4] vam-gi tshogs-kyi dkyil-'khor mchog. beings-gyur bskyod-nas phyogs-bcur gYo. 1? chags-pa'i tshogs-la thim-par dbul. [7) 15 ma-yi tshogs-kyi dkyll-'khor 'bar-ha 'dii-'phro mchog.. 6 lu-gu rgyud-du sbrel-bsdams-nas. (5) bdud-rtsi inga'am zas-inga-la. 20 [9] 256 . 'bar-be 9 gzi-brjid lhun-chen-la. 19 rdo-rje gzi-brjid 'phel-bar 'gyur. chags-pa'i yid-kyie mchod-sbyin-by+a. 14 'gugs-'gyur rdo-rje'ang phyi-bzhin 'brang. [8) bdud-rtsi inga'am zas-inga-la.E-yi tshogs-kyi dky11-'khor-du. vam-gi lu-gu [6] tshogs-kyi dkyil-'khor-du.

vi tshogs-kyi dbul: [12] dkyil-'khor-du. [11] gtum-rngam 'khrug-pa'i ngo-bor brtag: than-ner Zeal-ba'i phur-pas 25 gdab: 26 'bar-ba lhan-ne'i tshogs-la .ma-Vi tshogs-kyi dkyil-'khor-du: lu-&u-rgyud-du sbrel-badams bskyod: 21 22 gzi-brjid 'bar-ba'l 'phrul-chen spro: yid-bzhin nam-mkha' gang-. 27 lu-gu-rgyud-du abrel-nas badams. gang-'dod Ian-de 30 byed-par begot [1i] shin-tu gdug-cing gtum-bag-can. [10] gsal-ba'i gzi-brjid 'taher-ba-la: 23 dang-ba'1 yid-kyia mchod-abyin-tya: 24 gtum-chen rngam-pa'ang Than-rer 'gyur. rang-gi dam-tahig rab-bagrags-nas.bar 'gyur. ]hag-ma'i mchod-abyin 'dod-pa abyin. thama-cad ma-lus 'dul-mdzad-pa'i: dbang-dang byin-rlaba rmad-po-che: 31 . alas-dang byi-mo bran-mo'i tshogs.Y&-.

A3 rnel-'byor dam-la gnas gyur-pa'i. beol-ba'i las-rname 45 mneon-du byog. ji-1tar de-has rnel-'byor sngage-'chang-gig' bcol-ba bzhi. . rul-myags 'tahig-nes 42 41 dmyal-bar 'gro. phre-men-ma-yang drigoe-grub thob. adorn-bcas de-las 'da'-bar 'gyur.'khor-rname dbang-phyug alas-su byes.n-du byos: lae-de mngon-du ma-byag-ne. dam-tshig de-las Ides-'gyur-na. 33 so-Bo'i 34 las-rname bskos-pa-de. mgo-1119-anying yang 39 38 tsha]-pe edun 40 ya-kee khro-boe gtubs-par 'gyr. rang-gi mna'-bor khan-blange-pa'i.

54 [18) seng-gdong chen-mo la-soge-pa'1. rdul-cha team-yang med-par byed. thams-cad kun-la za-bar byed. 52 bro-gar glu-tshig chen-mos-ni 53 Than-ner 'dod-na lhan-ner byed.-bar byed. thams-cad [kun-las) ma-lus 'byin-par byed. rmugs-par 'dod-na rmugs-par byed. khros-pas 64 ka-li rab-tu bya. 56 57 bro-gar glu-tshig chen-mos-ni. [21) . 62 63 sdong-gcig-dang-ni mes-rep-drung: dang-pas dga'-bas chaps-pas-dang. bro-gar glu-tshig chen-mos-ni.'phel-bar 'dod-na 'phel. bro-gar glu-tshig chen-mos-ni. 58 slas-danR byi-mo bran-mo'i tshogs. bzhad-gdong 55 chen-mo la-sogs-pa'i. spos-mo cnen-mo la-sogs-pa'i. 60 59 rbad-cing gtang-bar bya-ba-ste: 61 lion-pa dang-ni icug-phran tahal.

Ye--shes dkyil-'khor kun-tu gsal 'bar-ba'i ye-ehes kun-tu 'joms. [23] Chapter Twenty-One de-nas hcom-ldan-'das dgyes-pa chen-poll 2 i tshoge-Vyi dkyil-'khor- Zyis shin-tu rngam-pa'i mdangs-kylg glu-'di blangs-so. 65 de-bzhin gshegs-pa-nyid-lA de-bzhin gehegs-pagyur-to. HUM [2] rngam-pall nga-ro 'brug-stong ldlr. 10 HOH.. nyid 66 Pa gsang-ba'i snying-po de-kho-narlob- ngee-pa-lag lhun-gyis grub-pa'i 'phrin-las byin-gyis zhes-bya-ba'i le'u-ste nyi-shu-pa'o. 7 gtum-chen ri-rah 'bum-benyil eked.-zhea brjod-pas. 11 khroe-pa'i dkyil-'khor char-chen 'bebs. 260 .9 RM [3) khro-bo ehes-rab 'od-po-chc. [22) nyid sbyong-par. sna-tshoge ye-shee thig-]e che MOM [4) khro-bo'i rgyal-po Bprin chen-po. dkyil-'khor yid-bzhin 'byung-ball gter. 8 dbyugs-pa'i 'thor-rlung gYeng-be che'o. a-la he-la'i gad-rgyangs che. HOM [1] gtum-chen dus-mtha'i me-Itar 'bar:3 'od-zer nyi-ma 'bum-gyi gzi 5 khro-znyer glog-stong 'gyu-ba-hzhin' 6 niche-ba zeng-yag za-byed che MOH.

[2] de-hzhin gshegs-pa'i ngo-bo-nyid. 18 17 rdo-rje me-ate 'bar-be che. [6] H" rdo-rje brag-chen Bra-ba-po. 'jigs-byed then-po thig-le che HOH. [1] kye-kye phyogs-bcu dus-bzhl'i rang-bzhin 'di. gzung-'dzin spros-la 'chel-ba-yis.. -zhee nyid (7) shed-du glu ngee-pa-las [8] 19 Mange-so.ui-kyi bdud-de hdud-rnams 'toms. 261 [3] . rdo-rje r1ung-ste 'thor-rlung che HOH. 'Jigs-pa'i tshogs-kyang 'jigs byed-pa. Chapter Twenty-Two de-nes bcom-3dan-'das dgyes-pa chen-pos de-ozhin gshegs-pa-nyid3 la gsang-sngags-kyi rgyal-po brtan-par 2 gzung-ha 'di cheti-du brjod-do. 4 rnam-rtog thugs-pas so-nor 'dzin. sa-rnams khyad-par bkod-pa yang. 16 15 r'io-rje chu-bo sdud chen-po. 3 gsang-ba'i enying-por 'gro-ball lam. gsang-ba'i snying-po de-kho-nagcig- khro-bo-la bstod-pa'i le'u-ote nyt-shu Pe'o.sna-tshogs khros-pa'l HTTM 12 thig-le che HOW 13 [5] bdud-kun-gyi.-ni bdud chen-po: 14 bdt.

] . de-bzhin gahegs-pa thams-cad 11 dbyer-med-par dgyes-nas due-bzhi mnyam-pa-nyid-kyi dbyings.Me-shes ngo-mtahar rab-'byams-kyis 6 don-du mi-'gyur yongs ma-4sungs. sku-gsung-thugs- ['phags-pa 13 rtogs-pa'i 15 rgyal-po lu sgyu-'phrul drva-ba 16 le'u atong-phrag brgya-pa-las mtehan-nyid-dang rgyud thams-cad-kyi lung-gi spyi 17 de-bzhin gahegs-pa thams-cad-kyi gaang-ba gsang-ba'i [10] anying-po de-kho-na-nyid ngea-pa-laa theme-cad ma-lus-par 'phrosto 'khor-lo bskor-ba de-dag-gi 'brae-bu'i mchog. [4) -zhes brjod-pas.

2 E 2a. D 3.2 do.4 'khor-lo khyab-par gsal-ba-la.4 do. 3 4 B 220.6 omits dang.1.3 both readings.Annotations for the Tibetan Text The Title 1 B 220. 11 D ego-mkhyud-can. 16 D 4. 12 D 4. E 2b.5 omits -Pa. E 2b. 5 mi-khyab-pa'i 50.2.7 do. 263 . G 76. E 2b. 9 D 4. G 10 3a.2 (sic) beam-gyis 77.8 do.2 -gyl. B 220.1.3 (A1C) mthing-ka. med-par. C 1.3 med-par. 13 A 3a.2 adds dang.1 nges--pa Chapter One 1 D 2..4 do.2 do.5 sna-tshogs-pa'i. E 3e. C 1..4 adds dang.1. 15 8 221..4 do. E 3b.2 rang-byung-ba-la. C 1. 17 D 5..4 sbags-pa. E E 3a.2 (gip) brgyan 4. B 220. E 2b. B 220.5 omits dang. D 3. 14 A 3a. G 76.1 med-pas..7 do.4 -dang ldan-pa. do.3 do.4 do. C 1. mi-khyab-par rlubs-pa.. B 220.. ye-shes.4 (sic) 8 chun-'phyangs-dang.5 -Pa.6 bklubs-pa.5 spags-pa.4 F mnga'-ba'i suggests 6 A 2b.6 confirms 'phags-pa (superior) 7 and spags-pa (permeated).

7ff.6 snom-par.ia) brjid-kyis. including mantras have many N. 25 A 3b.: F 90. E 4b.3.3.B.4 (E1C) dbyibs-dang. 28 D 6. 22 D 5. 29 F 90.6 do. 27 B 221.6 myang-par.5 do. omits rdo-rje. F 89. Sanskrit errors. D 6.4 do.18 D 5. (y1-^) leb-rgyan. D 6. F 89.5 do. breaks up these verses according to Rong-zom-pa's dkQri-m& oe_-'are1 . 31 C 1. 36 B 222.3 thugs yon-tan.4 snoms-pa-dang. 23 E 4a.7 sku-dang gsung-dang thugs-dang.3/4 suggests both readings.6 gang-bu bzhin: E 4a. C 1.3.6 mnan-par. E 4b.5ff. 30 B 221.6 omits 'di-ita-ste. C 1. G 91.1 do.2 omits -kyl and -nyid.2 adds 35 dang.2 myang-ba-dang.1 do. r¢vad-bcu-oa. C 1.6 dbang-bsgyur.4 ($ic) gong-bu. E 5a. 34 B 222. 24 F 89.2 ma-byung-ba. 33 E 4b.2 omits ldan-pa. 21 A 3b. D 6.3 (B.3 bzhug-pa'o..3.3..3. 37 B 222.7 mnam-byed-dang. 26 B 221. 1 bsnam-pa-dang.3.6 mnam-par.. B 221. 38 A 4b.3 do. 19 D 5. C 1. 264 . 39 E 4b.6 thugs yon-tan.2/3 do.3 (B" ) ma-yin-ma-dang.5 do. distorting metre.6 ma-nges-pa'i. do.6 do. F 89.6 chen-po'i. 20 D 5. D 5. words Tibetan they scribal which have not been noted unless imply alternative meaning. 32 C 1.

2 do.3 do. C 1.1 9 C 1.5 do.3 do.4 do.4.4. G 102. 19 A 20 F 5b. 6a.. A 7 8 5a. G 103.. D 7.11.4 kin-tu bzang-pos. D 7. E 5b. D 8. E 5a.3 mi rnyed-do.3 omits -du and -pa.3.4 na' ang. 14 B 223. E 6a..4 na'ang. byed-pa-po.5 nas.1 (sie) gsum-gnyis. gshegs-pa.4.4 do.4 do. B 222. C 4 5 A 5e.3 (S.2 adds de.4.4 rdo-rje.3 rnngon sangs-rgyas. C 1.. 265 21 B 223. F 102.2 .Chapter Two 1 D 7.5 omits omits yid.7 do.5 rang-bzhin dbyer-med-pas. readings.4 mi-mnyes-so.3 do. 2 B 222. C 1.2 do. 4. D 8.4 na' ang..3 do. F 103.7 do. .2 do. 1.4 (gam) bzang-mo.2 do. D 8.3 do. 223.2 rgyal-ba`i chos. 5a...4 do. E 5b. B 222. G 103. B 223. D 8.5 22 B 223.4.2 do. E 3 B 222.-bzhir.4.2 (ain) mi-mnyos-so. na'ang.2 (zjj) inga-ni. F 102. 223.. 17 B 223.. E 6a. G 102.3 btsal-bas.3 phyogs-bcu ` 2.4 do.8 do.ijC_) -kyi.4 do.2 suggests both 13 E 5b. 15 E 5b. 12 D 3. adds dang.1 do..1 glum-nyid. C 1. 16 C 1. B A 5a.1 do.. 18 B 223.1 (gjg) kun-gyis gsang. E 5a.6 na' ang 23 A 6&. 10 C 11 B 1. 6 C 1.3 do.

Chapter Three 1 D B B 10.7 'dud-pa dor.2 suggest 'dor. 1. 28 E 6b..6 2 byin-rlabs.. G 111.7 (Bic) A D 10. 8 10 C 11 A 1.3 (S1s) bder-gshegs.5. E 6b.7 do. B 224. C 1. E 6a.2a B 223.5.2 do.6 omits C chen-po. G 111.4 dbyer-med-na. C 1..4 rigs.1 chen-pos. C 1.6 do. 27 D 9..5.. F 107.5.6 do. B 224. 7a.2 do.5..3 do.3 6 7 E 6b.4 do.6 suggests either kyang or las. D 9.4 do. C 1.4 min-kyang. 5 B 224.5. E 6b.6 (sic) snel-bzhi.1 do. 33D 10.5. 32 B 224. D 10. C 1. G 115.4 omits -gyis. C 1. C 1. 224... E 6e.5.) men-la.5.3 bstan-pa-dang.5 do.5.2 chen-po. F 108.5 do.3 (AJ.3 suggests either..4 bltam-pa.3 sku-gsung-thugs.7 omits thams-cad: C B 1. 9 D 10.2 bya-ba'ang. min-la.3 and G 114.6 do.5 rigs-pa'i.6 (gjc) enrel-zhi. 29 C 1.8 (&1Q) 'duo-pa rnam-bzhis. G 119. however F 110.1 byang-chub-kyi Gems. 3 224.2 do. anrel-zhing.3 mdud-pa dor..5.2 beings-bar bye-ba.6 (gic) re-re. E 6a.c) anrel-bzhi. (H1.5 do.8 bdud brtul-ba-dang. 31 A 6b.1 do. . 25 F 107. E 6b. E 6b.3 do.2 (gia) -yi. B 224.3 do. F 136..4 do. 26 D 9. D 9. 30 A 6b.

21 B 225. 11.2 do.5 do.3 rang sangs-rgyas-kyi.3 -pas.4 'byung-ba-dang 7b.6 spyad-pa-dang.5 also (g1C).2 khyab-pa'i. 15 A 16 E 7a. 154.1. .1/2 reads kun gzigs-pa.4 'byung-bas 'dzin-pa.. D 11.4 omits dang.1 suggests both readings.1 gsungs. C 2. 27 rtogs-pa-dang.2 adds don.. 20 C 2. C 2. 19 B 225. D 12.3 do...6 omits 14 D kun-tu. E 7a. C 2. E 7a. E 7a.4 do. 17 A 18 D 7b. 13 D 10. C 2.5 do. E 7b. 28 29 30 rang-bzhin-nyid-las nyams-par before rang-bzhin-nyid-las nyams-pa-med.. D 12.4 (sic) 'dog-pa-dang. 26 A G 130.12 B 224.1 do.2 (&" ) log-par rtogs-pa.3 do. C 2.1. reads 'phrul-pa-las inserts (zla) and C reads 'khril-pa-las E 7b.8 do.7 spyod-de.3 do. 'dzin-pa-dang.3 do. 22 D 23 D 24 D 25 11.1.1 omits ldan-pa. 11.1.6 do.6 do. 11. 7a. B E 7a. B 225.3 theg-pa-dang.2 do. K 7b.. E 7b.5 do. 8a.7 thub-pa.6 --vi.2 dag-pa. D 10. 10. C 2. (sic) line: E 7b.6 do.6 med-pa. E 7x..6 do. E 7a. A E 8a. D 11.3 do..5 'dogs-pa-dang. G 120. D 31 32 12. A. B 225.4 (sic) kyis.1.6 do.1 gcig-kyang-med..1. B 225.1 'gyur.1 do..1.

9 226. Al B 226. 42 A 9e.4 ui-'gyur-te A 8b.2. 45 46 E 8a.2.2 do.7 do.1 (gj. C 2.5 do. A 8b.6 'phio. B 226.2. 35 36 37 38 D 12.6 also omits -dang after 'phros.7 bsdus-nas 6 7 D 13. C 2.) sku-gsung thugs-dang yon-tan phrin-las.4 do. D 13. B (a1. F 166. -dang...7 goal-'gyur-nas.4 dbab-pa'i.4 ston-min tshig-la. C 2.2 -gis. do. C 2.. I 2 C 2..) rgyu.7 do.. 13.1 do.5/6 confirm minx. E 7b.1 do.2.4/5 G 139.5 do.1 bstan-'byung . D 12.3. E 8a.1 and 39 40 B 226.6 'phra-ba'i 13. D 12.4/5 do. C 2.33 34 B 226. thugs dang yon-tan.4 do.2. D 13. A 8b. E 8a.4 do.4 omits -tu.2.4 do. 8 D 14.5 adds C 2.7 bstan.) rtogs-las C 2. do.5 adds ched-du.3/4 (ii .5 do.2 D 12.4 do.7 (al.6 bstan-'gyur 4 D D D 5 13. C 2. B 226.2. E 7b. 43 44 (sic) adds gYo-ba.C) gong mi-'da'. C 2.3 Run-tu.3 A A D 3 13.3.7 do.6 C 2. D 13.4 med-du btags-pa.1 omits -las.2. E 8a.2.

.3 do.2 do. 10 B 227. C 2.4..3 -kyi. 14 A 10a.4.4 adds rab-tu: E 8b.1 yi-ge'i. 20 21 B 228. C 2.4 do.8 -via.3(sj..1 do. E 8b.5 HON.4. 15 16 -las.3 do.5 suggests both readings. C 2. D 14. 28 D 15. 13 A 1Oa.2 'pugs-pa. ) 23 24 snang-bdag-nyid.3 sgyu-'phrul kun-tu-nyid.4. E 8b.. G 152.2 ngo-mtshar. B 228. 11 D 14.1 sems-dpa'.6 do.4 'Jigs-byed-pa'o.3.4.9 C 2. B 228.3ff dra-bas.3 tshigs.3 mi-gtong-gi. G 157.4 thugs-kyi 'jigs-byed-pa'o.6 'jigs-byed-pa'o.3..r-) E 8b.3 snang-bas. before line beginning tha-ni.3/4 do. E 9a. B 228. C 2.3. 5/6 do. G 147.4 do..2/3 do. 12 C 2. 30 E 9A-5 'jigs-par byed. B 17 228.6 mang-tshogs- E 8b.2 do.4 do. 269 . 2. E 9a.3 do. E 9a. 22 A 10b. 27 C 29 D 15..4.1 do. 25 D 15. B 228..3.3 Than-ni-nyid. G 153.3 lham-mer.8 G 152. E 8b.4 kyis. G 154.4 Than-ne-nyid. E 9a. F and G interpret tshogs as sna-tshogs. C 2.6 rgyal-por.2 inserts line: &-ni thog-mtha' stung-pa-nyid.4. C 2. 26 B 228. B 228.6 C 2. do.. phyir-yang.. (gj.3 do. 18 19 B 228.4 do. C 2.5 omits line beginning jha-ni. F 186.1 do.6 suggests both readings.

36 F 200.6 stongs-pa..1 do. 2.2 (sic) mi-tahogs. do. C 2. 42 B 229.5. 40 B 229. G 159.4.1 do. D 16. 34 B 228. llb. 33 E 9a. E 9b. confirming two alternative readings.3 suggests both readings.4 yi-ge.. 44 D 16. .31 C 2. llb. 39 B 229. E 9a.6 do.3 (aA ) de-bdag-nyid: E 9b.6 'jigs-pa. C 2. C 2. C 2. 48 D 16.3 do.j) C zhig-pa-yi.3 byung-ngo. F 200.8 do..5 rdo-rje'i. 43 A llb..4 dges-sprin. A 11a..1 phreng-bas.1 'di: G 160. G 163.4.7 rtag-med dag-pa- ate. 45 A llb.3 (sic) sots. D 15. B 50 B 229.5 do. E 9b.6 chad--pa'ang.1 'jigs-par byed. 35 C 2.5.8 do. 46 D 47 A 16.2 do.1 do.4.4.6 do. 41 B 229.6/7 med-pa-ste.5 do.5 a-ho. C 2.2 permits both readings.3 do..4 do.6 interprets second thugs as thugs-rje.2 sku-dang gsung-dang thugs-dang..4 (gig) smin-drug. D 16.2 -kyis.4 med-tahogs.4 HOH.4.6 do. 37 E 9b.4. B 228.5. G 159. G 49 A 163. 229.4.8 (.3 dag-pa-yin..6 do. 32 C 2..4 permits both readings. 38 C 2.

2 do.5 tshlg-par 'gyur-ba-dang.5/6 permits E lOa.2 do.6 cing. 3 4 C 2.ais) dag.7 do. 5 (. 229.5 permits both readings.5 'khor-la.. E lOa.2 do. D 17.8 do. 2 B 229.3 do. F 210. G 7 174.7 do.. C 2.1 snang-'byung. E 9b. 18 B 230. C 2.3 dngos-po.5. E 9b.5 do. 12 13 14 B 230.5 230.1 do.1 bar-tang. C 2.5.1 (j. nun-las snang-'byung ji-bzhln- gyi. D 17.) tshig-pa-dang. D B 17. E 1Oa.5 brlag. D 17. C med-cing 2.4/5 do. D 17.. F 215. C B 6 2. E 1Oa. D 17..5 do.3 9 10 (B1a) bar-pa'ang.3 do. 15 B 230.6 bdud-rtsi. B 229.7 (8lC) omits -na and reads med-pas.2 -pa'1.2 D 17. snying-po 'di.5 -gyi.5.Chapter Five 1 B 229.5.5. 5 B 229.6 do. E 1Oa. 5. 'dor-ba- 11 E 12a.7 do..4 do. C 2..1 'gyur-bas. 19 D 17. F 213. 16 17 B 230. both readings. F 216.1 grol.7 khams-'di 'dor-ba-dang.4 stong-thing.2 omits rtes-..6 khans 'dir dang.. 271 .5.5 'byung-ba. C 2. D 17. 8 E lOa. D 17.1 do.6 cir-yang.7 do.5. G 174.

.7 (Ata) dbus-bstage-ste.2.1. 3. C 3. 234.4 'jigs-pas.6 permits both readings. Jr.1 (agras) btags-te. phyag-rgyas rab-bstan-na.. C 3. B 230. 10b. G 183. 26 27 3.1 C lhun-gyis grub. E I 2 C 3.6 bdag-nyid chen-po: G 178.1 do.1. D 18.4/5 do.4 rgyab-na. C 3.1. E 8 19.2. C 3. .3 B D 6 7 (A1z) sgom-pa-dang.2 do. 21 22 23 24 25 D 18. -par.5 omits dra-ba.5 med-la..6 do. E 10b.3 tehogs-dang.3 gYas-na.1..7 do.1.3 thabs-la thabs-'byung.2 C C 3.. C 3.. 3 4 5 B 231.5 rab-bstan-na.. E 10a. D 18.1 -pa'i. gnas.2 bar-khyame-1dan. E 10a. E 10a.6 C 3. 231.1 9 B 231.: F 230.1. D 18.3 rtog-pa'1.7 omits dra-ba and ting-nge-'dzin-gym: 10b.1. C 3..2 do.2 (sic) omits yang. D D 19..4 do..2 do. 10 E 11a. B 230. 28 B 230.20 B 230.5 do.3 do. D 18..1. 19.1. B 230.4 do.1 rigs-brgyud.5 do.5 do..1 rtog-pa'i dbang-sgyur. D 18.1 'joins-pa-ste.2 do.1 do. E 10b.5 ldan-par tshul-dang. A 13a.

252. 15 B 231.6 16 17 A 14a.6 'khrigs-pa-ste.4 do.. E 13 14 1la. G 192.6 'jal-bar.3 snang-bar bstan. G 191.5 yang-dag =thong.7 do.1 do. D 20.6 (Slp) mi-gYor..5 de-bzhin-nyid-las. C 3. E lla. . F 251.4 permits both readings.1 do.12 C 3.2. D 20.2 do.6 (zAc) chu-zle-bzhi. B 232.5 (gig) C sku betas-na.6 (sic) ma-gYos-kyang.4 ston-pa'i.4 sku-yi. G 190.2 sna-tshogs-pa.5 omits this line.3 'thing-ka.1 do.2 las-'phro. C 3. B 231. D 20. D 20.4 do.1 a&-bcu'i rim-gyl 'hyed.. so'i. E 11b.3.2. reads so-so for ma-lus. D 20.. 26 27 28 E ila.1 dge-tshul-rnams-la. F 32 3.3 do. 33 6 196. F 249. D 20.1 do.2.4 do. E 11a.7 do. 29 30 31 D 20.5 do.1 rims. B gzi-byin 'bar.3 permits this reading.5/6 sbyangs. permits both readings. F 249.. 22 D 20.5/6 (gj D 19. B 232.2 bse-ru'i gzugs. E lla.6 do. A 23 24 25 14b. F 242. D 20. E hia. C 3.1 (A.2 gzi-braid ldan.b do. E lla.2..1 'dul-ba'i phyir.2.2 thob.6 do. ) lhun-stug. G 194. E 11b. E 11.: E 11a.5 so-sor.6 do. B 232.4 so- 21 F 249. E l1a. C 3.7 (a1.Q) mchog-na. and also 18 19 20 A 14a. IQ) tshul-gnyis.

43 sku-dang gsung-dang thugs.. G 200. C 3. F 253.1 do. D 21.4. G 196.1/2 longs-spyod zad-med rin-cher spyod zad-med rin-chen-te. E llb.1 Permits both readings.6 do. 5 A 16b.2 de-nyid-du-ni. F 267. E 12a. B 23. E 12b.2 do. E 1b. D 20. 6 B 234.5 do.3 prefers rin-chen gter. 7 do. 3.3 med-pa. B 232. D 20.1 do.4 gives both 35 36 37 38 readings.5 do. .5 de-la-sogs-te.3 rdo-rje 'dzin-pa rig--pa'i sku. 40 41 C 3. 44 45 46 C 3.6 (1110) skal-pa..4/5 and 243. C 3. 198. 1 B 233.3.34 C 3..6/7 B 232.6 omits this line..7 omits this line. G 218.3. 3 B 233.1 W c) omits kun..2/3 do.3. D 20.1 lhun-gyi/ 256. gter.1 omits zhes.7 gcig for -du.7 mtha'-yas mchog. 2 D 21.6 do.2 do.5 do.. C 3. .2 do.3. reads 42 B 232.4 kun-kyang. C 3. 39 C 3.3. 2 omits -dag. 4 B 233.6 do.6 PHYAM. G kun-kyang. C 3. G 197.4 permits both readings.5 F 229. C 3.1 -ba'i.2 do.3. C 3. 1 do. E 12a.6 kun-gyi khyab-med.4.4..7 omits OM. C 3.3 spros. B 224.6 longs- E 11b.3. D 20.4 -cig. A 15b.3.3.

thams-cad kyang. F 267. 14 c 3.3 permits both readings. C 3.4 byung-bas. 25 235.5. E 13a.6 omits thams-cad. F 268.5. 22 F 273. i3 D 23. E 12b.3 do.3 do.4 permits possibility of rdo-rje'i. . e. F permits both readings. B 235.4 do. F 272. C 3.1 permit both readings. D 24.5. 9 E 12.7 do..3 'dul-ba'i.6 sprin-sangs-bzhin. F 273.2 do.2 rdo-rje-dang gnyis-med. 26 C 3.6 do.6 kun-gyl-s. B 234.7 gsung-mchog-yin.5.1 sku-gsung-thugs-dang rdo-rje'i.5 do.5 do.1 C 3.a. E 12b.. D 23. C 3.1 do. 12 D 23. G 221.5.1 do.2 do.4 'byung-ba. 11 A 16b. E 13a.4 gsung-ba-nyid-na.7 C 3.4 (Sir-) gyur-to.3 do.. 8 A 16b. E 13a.. 10 A 16b.1 Brags-nyid.5 do. 18 A 17b.6 do. 16 C 3.5.2 sprod-bsangs-bzhin.2 (sic) 'di-ni.5 'Jal.5. 4. 15 A 17a. C 3.. E 12a.5 chen-por.3 rdo-r.3 24 B 235.3 (J_) de-ni.4 do.2 thams-cad go. 19 B 235.7 27 D 24. C 3.5 dus-bzhi. D 23. 23 C 3. 17 B 234...1 do.4.1 do.4 & G 218.4.3 smad-kyi chos.4 omits -du. 21 E 13a. E 17b.5 do. D 24. 20 A 17b..5.. 274.

E 13b.5 -kyi. F 277.1 do.1.. E 13a.3 dra-ba'i. C 4.3 do. G 228.3 (Ala) 13 3 235.1. 8 D 25. C 4.2 permits both readings.2 do. 30 B 235. .4 'khrol-pa'i.4 do.1.4 do. 29 B 235.5 rdzogs-pa'i. 32 C 3. C 4.1. E 13b. E 13b..7 gsung-ba.2 bskyad-pa'i rgyu. 16 A 19a. 12 E 13b.1. 2 F 277.3 do. D 25.1 bsnol-te.2 do. E 13a. F 276.7 (A 14 A ) zla-btul. 9 A 18b. 18b. E 13a. F279.5 do.2 brlabs-pa. 11 A 18b.5 do. 18 B 236. 9 13b.5 do.2 snying-po.7 (aiC) dka-ba' o. 5 C 4.4 gsungs-rab. 4 D 24. E 13b. E 13b.3 de-bzhin-nyid-las.1 sgreng.1 (mla) mi-skyod. brtan.7 do. C 4. 10 D 20.5 do. E 13b.. D 25.28 C 3.5 do.. D 24. G 225.3 permit both readings.7 do. 3 B 234.5. E 13a.4 do. C 3. 7 E 13b. 15 C 4.5.5 do.2 skyed-pa'i rgyu.5. 31 D 24..2 rtse skrad-pa.1 brtan.3 do.. 1 A 18a.6 sgreng.2 do. 17 D 25.3 byin-brlabs-kyle.1 rtse-mo.4 & G 225.4 gsung-gis. 6 D 24.3 permits both readings.7 (BiC) rgyu.8 de-bzhin-nyid-las.1.2 agreng rtse-mor.

7 brtan.5 do. F 282. 22 E 13b.4 'byol-thing.. 19a.3 sgreng. 36 C 'byor-zhing.. do.8.1.4 do. 19a. D 26. E 14a. 37 E 14a.2. D 25.6 sgreng.3 omits this line.. E 13b. PHYAM-sgreng. D 26. . 20 C 21 A 4. 23 B 236.2. D 25. E 14a. 28 A 19a..3 do. E 14a.5 sv&-rtse 'bar-ba rin-po- che. 30 D 26. 19b. E 14a.5.2..4. 41 F 286. D 25.6.2 do. D 26.2. E 13b. C 4.1.4 do. C 4..5 do. 4.8 (md a) padmar 'bar.3 brtan.2 brtan.5 do.1.. 35 B 236.. 27 B 236. 25 A 26 C 4. C 4.2. D 25.2.5 do. 39 E 14a. E 14x.7 29 A 19a.1 sgreng. E 13b.1 do.6 'khrol-ba'i.6 do. D 25.7 do.6 do.2 permits both readings.4 4.) nya-ma. C 4..4 sgreng.5 epos-mchog-ma..5 do.5 'khrol. 31 A 32 D 26.6 (&i.3 la-sops 33 D 34 C E i4a.4 (Bit) pos-mchog-dang.5/6 rdo-rtes anon.6 do. C 4.5 omits bagreng. klu-shing..4 do. E 14a.2.19 A 19a.1. C 4. 40 D 26.1 do..5 chen-pos.. 38 B 236. E 14a. C 4.2 brtan. F 286.. 26.7 sgo-bzhi.3 sgreng.5/6 do.2 sgreng. 232. F 285.1.1 do. 24 A 19a. E 14a. C 4.2 do.3 omits ho.5 PHYAM.7 do.1.

5 mthun-par kun-tu ston.5 do.2 de-bzhin-te. B 237.5 thams-'ad-dang. B 237. F 293. E lUb. C 4.3 sgul-bskyed.4 do. go-cha po-ti rin-chen sgrom.4 do.3.2 'thim-par kun-tu ston.2.7 omits thams-cad.6 insert three extra lines here.2 & C 4. C 4.3.6 permits both readings.2 do. C 4. 58 . B 237.3 do.5 55 spro-ba.6 do. 47 0 26. 53 D 54 27.7 gnas-pa. 52 B 237.6 do. 43 F 286.1 do. i drug-tu bstan.. D 27.5 gcig-tu. C 4. E A 20b. 14b.4/5 44 A 20a.4 (&i^) ma-god.3 (ZJa) sgul-bskyed. C 4.2 do. C 4. me-dang chu-ni rab-tu bstan. C 4.2.3.7 gshegs-nyid-de.7 do.3. 0 27. 56 57 A 20b.2.2 de-la-sops-pa.2 gnyis-med.3.5 zhi-khrc. C 4. 51 B 237. E 14a. viz. 49 D 27.3/4 do.2.7 ( j ) padmo'i dkyil.3 skyod-dang.5 do.6 'di-dag-kyang.: gseg-par dang-ni pi-wang-dang. E 14b. 45 B 237.3.3 ma-sgul. G 234.42 D 26. 46 C 4. 48 A 20a. gong-du bzhin. 50 B 237. E 14b.. G 239.

B 9 10 11 238. D 28. D 12 bro-ball btung-pas. A 21a.4 mchod-par.1 do. 18 C 4.3 btung bri-bas.6 spras-pa-yi. 28.3 do. nyungs-'bru.1 btung-dang.5 -yi.7 chen-po. 238.5 do..3 do.2 do. 7 A 21x.3.4. C 4. 20 D 21 29.6 do.7 dam-pa-de.2 sgo-ni.) klu-dbyangs. 17 E 15a. C 4.4. E D D 5 28. F 332. 15a.8 ras-na. D 28.1 sna-tshogs-dang. C 4.3. E 15a. F 15a.4 do. 2 A 20b.4.3 permit both readings. C 4. E 15b. E 15b.2 rab-snyam-la: F 334. E 15a.3 do. B 238.. E 15a. F 22 340... 3 D 27.3 B 238.1 nam-bza'.7 do.5 bla-bre. D 28. 28.7 do.1 U 5 6 ldan-pa-la.1 tshig-su.1 (sic) bzhi-pa'i ched-du bya.1 lam-bzhi'i mchod-par rab-tu hyin.1 btung.3 (&I s. 15 D 28. . 13 14 B 238.1 do. E 15a.6 16 D -yis. E 15a.4 do.8 do.3.1 B 237.3 & G 241.3.5 -las. C 4. D 29. 23 C 4. C 4.3 B bcos-bu. E 15a.8 bro-ba'i btul-pas. 19 A 21b.3. G 271.3 'jo-ma.2 gru-bzhi-yis.3 yi-ge-la.7 ro-mchog.3/4 btul-nga bri-bas.3 gru-bzhi-ba'1. E 15a.

1 mdzub-gang..7 'Jug-par bye.7 37 D rig-pa 'Jug.. 30 31 B 239. E 15b..7 bstan-pa-yis.24 E 15b. 239.7 C bzhin-du bya.5 mnyam-sbyor-ba'i..4.6 gang-na'ang ma-gnas mi-dmigs-pa: E 15b.6 do. E 15b.6 suggests phang. D 29.6 rab-rtog-nas.4 gang-na'ang mi-gnas mi-dmigs-pa. C 4.4 chen-pos.3 do.6 dbang-dang.6 ma-gnas mi-dmigs-pa.3 cig-char-du: E 15b. 35 36 A 22a.4 do. 39 B 239. A B 33 34 22a. 44 A 22b. permits both readings of bye and yang. C 4. G-272. dbang-du-ni.4 rab-benyams-la.2 -'brur 'jug-tshul-du.2 spyar.5.2 'bul.3 sgom. 32 C 4.5 do.2 25 26 27 28 (g1a) rims-gyis. D 29. 280 . G 272. D 29.2 'dzub-gang tshad-du yang.6 (J_C) mi-gYor.5. 29 B 239.4.3 do. E 16a.6 do.2 rab-snol-nas. D 30. 38 D 29. E 15b..4 agom.8 mi-dmigs- pa.2 rab-snyoms-la. F 342.4. C 4.4.5.6 omits this line.2 do.1. E 16s. D 29.4.6 do. 29. 40 F 346.5 tshad-du yang.5 dbangs-su-ni. E 15b. E 15b. C 4. F 42 E 16a.3 do. G C 4.-dbang. 43 A 22b. D 29. E 15b. 46 4.3 do.3 271.6 do. B 239.5 do. E 15b. 45 B 239. C 4. 'dzug-gang. 41 F 346.5 ma-lus mnyes.6 do.

C 4. 63 60 240. 65 66 67 C 5. A 23b. A 23b.5 inga-rnams dgongs. B 240.6 do. 53 B 240. E 16a.7 dgyes.3 smad.5.1. smad-kyi chos.. omits this line.1 drangs-ngo. E 16b. C 5. 3 (B. D 31. 69 B 240. B 240.ia) gaol .4 mtshon-phye-dang.1.2 btsan-pa'i.1 de-nyid yin.4 do.2 do.6 do. D 31.2 dpag-tshad-team.4 sbyangs-na.1. C 5. E 16a. B 240. D 30.5 sngon-'byung.7 btsan-po. D 31. 49 50 51 52 D 30.3 E 16a.6 gzhan-nas. C 4.5 do. D 30. 54 55 56 A 23a.4 -gyis.6 'byung.4 F 360.6 phyag-rgya.3 team-du bya. F B 354.7 70 F 359.6 do.. F 354. 68 A 24a. D 31. C 4.47 48 D 30.8 do.2 la-sogs-la phyag-rgyar. 240. gzi-byin mnga'-ba'l. E 16b.6 dge.3 (Hic) B snyen-pa'i.4 E 16b.1 'byung. D 31.2 bri.5.7 phyag-rgyar bcas. 1.2 do. . F 353. C 5. D 31.5. E sna-tshogs--sgom.6 ma-lus sgom. D 30.5 gdan-nam..6 71 B byin-briabs. 58 B 240.4 dkyil-'khor-nas. D 30. E 16a.8 CO.5 mngon-'byung..6 do.5 brten-pa'i. do.2 dgyi.3 do.4 do. E 16b. 59 60 61 62 B 240.1 la-sogs-pa phyag-rgyar bcas.5. C 4. D 31.3 tsham-du bya.6 rmad-po-che. 57 240. E 16b. E 16a.6 do.

E 16b.. 83 B 241.4 rcog-rtags: D 32. 78 79 80 81 D 32. however F 364. D 32.1.1 do.. E 16b. 241.2.5 'dod-pa'i. G 279. 282 .1 do.2 bsam-kun.1 rab-brtson-pas: C 5. E 17a. 88 241. 82 A 24b.2 do.6 a 276.. D 32.1: A 24a..5 do.1 D 77 B omits de-.72 B 241.: E 17a. D 32. D 32.6 readings. F 366. E 17a. G 5. 75 76 D 32.6 do. F 364.4 do.4 bskal-pa.1 suggest -las don-'byung-ba'ang.3 -'byung-ba. D 31.4 -yin. G 275. F 364.7 thig-le nyid-la gnas.3 do... -na and -pas.3 mthong-beam kun. C 5.1 B do. 73 74 494 explains E E 16b.6 & G 275.1 gsung-la don-byung-Ga'ang. D 32. 89 B 241. C 5. B 241. C 5.2 rol-mo-dang.2. F mnyam-par 'jug-la the alternative rab-brtson-pas.5 rtog-btags. A 24b. E 17a.1.. 32.1 do.6 suggest brnyes. E 17a. E 17a. D 32.5 do.4 bsam-pa-dang.3 rtogs-brtags.2 rdzogs-pas.1.1 rdzogs-pa: E 17a. 16b 7 grub-pa-ni.2 do. B 241. D 32...4 do.4 --ni.6 gsang-ba.6 do. 84 A 24b.1.2 beam-yas-pa.. C 5.1 do..6 dbang-sgyur. F 369.2 do.6 mnyes. E 17a.4 do..4 rab-bzhugs-na.1 rgyit-dang.7 do.3 -la.6 do.7 do.5 suggests rtog-brtags. 85 86 87 E 17a. B 241.

G 287. E 17a. C 5.4 do.1 (BBC) C G 281.6 -'phro B thim.6 do.1 permits both readings. 2 'bru-soZ8. . C 5. C 5.2 thig-le.1 padmor batims-thing.7 do. D 33.1. A 25a.7 rtsa-nas. A 25a.L kun-la'ang.6 do.Chapter Ten 1 A 25a.2 epros. 283 . D 33.2.2 do.7 do. 7 B 242.. G 286.7 do.4 'phro-thim.1 chen-po. 10 11 B 242.2. 14 B 242. D 33.5 smra-pa bya-ba yin.5 do. G 290. C 5. C 5.1 do.2 do.1 do. E a B 241. 3 5. E 17x.. B 242.2.4 do.2 bya-ba (81s) med.1 (Bls) nyan-ched. C 5.3 E 17b..5 do.3 HUM. D 33.3 btags-pa-las. 242. 'gyur. 22 23 E 17b. E 17b. E 17a.. 6 do.6 permits both readings.1 gsang-mchog-las. D 33. B 242.7 do. 20 21 F 373.2 -spro-bstim.3 mnyam-par C 5. 5 B 241.6 do.. C 5. 17a.4 rdo-rje. D 33.2. 9 G 286.2. D ngo-bo.2.1 do. 12 13 bya-bar min. D 33.1 permits both 8 33..2 TRAM-gyi.5 do.1 D 6 33.2. 15 16 17 B 242.3 thig-le. 'khyil. E )7b.1 thig-le'i readings.La) zung.. B 242.5 (.2.2.2 'khor-lo. B 242.C) HRIH-yig.3 (B.7 padmor bskyil. E 17b. G 287. 18 19 B 242. E 17b.6 kun-byos ship.6 do.

F 385. A 26a.1 ( j ) phyin-cad.7 do..1 'thun-par 26 27 gsang-sgraga.6 sgom. F 385..6 mngon-sum-pa. C 5.5 (BiC) tahogs-kYl dkyil-'khor. C 5.5 rig. E D 34. D 35.4 -yi dbang-bskur-ni. F 377.1 (B1C) 17b. B 243.3 -dang. B 243.4 do.4 do.3. 8 A 26b.ai ) cod-phan.2 -ni..4 agom.2 yang-ni mi-dbyed-bar.3 (.1 inga-Yi. D 34. do.8 do. E 18a. C 5. E 17b.3.3 ma-byas-na.4 do.4 sprin-phung-gis. gsang-bsgrags. E 18a.8 do.2. E 18a. 31 32 33 34 D 34.6 chen-po. 18a.7 do. B 5 6 243.3. G 285. D 9 35.. C 5..1 bde-skyid. to B do. gsang-ba'i thig-le.1 bskyod-bred.: G 304.6 do. D 25 242. E 18a.5 suggests F permits both reauings.5 mthun-pa'i 34. Chapter Eleven 1. C 7. B 7 243.3. 28 29 30 D 34. E 18a. 4 (zjC) rtog-pa. C 5.3. 2 3 4 E 18a. 28a .5 rnam-min.8 do. 243.1 suggests gsang-bsgrag.1 34.5 nye-bsnyen-po: C 5. D 35.5 permits both readings.5 rnam-min.3. F 384.1 omits SVA All.2 do.1 do.24 B B 242.8 do. G 289.

both readings. D chen-pos.. 20 21 22 A 27x. C 5. F 410. C 5.4 khro-bo. C 5.7 do. 244.7 do.1 do.4.. A 27b.2 do.7 bsgrub-pa- dang-ni scrub-chen-pos. G 334. 12 F 13 la B B 243. E 18b.2 inga-pa'i: E l8b. C 5.2 -yis. E 18b.1/2 permits version in text.3 rgyal-ba bsgom.7 do.. B 243.8 bsgrub-pa-dang-ni: 395.4 do.3.4.3 omits tshogs. 30 A 27b.11 C 5.2 sbyor-ba- las.5 mchog-phran-dang.2 bzhag.2 dkyil-du.. 28 A 27b.6 do.5/6 do.3 khro-bo.5 suggests dkyil-'khor.5 sgyu-mar.1 inga-zhing sbyor-ba-yi.. E 18b. B 244.5 sots. E 18b.7 rgyal-ba sgcm.5 permits both readings. E 19a.4 permits both readings.1 do. 16 17 18 19 A 27a. 243.3 do. F 8 400.. E 18a. D 35. B 343. D 36. 24 D 36.4. D 36. F 412. D 35.4. F 409.3 glum-pa'i lha-rnams sgom.1/2 suggests 15 F 396.1 do.4 do.7 ye-shes Skye-med. F 18b.4. D 36.4. 25 26 27 D 36.4 do. D 36.4..4 phyag-benven bka'-nyan.5 do. D 35.2 permits both readings.4. D 23 36.6 bsgrub-pa'1 nyl-zla'i dkyil-'khor-de.3 do. E 18b..5 do.. 285 . B 29 244.1 too-pa med. D 35. C 5.4 bsgrub-pa'i nyi-z1a'i snying-po-de. C 5. F 411. C 5.4 chen-dang.6 do.2 thing-'gyur mchog-phran- dang.4.3 ye-nas skye- nas. C 5..2 de-bzhin-gshegs-dang.7 rdul-bya.4 mi-gYor.6 tshogs-kyi. C 5. G 313. F 412.

286 .. 38 39 40 41 A 28a.3 sgrub-pa'i. D 37. D 37. C 5. D 37. B 245. C 5.7 rdo--rje rigs-au. E permits both readings.2 dang-po dam-mnos: B 245.5 tshogs-med.6 gtim-Par D 37.4/5 do. E 19b. E 19a.5 ci-bgYis.5 do.31 A 27b.5 do sgyid-snyom. B 244.6 do. C 5. E 19a.3 do. D 37..7 do.. B 244.. D 37.1 do..2 C 5. D 37. E 55 19b.5 do..1 med-pa'i gtim-par bye: E 19a.6 do. D 37.. E 19a.6 do. 53 54 A 28b. E 19a.6 spyod-pa.5 rdo-rie rigs-su.4...3 thob.2 do. C 5.3 do.4 D 36. E 19b. bya. D 37.1 do.6 gsal-ba'1.5 thogs-mecl-Pa.2 do.7 do.2 so-so. 52 B 245.6 do.3 do. bar-du atom. E 19a.3 reverses word order nyid.nyid-la: C 5.2 do. F 412. 32 33 34 'grub(?).5 'bar-ba rab-tu atom.5 omits de-bzhin gahegs-pa-nYid..3 sgrub-byas-na. E 19a..1 tshul-gyi. 244.4 zhea rdo-rye.5.5.2 bsgrubs-bras-na: F 417.s-su: C 5.7 (zla) grub. D 36. E 19a. P 415.5.3 35 36 37 D 36.5. after P 416. 19A.4 omits rdzogs-par bred.1 do. A 28b.1: in other versions this line is inserted chaps-Pa med-pa'i tshul-gyis-ni. B 245. B B 244. B 244.4 do.7 do.1 42 sgom.3 dang-po. reading mthar-thug A 27b. F 417.2 agom.2 sgom. D 36. 43 44 45 46 47 B 245..6 tshul-du.. F 414.5.4 byed. F 417.2 do.5.1 -kyi. 48 49 50 51 D 37.

6 do. F 421..1. 245. 287 . C B 422. C 5.1 A permits both readings. D 38. 15 F 436. D 38. E 208. G 306. G 306.7 do. 14 D B 38.5.5...4 (sic) gang-gnas-kyang. C 6.1 mchog-gyur-pa.5 gzhan-na (&.4 sgom.Chapter Twelve 1 D 37.6 dra-bas.2 mod-kyi. C 5.2 20 ma-tshol-cig.c) snyed. F 420.1 dag-pa'i.2 reads ma-tshang na'ang.3 B 246.1.3 phyag-rgYas-ni. also B 13 246.4 omits dang.1. kun-tu F 437.1 do.3 reads thams-cad kyang.1 dangs-pa'i: dvangs-pa'1. E 19b. C 6.3 do..5 do.3 ma-tshang-yang..8 do- 3 C 5. 21 B 246.4 do.5.1 do.1 permits both readings.5 chen-po. 11 12 D 38. C 6. 9 10 D 38.7 brgyan-dang. B 246..2 do.. A 5 29a. F 437.6 interprets as kun-tu bzang-po.1.2 do.2 gnas-gyur.1.1 kun-dang.1/2 gzhan-du. 4 B 245. E 20a.1. C 6. F 435. A 29b.5 phyag-rgya'i 'du-'phro-yis.C) mtsho-la-cig.7 gzugs.4 do. C 6.4 do. E 19b.4 bsgoms-par. F A 29a. E 20a.2 phyag-rgyas-ni..2 do.4 permits 16 both readings. F 432.5 (J31. F 438.4 dra-ba. E 20a.8 bstan-pa'i.8 do.2 mtha'-yas.3 do. 7 8 6.. 6 D 37.1. shes-rab mchog-gis. 2 28b.. 246. 17 D 38. E 19b. B 245. 18 19 D 38.4 ma-tshang-na.

D 38.1 lta-zhing. C 6. C 6.2.3 do.1 -yis.2..2 8 dkyil-'khor-la-de.4 sku-gsung-thugs. F 450. D 38.. do..22 D 38.2 rol-mo. 5 D 39.2.3 (aC) hyin-pa.. C 6. E 20a.6 (aj. D C 6.6 bsdus-nas. C 6. 13 B 247-1 sbyor-be.4 ming-tshogs-la. E 20a.1 bltgs-shing.3 do. C 6.3 sgyu-mar.2. Chapter Thirteen C 6.4 sgom.7 do.3 do.2 rang-snang-ba'i: 16 B 247.2.4 do.4 dbul. 12 A 30b.7 gshegs-pa'l. S 246.6 mchod-par 'bul.2. F 439.7 do. B 247. 17 F 463.6 de-bzhin-nyid.3 (j ) rang-mtshon-te. 6 7 D 39.1 do. A B 10 11 30a.1. E 20a.3 -gyi.6 snving-po'i. G 332.. 3 A B 29b.4 suggests beam-yas. D 39.4 do. B 1 2 246.. . D 39.2. F 463.3 do. F 439.4 sgyu-mar rang-snang-ba'i. G 333. C 6.) nges-pa-med. D 39. E 20b.1 do.3 & G 333.1. E 20b.3/4 permits both readings. F 463.7 inserts thams-cad-kyi. 247.2.4 B 247.2 sgras-btags. 9 D 39. 39.4 do. C 6.1 do.6 do.6 sera-rtags minx-tshoes-las.3 permit both readings.1 do. 14 15 C 6..

. F 475.4 289 . 40.:n-dam.3.2.5 & G 356.5 mos-'gyur-be. 31a. C 6. G. D 40.. E 20b. E 20b.1 thams-cad-kyi. C 6. 28 29 30 31 C 6. 247. E 21a.6 mi-hsnyes-so.1 both ngam (illustrious) and dam (genuine).7 hsgoms-la rab-sbangs-pa'i.4 bsgom-la.5 mnyam-sbyor-bas.6 do.5 kun-ngam.6 rab-gnas-pa'i. G. D C 6.6 do.6 do.1 do. G 340.3 do.2. dam.4 omits this E 21a. line: D 40.1 do.3.. mchog: 22 23 B 247. E 35 21a.2 do.7 (B1C) zang.2. 30b.5 bzung.7 do.3 mthong-ha'i.5 thos-beams-egom-1a.5 bsgom-la.5 do. B A A B D A 247.1 stong-la sbyin. 3? 33 247.6 (j ) rig-ldan-rnams-kyis zang. E 21a.3 beams-bs¢oms-pa'i: 24 B 247.5 do.1 gzung. 356. n 40.. D C 6. C 6.2.4 bsnyen-nas. B E 248.2.3 rang-'byung F 477.8 skel-pa. -pa'i.4 do.5 do. G 357.2. D A 20 21 40.1 do.. G 356.5 do.2 'du]-ba mgon. 34 G 358.1 dbang-bsgyur.4 27 suggests mos-gyur-pa..1 do.4 C 6.3 -par. kun-dom: A 31a.: D 39. C 6. 31b. F 478.7 rang-'byung ki.6 'byung-dang. F 481. D 41.18 B 247. D 40. G 358.5 do. D 40.2 kunpermit 40.7 'gyur-ba.2 permits both readings. 25 26 E B 21s. B 247.2 due-bzhi mngon-rdzogs-pa'i. 40. 31a. 21a.7 19 B 247. E 21e. 36 37 (sic) batan.3 do. E 21a. 357. C 6.5 do..2 sgom-la.3.7 do.

4 spro.5 omits nyid.1 do.1 omits ched-du. D 41.1 (Aic) rnams-kyang. 6 7 A 32b. G 362. F 488.5 do.5 sprul-pa'i. A 32b.3 omits -du.38 39 40 D 41.3 do. 42 43 D 41.5 inserts snying-po'i.3 do.2 permits both readings.2 inserts bstod-pe'1.6 yid-la. E 4 42.2 yun-rings.3 omits la. A 8 32h. 3 4 A 32a. F 482.6 nams-kyang.3 do.6 permits readings. C 6. 41.1 mdzad-do. zhen-pa-dang. G 365. B 249.. 32a. A 31b.3 do.. F 483. G 359.4. E 21b. F 504.2 bsreg-dang. G 359.4 inserts -kris.5 bsregs- . E 21a. G 364. .2 (&1C) gleng-ngo.4 (sic) sbregs-la. shing.6 do.1 do. D D 2 41.1 do..5 do. I F 483.3 22a. G 359. A A 5 32e.3 D 2 3 rtogs-pa-dang. A 31b._ A 3b.3 do.5 mtha'-yas-pas. 1 A 32b. A 31b. B 249. G 359. F 483.2 do.3 sbyin.

. . G 368..8 do. E 22a.4 do.2 do.1 mi-mtshang-bar 'gyur- 22a.5 skams-pa-dang.4. 33a.5 gyur-pa. 19 33a.5.3 rab-tu 22a.6 mgo-bo. 9 E 22a. D 42. 367.6 brgyud-du. E 22a. F 510.8 (sic) A rtsun-mo.iC.4 hrgyad-po de-dag-tu. B 249.. 7 D 42. G 6 D 42.6 rgyud-cing.7 yod-med-par zhing.4. cf.4 ( C) drang-ba. D 43..6 mi-mtsham-par.5 D 42.1] E 22a.4. 20 21 B 249.3 inserts -ni. 17 B 249. C 6.4.6 yongs-ye med-par 'gyur-zhing.4 do. E 22a. 10 B 11 249.3 adds rab-tu. E 22a..6 srabs-pa-dang.4 do.4 (B... gyur-cing: yong-ye med-par yang-'gyurF 509.1 C 6. ba. G 369.4.6 do.5 mod-las. E C 6. E 22a. F 510. C 6.6 omits -bo. 23 B 249. A 33a. 16 B 249.5 yod-med-par yang-gyur-cing. D 43.) omits -bon. E 22a.1 do.4. 1) 43.4.6 do. G 369. C 6.1 do. C 6.. 15 33a.4 yongs. 22 A 33b.4 brgyad-du.2 suggest yang med-par.5 do.6 do. 13 14 E A A 22a.7 do.2 do.4. C 6.. 369. E B 249.7 do.5 (-C) rtogs-pa-dang.6 'srabs-pa-dang. 1 do.5 & G E 22x. C 6.. D 43. B 249.4 nyams-su myang-ngo.8 gyur. 18 C 6. also dag-gi. D 42.6 omits chen-po.3 do.1 omits -bo.3 do. G 370. B 12 249.6 do.6 do. (perhaps for nyid.. dang for de-lta-bus.5 do.5 reads 8 nyen-pa de-lta-bu'i.

29

A

33b.2 sna-tshogs-pa thugs-pa;
33b.2/3 sgre

D 43.3 do.;

E 22b.1 do.;

G

370.2 do.
25

A

sna-tshogs;
C

G

370.3 do.; B 249.7
dang;

nga-ro sgre-

skad

sna-tshogs-pa;

6.5.2 do.4
511.1

43.4 nga-ro sna-

tshogs-pa; E
26

22b.2 do; F

nga-ro sna-tshogs.
order;

D 43.4
33b.3

reads ro for nga-ro and changes

E 22b.2 do.; A

kha-rlang-gis; F

511.2 do.

27

B

249.7 adds -dang; C 6.5.2 do.

28
29

D 43.5 omits -bcu.
E

22b.3 'khrugs-par; F

511.3 do.

30
31

D 43.5 -bzhi.
C 6.5.3 (Bata) me-nyams-par.
E

32 B 250.1 raga; C 6.5.3 do.;
33
34

22b.4 lha-ris.

E

22h.4 'bras-bu che.

D 43.6
B

rtes-pa'i; E

22b.4 do.

35

250.2 gyur-to; C 6.5.4 do.; D 43.7 do.; G 371.4 do.
250.2 chen-po'i rdo-rje bkod-pa; C 6.5.4 do.

36

B
A

37

34e.1 dra-bas; G

372.1

dra-ba-las.

38
39

B 250.3 (11.a) drug-ni.
B 250.3 inserts

chen-po after gzi-brzjid; C 6.5.5 chen-po gzi-

braid chen-po;
372.2 do.
10
41 42

D 44.1 gzi-mdangs; A 34a.2 ston-pa'i phyir; G

B 250.3 sku-dang gsung-dang thugs; r 6.5.5 do.
D 44.1

chen-po; E 22b.6 do.; G

372.3 do.

8 250.4

sprin 'byung-ba chen-po rnam-par

spros-pa'i;

C 6.5.6

44
A5

B 250.4 dbang-phyug-ma.
B

250.4 omits zhes;

C 6.5.6 do.;

D 44.2

dgos-pa']

gzi-

mdangs-kyis; E 22b.7 do.
A6

B250-5 omits rin-cen; r 6.5.7 do.; F 513.4 rin-po-che.
B

17

250.5 -mdzad-nas-ni...dgyes-pa'i 'khril-bas

thim-nas;

C

6.5.7 do.
48
49

B 250.5 adds HQM HUM PHAT.
B 250.6 khyab-par gYur-to; khro-bo'i
¢yur-to;
gyis.

C 6.5.8
E 23a.2

khyab-par stong-gsum-

khro-bo

dky11--'khor-gyis...

50

A 34b.2 gyur-nas; G 373.5 do.

51

B 250.7 kun-tu rab-tu...; F 514 do. D 44.6 tor-tor; F 514.5/6 'thor-'thor. B 251.1 omits thams-cad; C 7.1.2 do.
C 7.1.2 omits thams-cad.

52

53
54

55

B 251.1 omits kun-tu brgyal:

D 44.7 do.;

E 23a.5 do.: C

7.1.2 omits brgyal rab-tu orgyal kuri-tu.
56

D 44.7 rngam-pa'1;
both readings.

E 23a.5 do.; G 375.1 do.; F 516.4 permits

57
58

B 251.2 byed-pa.

59

D 45.1 omits-dang; E 23a.6 do.; F 516.5 do.; G 375.2 do. D 45.1 (sic) 'dzin-pa-ste.
E 23x.7 chen-po.
B 251.3 'khor-lo'i kiong; D 251.3 do.; E 23a.7 do.; C 7.1.4
'khor-lo;.

60
61

62

B

251.3

omits chen-po;

C 7.1.4

do.,

also

dur-khrod-kyis

bdag-po.

63

B

?51.3 brkyang-bakum-su;

F 517.2 brkyangs-bakum-au;

D 45.2

brkyang-bskam-du; E 23a.7 do.; G 375.6 do.
64

B

253.3 inserts -gi tshogs

thams-cad;

C 7.1.4

do.:

D

45.3

inserts
65
66

-gi

tshogs; E 23a5/b.1 do.; F 517.3 CO.

D 45.3 omits ni; E 23b.1 do.

B 251.4 inserts rdo-rjer; C 7.1.5 inserts chen-po rdo-rjer; D
35a.U

do.;

E

23b.1 do.; F 517.4

interprets as Vajraheruka; G

376.2 however reads Buddhaheruka; A 35a.4 chen-por gyur-te.
65
67

D 45.3 omits ni;

E 23b.1 do.

g 23b.1/2 (twice)

bzhug-so.

68
69 70 71

B 251.4 (.j) kun-du.
D 45.5 omits -drug.
A

35b.2 -gis;

B 251.5/6; C 7.1.7 do.
brkyang-bakuma-su;
C 7.1.5 do.;
D D

B

251.5/6 omits

45.6

do.; E 23b.3 do.; G 376.5 inserts only gYas-brkyang.
72

B 251.6 omits tshogs;

C 7.1.7 do.;

D 45.6 omits

-rnams;

E

23b.3 do.
73
74

B so-sor sku-1a; C 7.1.7 do.
B 251.5 he-ru-ka-las; C 7.1.7/8 do.
A 35b.3 comments on this interpolation. which is lacking in F
518.4/5

75

and G 376.5 apart from "rigs-inga'i

he-ru-ka";

and

completely

lacking

in D 45.6 and E 23b.3.

B 251.6 also reads

ngo-mtshar bstan-te; C 7.1.8 do.
76
77

A 35b.6 (n1.c) gtums-pa'i.
D

45.7 omits

gdug-pa'i

rdzu-'phrul

chen-po; E 23b.4 do.

78

B

251.7 reads sna-tshogs-pa; C 7.2.1 do.

79

F

519.1 nga-ro.

294

80

B

251.7 glang-PO'i:
23b.4 do.

C 7.2.1 do.;

D 45.7

brlong-po'i;

E

81

n 45.7

tshig-gis smras-pa; snying-rye; E

E

23b.4 do.; G 377.2 permits both

readings.
82

D 45.7

23b.5 snying.

83

B 251.7 (B1s) 'dzer-cing;
do.

C 7.2.1 do.; D 45.7 do.;

E

23b.5

84
85

E 23b.5
B

(j)

'khros-nas.
before
thugs-rjees

252.1

omits rngam-pa'i sxad-kyis

Ard

inserts it after khros-nas; C 7.2.2 do.; G 377.4/5 do.
86

B

252.1 tshogs

chen-po;

C 7.2.3 tshogs then-po'i.

87 D 46.2 (B.LC) nang-gro].
88

B 252.2 omits sha-kun zos;
23h.7 do.

C 7.2.3 do.;

D 46.3 sha-zos; E

89 90
91

A 36a.5 'thugg-nas; G 378.2 omits -nas.
E 23b.7 (AJ a)
r

chos-so.
chud-

7.2.4 dang-bees-par yungs-'bru gcig-team-gyi nang-d»
D 46.1 do.;

par; D 46.3 dang-bcaR-par nyungs-'bru;
92

E 24a.1 nyungs-'bru.

A 36b.1 'byung-po;

C 7.2.LL do.:

E 24a.2 do.; G

378.6 do.
93 94

D 46.4 omits mi'i; E 24a.2 do.; P 521.6 ($1,z) grin-mo chen-po.

B 252.4 gzhon-nu-ma-dang; C 7.2.5 do.
D

95 96

46.5 (gig) be-chon-mo-dang.

B 252.4 myos-pa-dang: C 7.2.6 do.; D 46.6 myoo-dang.

97
98

D 46.6 (A lc) gcig-pu.
B 252.5

gsod-byed-ma-dang.

99

B 252.5 rgan-byed-ma-dang; C 7.2.7 do.

100 B 252.5

(11C) sna-chad-mo-dang.

101 C 7.2.7
102

omits -ser.

B

252.5 bum-sna ango nag-mo-dang; C 7.2.7 do.; D 46.7 bum-

sna; E 24a.4 do.
103

B 252.6 yang-gYog-dang;

G 380.1 do.:

C

7.2.7/8 do..

also

omits kyang; D 47.1 rdul-anyed-dang bsdus-so: E 24a.5 do.
104

D

U7.1 chen-po; E 24a.5 do.; G 380.3 do.

106
107

R 71i7.6
B

dgves-par; C 7.2.8 do.
omits -gYi;
C

252.7

7.2.8/3.1

(81C)

dkyil-gyi

'khor

spr-in.
108
109 110
111

1) 47.2 (&S) 'byang-pa.
A 37a.2 zhugs-te; G 380.4 do.

B 252.7 'di-dag; C 7.3.1 do.; A 37a.3 byang-ngo.
E 211a.7 'byung-po'i; F 525.6 do.

112

D 47.4 omits dpal and chen-po,
24b.1 omits chen-po.

also

reads rdo-rie sku-la; E

113
114

D 47.4 (sic) rga-ba-mo-dsng; E 24b.1 do. B 253.2 gsod-byed-ma-dang; C 7.3.3 do.
E 24b.1 omits chen.

115

A 37a.6 & G 381.3 accord with text;
la;
117

B 253.2 rdo-rje'i skuE 24b.2 do.; F

C 7.3.3 do.;

D 47-5 then-po'l sku-la;

526.3 'khor-lo'i sku-la.
A 37b.1 'khrugs-mo; B 253.3 do.; C 7.3.4 do.
B 253.3 gzhon-nu-ma-rnams.
D 47.6 omits be-con-mo-dang; E 24b.3 do.
C 7.3.5 omits padma;
118
119

120

D 47.7 padma chen-poll sku-1a; E 24b.3

121 122

D B
B

47.7 khrag-'thung-gis

myos-mo-dang;

E

21b.3/'u do.

253.4 rgan-byed-ma-dang; C 7.3.6 do.
253.4 sna-chad-mo-dang;

123

D 48.1 do. E 24b.6 do.

C 7.3.6 de-dag-gi.
D 48.2 (B.iC) btsum-Par gyur-to;

B 253.5 HA HA-zhes.
127
128

B 253.5 sprin-clap-1as.
C 7.3.7 (Lt.) kun-mo'i tshogs-dang;

E 24b.6

omits

this

phrase.
129
130
131

C 7.3.8 thal-Dyed-ma;
D 48.3

D 48.3 do.; E 24b.6 do.

tshogs-dang rang-gi

lag-cha-dang; E 24b.7 do.
B

C 7.3.8 ngo-mtshar-du...;
'thon-bar gyur-to.

253.6 ngo-mtsher-du

bcas-nas

132

C 7.4.1 chen-po'i;

P 48.4 do.;

E 24h.7 do.; F 528.

do.; G

382.5 do.
133

B 253.7 (S.iC)

rtsibs -mtshan; C 7.4.1 do.

(gis) rang-aa lag-cha; D 48.5 'thon-to; E 25a.1 lag-cha-dang
chas-nas 'thon-to.
135

B 253.7 HE HE-zhes; C 7.4.1 do.

136
137

A 38a.5 kh6-gdong; G 383.3 do.
B 254.1 omits -dang bcas-pa; C 7.4.3 do.;
pa-rnams;

D 48.6 omits bcas-

E 25a.3 do.

138 139 140
141

A 38a.2 boas-nas; G 383.3 do.
B

254.2 char-gyi phyogs.
shin-tu;

D 48.7 omits

F. 25a.4 do.

B 254.2 zhing-khams;

C 7.4.4

do..

also ma-lus-par khyab--

Par byas-nas: D 49.1 do.; F 529.3 permits both readings.
297

142

D 49.2 tshoss-dons;

E 25a.5 do.

On rdo-rJe

dons-oo / don-

yod. see below.
143
144

P. 1434.

note 79.

B 254.3 chas-nas; D 49.2 do.; E 25a.5 do.

145 146
117

B 254.3 'bar-ba chen-po'i.; F 529.5/6 do.; O 384.2 do. D 49.2 -kyi. D 89.2/3 dses-pa chen-po sprin-las; E 25a.5/6 do. D 49.3 'khros-nas; E 25..6 do.
C 7.4.6 bowel o.

148

149 150
151 152

D 49.3 inserts sku. B 254.5 inserts chen-po; C 7.4.6 do.
B 254.5 omits -dag: C
A

7.4.7 do.;

E 25a.6 do.

39a.2 de-das-sis benams-nas; C

7.4.7

benams-nas

Bten-

nas; 0 385.4 banams-nas; D 49.5 de-das rnam-nae; E 25b.1 de-

das rnams-nas brton-te; F 530.6 snam-khuns-nas 'thon-to.
153
B

254.6 rgya-mtsho chen-por;

C 7.4.8

do.;

E

25b.1/2

mi-

tt sana-ma'i.
154

D 49.5/6 (ai.C)
nas.

tshud-pa-las;

E 25b.1/2 do.; 0 385.5 banams-

155

8 254.6 inserts khro-bo before u-tsu-sma; C 7.4.8 do.
B 254.6 dam-khu; C 7.4.8 do.

156
157

B 254.6 'tfsunss-pas;
25b.1/2 do.

C 7.4.8 do.;
do.;

D 49.5/6 'thunss-nas;

E

158

8 254.6 slar-rnyed-ne; C 7.4.8
E 25b.1/2 do.

D 49.5/6 slar-snyed-nas;

159

C 7.4.8 -Wis.
D 49.6 omits thams-cad; 9
25b.2 do.

160
161

D 49.6 omits shabs brWad-brpa; E 25b.2 do.

298

162

A 39a.4
D 49.7
B

dkyil-'khor-na; 0 386.2 do.; E 25b.2 bzhugs-pa.
dus-na; E
25b.2/3 do.

163

164

254.7

reads srid-pa
F

gsum-gyi

bdag-po instead

of kun-tu;

C

7.5.1 do.:

531.5 8 G 386.3 permit

gsum-gyi but not

bdag-

po.
165

A 39a.5 adds chen-po; G 386.3 do.

166
167

D 50.1 brtul-lo; E 25b.3 do.
0 50.1

'dar-zhing zhum-par

byed-pa'i n=a-ros;

E 25b.4 zhum-

par

breng-ba'i nga-ros;
B

B 255.1 rab-tu bred-cing zhum-pa'1

nga-ros; C 7.5.2
168

dred-cing zhum-pa'i nga-roe.
255.2

F 532.3 gshaga-shing;
0 387.6
D 50.2

(a1z) 'gas-shed.

169

stub-par gyur-cig;

B 255.2 'gyur-cing; C 7.5.3 do.;

btub-gyur-cig; E 25b.4 do.
C 7.5.3

170

A 39b.1 -myag; C 7.5.3 do.
B

171

255.2 mnas-bor-nas;

do.;

D 50.2

do.;

E

25b.4

gnas--bor-nas.
172
173
174

A 39b.2 (g) -kyi; C 7.5.4 do.
B 255.3
A

omits

yang; C 7.5.4 do.

39b.3 bu-mo srin-mo-reams; 4 388.2 do.

175
176

B 255.3 lha-rjes; C 7.5.4 do.; F 532.6 do.
A

39b.4 so-sor; 8 255.3 so-so'i;

C 7.5.5 do.

177 178

B 255.3
A

dam-pa 'di; C 7.5.5 do.; D 50.4 'di; E 25b.7 do.

39b.5 seas-kyi blangs-nas;
255.4

0 388.5 sems-kyi-blos blangs-

nas.
179

B

bya;

C 7.5.6 gzhag-te..bya;

D 50.5 bzhag-nas bskur-

bar bgyi;

E 25b.7 do.; F 533.2 bakur-bar bgyi.

299

18o

B 255.4 sgrub; C 7.5.6 do.; D 50.5 do.; E 26a.1 do.; G 388.6
do.

181

B 255.5 ma-bayis-na; C 7.5.6 ma-bzhis-na.
D 50.6 (sic) rnams-kyis.

182 183
18U

D 50.6 -gtub; E 26a.1 do.

C 7.5.7 rul-bar mchls; E 26e.1 dum-bung rul-bar mchi'o.
D

185 186

50.6 reads de'i for de-dag-gi; E 26a.2 do.
sring-mo-dang
ma-dang;

B 255.5

C 7.5.7 do.; D 50.7 do.;

E 26a.2 do.; G 389.3 do.
187 B

255.6

chen-po

bdag-cag-rnams;
C

D

51.1

ibid;

E

chen-

po'i

bdag-cag-rnams;

7.5.8

bdag-cag-rnams:

G

389.4

permits
188

-rnams and -la.

B 255.7

ming-gis

dbang-bskur-nas;

F

534.2 ming-gis; C 8.1.1

dbang-bskur-nas.
189

A U0a.6 inserts -gyi; G 390.1/2 do.

1

D 51.4 inserts
B

-dang;

E 26b.1 do.
de-dag-gis; F 538.1 de-

2

256.1 btsun-mo'i tshogs-dang-bcas-pa

dag-gis.
3

D 51.7 MAHASDRYARATNADHARA.
B

6

256.4 inserts

OM MAHASARASVATA

MAHAPADMA

after

PADMA.

P

539.2

interprets HRESITA as kun-tu rgod-pa
See also
below,

(all-violent.
notes 7-8.

or

all-ineighing] horse).
5

p.

1436.

B 256.4 inserts KARMA after

SARVAMOGHA;

C 8.1.6 do.

6

A 41a reads MUKHA each time for MUKHI; F 539 do.;
reads MUKHI.

Q 395.6 ff.

7

B 256.5 ARYATEJATERA°

8

B 256.3 AMUKHA. See below. P. 1434. note 79.
G 390.3 BHASMI VALAYAVATU;
at-long,

9

B 256.5

BHASMISAMALAVATO;

rdo-rie

20.4.5. BHASMISAMAYAVATO.
RULU;

10 A 41a.5 omits one
11

E 26b.5 omits OM.
B 256.6

A

41a.6 omits the mantra after RAM;

omits

RAM;

C

B.1.8 do.
12

E 26b. 6
B

( jg.) 'khro-la.
E 26b.6 do.
B

13
14

256.7 byin-brlabs;

A

41a.6 de-nyid-du-ni;

256.7 do.;

C

8.1.8

do.;

G

398.1

Permits both readings.
15

B 256.7 inserts mantra ending HOH before mantra aiding
C 8.2.1 do.;

PHAT;

D 52.4 do.; E 26b.7 do.; D also omits

KRODHA in

17 B
18
19

257.1 adds

BHYOH;

C 8.2.2 do.
C 8.2.2

D 52.5 omits -gi.
B 257.1 kun-tshig; tshig; E 26b.7 do.

do.;

P reads -rnams

for

rab-tu

20
2?

B

257.1 inserts rab-tu; C 8.2.2 do.; F 5112.2 do.

B 257.1 inserts rab-tu; r 8,2.2/3 do.; F 542.3 do.
D 52.6 omits -Cu., E 77e.1 do.

22 23 24

B 257.2 kun-tu rab-tu gang-bar gyur-to; C 8.2.3 do. C 8.2.3 tshogs chen-po; B 257.3 gsung-gi 'khor-lo.

Chapter Seventeen
1

C 8.2.4 bzhi-1a.
A 42x.1 bzhis-ni; G 400.3 do.

2

3
I

D 53.1 rgyan;

E 27a.3 do.

E 27a.3 bar-khyam; G 400.4 bar-khyams.

5

D 53.? (s-e) nyls-mas.
B

6

257.3/4 mans-pos;

C 8.2.5 do;

A 42a.2

'khrugs;

F 544.5 do.

7

B

257.4 sbar-ba-yis; C 8.2.5

do.; E 27a.4 gtum-po.
401.6
bzung;
F

8

C

8.2.6

las-sops

bzung;

G

545.1

explains

preference for zung.
9
A

42a.4 bagrad.
D 53.3
B

10

(al-r-) iron; E 27a.5 do.; F 542.6 ldan.

11

257.5 agra-eked; C 8.2.6 do.; F

546.5 permits both readings;

E 27a.5 reads sgoms for sgrogs.
12

B 257.5
rlon

nyi-zlas

braid;
E

C 8.2.7

nyi-zlar

bcas;

D 53.4 thod-

nyi-mas

briod;

27a.5 thod-rlon

nyi-mas brjid.

13

D

53.4 (pj .) mdung-chpn; F. 278.5 do.

14

A

42a.6 sn8-tshogs-te; G 404.4 do.
E 27a.6 do.; B ?57.6 sgo-bzhi phyag-rgya; c

15

D 53.5 sgo-bzhi;

8.2.8 do.
16 17

D 53.5
F

byi-mo tehogs-kyl gtso;

E

27e.7 do.

550.5 gong-bar gyur-to.

Chapter Eighteen

1

B

258.1 dam-pa 'di; C 8.3.2 do.; D 511.1 do.; E 27h.2 do.
G,

2

A 42b.4 rtogs-goms;

408.!1 do. ;

D 571. 3

begom; E 27b.2 begoms-

F 555.4 explains the difference between rtogs and rtog.
3

D

54.1 reads sems-can for 'jig-rten;

E 27b.3 do.; F 552.4 & G

408.1 permit both readings.
4

F 553.1 mnyam-sbyor-las.
D

5

54.2 bsgrub-rdzas; E 27b.3 do.

6

D 54.3 dus-bzhi.
D

7

54.3 3mad-po-che; E 27b.5 do.

8

A 43a.? yod-'ong me-yin-te; G 410.3
B

yod-'ongs
C 8.3.5

ma-yin-na.

9

258.3 chen-poi

rdzogs gyur-cing;

chen-por

rdzogs

iYur-cig;

F 554.6 -gyur-cing.

10 A 43a.3 gsal-la...;

G 410.5/6 permits both readings;

A 43a.3

coed-pas-na; D 54.4 med-pa-ni; E 27b.5 do.
11

B

258.4 mnyes-pa chen-pos; D 54.5 chen-po'i;

E

27b.6 do.

1

C

8.3.6 omits sngags-'chang-roams.
C 8.3.7 do.;
A

2 3

E 28&.1 theg-Pa.
B 258.5 reads 'dod-inga for 1as-reams;
kun-epYod-kyang.
43a.6

4

E 28a.1 do. B 258.5 (alt) mi-sog; D 54.7 mi-rteog:
E 28&.,2 -du.
A

5

6

43b.2 dbu-ma; G 414.1 permits

both

readings;

8

B 258.6 srog-bcod for srog-kyang; C 8.3.8 do.; G 414.2 do.; A 43b.2 bead-du med; G 414 2 do.; D 55.2 (Hlc) -mer for -med.
B 258.6 grog-kyang skyes-bu'i.

9

10 A 43b.3 gnyis-ka; D 55.1 do.; E 28x.3 byed-med-pas.
11
12

C 8. U. i the-dad-med.
D
D

13

55.2 bla-med; E 28a.3 do. 55.2 lta-bu-danc; E 28a.4 do.;
brdzun;

F

581.6

permits

both

readings.
14

B 253.7 brtags-pa

D 55.3 do.; E 28a.4 do.; F 582.1
D 55.3 do.;

15

F 582.2 brdzun-epyod-cing; D 55/.3 spyod-pas; E 28a.4 do.

C 8.4.2 brdzun-zhes
582.3 (&L) rtsam.
F 583.2 alone

brtags-team;

E 28a.4 do.; F

suggests ('dod)-chags(-lag) mchog.

Others read

tshangs-chog.
A B

43b.6 mi-spangs; B 259.1 mi-spong. 259.1 mi-geed; D 55.4 mi-bead; 0 417.6 do.; E 28a.5 mi-geed.

mi-bye. B 259.2 don-nyid; b 28a.6 (ai.) don-du phyir smra A 44&.1 srun$-ba'i.

A 44a.2 snod-chu;

D

55.5 do.;

G 422.1 do.
translation;

+

explanation
B 259.2 snod-

based on Than-pa Lots&wa's later
bcud;
25

F 585.3 snod-pas + explanation.

0 55.6 -te.

26 27
28

0 55.6 (ai) rtog-pas.
B 259.3 bsgrub-pa'i; E
B

28a.7 do.; F 585.6 do.

259.3 mi-spong; D 55.6 mi-'dor.

29 30
31

B 259.3 -yi s; C 8.4.5 do.
D 55.7 gnas-nas.
B
A

259.4 'dap-nas.
44a.5 'chal-ba-dag; G 423.4 do.

32
33

B
D

259.4 smra mi-byed; C 8.4.6 do.

311

56.1/2 nyams-'gyur

(twice); E 28h.2 do.

35 C 8.4.7 bsgrubs-pa thams-cad khog-par 'gyur;
Pa; E 28b.2 do.
36 A 44a.6 mi-'ongs.
37
38

D 56.1

bsgrubs-

B 259.5 'dud for 'du; C 8.4.7 do. D 56.2 'gyur; E 28b.2 do.
H 28b.5 -gia.

39
40

B 259.6 -yi;

C 8.5.1 do.;

D 56.4 do.;

E 28b.5 do.; F 593.1
D

favours instrumental (-pas-na).
41
B

259.7 scrub-bveA'AAm-nn;

C 8.5.1 do.;

ma-lus
Yin.
42

thams-cad 'grub;

E 28b.5 do.;

1 28b.5

rgyal-ba.

43
44

D

56.5 bskur;

E

28b.5 (s1G) bskor.
mchos-dans;

A 44b.5 dam-pa'i

D 56.5 dam-pa-Yi; E 28b.6 do.

45

A 44b.6 rlobs; C 8.5.2 do.
D

46
47

56.5 bzhugs. 56.5 bzang-po.

D

48
49

F 596.1 omits rnam-dag.
G 428.2

bskans-bas; D 56.6 bskans-thabs; E 28b.7 do.
8.5.3 do.

50
51

B 260.1 de-la-sops-te; C
F

596.3 'dud-par gyur-to.
Chapter Twenty

1

B 260.2 inserts bcom-ldan-'das before de-bzhin
8.5.4/5

gshegs-pa;

C

do.; F

596.3 omits

de-bzhin eshess-pa.

2

A 45x.4 chen-po; F 596.5/6 do.
D 57.1

3

khros-pa; E

29a.3 'khros-pa-yi.

4

D 57.2 bcas-pa-bya;

E 29a.4 do.; F

597.6 do.; G

430.1/3 permits

both readings.
5

A 45a.6 phur-bus edab; G 431.2/3 permits both readings.
A

6

45b.1

dkyil-'khor

mchog;

G 432.3 permits

both

readings.

7

8

bcings-'gyur; E 29a.5 do.; B 260.4 bskyod-na. A 45b.2 (jg) gas-ate. B 260.4 (aic) gal-te; C 8.5.7 do.
D 57.3

9

D 57.4 'bar-ba'i; E 29a.5 do.; B 260.5 gzi-chen for gzi
- braid.
A 45b.3 mine-dang;

bri;E29a.6do.

B 260.5 bcas-par byas;

C 8.5.8 do.; D 57.5

306

11 12

A 45h.3/4

phur-bus gdab; B 260.5

gtab;

C 8.5.8 do.

A 45b.4 mthun-par dbul: D 57.5 'bul.
B

13
14

260.6 vam-gyi.
600.2 bsdams-na.

F

15
i6 17

E 29a.7 'gug-'gyur; D
B

57.6 'bar for

'brang;

E 29a.7 do.

260.6 gzi-byin-la; C 9.1.1 do.; G 435.2 gzi-brjid .hen-po.

A 45h.6 omits this line; D 57.6 do.; E 29a.7 do.
A

18
19

46a.1 brtags.
600.6 dga'-spro'i..phur-pa: G 434.2 dga'-'phro.

F

20

B 260.7 gzi-byin

'bar-bar

'gyur; C 9.1.2 do.

21 B
22

261.1 bsdams-nas; C 9.1.3 do.; F 601.2 permits both
B 261.1 gzi-byin... 'phro.

readings.

23
24

A 46a.3 yid-kyi; F 601.5
B

dvangs-ba'i.

261.2 gtum-chen rneam-no; C 9.1.4 gtum-po rngam-po.

25
26

A 46x.4
B
A

phur-bus gdab; F 602.1 phur-bu.

2,51.2 tahogs-su dbul; C 9.1.4 do.

27

46a.5 abrel-bsdams-nas; D 58.3 'brel-nas;
261.3 bsgra.gs-na;
C 9.1.6

E 29b.5 do.

28

C 9.1.5 byin-gyis rlab; F
B

602.3 permits both readings.
do.;
D

29

58.3

bsgrags-pas;

E

29b.6 do.
30
31

B

261.3 las-ni; C 9.1.6 do.

B 261.4 byin-brlabs;
do.

D 58.4 byin-brlabs

smad-po-che; E 29b.6

32

A 46b-2 dbang-du.bsdus; F 603.4 & G 438.2 permit both readings.
D 58.5 bya.
D 58.5 so-so: E 29b.7 do.

33
34

307

35

A 46b.3 khas-blangs-pa; G 438.3 do.; B 263.4 khan-blangs dambcas-pa. D 58.5 mnas-bor-ba'i; E 30x.1 gnas-bor-ba'1;
mnas

36

B

261.5 rang-gi
both

bor-ha'i;

C 9.1.7 do.;

G 438.4 & F 603.6 permit

rang--ti and dam-boas.
37

B 261.5 'da'
do.

ma-byed;

C 9.1.7/8 do.; D 58.6 do.; E 30a.1

38

8 261.5 sdom-byas de-1as;

C 9.1.R do.; F 603.6 'date-gyur-na;

G 438.5 'da'-gyur-na.
39
40
41

D 58.6 snying-ni...; F 30a.1 do.
D

58.6

htubs-par; E 30a.1 btub-par; G 438.5 gtuh-par.
C 9.2.1

B 261.6 khas-blangs mnas-bor-bzhin;

do.; D 58.6 khapermit
both

blangs-bzhin;
readings.
42

E

30a.2 do.;

F 604.2 & G 439.1

A 46b.6 (alr)

myag;

D 58.7 tshig-nas.

43
44

D 58.7 'gyur-pa'i.
A 47a.1 skyong; D 59.1 do.
D 59.1 mngon-su byas.
A 47x.2 sgrub-pa'i; F 604.5 do.; G 439.5 do.

45 46 47 48

B 261.7 chen-po-yls; C 9.2.2

do.;

F 604.6 chen-mo-ni.

D 59.2 ci-'dod-pa'i; E 30a.4 do.
B 261.7 reads chen-po for chen-mo; D 59.2 do.; C 9.2.3 mdzodlha chen-po.
B 262 .
c h en-pos-ni,

49

50

1

C 9.2.3 do.,

D 59.3

chen-mo-ni;

E

30a.5 do.

51

B 262_.1 (81c)

inserts thams-cad kun-la za-bar
'du-bar. *

byed;

rdul-cha

tsam-yang med-par byed before

but

also repeats them

below in their correct context; C 9.2.3 do.
52

C 9.2.4 (sic)

1as-sogs-pa'i. 1as-sogs-pa'i.

53
54

0 59.4 chen-mo-ni; E 30a.6 do.
C 9.2.5 (B-jc)
E
D

55

30a.6 omits gdong.
59.4

56
57

chen-mo-ni; F 30x.7 do.
ma-lus;

A

47b.1 thams-cad
B

D 59.4 do.;

E 30a.7 do.;

G 441.4

do.;

262.3 thams-cad kun-la;

C 9.2.5 do.;

F 605.5 tharns-

cacl-kyi lus
58

kun-las.

B 262.3 bran-mo-yi; C 9.2.6 do.; F 605.5 do., omiting tshogs. 0 59.4 chen-mo-ni; F 30a.6 do.
A D B

59 60
61

117b.2 shad-cing.
59.5 'jug-phran; E 30b.1 do.

62

262.4 gdong-gcig-ma-dang me-reg
59.5 me-reg-dang; E 30b.1

drung;

C 9.2.6

do.;

D

me-reg-drung.
chags-pa-dang; C 9.2.6
F

63

B

262.4 dad-pa'i dga'-bas

do.;

D

59.5 dga'-ba

chags-pa-dang; E 30b.1 do.;

606.3 dvangs-pa

dga'-ba chags-pa-dang.
64

B 262.4 ka-li; F
B

30b.1 'khros-pas.
C 9.2.7 do.;

65

262.4

-nyid...-nyid-kyis;

D 59.6 -nyid...-

nyid-la; E 30b.1/2 do.; G 443.5 spyod-par; F 606.4/5 bagrubpar; F 30b.2 sbyor'-bar.
66

B ?62,5 brlabs-pa; C 30b.2 rlabs-pa; G 444.1 brlab-pa.

Chapter Twenty-one
1

D 59.7 chen-pos; E 30b.3 do.

2

F 607.2 dkyil-'khor-gyi.
A

3

47b.6 dus-mtha'i me-chen 'bar;

F

607.4 bskal-pa

'Jig-pa'i

me-ltar 'bar; G 444.5 permits both readings, viz., dus-mtha '' i

bekal-pa 'jig-pa'i me-chen-ltar 'bar.
u

C 9.2.8 nyi-ma' i 'Gum--gyis gzi.

5

D 60.1 'gyur-ba-bzhin.
A

6

48a.] zargs-yag; G 445.1 do.
118a.1 gtug-chen; E

7

A

30b.4 gtug-chem; D 60.1 gtug-chem..snyil-

skad.
B

B

262.6 a-a ha-la'i; D 60.1 do.; E 30b.4 do.; F 608.1/2 a a ha
alala'i; G 445.3 ala haha ala]a; A
F

ha
9

48a.2 gad-brgyangs.
G 445.4

B 262.6 dbyug--pa'i;

608.2 bshugs-ba'i 'thor-riung;

shuts-las spyugs-pa'i 'thor-rlung; E 30b.4 gYengs-ba.
10

D

60.2

che'o; E 30b, II do.

11

E 30b.5 'khros-pa'i;

A 48a.3 'phros--

F 608.6 khro-bo'i

or khros-pa'i; G 446.3
12

'phros-pa'1 or khro-bo'i,

D 60.3 khro-bo' i thig.-].e.
C 9.3.3 bdud-kun-gyis-ni;
chen-po; G 446.5 do.

13

F 609.2 omits -ni;

D

60.3

bdag

14

C 9.3.3 (Sic) sdud-rnams.
B 263.1 omits
609.6

15

HUM and reads rdo-rje brag-ste;
both readings.

C

9.3.3 do.; F

permits

16

G 447.3 rdo-rje'i
60.4

chu-bo-ste;

F

609.6

rdo-rje'i

chu-bos;

D

rdo-rje chu-ste.

310

17

B 263. 1 sdud-pa-po;
chen-po;

CC

9. 3. 4 do. ; F 609. 6 do. ; A 48a. 6 sdud-pa

D 60.4 bsdud chen-po;

E 30b.6 do.;

G 447.3

sdud-

pa... chen-po.
18

A 48a.6 kun-'bar

che;

G 447.3/4 permits both readings, viz.,
F 610.5 omits glu; G 448.1
do.;

kun-tu 'bar-he chen-pos.
19

B 263.2 inserts 'di;
glengs-so.

F 610.5

Chapter Twenty-two
7

B 263.2 omits gsang.
D

2

60.6 bzung-ba; E 31a.) do.; G 448.6 zung-zhig.
(' 9.3.6 'phe]-ba-yi; D 60.6 'chel-ba yin;

3

B 263.3 'chel-ba-yi;

E 31a.1 do.
4

C

9.3.6 (sic) zin.

5

6
7

rab-'jam-gyis; B 263.4 rab-'byam kun; C 9.3 6 do. C 9.3.6 yod: E 3ta.2 yong; F 613.5 yong-ate. E 31a.2 -kyis.
E 31a.2
A 48b.5

B

snying-po;

F

614.6 do.; G

451.6 do.;

B 263.4 ngee-pe

'di; C 9. 3. 7 do. ; D 61. 1 do. ; E 31a.3 do.
9

D

10 11

bskur-ba; F 31x.3 do. A 49a.1 rigs-pa.
F 3)a.5 reads sku-dbyings;.

61.2 (sic)

12 13

A 49a.3 omits -kyi.

B 263.6 rtog-pa'i; D 61.3
61.3

14
15

E 31a.5 do.; G 454.4 do. D 61.3 drva-ba' i .le'u; F 31a.5 do.
do.;
D

inserts

title

of twenty-second chapter here.

16

D 61.4 (9.j.c) rgyu.

17

C 9.4.2 spros-te.

311

Part Three
TmnBlation

312

part

Three
of

contains

a translation

of

the

root-tantra,

each

c hapter

which is accompanied by

kLong-then

Reb-'byams-pa's

commentary phvn

s-b

min-se1 and annotations.

For each

chapter

the commentary incluties an overview

(02vi-don) and an

interlinear

exegesis

(Xthun-don).

Annotations

are supplied in

Volume
the

after the translatinn g commentary.

BY way of inrrnd+ction,

work is preciedet1

by the foreword from phyogrbeu m +

el

Herein

is conte"..ined a commentary on the glorious Tantra Ql Sht the Real c.^ret 11 i _us Definitive WitR Respect tattvavinihca_+atantra) entitled Diaoe1lina All Darkness MI IhM
the glorious

Stn Directions.

This work, is an analyrie of the kingly Medical Met.
which

.QP the secret Nue eus Definitive With RPRppct t SL1o Peal.
n^.t+JAlly

di gppl s all the darkness of the ten directions

through the great arrearance
Obeisance
along

of its sunlit and moonlit clouds.
the ten directions and four
exception, --- none
timos,

to

all

sugates of
i

with

their sons,

without

excepted,

omiting none at all.

All tpistory to _,amantabhedra and his queen,
In whom phenomena and reality

are non-dual.

Who attained buddhahood in the essence
Of the buddha-body

of

reality.

non-dual by nature.
attrihutee.

He is the original

lord.

perfect in enlightened

In whom the expanse and pristine cognition are non-dual,
The inconceivable and uncompounded one

In whom existence and quiescence are non-dual.

I bow before the spontaneously
which

present host

assumes limitless

peaceful and wrathful forms--

The field of the Bounteous Array which is the most Immeasurable apparition and inner radiance of the sugatas. The limitless celestial palace conjured from
The nature of the five kinds of pristine cognition. And the perfect rapture or natural expression
of the five enlightened familie?,
Which

emanates and is absorbed everywhere,

In the manner n oceanic clouds.

Obeisance to Vajrasattva. the Lord of Secrets,
Most

marvelous spirituality of the conquerors

who delivers the perfect buddhe-speech.

Formost of all enlightened families and mandales who acts on behalf of living beings through diverse emanations.
The perfect
buddha,

preceding all,

Who obtained the treasury of the supreme Seem Nucleus -For he is without conjunction or distinction.
To clarify the suddenly arisen conflicting emotions
Of those who require training.
The Teacher

causes a cascade of doctrine.

BY virtue of its nature which liberates

In a gradual

or

non-gradual manner
314

In accordance with varying

degrees of acumen,

The path of the supreme Secret Nucleus is highest of all.

It is the mighty teaching of the buddha-body of perfect rapture. Which itself steers the great chariot (of the doctrine) Along tracks followed by countless conquerors
Of ancient and
recent time.

It appeared Among the glorious of living creatures in th4

Fumar world, and name to this Land of Snow Mountains,
Where its meaning, exceller.tly translated and established

By genuine translators and scholars of the past.
Was analysed by many learned masters.
Firmly

grasping

that upsetting victory banner,

They caused the doctrine] tree of life to flourish.
And its thousand

leaves of hundred-fold super±or

faith

to stir.

Even though the sunlit meaning of this profound extensive

Tantra is not within the perceptual

range of

4

my intellect.

The variegated forms of Its words and meaning do appear By opening the eyes with the Of the eloquence of genuine

surgical needle
masters.

Relying on their literary

transmissions, logical reasoning.

And esoteric instructions which perceive its entire meaning,

I must clarify the nucleus of definitive meaning in this work.

For the sake of those fortunate students who inspired

it.

315

In

this

respect,

the

genuinely

perfect

buddha,

glorious

Samantabhadra great

who is learned
without

ir skillful means and a

master

of of
the

spirituality, expanse,

ioving

from the

great

palace
through

reality's
Buddhas

manifested

in and of himself
Families

D]essing of his natural spirituality, and assumed the form of the
of

the Five Enlightened
Bounteous

as an ornament of

the
mind.
to

spontaneous
Holding

Array of buddha-body,

speech

and

sway through

his great

might which is not extraneous

the natural
of

mandala where the indestructible minds of all buddhtis
without
duality,
he

the

ten directions and four times are

taught

the vehicle
mantras
6

of indestructible reality

(vairayAng),

the

secret

excellently endowed with profound and extensive

doctrines,

to

Vajrasattva and other such

resultant

spiritual

warriors.
Through

naturally liberate the world-system of living beings who require training;
teachings) three
the

three

modes of appearance (these

for

Inner
phase
and

secret mantras do appear
or the

in

modes-- the
or

creation
Amiiyoga,

MahAyoga,

the

literary
or

transmissions

Great

Perfection

Atiyoga--- which

are

respectively outer, inner and secret. The secret mode among these
9180

has three

aspects,

which respectively:

reveal the mandala

Which manifests in
Without
,

and of itself as mind and pristine cognition, duality of creation and perfection stages; reveal mindwithout reference to creation and perfection stages, to
nature of primordial
buddhahood;

as-such,
be

the

and

reveal
be the

pristine nature
of

cognition

in

its self-manifesting essence to
Among

buddhahood.

these

aspects,

it

is

the

mandala

which

3t6

momifeato
without

itself as mind and pristine cognition, of creation and perfection stages, thAt is dun] ity
1n

and

of

revealed here as the actual awakening of the Magical Net.
This

7

(cycle
the

of the Magical Net) also comprises

four

sections,

namely,

Magical lgt

Vairasattva which reveals all things
and
Vol.

of
the

samsara and nirvana

to be self-manifesting
(T.

indivisihle;
19)

Magi.el

Net 9L Vairocana

466,

NGB.

which
the

extensively
Maetcal

reveals

the ritual activity and feast-offerings;

Pt Qf the Goddess (T.

836, NGB. Vol. 15) which actually

reveals the display of reality;

and the Magi ca] fit. 2.t ManiuAri

(T. 360, NGB. Vol. 15) which all-pervasively reveals the vehicle.
The

Magical Net Qt,Va1rasattva itself comprises eight
the glorious Secret Nucleus (T. 832,
mind
and
NGB.

sections,
and

namely,

Vol. 14) which
of
Vol.

reveals

pristine cognition to be manifest in
(NGF.

themselves;

the Forty-Chapter Magical Net
activity;

14) which

perfectly reveals enlightened

the Eight-Chanter Magical

Ilit

which perfectly reveals the mandala; the Superior Magical Net (T. 837, NGB. Vol. 14) which clearly reveals
(NGB.

Vol.

14)

the empowerments;
which

the 5upplamentray
Vol

Magical
supreme;

Ski
the

(NG8.

Vol.

14)

reveals
Net

the commitments es
(T.

Eighty-Chapter

Mdgical

834,

NGB.

14)

which extensively

reveals

enlightened attributes;
833,

NGB. Vol. 15) which

the Mirror p_f Indestructible Reality (T. clearly reveals the deitys' body-colours
the oceanic

and symbolic hand-implements;

Magical Net (NGB. Vol.

15) which clearly reveals the creation stage;
EAZICA-1

and the Penetrating
path

Net (NGB.
means.

Vol.

15) which clearly

reveals the

of

skillful

317

of

these,

the

present exegesis concerns the great
832) -- the furthest summit of all

kingly

and

glorious
Shy

Tantra = Tpg Secret Nucleus Definitive With Resn.ct tom,
vehicles.
the

Real (T.

source of all literary transmissions,

the great short-cue of the

vehicle of all buddhes of the three times,
all.

and the most secret of

It'has

three

parts,

namely,

an exegesis of the meaning of

the title,

which is an aspect of
of

its expressed
the

realisation;

the

exegesis
reveals

the

actual meaning of

tent.ra

which

clearly
and

the expressed meaning (of its twenty-two

charters);

the

exegesis of the meaning contained in its perfect conclusion.

The Title
ttoot- g2a:
In Sanskrit:
Ir Tibetan:

'trfouhvaQarbhatattvavinifcavamahfitantra dta1 -gene-hall snvino-no de-kho-na-nvid rna_mnar noes-pa'i rQVud chen-po
The Great Tantra Of The Glorious Secret Nucleus
Definitive

In English:

With Respect To The Real
Lord,

(1)

Obeisance to the

Transcendent

glorious Samentabhadra.

comment ar

Exegesis of the Meaning of the Title
This

(7.1-15.6)

has

two sections-- the actual meaning of the title
with

aryl

P

description of the offering that Is made

obeisanne.

It has
namely,

four

topics,

the required

meaning,

the subsumed meaning,

the verbal.

meaning, and a rejection of erroneous criticisms.
First,

the

required

meaning

has

three

aspects:
name.

i There

is the meaning understood dependent on
as

This
object

means
for

that

just

a bulbous narrow-based

(?habs-zhum)

Dcuring

water

is understood

from the name "vase",

so all things

mandela

of

primordial buddhahood.
only that.

Those of keenest

acumen

are

required

to realise

ii There is

the name understood dependent on meaning.

This meant

that just as that which in bulbous is understood to be a "va°.e'.
eo

the meaning of huddhahood in the primordial mandala is itself

understood

as the

title (of the text).

Those of mediocre
names,

acumen

are required to understand all things merely as
have indeed been named.
iii

once they

There

is

the consciousness in which name and
This

meaning
Its

are

interrelated.

means that just ss the vase and
so the

bulbous
known

ehape are not different,
without duality.
over

title and Its meaning
nature

are

Those of dull acumen are required
of time, that

to comprehend,

a long period

1n which word and meaning

are Indivisible.
Moreover,

those

who understand the meaning from the name

(i.e.
of

title)
easily

are

required

to

know all things

as

the

identity

Primordial buddhahood,

just as the identification of medicines is found in a book or as an inventory of soldier's arrows Is

accessible for one who knows how they are classified.
The

subsumed

meaning

(of

the title) is that

all

things

are

revealed

as

the nature of enlightenment in the mandala of
conqueror
(Samantabhadra).

the

Primordial
The

verbal meaning is expressed in
of Greater Tibev, which
8

Tibetan

(bod-skad-du)-- the
among
been

language
the

Is the dBus-gtsang area
has

country's three provinces,

into which the tantra

moat excellently translated.

320

Now,

the

Conqueror's

intention

is directed towards
wheels

thO

realisation
bliddha-body.

of

the

inexhaustible

of

adornment-- the
are primordial
indivisibly
A.

speech

and mind In which

all things

buddhahood
Included.

and in which

all samara and nirvana

are

But because this is most
obscured

difficult to realise it is

secret (asang-ba) topic.
recipients.
mind)

Those to whom it is secret are unworthy
speech And

in their three media (of body.

There

are

both
The

hidden

(gab) and

concealed

(sbas)

modes

of

secrecy:

three

buddha-bodies are hidden

because,

although arisen

present

in oneself.

they have been obscured by suddenly

ohscurstions
(T.

and are unperceived.

Accordingly

the

Hevsiratantro

1117-8) says:
Sentient

beings are themselves buddhas

But they

are obscured by suddenly arisen stains.
U0211):

And in the Supreme Continuum gL the Greater Vehicle (T.

Ju=t as when there happens to he an inexhaustible treasure
Underground within the house of a pauper.

But he 1P ignorant of i t
And it never Rays to him,

"Here T am!",

So it is because the precious treasure within the mind--

The Immaculate reality neither to he clarified nor established-- is not realised That the suffering of deprivation is felt everywhere
And abundantly by those living creatures.

371

inreveal ed by other= or misunderstood when revealed.the buddha-body. . Therefore.Illustrated intention by these (quotations). these writings are mostly redundant because they are gathered in this present (tentre). The concealed mode of secrecy refers to the uncommon view. For the sake of sentient beings they are very secret.. to that which is secret would be confused and become depreciation. it comprises the three inconceivable secrets (or mysteries) of buddha-body. for secrecy. topic for exageration and This is also stgtel in the Clarification Q. the meaning of primordial buddhahood-. their accomplishment does not vanish. speech and the nature of all It also refers to the profound and extensive (texts) which are Its expressions. wheels of adornment or things. speech and mind. just as for one who has been born blind the Appearance of form 1s hidden. if they were not concealed. the a meditation and conduct approach because. And if it too is subsumed.f Commitments (P. various pure symbols are taught. conclusive inexhaustible mind. Although many enumerations of the term "secret" are explained in different literary transmissions. LL7LLLL): The secret mantras are flawless. the profound view and are hidden because they are not known through one's own ability and are either . When kept secret.

is said to be but that which 0 in and absent in ser.tient beings. as oil within 3esan'e. "The Sanskrit is implied by the words In Tibetan The expression In Sanekrit: some who reason that these words are exist. Therefore Who it 18 not authentic.real withOUt is conjunction the very nature of the three buddh515 realitY and unchanging. abides in everything. to avoid but is not cited (in this edition) in order There are also 323 . the title reveals the very essence of primordial and buddhahood In netuure where and creation end perfection. and are without duality. nature definitive with reepect to that which. text) In brief. forcefully stir the waves of wrong view and is cited at the beginning of this tantra of yours." In reply to thiS there are some say. The rejection of erroneous criticisms is as Those who and who adhere to erroneous bubbles on the blue lake of ignorance "No envy say. Its conclusive and spontaneouslY is present thrPe buddha-bodieS are the result. the mandala in which all things are the Moreover hoOd 15 ground the or Secret Its of creation and perfection is through the path or the real. rea1 is not according to the provisional meaning. which reetly definitive (of this tantra- with respect to the ground.

and two obscurations are those of conflicting emotions 13 knowable. it is also the case that (title) definitive previously usage of the Sanskrit and words of and obeisance were employed from the time of Ral-pa-can onwards. two obscurations and propensities 11 which comprise been subdued (brow) (by the Transcendent Lord) of renunciation. components who interrupts non-residual the demon of and demon of conflicting emotions who interrupts Lord] (nirv&na). They comprise the thoughts which are the characteristics of the five poisons and also the particular mind that . the demon of the the divine prince who interrupts contemplation. excellent endowment The four demons are the demon of the lord of death who interrupts the lifespan.-srong lDe-btsan) Sanskrit little It was not indicated because there point in repeating a single title many times. 49) and many tantras such as 368) the Root Tantr& IIt Cahraaamvara (T.indeed absent in the Sanskrit volumes and on that same basis many sutras such as the Arrav = Knh1ahtened Attributes In Sba Buddhafield 21 Amitabha (T. would implicitly be inauthentic because (Sanskrit titles) are not cited therein. have the four demons. 12 release. While such assertions are indeed the true. that they occured to a limited extent bSam-yaa only. the These are said to be guhamnig (by the Transcendent Possess them The because he does not the from the'beginning. cited. The latter section concerning the obeisance section 2): The (comments on Title. Becuase this (Tantra at the Secret Nucleus) wan translated during the is the time of the king of is not 10 (Khri.

Conceptualising thoughts which concern the three world-syetem? Are called the obscuration of the knowable. Accordingly the Samoutstantra (T. fame. It says in the Analysis QL the Middle way and Extremes (T. Lordship reality. Noble to the purity of the essential buddha-body of and its (pristine cognition) of the expanse of reality. refers its form refers to the buddha-body of perfect rapture and mirror-like (pristine cognition). so to its (pristine cognition) of perseverence refers to the unchanging body of indestructible reality itself. noble form. Glory refers to of the buddha-body Fame of awakening and its (pristine cognition) Pristine acts sameness. . enlightened attributes without which manifests moving from the expanse. 4021): Conceptualising thoughts which concern envy and so forth Are called the obscuration of conflictinz emotions.clings to the antidotes which purify them. Glory. and so to (the pristine cognition) of accomplishment. The huddha-body and [pristine cognition which are possessed (1dan: by the Transcendent Lord) comprise the excellent endowment of realisation. 381) says: The excellent endowments of lordship. and perseverence: These six are said to be possessed. pristine cognition. and cognition refer to the benefit and And emanational body which qualitative and performs of through its quantitative particular buddhalimitloss understanding discernment.

meat from the buddha-holy of the expense of reality and to the a extraneous glory with which the buddha-body of form arises in 16 spontaneous manner from the disposition of that reality itself. Indivisible from the ocean of enlightened attributes.-) indicates of (the lord) has transcended symbols elaborate and conception-. And therefrom the two kinds of benefit 17 are completed.sam@ara and nirvana. Transcending all elaborate conceptions. The Transcendent Lord (beam-ldan-'das) is spacious quiescence. Vol.5 which is appended to these five. Thus glory displays spontaneity and perfection together. that (1d1. . beginning with lordshir. (bcom-ldan) There are also soma who profess that the word lord The word Transcendent all Indicates that the object implied in the term "subdued" (bcom-na) IT "possessed" (ldan-Da). 19): Without moving from the buddha-body of reality. ha): It says in the Great Bounteousness Qg the Buddhas (T. The fivefold buddha-body of form is spontaneously present.The term "excellent endowment" 1. It is said In the Tantra Qf the Rutting Elephant (NGB. and non-being. indicates that they surpass the pristine cognition of 9nblime students. Liberated from existence and quiescence. h=ing acceptance and refection.

are 18 adornment. body.ll- reality or describes natural mind-as-such. it refers to Samantabhadra. the Tantra Q_f the Marvelous Klnr (NG. When anQlysed. (the term Samantabhadra) has five aspects: Firstly.B. enlightenment the original tea-her whose As manifest preceded all.As to the term Samantabhadra (kun-tu bzanr-no: the all-roeitive the buddha- one) : The natural inexhaustible wheels of speech and mind. Vol. Therefore Samentabhadra. Arises as the teacher of all sams8ra and nirvana. reveals but also because In path of deliverance to all the ALQ2mrllahinQ King (T. not only because buddhas. Was purified (sangs) before and expansive (rvvas) before. first (of buddhas). Revealing the three buddhe-bodies. spontaneously perfect And all-positive in its perceptual range. The Secret Pristine Cognition (T. all the conquerors I arose as their parents. he reveals he A. they Array: are present at all (kun-tu) times because spontaneous Bounteous unchanging in the field of the and their great rapture which manifests in and of itself is positive (Lzang-ro) because it is perfect. 392) says: This' nature is unmoving. 828) he says: Because T preceded. He is called the the original lord. preceding all Who conclusively reached the self-manifesting ground. 2) says: The first. 327 .

and the conquerors of the three times have emerged. AecRme the three buddha-bodies. because they are without independent existence. 20 so that they would not be connected by spirituality. Otherwise. All would It is in themselves not know how to reveal the path to one another. and In particular it is found in Madhyamaka like that space. if buddha and sentient being were different from the beginning. teacher of the teachers. The all-accomplishing king. for some o!' them to he buddhar and others beings The explanation according to the common vehicles that to there is neither beginning nor end is intended with reference time and reality. improper samshre. ssmsfire nirvana are without beginning or end. the ground of samara and nirvana would be diffferent. Furthermore. The teachers who emerge from myself.I. the and would be improper even for a buddha to emerge in (huddhas) would be the same as sentient beings. world. (fundamental) Therefore this nature is most clearly stated in the afore- mentioned Unsurpassed Tantrapitaka of the secret mantras. been It has excellently established by the great master Padmasambhava . It is because this teacher is present that the path of liberntior at that it the beginning of samsArA and nirvana has been revealed.

Thirdly. duality. the abiding nature of all essenc things. such speech and mind). the real. three media (of body. it is effortless and Samantabhadra spontaneous from present. The term to obeisance (nhyao-'tshal-lo) means that those who resort Samantabhadra) sincerely commit their It is not the case. some opine. there for once the path has been the ground is directly reached and the five buddhsresult. obeisance observed is made to in the compiler because books.Secondly. there is the Samantabhadra of trip ground.e. as no qhnr-S this same object (i. which is primordial the buddhahood because Fourthly. custom the Sanskrit The Commentary 4755) does include an invocation to its compiler but not as a commentary on these actual words of obeisance. This the is the arising of realisation path through experience the of that skillful means and discriminative awareness are without is Samantabhadra concluded. As to the literary transmissions which refer to these (aspects of Samantabhadra). I shall not 22 enlarge upon them because there are meny written accounts. Indeed (while commenting on these present words of obeisance) it says: 329 . thprc is the path. bodies and pristine cognitions are spontaneously present. which refers to the the nature of the of inner radiance or mind-ascon unction three Buddha-bodies without or dishunction. And fifthly. that is (p. such. ig the natural Samantabhadra.

Transcending extremes of existence and non-existence. Samantabhadra in whom deity is indivisible with deity.Ravine naturally subdued the four demons In the expense of sameness. Perfectly possessing the two provisions or natural seals. Obeisance to you. . Glorious in all intrinsic and extraneous ways. for you are realised. Positive in natural realisation of all things and in spirituality.

The Actual Exegesis of the Meaning of the Tantre (15. 11-21) indicates how the mAnda1AS of hoth pee^e- ful end wrathful Ae1ties emarste from indicates how the third ((h.the five en]ightPned families. (Secondly in Ch. arises from A di sposi tior -f p ri rl tun1 i t.urAl 1). comprtRes the form assumed by the of the world 23 nature of srirituAlit. without duality in reset of *e huAdhe-mind prepDrt pristine cognition whi^h Ari°°s a. hAa three :^Pe.ndloeles eynanse the srnntaneous field the Bot. The seeortM (Chr. the the buddha-body of manifests in And of himself as the mendala in of of 1ndestr!ic'ihla r??]ityIs Arra !. The first array of these sections (cont-erning the natu. the nFt')re1 erd e.uel i ty it aroused. (Firstly in Ch 1' comrrises reality.-.lntee"Us it without moving from the expense.y. .tionr: fire' (Che. (Thirdly in Ch. 22) the tartre is tAght to _venulne heings and then tt.1) the Next.6-67o. ich The dearly reveals Its exprepp ' meaning..'dAhahoo' and how hip Qpi ri tu.-entaneous mandal e.this very teacher. ho. which is arrayed as the lamp and °gtablishes all things without moving from reality. 1. actual exegeois of the meaning of the tantr^.-3) indicates how the Qro!:nd.. mendale of who the ground) also is of the threefold: teacher. 3). meaningfully exrre«er ov naturally all things as prim-rAi A] hi. 2). And suh°ec]uently entrusted.

ran±>>re which is the jdertlty we. without . .Ani°the. genuinp- 'y perfect huddha and transnendent lord. hla7ing forth with ieuels completely uninterrupted throughout fashioned the pristine cognition.r! four en"± of them without Thi s i s the nature i n whj r--h All t. wheel of without extremes on the radiant ground. in which all mandalas of the huddhas of the ten directions and four times without exception are not distinct from one another and are of a sir. ten directions of space. . of pristine cognitions that the limit_lers there Is his celestial palace. Pt the time of this exp]Anation. ere indivieib(2) or centre. none excepted And omitting none At all. 1s extreordt. Its spire is the p-1-tine cognition central to all. This inconceivable pristine cognition.endowed with grf4et of the indcGtructible body. exception.+mns.Thi. In the shade of Ak.nce. colour and so which form the precious gems of pristine cognition. in its different details of shape. sree-h! mind of all the tathggAtAs of the ten directions sr>.[i] the Tethfigata. is c.tt stinrtinr or qifPere.nary *orth. as A gquare because it Is vASt Projecting bays of precious gems which are the superior pristine cngrition.gle essence.

naturally radiate through intermingle in the ten directions are Bedecked in inconceivable ornaments which it has embrasured gates. seals are endowed with blazing hand-implements or cognition. speech and mind. on seats precious gems endowed with solar and lunar disks of natural inner radiance. sounds. and it has tiered pediments representing the eight kinds of liberation. diverse and diverse of contact present. the fourfold approach to liberation. and diverse forms. an elephant throne Therein.141 on a lion throne of fearlessness. 1. a peacock throne of power. the ornaments of its frieze. which are the six heads.The palace which is superior and immeasurable in are diverse gemstones of diverse which extent. without outer and inner (distinctions) in all respects. and with untainted lotuses. entered without obscuration. of power. [5] is the buddha-body without front or rear. These are indeed contained within (the celestial palace). and His two legs of skillful posture discriminative awareness assume the equanimity. [3] Its lands pristine cognition. of precious pristine and he has three which are the inconceivable buddha-body. In every inconceivable (world-system) he appears universally diverse means buddha-body. speech and mind. of the ascetic discipline of His hands. pristine cognitions. silken diverse objects hangings. In all directions his visage radiates as penetratingly. and he is endowed with the major and minor marks. a horse throne of miraculous abilities. its savours. of and a bird throne of unimpeded nature. (6) . scents.

AthAeate who is king of habituual CendPnCi c?c the-o. end the one who is indestructible the [10) There was the great hndhieettva oP eyes. who prPpent the was the genn1ne queen wh^ is the expsns. Fillinz the one J- the end evpnn. is the exrAnse of solidity.The TrRnacendent Lord was present nP such in (the form of) the tathhgeta who is king of consciousness. And of time . they -ntirely perv.t1-n. is heard. respect of the host of coich cqueens. is the expense of mobility. the nfP who the one who is tha expanse of warmth. the greet bodhisett-e oP indestructih]e time past. end the t.ih jpattlFA of i ndestructi.9ded eremple. the greet hodhisettve of indestructible PArs. they were perlaaslvely present. (121 of time future. the tathAgata All who Is king of feeling.se of liquidity. without duality in a p. the great bodhisatt"A -f in?+Ps- tructible savour. the one who Savou red. settva the great bodhi- of indestructihle scent.[7) Alop apperi. [91 the assembled host of the queen who is Peen.(11) the essemhled host of the the one queen of the one'of time present. And er-n. the one tongue. scarlet. Then there was the great hodhisettva of indestructible sight. the tathAgata who is king of percertion. for pod of sesame Reeds.ble hearing. the teth&gata who is king of form. and vreat bodhisattva of indestructible nose. unrredictahle. And infinitely Just the a it. the greet hc. the one who is scented.of one ' who.too were re°p1(-ndPnt in their (respectiN'e) yellow. evnanse of reelity.

It itself is the abode of supreme indestructible reality. (19] 335 . the Introductory Scene. the great subjugator of the indestructible subject of contact. the one who is not (13) There was the queen who is not eternal. assembly (in mandalas) such as this is inexpressible.the great subjugator of indestructible contact. and the There was great subjugator of the indestructible consciousness of contact. Fnaho! Holding sway over the very expanse of the real. and the one who is signless. radiant in its images Of contemplation and its pure magical display. transient. Then [14] mandalas. (1$] This completes the first chapter from the LatrA At I&& $0Pal Nucleus Definitive With Reanect IQ Tht gel. the great subjugator of the indestructible object of contact. --Such were the secret words of indestructible reality which entitled emerged. attributes and activities. The inexhaustible wheel of adornment. mind. Ema. The mandala of pristine cognition has a disposition of spirituality. (16] This self-manifesting nature. The the one who is selfless. mind. and present without duality. this secret description of these secret emerged in which the tathigatas and the assembled duality. Where there is nothing to be dispelled. from the indestructible [15] speech. [17) Is a wish-fulfilling gem or enlightened attribute Of buddha-body. host of their queens are without buddha-body. speech. attributes and activities: E.

However Ii1'isior. emergenr. e--- former has: tree a^rects. ?. in indicating this context it ho1's the serge of "emergence". The first (comments on rh. a detailed exegesis of its nature.ding to the 1 scene which is fcand in the outer tentreE-vam This should he from which All understood are the syllehles of the expanse and Syl1ah` emerge. "thus". ?t cmmrrises both en exegesis of the essence (of this line) The anti q ref'itetion of misconcertiors. cf (this line) among which the First is the introdo?"'tory planetion a-Cnv. so (their Tiheten equlvplents) 'di-sked.e. namely.The first of these subdivisions (i. self. ar'i a aynopeis of pristine cognition's self-rtanifesting srray. 9 brief teaching scene in the intrcdiictory terms of its excellence. of concerning the buddha-body or reality) is in three parts. . the time of this explanation (hshsd-oa'i gg).P end so forth are derived. 1). expression.

implicitly in the words of this explanation I have heard have (tab. namely the compiler. .rp s° 3 compilers such as the elder (sthavira) KAbyapa. is indicated However.od) words (jgjL-cis thus-ma) are not utte^e%! on this occasion because thorn IT n^ dichotomy hetwen self and others.r On the the subiect of the compiler himself being the teacher. 453) Non-Dual says: One should know VairapAni to be the tathfigeta Samartah5dre.uId say that the inconceivable ehlcles tl hake been comprehended at any one particular moment in time' The Verification nj Secrets (T. the teacher himself appears as the Lord of Secrets (VairapAni) t':aching and explains in this world at the present time the very which he previously gave in Akanistha. Victor (T. other- wise.ad-ra'1). and I Am the doctrine. ajar' And the excellence of retina.. the (commonly cit.thus ('61-shad) refers to the excellence of the in thir rasp the extensive lower tantras. i. 2217) also says: The teacher of tantre is the in'estr>>ctihle reality of mind. and the great Vairadhara to be none other thar he. Endowed with my own assembly. T am even the listener. The words heard (thos-ra) indicate that there is a difference between the teacher and the retinue. ordinary He is revealed to s. It is the teacher as well as compiler. his attendants. 817-R): T am the teacher. And in the glorious Hevadratentra (T.e. who co+. whereas during the compilation of this (tantra). is doctrine-(bshad-ca) Explanation held to refer to the excellence of the teacher.

is inner (path of skillful means)s The location is the secret centre of the female consort and the energy channels of the four centres (within the body).e. . the time when the teacher. The retinue is the accompanying experience of the sixteen delights. and in accordance with the statement. "It is because The second aspect is the exegesis (of this line) in accordance 8 Wit-h which the "enlightened mind" or seminal point (bvanc-drub gJM8). 9 Concerning this. Just as they are found in other texts. This surpasses the at of the emanational body which are taught certain times only. i. doctrine and retinue If certain occasion (due-gcig-na) are not to be seen.words time. without duality of samara and at at nirv&na. The expounded in the teacher. And the time is the time of inconceivable transformation through the crown-centre. Similarly. transcending those (doctrines) which are identified by the words on a certain doctrines occasion. the point is that in the field of the buddha-body of perfect rapture the doctrine is taught in a perpetual you ask. with the time of (dus-na) refer to the excellence of the nature of which is a pristine cognition of sameness respect to the four times. on the other hand. male & female consorts. why the words on a continuous cycle. refers to the white and red DI'iatine cognition.

And zKad refers to the teacher Endowed with the seminal points. Beginning with the syllable g. The "time" (gut) refers to inconceivable time. thereby conferring bliss on the 1imale consort. A indicate the form of the female the locations (or hear the) for ti a four body). while the red seminal point of the female consort confers bliss on the male consort. the vital energy of the upper and lower doors (within the body) . rites and the four energy centres (in the instantaneous. 10 And (the affix na] gives name (nima) to it. The possessive refers to this tantra Of ultimate definitive meaning. sjiad means It refers to the skillful means. Endowed with the shapes of the four syllables. The syllables beginning with consort's secret centre.Penet i4a. Which comprises the consonantal syllables.1CS11 IL&t (NGB. symbolised by the "consonantal syllables" during the experience of great delight: The white seminal point.QA (m&c1 mane) . This explanation Whose "minds (hMhaQ) is upheld By clear understanding in those of worthy consciousness are controlled" affix -. Belonging to this supreme "vehicle" (Ykna). in form of the syllable Vam. Vol. 15) also says: [As for the word "thus"]. By exercising control of mind. 'j indicates the location. it ejected on to the tip of the gem (penis). In the shape of the syllable Vam.

vehicle. the are the white energy yellow energy channel of earth in the in the south. abides a single seminal point of relative a mustard seed. His essence is Omptiness. eight-faceted precious Separating from it.a& to ultimate reality. The worthy ones refers are such fortunate beings. the red energy channel of fire green west. emanating from those . n&ma that indicates this is the very excellence of great pristine The third aspect is the explanation 12 (of this line) which accords with the secret inner channel of strands radiance: The location is the dark blue energy gem life itself within the of the heart-centre. and the there energy channel of air in the north. Thus the size of the L68CaleL' appears as the natural':: present five pristine and as +es cognitions in their distinct and respective colours. Thus. the emotions which are the natural energy of buddha- endowed with the five pristine cognitions. and the possessive affix . and the glow of The retinue refers to the energy channels which the entirely pervade upper and lower (doors) of the body. and pristine cognition is stabilised by its upward motion which internally fills the four energy centres. in the manner of rope. And within it.is bound. appearance. his natural expression is radiance. (the channel of) a yak-hair tent of water in the east. five conflicting mind. the pristine cognition where bliss and emptiness are without duality.). which is this yea or supreme It is perceived in inconceivable time (AU&.

from doctrine is pristine cognition free (the conceptual The the elaboration. 15) : The location of doctrine. 14 it is recognised to of the Oceanic Akanistha. MAKILM. 15 including the "intellect" (emu) subject of this concise 341 explanation . because provisionally because and its dependently arising sense-organs are complete. the mandala of indestructible reality's expanse. dnarmacakra (i. radiant of its The fourfold consciousness Is the own accord.supported from the'heartcentre. In the midst five (coloured) lights. vital At that time the Akanistha realm. is."L and so one is liberated. The imperishable seminal point in the shape Of the syllable Vase Is identified as bliss. these naturally radiate as the buddha-body and pristine cognition of the enlightened families. and dispositionally there is no change The throughout the three times.e. vital coalescence of) emptiness and radiance. In the words iiet (NGB.(aforementioned) energy of channels and seminal point. The This time is a time of sameness is with respect to the the body three times. heart-centre) the shapes Abides as four Of the (coloured) lights in syllables beginning with t. energy of great pristine cognition is retained within and when upper lower (doors of the At body) and manifests vital in and of itself have all erratic movements of the impeded. the energy of deeds been moment of death it is actualised on the because the thought arises that consciousness is riding energy. Manifesting in and of itself. Vol.

of all the three times. the the consciousness endowed the with conflicting emotions in the ::eat. arising bliss.Made through the experience of pristine cognition. The dh rmacakra or doctrinal wheel is in the heart-centre. 16 Is the profound Is the essence "ultimate" truth (oaramttrtha). The white (light) form of four (coloured) lights. the allpervasive dark blue (light) is not limited as form because it is the basis for (the other four) which do arise. in the this context. through recognising such. of the conquerors because the natural energy of the five pristine cognitions The essence of pristine cognition is the 342 . In is crescent-shaped. nose. on which the four aggregates of conscious- ness depend. and the green one triangular. the teacher) is the circular seminal point in form of the syllable Vam. and. ear. Their essences abide respectively from the present moment as the five them as without pristine cognitions. tongue and body in the north. This is called the buddha-mind is perfected. conflicting emotions are inherently purified 18 having been renounced. the red one circular.e. The very "moment" of free from extremes. in the east. Concerning intellect the (which four kinds (of consciousness) including in the the form the retinue): the ground-of-all centre is the basis intellect from which there respectively arise: intellect the consciousness of the of ground-of-all in the south. Their support (i. in the form Pristine cognition. The ground-of-all is the support. the yellow one square. invisible 17 and the consciousness of eye. of space.

. Is purely on the In this perceived by It is taintedly perceived by those beings. within Therefore. And it is through the generation of the subject-object dichotomy in relation to purity that impurity is said to arise. For sentient beings the limits of perception are the dreamlike appearances of the mind. the object (of its spirituality) is without 19 duality.alters..nature of space. and its natural expression never changes or. all of times the knowledge of apparent primordial buddhahood. Furthermore. the Re at Maeieai bgI holds everything to abide in a single nature of purity. the three buddhaAlthough in the common tantras it is held that pure pristine cognition (is attained) by an impure being who has refined the ground of refinement.andala to be kinds non-dual pristine the 20 cognition. This introductory at natures scene is itself most precious the because it and necessitates abiding bodies.. and it the is impurely perceived by sentient respect. just as the yellow image of a conch shell is understood to be the choleric sentient beings image three of an eye. ostensible impure appearances when the self-manifesting essence of is grasped within the subject-object dichotomy. buddhas. unique pristine cognition. path. but for buddhas perception is the display of pristine Although there are cognition which appears in Akanistha itaelf. while impurity ostensibly appears it is in fact purity itself and not impurity. of dualistic clinging is understood . impurity actually has no individual characteristic. Just as a conch shell may appear yellow. The essence.

For those who abide in the pure lands it appears as supreme nectar and as the natural expression of the To doctrine. as the field of the 344 eastern . Sutra Qf Vimalakirti (T. but it is experienced as the bliss her display. when world-system impure. or as a mere potable drink. (of For example. pits of abyss and defilements.very same element water is perceived by the different of living six classes beings as nectar. The effect of its moisof is indeed produced. blood and so on. level) Contemplation when is also transformed (on the buddha- because they dispositional propensities have utterly ceased all appear as a common savour in a disposition free from Even conceptual elaboration which this conceptual elaborations. Then the Lord indicated the nature this buddhafield to the mandalas of his retinue. so that everyone perceived it to be utterly pure. Brahma 3ikhin who had come from a sorrowless buddhafield said: I perceive this buddhafield of the Transcendent Lord Sakyamuni itself to be utterly pure. it ours) is differently perceived that purity and as pure appear and to is explained impurity individual intellects but that otherwise impurity nally exist as an individual characteristic. 176): does not exter- Such is said in the The venerable 3£sriputra said: I perceive this great world to be replete with mountainous heights and lowlands. Transcendent like the excellent of array of the divine paradise of the Paranirmittavadavartins. as puss. awareness-holders who have obtained power with respect to the doctrine water itself ture 21 appears as Mamaki. not does manifest becomes quiescent.

when purity and impurity are differently discerned by means of individual perception. Now. At that time the Transcendent Lord said: Precious This buddhafield of mine is always pure. "Yours impermanent. but you people do not perceive it as such. is in this way that all illusory and c:£ are And naturally ignorance." Then. Are these statements. things pure. Thus one should know this distinction (between buddhas and sentient beings) is made in accordance with purity and impurity of perception. is an appearance of the sleep in the non-existent in reality. of know supreme acumen and those who are not genuinely.buddha (Aksobhya) which is the Ornamental Array of Gems. you may ask. Among in the case of dreams. manner of one who applies the means of gradually awakening (those dreamers) from sleep. the 345 ." They would then say." 0! It essenceless. to those who are not asleep it is as if emanations have been conjured up before those (dreamers). sentient beings supreme. dwell in a mansion of precious gemstones when they and asleep some who do so when they are asleep. contradictory? who There are some are not them. while impurity does not 22 appear to the buddhas. Just as they are. pure and impure world-systems. there is a sutra which says: When I I perceive things totally with unobscured buddha-eyes.

would also be inauthentic because their introductory scenes would also be erroneous.. that the have I heard are found in transmitted precepts and ordinary tantras which were occasionally delivered by the emanational body. who say. but are without it in their own perception. their eyes of intelligence covered by an erroneous film. words namely.. In this case it are two is implicit that the Root Tantra Qt Cakrasamvara (T.. "In this text of yours the words Thus have Z heard . Their doctrines too are revealed to be occasional because they belong to diverse vehicles.buddhas cognise (impurity). However in this (Secret Thus laLLH) during the teaching of the uncommon buddha-body of . second is the uncommon genuine response. Just like those who do abide in a mansion of gem- stones. g certain occasion are not expressed. Therefore it is flawed in having an lack erroneous introductory scene. (In these texts) the teacher and the compiler are different. 360) which begins: Then glorious Vajradhara. the first of which is made according to the logical reasoning of similarity. 336) is the fortune tp perceive the profound reality." There 23 responses to this. and the Litany the Namect Qf Maniuhri (T. begins: 368) which Then the mystery is to be explained. The letter (see those who a refutation of misconceptions held by other traditions (concerning the introductory scene): There are p..

and present or indivisible time moments. future. The uncommon Akanistha. and moments. result. the lord of indestructible body. The Commentsrv n 111ft Ornament BL the . reality. speech the actual ornaments of spontaneous Bounteous Array. within It is not a delineated location because range of beings other than is not the perceptual the teacher himself who emanates as great self-manifeat pristine in an unchanging disposition mind. Furthermore. glorious Samantabhadra. instants. dichotomies of cause and rejection. does not however include past. extending beyond the scope of the common vehicles. things of sams&ra and nirvana to be spontaneously present in essence of primordial manifest the They do not teach that acceptance and nature (of all things) is divided according to the diverse good and evil. The excellently endowed texts of tantra reveal all awakening. The uncommon time is sameness with respect to the four times: is present and as It the the buddha-body. and so forth. the expanse of the nucleus or self-manifest and mandala of enlightenment which is unlimited in dimension it extent because it is not confined within the continuum of the ten directions. It cognition. fest buddhahood. uncommon vehicle expresses no erroneous faults because its structure is quite different. the months. speech of all the tathagatas of the ten directions and four and mind the original manitimes. manifest with This indeed does not accord with the teacher of who has refined the path as 24 buddhahood an individual location is a distinct mental continuum. years.perfect rapture. the teacher is held to be the uncommon teacher. the natural expression of all things.

116) the evil Mira. to rely on the teaching given by MAra. And having passed an aeon subdued by fire therein. of inhibited perception because proper it is It transcends the range Sometimes it in unlimited. The doctrine of the buddhas is even inconceivable. establishes Buddha. It is said in a sutra: The effect of one who has accumulated deeds rejected by the Doctrine is immeasurable and inconceivable. 3744) concurs in the words: This is another Therefore structure entirely. non-being to improper for you to apply structures of being and Accordingly. . Having been born in the great hells as a sentient denizen of Avfci. One proceeds to the great hells of other world systems and so on. for in the SZa Qf Ila Cornucopia Sid AvalcikitehVAPA'a Attributes (T. it is doctrines as authentic or unauthentic. particular doctrinal teaching to be a sutra of the 26 There are immeasurable effects for one who would depreciate such great mysteries. is necessary for those of unobscured 25 vision and for great sublime beings and those who omniscient all topics of logical reasoning to comprehend comprehend just as they are. that seated on a throne of precious gems. one should never speak to refute it Dependent on the tradition of another vehicle. while it the enumerations of the sky-like doctrine because your perception is minute in its vision like the consciousness of a cowherd.gee leation (T.

But how is a mind which hates the doctrine To be released from that condition.(The effect) Which is said to endure for aeons such as these River in the ten are as vast as the Ganges directions. Briefly. one should apprehend one's own doctrine with confidence. And also in the Supreme Continuum Qf 111g Greater Vehicle (T. mother or arhatIs swiftly released from that condition Having reflected on the definitive reality. 4024): Whoever in the repeated service of an evil associate Harbours evil thoughts towards the buddhas Killing father. .

All that is pervaded by light Is also pervaded by buddha-speech. their activity conforms with 28 the buddha-body of the nature of space. One who has departed (the word having enjoyed through 350 akiliful . is so namec because trie once power has been obtained over real nature (de—bzhin--nvid) of the buddha-body which like space is without extremes of conceptual elaboration.3-31L. fect comprises a brief teaching on the nature of per- rapture which is tha essence of the Teacher end a detailed exegesis of the classification of this perfect rapture. the four other buddha-bodies always spontaneously emerge because reality.ts on Ch. the detailed exegesis of the introductory scene. that is pervaded by space All Is also pervaded by buddha-body And is also pervaded by light. 336). 1. Elsewhere is explained to mean one who has departed (ashees-op) in the wake of the conQuerors of the past. (28. As is said in the S(itra secrets from Pa2oda Precious Gems (T. Brief Teaching on the flature of Perfect Rapture (commer.2) The former 2): The Tathâgata of (de-bzhin reality. All that is pervaded by buddha-speech Is also pervaded by buddha-mind.Detailed Axegeele of the Introductory Scene The second part (Bee p.

(rgyas) cleansed the sleep with of ignorance and vast respect to all activities. or one who has emerged (sshezs-oa) accordance with the womb-birth corresponding to the aspirations of 29 sentient beings of the four modes of birth. and so forth. the six attributes of greatness are possessed As to (IUa) and sorrow is transcended ('das) without abiding. . stages of path tathagata is not. The identity in whom all wheels of buddha-body. (s_DZhin) Although the these definitions correspond to the gradual pursued by the emanational buddha-body. buddha (yang-das-Dar for the expression genuinely perfect the r-zozs-Da'i sangs-ravas): attributes. The Buddha is vast as the petals of a lotus. Conflicting emotions become enlightenment And suffering supreme (bliss). mind. Vol. 14): Ignorance itself radiates as pristine cognition. As interpreted as such in this context. (T. As for the term transcendent lord (bcom-ldan-'das): The nature of this teacher is such that the four demons are primordially subdued (bcom). 3971): intelligence As is said in the Seventy Verses in excellent Qp Going for Refu a Because the sleep of ignorance has been cleansed And because intelligence is vast with respect to the knowable. enlightened speech and ornamental are without is exception genuinely perfect (sangs) of rdzogs-Da) the teacher or buddha. however. And in the Suoolementary Magical filet (NGB.means the appearance of desired attributes Just as in (de-bzhin) appear.

and does not abide in their extremes. in a magical display of contemplation as the nature of self-manifesting excellent pristine cognition. It does incorrect (as some declare) that the word transcendent ('das) was aided by the Tibetans and does not exist in the Sanskrit (equivalent-. spontaneously retinue present and such (excellencies). the transcendence of sorrow without abiding is the rank of Samantabhadra. For it is taught that one who hae accomsan. This surpasses those other body endowments of the emanational and so forth 30 which are ordinary and therefore not the great rapture. Now. 352 . without for location. The demon of the divine prince is subdued because the phenomena which would cause obstruction do no harm.e. is and for one who is not born there is no death.- the sense of the word hhhgj4 takes recourse to both Sara and nirvana.the way in which the four demons are emotions subdued: The demon of conflicting is subdued because the nature of the five conflicting emotions is primordially present as the five pristine cognitions. so that they are neither to be accepted not rejected. plished bhaffavan). (mi-Qnas-pa'i mva-nzan-las-'das) and spontaneously he is naturally present for the sake of living beings because not abide in extremes of existence and quiescence. because if The demon of the components components are subdued there is no death the not aggregated. said It is that the Teacher was endowed with great regard he is rapture (longs-svvod r_hen-oo) other because. Then the demon of the lord of death is subdued because without conflicting emotions one is not born in samsara.i.

Point. excepted and of all excellencies of the emanational buddha-body all it omiting none at med-ra). is Without difference (tha-mi(rant-bzhin) 1") in essence. in east. excellencies of the buddha-body of perfect rapture none imi-lus). uniting both samsara and nirvana. the nature indivisible spontaneously ( flbver-med) with respect to reality because it is present. and indestructible mind low indestructible speech (asuns-daps) (t-ures ) such of all the tath&gatas (de-bzhin gshezs-oa thaws-cad-?.past. There are however some pitakas which speak four times as the perfect site. without conjunction or disjunction from the beginning. there are those who gird the solid mountain of wrong view with a dense forest of error saying. of the Indestructible is the great identity (bda-"(rdo-rie) body (sku-dance). "This text is erroneous with respect to in time all because there are explained to be other four times of times are the whereas (texts) no more than three mentioned". and who do not even On this verb' provisionally perceive discrimination between there. the the as Aksobhya and Dipamkara who reside in the expanse of ten directions indefinite. and and of the four times ma-vin) of future It is undifferentiated from and without distinction of of (sc so the intention of all excellencies without the all buddha-body reality exception (ma-lu4). Abhirati present. some who explain that in this text reality is There are all- pervasive.This fect very intention of the self-manifesting It buddha-body of not per- rapture is revealed to be all-pervasive and different from nvid) the nature 31 of all things.yd). the third age. the second age and . (ohvo¢s-bcu) of space such as (dies-bzhi)-.

it abides in esms1re when there has been no experiential However in cultivation. and in the Treasury dissolution. The Intermediate Mother (T. 45-93) present and also speaks of four times. even for instant. It says in the Hundred Parables rP--Qs (T. There are indeed no sentient beings who are untrained by the buddhas. 9) says: Subht3ti. Precious 9Amig (T. The Buddha will not pass beyond time. _the Abhidharma (T. But for the sake of his sons requiring training. .the ao89) degenerate age. is certain to teach in forms which grant appropriate instruction. but When liberated an by the teaching of the doctrine one does the spirituality of the not. 340): The ocean domain of sea monRters May well pass beyond time. in the world-system of sentient beings there are no sentient beings untrained by the Tath&gata. past. destruction and inconceivable. future. occurs this fusion (of sentient being and buddha) time but) in (not indefinite future time. there is mention of the four processes of creation. forget buddhas. the fourth time) is held by some to mean that the seed of a sentient being is transformed into a Buddha once the doctrine but that has been studied and experientially cultivated. be If these texts were also held to Indefinite time (i. The Pagoda QL stability.e. namely.

What else is there to say? Similar passages are also found in the Sutra p_f Compession's 1dhl. This is because buddha-body. the instruction. 216) that beings are trained by pious attendants. Thus they performed acts of benefit. You may ask. some of indirectly and some through diverse emanations. apart . in this respect. Again.However. benefit These acts the were performed because the Sugata had conferred empowerment of great light rays ('od-zer chef. TathAgata. when case: self-centred buddhas and bodhisattvas but not by the as for example when ManJu ri utters the eulogy and UdAyi is sent to instruct King Suddhodana? That is not the behalf Those (bodhisattvas and pious attendants) acted on of others having been encouraged to do so through the Tathagata's spirituality. the power of spirituality. some directly. speech and mind-- the inexhaustible wheels uninterrupted of adornment time-- which belong to Akanistha and are in is not gathered within that process. and because. creation. is it not said in the R6tyB Which Digoe1s the Grief 2f A1atahatru (T. fourfold there are some who perceive incorrectly. dissolution the nature and of stability be the four times. excellent some description and mental training which are observed to pious attendants. self-centred buddhas the and bodhisattvas who have attained empowerment of are his blessing the Tathagata. extent by ordinary persons. 112) : SAriputra.-oo'i dbane-bskur) and so forth on the conquerors' sons who had obtained the (bodhisattva-) levels.Se Lotus (T. holding the process to of destruction.

The Pig = Precious Gems (T. preserved and destroyed. future present are compounded time relative appearances.from phenomena which are created.. indefinite time of the result is present in a perpetual continuous cycle because it is unchanging in the field the of the spontaneous Bounteous Vairocana Array. When indefinite time is classified.. in any (Secondly). that the three times are timeless. future or present dimension. the process does not include the time when there is rielther creation nor destruction. This refers to the originally pure mind-as-such and the reality or real nature of all things. In this. the real nature of mind and phenomena is indefinite or inconceivable in time because it does not abide past. 494): . whereas the unchanging reality is indefinite or the time of inconceivable ultimate reality. It is said in the Tantra S2f th Atakra (T. among which the first is the indefinite time of the ground. the indefinite time of the path refers to the genuine intelligence of the yogis who realises during meditatve He who realises (Thirdly). our (rNying-ma) tradition and however. the three or divisions of past. it has three aspects. 45-93) says: KaAyapa.

3-46. characteristic.3-60. 350) is the detailed exegesis of the classthe ification of perfect rapture which has three parts. teacher and retinue. the conclusive or location to be reached." ii Akanistha means "highest" or "that which is The unique characteristic of Akanistha is that there locations surpassing that in which one then characteristic of are no Now. highest it The characteristic of the Akanistha location) of the buddha-body of perfect rapture is the that is supporting ground from which appear. the emanational body arises and continues to endowed with the five certain- . (The Sanskrit term) not base or lower.4): excellent location comprises an overview and an interlinear verbal commentary. of the Akanistha or highest location of the buddha-body which reality is that it is the supporting ground from buddha-bodies of the two form arise. classifica-cion and rejection of Putationo concerning it. So it is that all things are gathered within the essence of the Detailed Exegesis of the Classification of Perfect Rapture The latter (see p. and the former (34. detailed exegeses of the excellent location. The Excellent Location The (34.2) has four sections: definition. namely. other the abides.The great appearance of pristine cognition occurs in unwavering time because it is naturally radiant.

of the body of perfect The first is not located in It is the essence peripheral or central. of the genuine conclusive goal Akanis tha the buddhas: and it is called the or highest location of genuine meaning. iii The classification has three aspects: the Akanistha ar highest location of the body of reality. the palace of reality's expanse. 828) : The location of the Teacher. The distinction and the pure lands or fields (of the buddhas) is one that is made between the field of training through the emanational body and the fields of the body of perfect rapture and the body of reality. it . of genuine meaning. any spatial direction. rapture and of the emanational body. Such is also said in the All-Accom- p1ihi nz Kin (T. palace It of light from the along with its central appearance the and is naturally produced as an great pristine reality.ties. with the five pristine cognitions. is as follows: Akanistha. cognition expanse of Buddha--body Spontaneously present as the enlightened family endowed is unchanging at all times. the buddha-body of reality. of The characteristic (of the Akanistha or highest emanational which location) all the body is that it is supreme the world-system ( among the locations appear in and it is the 33 highest of the five kinds of pure abode uddhanivasal. Is explained to be the highest location The Akanistha of the body of perfect rapture appears as deity of a celestial retinue. free from all conceptual elaboration.

they themselves are the mandala of the conquerors. not think that he does not reside within a single atomic particle. Therein the field of the spontaneous Bounteous do Array unimpededly appears. Vol 15) says: Abandoning the Pure Abode. apart from that. there is no need to search for this location as one that is spatially limited by the intellect. Transcending unity and diversity. is transcended. NGB. He is the original treasure of the greater 3u vehicle Who appears at each instant to those disciples Who have abandoned all obscurations. with his mudr.e. In the supreme realm of Great Akanistha Is the spontaneously present body of the Lord of the enlightened families. Surpassing mundane that which is present within its display is appearances. 44: realms of pure form) 1095) : On the surface of a single atom Are as many buddhas as there are atoms. and. The words "abandoning the Pure Abode" here indicate the that it (i. One should know that wherever the distinctions of enlightened attributes appear through the power of pure reality's expanse. It says in the Aspiration QL. Good conduct (T.The Indestructible Reality g_t the arcical Net (szyu-'phrul rdo- Lia. 359 . Therefore.8. indefinite because it manifests in and of itself wherever the buddhas reside. this is The common form of all the buddhas.

Amitabha and the enlightened family the lotus. instantly as this apparition also reality. 360 . appears the buddha-body of without dichotomy of past and future. of manifest in and of themselves in the in infinity clusters. are Arroghasiddhi and the enlightened expanse family of activity spontaneously present. the central deities and their retinues which of the uncommon doctrines of the greater appear are vehicle. is called the Great Akanistha of the Therein Vairocana and the enlightened Aksobhye and the family of of enlightened family indestructible reality. are But not at all identical because they appear nor do they form a multiplicity because to be they are self-manifestations of that same buddha-body of perfect rapture. tathagata. celestial their respective r. a treasure they for are the disposition of the buddha-body of perfect rapture. manifest in and of itself. In this way. This field and its appearances as buddha-body and pristine cognition comprise the common form of the body of perfect rapture of all the buddhas. They are not within the perceptual range of all.This ('or-min chen-tQ) because it contains no extraneous raptures apart from the display location buddhahood. When all obscurations have been abandoned. of Ratnasambhava and the enlightened family of precious and gems. but appear in conformity with (the perception of) all buddha-bodies of perfect rapture.andala- These apparitional buddha-bodies and the appearances of pristine cognition diverse.

15) says: Estimated as twice the size Of the mundane Akanistha. its abodes natural appearance and is superior to both the Akanistha of the pure Akanistha of the to emanational body of expression who appears terrestrially. its adornments which are not to be renounced.the of adornment which are inexhaustible wheels Speech. Vol.The not words within "who appears to those disciples" indicate that he is the "abandoned the perceptual range of those who have obtained (bodhisattva) levels because they have incompletely all obscurations. and conceptual with the natural expression of five enlightened attributes-. with a central roof. extremes. Because body (this Great Akanistha) which of perfect rapture the is the pure field of the buddhamanifests in and of itself. The essence of this buddha- field transcends the three being. mind. (NOB. Endowed eternalism & nihilism. Square in shape. with attributes and activities-- the celestial palace bedecked psrfeet ornaments of appearance appears throughout the expanse of space. . And it is the Perfect in identity of the five enlightened attributes. the buddha-body. nonelaboration. The celestial palace is located." As for the appearance of enlightened attributes in this location. namely those of being 8. the 0-ALDIG Mk27 nal flg.

The Collection 9f thz Greater Vehicle (T. The Eulozv f aea1ity (T. However the fields of the body of perfect rapture have simply been distinguished in accordance which with those aspects of the body of perfect rapture through the respective conquerors obtained enlightenmment. 4048) says: Because there is no apprehension of self There are no differences within this location. cognition it is in this location where expanse and pristine of tc merge without duality that the apparitional nature the buddha-body of perfect rapture itself Lhe $xr. The mighty lord here refers to the buddha-body of perfect rapture because Because he holds sway over the genuine properties of all things.anse arises. this nature is common to all the bodies of perfect rapture of all the buddhas. But it is differently named in accordance with Those who pursued it in the past. If buddhahood has not been obtained in this way in the self- of perfect rapture.Furthermore. it is impossible to array the. The beautiful forms of Akanistha. 1118) says: I speak having merged three things together: The supreme location of the mighty lord. 110) : . there are no dissimilar or different appearances which are established. and consciousness. lamp (of enlightenment) in the world and then act on behalf of living beings.e 9oun eons Az-r" IT. It says in the Sutra Qg tt.

2.I The perfect buddhas do not perform the buddhas' deeds in the realm of desire Until they have attained buddhahood in Akanietha. field of the emanational body of natural expression which is revealed for the sake of terrestrial beings Thirdly. As the same text says: Transcending those locations Which are the formless. the natural Great Perfection or the excellent doctrine of Atiyoga is revealed through the buddha-mind of natural blessing body of perfect The 35 to spiritual warriors by the Teacher Samantabhadra who himself appears as rapture. in the pure self-:manifesting mandala. And similarly those which are perceived. so that their location is also described accordingly. the As our text says purposefully (Ch. Other texts also contain statements which conform to this. 17): tathagata himself conversed with the tathagata himself. in this location. desire and form (realms). The conquerors of this (realm) transcend the three world-systems. the Akanietha who require training. 36 or highest location of the emanational body comprises both the. is revealed and the Akanistha of the Pure Abodes which for the sake of beings who combine both 363 (celestial . The power of the buddhas resides In the mandala of the Bounteous (Array).

and of Karmaprasiddhi in the 37 In these five fields.18): In the supreme unsurpassed abode of Akanistha. Then the ten levels are sequentially purified. of Sukhavati in the west. whence light rays are emanated. to a retinue comprising bodYinorth. 364 . as on a mirror. 17-. doctrines (Ch. the Teacher in form of the five enlightened families naturally manifests the common and uncommon of the greater vehicle from his visage and the tip of his tongue. When the retinue beholds the buddha-body in this way. Just as (when) exposed on a mirror All actual sallowness (of complexion) can be removed. 6. But discloses through his buddha-body The doctrines that are appraised. does not divulge The supreme buddha-speech in that previous way. The former comprises the fields of the citadel of Akanistha or the Bounteous Array in the centre. sattvas of the tenth level. He is held to purify say s This text obscurations through his mirror-like appearance. of (3rimat) adorned with precious gems in the south. to retinues of bodhisattvas. of Abhirati in the east. who. The buddha-body (is present) as Vairocana.and terrestrial attributes). The inestimable depth of their obscurations to enlightenment Appears on the buddha-body. And unsurpassed enlightenment is genuinely obtained.

The And then abide on the tenth level.The time (when teaching is given in this Akanistha of the emanattonal body) is a constant cycle or inexhaustible wheel of In particular. of conduct based on devotion. of the sandalas five enlightened families who form the peaceful and wrathful deities manifestly appear the MahBwoga. The retinue is also explained to comprise bodhisattvas or spiritual warriors. Cloud of Doctrine. Are revealed as the retinue of the buddha-body of . The teacher reveals the location Of the body of perfect rapture To be the zenith of all symbolic worlds. and teach the vehicles of Yoga and The field (in which this occurs) is also described as "the zenith" 38 It is said in the Ali-Acc is supramundane. Among the locations. As the same text says: The retinue of the Teacher. the body of perfect rapture Is as follows: Those who have transcended the levels Of the four kinds Joyful. (step ) because it olishine king (T. the celestial palace Of the Akanistha citadel is explained To be the highest of locations. 39 Who have dominion over the first (bodhisattva)-level.

it also says. It is not a coarse material object. foremost MaJor the buddhas appear in the world. which is adorned with the Therein. the form-realms their respective including this world of Patient Endurance (SAhAloka- AWUL). associated in with the fourth of level of meditative world- concentration systems. The same text Who reside in Akanistha with the perfect Rapture of pristine cognition. whose doctrine conforms to that of the . As for the way in which this is The buddha-body of Through its explained. perfect rapture teaches own essence. but a location formed of pure-essences. The latter (see which p. the nature of light. and at that time the of emanations is revealed to be a buddha adorned with and minor marks. 364) concerns the Akanistha of the Pure Abodes is revealed for (beings who) combine (celestial and terresThe trial attributes): supreme location which conforms to the perception of sentient beings of the six classes is the Akanistha or highest location of the five classes of deities of the Pure Abodes.The doctrines (taught in this context) are revealed to be the intention says: of buddha-body and pristine cognition.

That one then teaches in all directions in order to train the limitless deities. holders of gnostic mantras through the many It 1 vehicles of Carys. and (the causal vehicles) Perfections.body of perfect rapture. and there is no other (location) higher than this symbol which illustrates the expanse of aware Akanistha is the pristine cognition of awareness which qualitatively realises the abiding nature of material substances because it is the location in which the The reality. 4756). which it says in the Eve-Ovening Commentary 113 (P. The mighty accomplished masters and so forth Furthermore. the space (vagina) of the female consort. is the be&ause other location where the secret buddha-body resides . accomplished masters and mighty KriYa. including the Transcendental Such is also said in In beautiful Akanistha. The appears in the shape and colour of the celestial cognition because it is the location where the buddha-body of perfect rapture resides. among the Pure Abodes. a (location) it. Yogatantra and so forth. higher than is the and there is no other conventional Akanistha palace. there is no other awareness higher than that. was composed by the master Buddhaguhya: The true Akanistha is the expanse of reality because it abode where all buddhas reside. The secret Akanistha.

secret and conceptual Akanisthas are gathered within that because therein the path of the emanational body is the experientially cultivated. location than it within Although these six definitions of Akanistha are found. be no need to and (it and symbolic mandalas which has also been said that) the genuine teach those requiring training would 368 . For the true Akanistha and the aware Akanistha are gathered in the buddha-body of reality: the symbolic Akanistha is gathered in the buddha-body of perfect rapture.than it which there are no higher The levels of the Path or enlightened in attributes. they are all gathered within the first. Palace that of higher Akanistha. Akanistha conception The mundane of in is the beings apex for the five classes deities which higher belonging sublime to the Pure Abodes and is the location reside because there is no the form realm. and the other three kinds of Akanistha body-- are gathered within the emanational while the mundane Akanistha is material. iv Concerning the rejection of disputations (with respect to the overview there of the of the excellent location): mind It has been said that the if was no-one of independent to be trained in there would field self-manifesting the doctrine: buddha-body of perfect rapture where the tUls-dl ? teach (BZ.vu-'ohrui) was taught. a conceptual Akanistha. novice meditates on the celestial is the location where the mandala of contemplation resides because there is no other higher than that which grasps the whole meaning.

This opinion indicates that you have not arrived at the intention (of the buddhas). a the buddha-body mirror. it is through that that they hear and apprehend the doctrine. your as the following: argument may be refuted by literary sources such 46 Derived from the distinctions of actual buddha-mind. reflection so appears on the surface of a The emanations who are indeed without conceptualising thought do possess pristine cognition. If emanations lacked the pristine cognition of awareness the defect would be implicit that Sakyamuni.not have to teach the emanations of their own minds because these emanations would be witr:out conceptualising thoughts. (Ch. 17): with tathegata purposefully conversed himself. Is the self-manifesting mind of the conqueror and so And forth. It is because there are beings to be trained by the emanations that the doctrine had to be taught. Furthermore. The Lord of Secrets (Guhyapati Vajrapeni) was required to teach posterity. The 2. Moreover. the tathiigata . the Lord of Secrets and others would also lack the pristine cognition which quantitatively knows (phenomena) and qualitatively knows (the view). Therefore both the retinue and emanations must have independent minds. the genuine those and symbolic (mandalas) are not purposefully revealed to who require themselves of but they &rise manifest in and of as the spontaneously perfect enlightened attributes training.

the argument which purports that there are those to be trained with independent minds in the field of self-manifesting buddhabody of perfect rapture is farcical. 16-17) : Holding sway over the very expanse of the real. There are also some who astonishingly hold that there are those to be trained. There are some who hold that the spiritual warriors mentioned in this (Tantra tenth the Secret Nucleus) are spiritual warriors of the who do level.And (Ch. neither nor negative. Just as frescoes (of a central deity and retinue) (images are painted on the single surface of of) a wall. These people have not pristine cognition understood which the nature of the self-manifesting In arises symbolically. short. who listen to the doctrine with mind because (that teaching situation) is effected 147 an independent by their aspirations. 1.. not direct their attention towards the the spontaneous retinue natural mandala. The mandala of pristine cognition has a disposition of spirituality. a veritable monkey's well as their Briefly. However the central deity and do appear.. seated on thrones. radiant in its images Of contemplation and its pure magical display. This self-manifesting nature. or as a the central deity and retinue are fashioned from single lump of gold. and their essence is explained to be the disposition of the single savour of pristine positive cognition. dance. the three buddha-bodies as limit- emanations and fields are inconceivable and .

4). . There is neither bias nor partiality in the fields of the eugatas. One should also realise that within this very field there are other inconceivable inexpressible qualities. It is threefold: The field of and the the excellent the buddha-body of perfect rapture. and yet not perceived by those who are born blind. as in one's own mere perception. buddha-body and whatever of is pervaded by space is pervaded by the reality and the buddha-body of perfect rapture. This structure (of the excellent location of topic.less. Though it appears to be impure. it should be regarded as a pure field ra'_). 44) says: Even on a single tip of hair 48 Is an unthinkable array of fields.2-60. Though they have various shapes. And they do not become intermingled. 357) is the interlinear commentary (concerning location. 46. The Sj3tra QI She Arra_ved 3ououet (T. One should know this moonlight circumstance of ours to resemble that of sunlight and which are indeed without impurity.er than (impure). excellent array. Therefore. whatever is pervaded by sentient beings is pervaded by emanational body and its enlightened activity. the celestial palace. has been clearly The latter (see p. they do not differ.

and so equal to space. mind.A). (ezhal-vas-khane) which is treat because its attributes.. It is naturally radiant (seal-ba) as a wheel ('khor-1o). Thereupon (. higher because there is no other the than this buddhafield of appearances.. with four spokes and axle. palace (comments on Ch. supreme among all It is without the ten directions nadir. completely uninterare inconceivable. dimensions and so forth forth blazing the infinite light kQz. rupted ( yen2A-BS MA-had-DA).CL) with ('bar- and sun-like brilliance of jewels (rin- in because it desired is spontaneously present is materialised from the glow of the five pristine which all that is (mg-shes). without ) being limited by or centre (mtha'-dang dbus). including apex or zenith and base or In (T18) that limit- less (tshad-med-Da) self-manifesting location the ground (i) distinct is not a spatial dimension to which one can objectively refer. The abode of Akanistha ('aQ_ (med-DA mid SnAA) inconceivable extremes (field) where the buddha-body of perfect rapture resides is as space. because the buddha-body. cognitions this palace conclusively unchanging throughout the ten directions of The dimensions of are space (hGQ38-Dcur).i The first (comments on Ch. ii The second concerning the celestial 3): There is the celestial palace essence. speech and adornment. Bounteous Array. 1. of five colours which symbolime that the five conflicting emotions are cut off by the unimpeded energy of pristine cognitions (ye-shes-kvi) beginning with the mirror- green in nature. the inexhaustible wheels of . 3). 1.

three. yellowness.six. buddhas (astadaaamind &. ten consummations of the material elements (zad-car ill) are those of earth.three: making the eighteen in all. air. 4020) says: Obeisance to you. the guru Of conduct and realisation. noise. unbalanced does not in equanimity do not which make their distinctions-. recollection. whiteness.In shape. ative that they degenerate perseverence. and that they enter into the perception of pristine cognition which is unobstructed and peded unim- with respect to past. cognitions. contemplation. without different bewilderment. are water. redness. which water and so forth. space. to and consciousness. (yon-tan doac-tu med-ne) such as the distinct properties of the buddhas.enikadnarma) are that the buddha-body. Of pristine cognition and enlightened activity. Accordingly the Ornament the Sutras Qf Vehicle (T. These ten attributes. And of all pious The attendants and self-centred buddhas. discriminthat the awareness or liberation-. and speech and are mind.six. blueness. it is fashioned as a square (gru-bzhir gyur-ea) because enlightened eighteen attributes elements. Now the eighteen distinct properties of the forgetfulness. devotion. free. 49 present and future-. fire. the consurmnation of the material and subjugation through charisma. activities of their body. impervious are perfect in their .. pristine speech and mind precede pristine cognition and pursue cognition-.

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formlessness.29 shs Qreater vehicle. 9. The three pristine cognitions which depend on it 374 . charismatic subjugation of all external yellow.ability because independence inner is obtained with 50 respect to the sensory bases and activity fields. the doctrines of the buddhas alone and are Now the mirror-like pristine cognition pacifies the signs of dyYnsmic subject-object dichotomy. red and white-. The eight comprise kinds of subjugation by charisma (zil-enon brzwad) the two charismatic subjugations of all external form. of pristine cognition beginning with the mirror-like one are the not found elsewhere. and non-sentient. The celestial palace on its four sides 1s adorned with (gyiA mdzee-na) quadrangular projecting bays of precious tons che' (rin-oo- slo-bur).which occur because their the appreciated. formed of crystal. Cold. inner beauty is 51 beginning with emptiness. The (perception of) inner form. The same text (ornament at UM ING . formlessness rays is are and the (four) diffusions of light- which colours-. and the appreciation of beauty correspond respectively to the three approaches to liberation. and is the basis from which the other three pristine cognitions arise. ruby and emerald. which occur because inner forms are sentient two charismatic subjugations of external forms. which occur because their inner non-sentient. which acre to symbolise the real nature or superior pristine cognition so called because the four conclusive kinds 52 (lhae-na'i Me-she:). the and sentient perceived. 68-73) says: The mirror-like pristine cognition is unmoving.blue. perceived. making eight in all.

Saneness is that which does not abide in the extremes of samsara particular discernment knows all objects of knowledge distinctly: The pristine cognition of particular discernment Ever unimpeded with regard to all that is knowable. yellow. Is solely like a treasure store Of the contemplations and the dh&ranis. are five pristine cognitions which derive from each of the five basic pristine cognitions. and from the inside respectively combine the colours blue. Through measureless unthinkable emanations It acts on behalf of all sentient beings. red. and white. . The pristine cognition of accomplishment enters activity into enlightened which corresponds to the fortune of those who require training: The pristine cognition of accomplishment Is diversified in all realms. Such pristine cognitions are indeed revealed in the mandala as a In order to illustrate that there symbol of the single essence. the term "quadrangular projecting bay" also (implicitly) indicates the five-layered walls (of the palace) which which raturallw express the five pristine cognitions. Rreen.

Both the shapes of these and so so square in the centre. which form the precious gems of pristine cognition (ye-shes rin- dbyibs-danc (palaces)-- kha-doa). It possesses this inconceivable pristine cognition (ye-ahas bam_eyis mi-khyab-o$) because each (of the and within these twentyTo five) pristine cognitions is fivefold. symbolise this. mind. conforming respectively in shape and colour. bulbous as a vase. speech. crescent in the east. but immeasurable. the colour of the celestial palace also radiates of distinctly the colours of all the countless celestial palaces its four directions and central area.'il-'khor thams-cad) of the indestructible body. which derive from the basic celestial palace.yad-oar-du ka t hB-d&d-na' i bMre-brae). yellow and are not blurred in their different details extraordinary (kh.The spire (rtse-mo) of the celestial palace.white. . Now this celestial palace is also revealed to be not one finite thing. in which. but 33 Via) in an inconceivable array. (1A---apes-DA) and their colours-.'e-shes) central to 'khyil-oa) throughout the four times. illustrates the pristine cognition of symbol reality's expanse. It is a all of the great pristine cognition (. five a further fivefold subdivision is also distinguished. all mandalas (dk. their natural and are of a single essence (non-bo-nyid ¢cis-pa'1). attributes and activities of (jsyj) all the buddhas of the ten directions and four times (nnvoss-bcu are dus-bzhi'i sans-rQ 'as ) without exception (ma-lus-oa t (so-so. ma-vin) in not distinguished from one another expression. as previously explained. forth forth (1a-sods-og).

array. shapes. Ch. with the ornaments of precious its gems. the cornice symbolises the unchanging pristine that cognition. between yak-tail silk fringes and taaaled adorned pendants made of jewels. The former (comments or. 1. The spire of is also with corbelled brackets (Du-shu). brightly and is pleasant. and above that are the battlements (ohren¢-ha) and at (chun-'ohvane) of the roof-parapet them (kha-bad) from which are supported. colours and so forth. the benefit symbolise 55 of living beings emerges dis- the three buddha-bodies are without conjunction or The battlements that living beings are Protected by compassion. Hanging therefrom are garlands are intervals including silken hangings wreaths in the shape of sun and moon. 4): the Above five-layered walls of natural expression materialised which appear in the forms and colours of diverse gemstones from the essence. 377 . it frieze Endowed (spar-bu'i rwvan) with a lattice work ornaments which radiate without obscuration shines Now. concerning the excellent comprises both the array of the ornaments (of the celestial palace) and excellent array of its thrones. and the spire symbolises that which is Peerless because it is hi g hest of all .The palace is superior ('ohaas-na) appear to pious 54 in particular to those attributes which and bodhisattvas: attendants. excellent the of its field. beams there is the cornice (nha-¢u). (r=n-oo-che On- pristine cognition the (ye-shea). The lattices symbolise because Junction. self-centred buddhas and it is immeasurable in (dnaa-tu med-_2A) the extent (i$had) iii The third.

t and inner ornaments. It is endowed with ornabedecked (klubs) itents (may inwards another. Spontaneously that and naturally present (rant-bvung). neither because impurity. luxuriously and adorned with a beauteous array. penetrating outwards and to the core. all desired attributes arise as ornaments There are some who affirm that (the celestial. the with ana-tshoQs).Moreover. without obscuring (mi-bsgribs-Dar) one This illustrates that the nature of mind is primordial inner radiance and STmmeasurable in enlightened attributes. And the offerings diverse forms to the deities within it are the (szuss Sthoirs sounds (s¢ra sna-tshogs).g khyud-can) adorned with entrance in each of its four directions in order to this spontaneous celestial palace of Samantabhadra is 378 triple illustrate a . upon plinths (for the offering goddesses) of the desired attributes there emanate throughout the ten directions of the celestial palace clouds endowed make of the five 56 groups of five goddesses which they sna- with desired diverse attributes. diverse scents (dri diverse savours (r. nor unpleasant. ) which radiate (anal-ba' i) . inconceivable (bgam-gvis mi-khyab-oa) in details. are inasmuch they are not coarse clear. sna-tshogs) and diverse objects of contact (re¢-bva sna-tshogs) which intermingle ('khrigs-oar) cloud-mass in the ten directions (vhvogs-bcur). It that has elbrasured gates (SJ. pleasant However that is incorrect in this situation the buddhas' own perception is without The celestial as palace and all its outer bt. of they symbolise the display. palace) is neutral.

nature of emptiness things. anything lessness rejection. from the very moment at which it Aspirationand is the absence of which proof. the It four comprises immeasurables are spontaneously present through natural momentum derived from its disposition. The natural expression of mind is Tathigata. are namely emptiness. is present once the nature of these primordial inner radiance and has been This uncompoundedness when classified is both which twofold. and actual non-compoundedness. in silence. aspirationlessness. refutation. If I teach it no-one will understand. where he attained also said of it: 57 I have found a nectar-like doctrine-- Profound. radiant and uncompounded. absorbed in meditation In the grove of the (Bodhi) liberation. Tree. primordially pure and inwardly radiant. . simple. The former is the mind-assuch. I will remain right here in the forest. on which it says in Transcendental Perfection the Discriminative Awareness jn l:1thJ Thousand Linen (T. The mind. 8) This mind is not the inner radiance. calm. is the primordial essenceless all Signlessness is the absence of independent existence in appears. sienleseness.entered ('Ju¢-DA) substances through (n1a8) the fourfold These approach to liberation apprehend (rnam-Dar t ar-Da bzhi'i M=) from obscurations which and signs. acceptance And actual non-compoundedness is the effortless mind- as-such realised.

If one perceives correctly. desires that those who are tormented by suffering might be sympathetic joy which desires that those in separated therefrom. loving kindness which without happiness might encounter desires that sentient compassion happiness.e. which desires and and for that those who have attachment hatred might be separated from all attachments and near. 3786): in it there is nothing to be clarified. Nor is there anything at all to be established. those these far and four and then abide in even-mindedness. Because of immeasurables have emerged from the disposition non-referential and signiess spirituality. 4020) : Endowed with love for sentient beings. Correctly regard the genuine reality. each gate is embrasured and adorned with three successive entrances. namely. it says in the Orna_ m&n. Obeisance to you. Intending them not to be separated (from happiness). in order . (of the and It is explained that the four gates symbolise celestial that palace) the four immeasurables. i. one will be liberated. Intending them to encounter (happiness) And be separated (from suffering). the four immeasurab- lee) beings which are. The latter (sort of uncompoundedness.And in the Ornament Lm rent Realisation (T.t set the Sutras = She Greater Vehicle (T. intent on spiritual and temporal well-being. possession equanimity hatred of happiness might not be separated therefrom.

ings pleasant which emptiness of a single and which thus the release from all subjective grasping. thus is the activity field of infinite space: and the and of liberation which Pristine infinite realises all things to be a display of mind and cognition. the cegeation . the true existence of outer and inner phenomena not as a as an objective form: as subjective form but regards all is a tt. and which thus is Perception. without the subject-object dichotomy in all and which thus is the which activity field of nothing-at-all: the the liberation pacifies and which thus entire range of conceptual elaboration and signs. the liberation which regards and reference to (ones own) inner form.' non- liberation which never has objective reference or subjective apprehension with respect to all things Of sams6ra and nirvana and so forth.The eight namely: display (ones of liberation (rnam-oar thar-na dr¢vad) are the liberation which regards outer forms to be a magical of appearance and emptiness because the apparitions of kinds own) inner form are unimpeded. which the thus is the activity is field consciousness. which thus regards the release from the apprehension of the liberation which savour. liberation which respects. 58 . is the activity field of neither perception and no. and which thus regards the a mistaken dichotomy apprehension of the true existence of appearances as of subjective and objective outer forms without forms. liberation which perceives the space-like significance of mind-as-such.

four steps. by their embroidered hangings. 59 on which there is tiered (bane- pediment (rta-baba dane-ldan-oa) with four terraced steps gyp) of eight units (snam-ohran). gems. lotus (ma-cha"). from golden bells and garlands of trinklets. outside each of the four gates there gate. Tassles (zar-tsha¢s). There are Borne who hold it to symbolise the entrance into Atiyoga from the lower eight vehicles. However. 15) : It (the pediment) is equipped in (ascending) order With base (fig). assorted hangings Silken ( _'Dhyan¢). making eight in all. and there are some who claim it 382 is the . a an a aerial rider Victory banner. The (Sanskrit) word a toran8 conveys the meanings of gatekeeper. silk fringes. two deer (the turn pediment) it is adorned motion. which support the and above a four indestructible beams. (each) with four sub-units. two on each them side.To represent the perfect enlightened attributes of these (eight are kinds of liberation). the divine robes. Furthermore it says in the Oceanic Magical lie. platform on which descends from a horse. Vol. who Beneath a parasol of precious with a doctrinal wheel. it is held above all to refer to the tiered pediment with its which adorns terraced the air (above the celestial palace). and sounds which emerge from each of flapping of twenty-four flags (ba-dan) attached to the four corner-terraces (khe-khyer/vedi). and a staircase.i (NGB. in this context. garlands ('Dhrenz-ba). four pillars. victory barner. hangings (chun-'ohvane). And a garuda with diverse heads (sna-tshoos khyunQ-meo).

which without (mpd-oar) existing as different nature.entrance effected through meditation into the eight kinds of liberation. are irrelevent here because (the symbolism) must apply to the enlightened attributes of the buddha-level alone.from the disposition or the buddha-body reality. concerning the excellent array of thrones.. 5): In order to illustrate that (Samantabhadra) is unawed by the lower vehicles and possesses the four fearlessnesses (ml- . Thus are indeed (Yam) present. (comments The latter. Palace) in a state free from conceptual elaborations. These interpretations. 1.. on Ch. phenomena that Therefore it is said these are contained within (nang-du zvur-oa) (the celestial are extraneous to his own primordially. In order to illustrate that the pristine cognition of the buddhareality free from conceptual elaborations is without body of outer and inner distinctions (nhyi-nang) and that all these enlightened attributes of the buddha-level are not excluded but in all respects indeed contained within (r:.-d11 pyur-oa) it (kun-tu y &). Therein (na). disposition of the Tathagata's spirituality. this celestial palace. the appears as outer (ohvi) buddhafield and all that appears as the inner (ate) times central and deity and retinue is therefore gathered at respects in all in all they (kun-tu) of the essential without abiding nature. however. straying of . Samantabhadra. in whose nature the five appears from All that the lights of pristine cognition brilliantly glow.

have cut off the three poisons at will until obtaining liberation". has a lion throne (sena-ze'1 khri) in The four fearlessnessee are namely the commitment to realisation which is expressed in the words.. ". Renunciation.have They truth. those knowledge of the path on which the five . disillusionment and cessation For the sake of self and others. To symbolise that meanings are contained here which are excluded in the lower vehicles. The ten powers are the ten kinds of knowledge. are 61 so called because they the Ornament abide indesputedly in the Accordingly. the commitment to cessation which is expressed in the words. knowledge of the maturation of the deeds of living beings. palace has an elephant throne (s1ano-no-che'i khri) in the east. and that (Samantabhadra) possesses the ten kinds of power (stobs) with respect to the vehicle.. the Buddha".have renounced all obscurations".. path and the commitment become the which is expressed in the words.&). namely: knowledge of determinate and indeterminate places.. knowledge knowledge volitions their sensory bases. the commitment to renunciation which is expressed in the words. "I. knowledge of those who have supreme acumen who do not.. Unbowed by others v..". (the celestial palace) the centre. 4020) says: Obeisance to you who reveals pristine cognition. of those to be trained.. the Sutras I the Greater Vehicle (T. knowledge of concentration of of the combined diverse diverse and with contemplation and liberation.'ho are eternalistic extremists.. -.

which are emanated according (T. On this subject the Shor Comm entarv 3793) says: Through the four supports (for miraculous abilities) Namely those which. They are so called because the obscurations of knowledge.e. and knowledge of the cessation of their corruption.. to are the minds of living beings and through which acts of benefit then performed. knowledge and the recollection born.. (rta-vi the palace has 63 an "all- supports reverence. subduer of those demons Who thoroughly deceive sentient beings In matters of skillful means. .classes of living beings of progress have been to the three kinds of liberation. Accordingly the same text Obeisance to you. i. 62 covering these ten kinds their ten respective incompatible conditions. (for miraculous ability) are those of aspiration. per- throne mentation 64 and scrutiny. refuge. perseverance. combine training in that contemplations Of aspiration. purity. The four khr1) in the south. says: are subdued. And disillusionment according to the greater vehicle. of the pact knowledge abodes where oneself others of the transference of consciousness at the death of sentient beings and consequent rebirth. mentation and scrutiny. To symbolise that all who require training are swiftly liberated that (Samantabhadra) and possesses the four supports for siraculous knowing" abilities horse (rdzu-'ohrul).

are transformed power over because training. power over deeds because the negative into positive ones. 65 qualitatively and luantitatively. exception. The no death. power over necessities because the celestial treasury is deeds of others birth possessed.To symbolise that (Samantabhadra) holds and sway over all appearances the possesses the ten kinds of power (dha). palace has a peacock throne (r arbia'i khri) of precious gems in the west. emanations spontaneously emerge in accordance with the power over aspiration because one's intentions and future aeons. systems power over pristine cognition who because acts of benefit are performed by those including have mastered the five great pristine cognitions. the mirror-like one: are and power over doctrine because all things without actually known. The same text says: . revealing for example that it is unclear whether the worldlarger. power over miraculous abilities at will in a because all world-systems are penetrated become smaller or the mustard seed mustard seed. are fulfilled during oceans of past of power over devotion with the because devotion acts benefit to be are performed in accordance of those trained. power over the mind which knows the minds of living beings.

symbolise er. The supported meaning. The Ornament Sues jaf the Greater vehicle (T. The four awarename- nesses are the four kinds of genuine particular awareness. And explains the supporting (doctrine). awareness of the language (skad) which occurs when knowledge is revealed gods. of awareness meaning (d=) which occurs when the meaning of that (essence) revealed is through many modes of expression. the throne (nam-mkha' ldinz-ei a shanc-shanz or bird hLj:1) nature kZl in the north.i3 es-Da unimpeded with reference to past. 11020) says: Obeisance to you who excellently reveals An intelligence that is never impeded. . future and present time. of languages of sentient beings including the brilliance feared when and awareness of samsara (or the courage) which occurs because 68 is not the doctrine is explained. lb'.lightened through aed=Qa) that living beings are trained by diverse performed activities and that acts of benefit are three pristine cognitions of unimpeded nature and (tho¢s-oa palace 67 has four kinds of genuine particular awareness. the buddha-speech. awareness of the doctrine which occurs when the essence of all things with all their causes and results is known. The three pristine cognitions of unimpeded are the three fixed gazes of pristine cognition (ye-shes' fuss--oa zgt1ID) which are unattached and r . And the (brilliant) knowledge.

. (the buddha) sits on a peacock activity The buddha-activity is the four kinds of enlightened (the buddha) Through which one is liberated from the four modes of birth. are endowed with solar and lunar disks (nvi-zlai and (dare) to symbolise that they are untainted by (YZL-_MA z29-oa) all defective flaws they 388 are endowed with . buddha) success. Through which one progresses without attachment. the buddha-body of reality. thoroughly subduing the four demons. As a sign of this throne. is of od-peal-ba).ind-as-such. success. mr. As a sign of this To symbolise that natural success. As a sign of this success. and inner radisnce (r_ane-bzhin . (the buddha) sits on the throne of a supreme horse. As a sign of this As a sign of this throne. sits on a bird throne. (the (the buddha) The buddha-mind has ten powers. site on a lion throne. sits on an elephant The buddha-attributes are the four supports for miraculous ability. success. training the ten non-virtues. duality. the way of the perfect conqueror. 11-'khor). The buddha-speech is the ten powers.Furthermore there is w definite description of these seats in the Qf p eecious Fmoowerment (r_n-20-che I ra dbane-Qi The buddha-body is fearless.y1 that skillful means and discriminative awareness are without these (thrones) a.

2 388b .t The Forty-two Peaceful Deities of the Maygjala Cycle Fig.gr .

the classification of the enlightened family. comprises overview and Interlinear commentary. mind. the recogand nition of the enlightened family to which this text belongs. 357). a refutation of the misconceptions of others. I As to the first (the classification of the enlightened family): In general there are five enlightened families when classified according to the result or actual awakening in reality. Each of these is further subdivided into five (minor) namely those of buddha-body. endowed with lotuses. of speech. and the enlightened family of activity. Now. solar and lunar disks.e. It there is the detailed exegesis both an of the an excellent teacher. and mind. the enlightened family of the lotus. the enlightened family of precious gems.5) has three parts. making twenty-five in when the five enlightened families are further Buddha-body. enlightened families. The former (60.4-72. speech.4-87. These are the enlightened family of the tathagata. all. while their retinues (peripheral) each have their seats in their and respective locations. Similarly attributes and activities. subdivided according to or even an innumerable . all these desired qualities are found.(the buddhas) sit on seats in which (edan_1B) formed of precious game (rin-oo-chei). namely. the enlightened family indestructible reality.4): (see p. own are the seats of the central deities (i. upon these five thrones the five conquerors). The Kxcellent Teacher Second X60.

the buddha-mind of buddha-speech is dark blue Amit&bhe. Vairocana. Like space it is unthinkable. indestructible reality. in the enlightened family of the tath&gata. millions or countless enumerations. A80): In the mend alas of the enlightened family The lord of the enlightened family or buddha-mind Is the central deity of that enlightened family. It sews in the Tantra Qf P. attributes activities are yellow Ratnasambhava. the buddha-Speech 390 .moow-rment (dbana-ei revud): The enlightened which has five aspects Is numbered thorough classification In hundreds. the enlightened Furthermore. the the buddha-body is white buddha-mind is dark blue Vairocana. When an enlightened family is distinctly classified in this within that way. which is subsumed particular enlightened family. the buddha-speech is red Amit&bha. It says in the Indestructible Peak (T. Vajrasattva. the central deity of any mandale belongs to the enlightned family of buddha-mind. the buddha-body is white and the as have In the the colours of their respective (deities enlightened family of the lotus. the buddha-body of buddha-speech is white Vairocana. are respectively yellow (Ratnasambhava) and green (Amoghaelddhi). In the and the enlightened family of are green Amoghasiddhi. while the enlightened attributes and activities of . the buddha-mind is dark blue Aksobhya. enlightened others above). In the enlightened family of precious gems.69 quantity of enlightened family families. thousands.

while the other three have the colours of their respective (deities as above). In the enlightened dark family and of activity.buddha-mind of precious gems is dark blue Ratnasambhava. is of the while the other four (pristine In cognitions) are exemplified by the other four (deities). the enlightened attributes are yellow Aksobhya. mirror-like buddha-mind. the pristine cognition particular discernment belongs to Amitlbha who is the buddha-speech. pristine The who pristine cognition of reality's expanse belongs to The is the buddha-body of that buddha-mind. and the pristine is the cognition of accomplishment belongs to Amoghasiddhi who enlightened activity. the pristine cognition of the enlightened family of buddha-mind. in the the the case of the enlightened family of indestructible reality. However. 39i . the others have the colours of their respective (deities as above). the buddha-mind of activity is blue Amoghasiddhi. of sameness Akaobhya pristine is cognition enlightened belongs to Ratnasambhava who of the attributes. that which is the mirror-like pristine central deity. the enlightened activity is green Aksobhya. pristine cognition belongs and to Aksobhya who is the pristine cognition of reality's expanse taught to Vairocana who uncommon is the buddha-body. the case of the enlightened family of the tathizata. 71 Such has been (in the tartras). the mirror-like cognition belongs to Vairocana who is the buddha-mind. 70 This classification is the intention of the uncommon tantras. cognition. Simultaneously.

as stated in the following passages: five pristine The aspects of the component of indestructible reality Are known as the five perfect buddhas (Ch. 44) : Those whc abide well in natural sameness With respect to self and buddhas And are dynamic and non-acquisitive. With purity of form and feeling.Even in the circumstances of impure samsSre buddhahood is held to be Primordially attained in the nature of the cognitions. 2. T. In the Sutra QL Vimalakirti (T. 176) it also says: That which beholds mundane aggregates is the seed of the tathigata. The collected thoughts of living beings are the enlightened 72 On one occasion it is said in the profound Sutra f the Arrayed Bouauet (end avMC hanttra. Become the sugatas. but is produced from marshland. Of perception. so the unsurpassed enlightened mind . consciousness and attention. 2). Just as a lotus is not produced from dry ground.

Sumeru. 393 . 835) : The delusion which is thus gathered in non-conceptualisation Is characteristically devoid of acceptance or rejection. The hatred through which venomous beings are instructed. uncom- pounded state (of aggregates but the unsurpassed enlightened mundane who mind is produced when one has developed the view of to the extent of Mt. 74 And chapter on commitments which are not to be guarded from the Lgs. belongs to the enlightened family of The envy which acts on behalf of living beings and evil karma Because those who misunderstand the sameness of things Have virtuous Characteristically belongs to the enlightened family of activity.s_Q QZ Skillful Means (T. And belongs to the buddha-body. The desire which possesses all things Characteristically the lotus. the enlightened family of the tathagata. the enlightened family of belongs to indestructible reality. Without straying from Characteristically reality's expanse. The pride which arduously imposes sameness on phenomena Characteristically belongs to the enlightened family of precious gems. has conflicting emotions in the Therefore one has the seed of the tath8gata.is not produced among those who have actualised the nirvana).

how. 107): as is said in the Sutra Qf Stt Descent = Lank . Envy with respect to habitual tendencies Becomes one-pointed self-esteem. The desirous sensation of feelings That is revealed is the essence of pride: The identity of the desire for perception Characterises attachment to objects. And for example: There is neither buddha nor sentient being Who have emerged from within this precious mind. everything. This is caused by the flux of The ground-of-all is indeed universal. do the sensory bases of living beings appear to be impure and pure and immaculate. diverse? Although they are Primordially they have emerged through the Power which diversely establishes the variety of deeds. 75 These belong to the enlightened families of the five sugatas. you may ask. Consciousness revealed as hatred Is well known in causal and resultant (teachings). happiness and sorrow in the ground-of-all. and is the support (T. On the other hand.And in the Guhvasamalatantra (T. 442-3): The delusory nature of form that is revealed Is the essence of bondage for the foolish.

According to some s]tras and tantras. Akaobhya. Similarly. It is the ground of rebirth And likewise of purification. habitual tendency into Amoghasiddhi. The ground-ofall is transmuted into the pristine cognition of reality's expanse. these (aggregates consciousness) are held to be purified Into the five pristine cognitions through purificaton and transmutation. Moreover. and consciousness into Buddhalocana. Similarly. the consciousness of the intellect into the pristine cognition of iiito and the consciousness of the five senses the pristine cognition of accomplishment.The ground-of-all is the support of everything. the consciousness of the ground-of-all cognition. is transmuted into the mirror-like pristine the intellect of conflicting emotions into the pristine cognition of particular discernment. On that real nature all pristine cognition is whereas on the ground-of-all that manifests as samsAra the mind of conflicting the consciousness of the ground-of-all. the activating support. feeling into Ratnasambhava. when the ground-of-all appears as impure samsara. the consciousness of the intellect and the conscious- ness of the five senses are supported. sameness. fire into 395 . form is transmuted into Vairocana. it is inseparably present. supported. emotions. while earth is transmuted into water into Mamaki. perception into Amit&bha. But as the real of nature of pure phenomena it is named the pristine cognition reality's expanse.

Then. held on the other hand that (consciousness and so forth) are primordially present as pristine cognition. as when a blanket is transformed by dyes. pristine once the stains have been abandoned. It is as. resembles does pure in the expanse. and that by knowing purificatory to be so. the imaginary thoughts of sa_msara are liberated in pristine cognition. into nature. that Indeed when that lump is intensely heated in fire it appears like Similarly. This is because rejection & purification & transformation are transcended. It is acceptance.. and sense-organs their objects too are transmuted into the essence of the male and female spiritual warriors (i. while the three media (of body. for when a lump of mercury mixed with gold momentarily either fresh butter or mercury rather than gold. which is pure but ostensibly impure because it has been dispelled by present stains the imaginary thoughts and components are turned cognition. By experiencing the profound essential of imagination. SXamol_e. the gold of the Jambhu River.e. mind) with their apprehension are known to be speech and (respectively) transmuted into the gatekeepers. and space into Dhatvidvari. However.Pandaravasinf. in this text (the secret act Nucleus). this samsera is liberated in nirvana. bodhisattvas). but these become into contact with fire. In the manner of ice melting into water. at appear as gold by coming which time the fresh butter colour of the mercury vanishes of 77 itself. The air into Samayat&r&. one should know 396 . the process is not held to to resemble the sort of transmutation which occurs when a alters the ground of purification.

not (Those the mistaken views of the past) are also refuted by the following passage from the means for attainment and Nucleus). of the deities the central one is Buddha and (fourthly) because there is occasion to explain and indicate that this mandala does self- confuse the central deity and retinue present in 79 manifesting ground of pristine cognition. However that is not case (firstly) because the central the seat signifying the lord enlightened family has (the emblems) of a wheel and a because the female consort of the central deity (thirdly) because in the lion. 80 empowerment rituals belonging to this (Secret by the great master Padmasambhava: MOM! which were composed The mirror-like pristine cognition is pure lord Vairocana And the transcendent Together with the mudrA Dhatv1hvar1 Empowers the son of the enlightened family. 397 . 389). there are awareness-holders of spontaneous presence. (secondly) is indeed Akadadhatvidvari. wrathful case of the peaceful deities who emanate from the glow Heruka. Si buddha-level 78 Secondly (see p. there are are provisional liberated of the sublime awareness-holders who and on the from conflicting emotions. there is the recognition of the text) en- lightened family to the which (this belongs: There are those of past belongs thence the of this (text) to the enlightned family of indestructible reality and who have explained that the mandala in that the central deity is Aksobhya.through the experience (results) of the profound path.

lord of all enlightened families. The embodiment of the pristine cognition of reality's expanse is white Aksobhya. in the Vadrasattva for all the alone. Be the lord of all enlightened families and mandalas.mmentarv on the Magical xr-t_ f Manduhri ('dam-doal. surely (the central deity) to be is the Aksobhya because (this text) is explained part of Magical DA)? Het pt Vadrasattva (rdo-rde same-doa' Not so! aoy u-'ohr u1 dra- Otherwise one could not avoid defects such as the implicit conclusion Goddess (T. 836) that the text entitled the Magical Net at the should have a goddess as its central deity. dra-ba'i a unique subdivision of the uncommon tantras. and does not refer to Aksobhya In the Yogatantras (rnal- byor-vi it is also said: 0! Vadrasattva. On the other hand. spiritual warrior of indestructible reality). This follows the same procedure of naming the central deity of any mandala Vajrasattva (i. (Vadrasattva) is explained to be a general term ravud) enlightened families. . which says: The embodiment of the mirror-like pristine cognition is dark blue Vairocana.e. you may ask. Magical Net However. sayu-'ohrul 'grel-oa padma dkar-oo).They are also contradicted by the passage from the White Lotus c.

is there not a contradiction because the body-colour (of Vairocana) is explained to be dark blue? 399 . with the indestructible buddha-body (in that (see is a refutation of the Does this (status of Vairocana as the misconceptions of others: central deity) not. 389). 830) which says: Vairocana. the central deity. Also. In the centre is Therefore in this (Tantra at V. belongs the deity of buddha-mind. Habitual tendency is Amoghasiddhi. 4718). Feeling is Ratnasambhava. tathagatas' while Aksobhya is identified family). the W. you may ask.!1o ' in the RPar-khab Comment-the Ground (2zhi-1a betod-Da) and so commentaries! forth because they are not Tibetan You have 82 not even seen the Flash CDlendou_r IT. And consciousness is Aksobhya. contradict the following stateiii Thirdly p. because its mandala to the enlightened family of the buddha-mind of the buddha-mind. 83 Perception is Amit&bha.It is improper to have firm conviction (P. there ment which is found in other tantras: Form 1s itself Vairocana.ha Secret Nucleus) the central deity is Vairocana.

In addition. within a It says in the Tantra Qj Intention: the space of five lights. "dark the expression "king of consciousness" and the term the blue" both refer to the buddha-mind of buddha-mind in enlightened family of the tathagata. This is and with to reference to the general five enlightened such families. Aksobhya to be the buddha-mind. has been embraced by the female consort AkB. uncommon the You have (secondly) confused the expression "king of consciousness" the with term "dark blue". the common and tantrapitakas are each valid because they direct intellect respectively towards lower and higher (vehicles). snvjl&-Qi deongs-oa'i rzvud): Once the dark blue Vairocana. In this tradition of ours one is the introduced Akanistha. gentlemen. and also 400 the mirror-like pristine .4adhatvfd85 84 varl. Nucleus (of Esoteric Instruction. as the mandala of the buddha-body of buddha-body.' the peaceful and wrathful deities) whc are present as inner radiance in the heart-centre. Therefore. the six buddha-bodies arise simultaneously. consciousness is Vairocana radiates and shines diversely. Aki adhatvfdvar1 is space because and mind-as-such because is it naturally pure. to between and hundred authentic families (o.In response (to your first point). Elsewhere it is the intention of the common tantras family that of Vairocana is explained to be form. holding the wheel in his hands. (the view) that there is no difference or the expanse of indestructible reality. digressions from the basic mandele. and the enlightened buddha-body.

to she is the reality corresponding in delusion. supreme delight. . Thus one should know the central deity to be Vairocana in a mandala surrounded by clusters (of deities) who form the retinue of his enlightened family. transcending objects of reference. 366-367) says: Accordingly the Buddhasamavosa (T. That however is not the case. is located in mandala. Buddhalocane however because. reality's expanse unwavering snd without conceptual thought. actuality of all buddhas. the male & female consort this Samantabhadra who masters all spirituality. if Now. conceptual elaboration. It is incorrect because he would implicitly become the retinue. and is called the male & female consort Samantabhadra. and the solidity of the earth element subsumed the component of form is explained to be Aksobhya because it does not change into another nature. The spiritual VaJrasattva. When rejoicing in that supreme secret Is constantly present as the identity of them all. found and a central deity who abides on the periphery is in any 87 mandala belonging to the common and uncommon the (tantras). This analysis according to 86 the higher tantrapitakas surpasses others.cognition which apprehends reflected is the perceptual range of images. you ask where the Teacher. there are some who say that he resides in a consecratory manner in the courtyard (of the mandala). Rather it is the case that in the situation of of buddha-body cognition thought reality. the great naturally present pristine is itself and present. warrior.

when self- manifesting as the mandala of perfect rapture. When therefrom he assumes the body of perfect rapture He is known as the buddhas of the five enlightened families.And in the Lamp QE Precious -Qems (rin-oo-che'1 s¢ron-ma) which was composed by the great master Vimalamitra: In the mandala of reality's expanse. There is also said to be a sequence of meditation (of Vairocana) within the heart-centre tion. without abiding. Thus. . and as the inestimable display of the six sages. in order to train living beings he appears as Vajrapani. the male & female consort Samantabhadra becomes Vairocana. This unique nature of genuine accomplishment May indeed be encountered as desired. Aviilokitetvara and so forth.the countless and inestimable Holders of indestructible reality. When he performs acts of benefit through emanation He is Vajrasattva-. Emanating from that (reality). the central deity of the five enlightened families. 88 where (this deity) is experienced by one who delights during meditation in the practices of visualise-And in the Buddhasamavo¢a (T. He is called the male & female consort Samantabhadra. 366-367) it also says: Then through skillful means which train living beings This reality appears as the five enlightened families. Manjuhri.

tantras. thiSlity during the bar-do for example. and thence it of appearance and emptiness. the peaceful deities being in the heart-centre. The words wrathful to "In the courtyard" actually and refer the heart-centre of the central deity. This glow of pure reality's as a expanse initially appears. More precisely. and the great writings of means for attaInment This mandala even abides at the present 90 moment. Passage Vol. as is said in the following Moon (NGB. gradually peaceful becomes and the ground from which the clusters of different deities arise. Its "front which rear" indicate the of essence of the (deity's ) posture. .active said male subject and the passive female object some) to who are the all (by & be arrayed in the courtyard are called male glows female consort Samantabhadra of the ground from which (of divine presence) arise. is the mode (of explanation) found in the uncomnion 89 the esoteric instructions of the gurus. from the Tantra Coalescence 9) In the Their celestial (palace) of the precious heart-centre Are the forty-two inandalas of peaceful deities. the central deity the ground (Samantabhadra) is mandala). the central deity in the middle (of the while the two male & female consorts who are its glow abide in the heart-centre of that (central deity) and cognition without duality of appearance and are the pristine This emptiness. is of one sexual embrace. buddha-bodies appear without independent existence. And their subtle inner radiance Is present in the heart.

This concludes the exegesis of the overview (concerning the excellence of the teacher). The pillars and beams are fashioned of the eight Mahidevas Who are proud spirits. This is also stated in the Intermediate Purificatorv Rite Qf the Creation A= Perfection Su¢atas Stares according SQ the Gathering Qf bskved-rdzo¢s 'brin¢-po'j the las- (bde-rshe¢a 'dus-Da'i bYar) of the master (Padmasambhava) which says: The peaceful deities are present In their spontaneous mandala. It is well filled with the eight Who are venomous spirits. drinkers who are their glow as the same text says: The fifty-eight blood Are in the celestial (palace) of the cranium or skull. . And rivetted with awesome wrathful deities. means skull (or of which is dark nape head). 91 And the lattices with the constellations. In the dark brown palace of the skull which blazes forth The portals are constructed with the mighty king of Maras. great nagas Its roof-parapets are made with great R&hula. brown in colour. The other (terms) of the energy soft spots) the hair refer to the which two of the neck and the centre channels and comprise two fontenelles (or secret 92 soft epota on the nape.The fifty-eight wrathful deities are present in the crown-centre.

i. of Its nature of spirituality it is beheld. the energy of cognitions. It is without (mom-oa) description in the words. along 405 . Indeed it is not coarse.5-87. beings. namely the sixteen male spiritual warriors who represent the energy of the sixteen pristine with the sixteen female spiritual warriors who represent the object of the former. (the common excellence teaching of the the 72. and outwardly and inwardly radiating its nature of clarity From whichever direction. the mandala of his directions (thams-cad-du visage radiates penetratingly in all zhal tha7--1e-bar gal).4). such as are visible in the case of ordinary Frontally perceived among all retinues of the mandala- clusters. 1. "This is its front (mtiun) or this is Its rear living (tevab)".The latter on (see p. zenith or nadir. The first (comments on Ch. the buddha-body (aku) is present. the visage appears to be revealed. 6): To illustrate that the buddha-nature perceives all living beings continuously and is not indifferent. light. 389) is the Interlinear commentary on teacher. cognition and excellent Now the major and minor marks have both uncommon and common aspects: comprise the In the former case they thirty-tWo major marks. thirty- And the buddha-body two noble is also endowed with (du-ldan-oa) the pristine major marks (mtshan) and eighty noble minor marks (doe- bYad) to illustrate that it possesses enlightened attributes. It includes hand-implements a posture and symbolic of the central deity and an explanation of the different male and female consorts.

e. 3786. His body tall and straight. body hairs curl His ankle-bones are inconspicuous. Among them. array Just as of an of flowers is adorned by the anthers and petals its flowers. his arches broad. fingers are long. hands and feet are joined by webs: His hands and feet are soft and supple. and his upwards. His body has seven well-proportioned parts.the sixteen aspects of reality's expanse. They also comprise the spiritual corres- which derive from the sixteen male warriors. In the latter case. . 13- His hands and feet are marked doctrinal) wheel And his The by (the lines of the feet are (firm) fingers and toes of like his those of a tortoise. And his toes and. spiritual warriors) have The sixteen no objects the female head-ornaments These (spiritual because they illustrate the expanse of reality. warriors) are established to be the major and minor marks in the sense that the nature of the central deity is beauteously arrayed and well endowed with the excellence of the retinue. there are both the common major and minor marks. the thirty-two major marks are enumerated as follows in the Ornament 17): f Emer¢ent ealisation (T. vv. the five pristine cognitions. ponding each to of whom has five kinds five of head-ornament the respective enlightened families and symbolising (i.

each distinctly curling to His visage is adorned His chest with a hair-ringlet (UMnA&e_A. His arms long and beautiful.a). the flesh between his collar and shoulder bones broad: To him even unpleasant tastes appear to be supreme tastes. well-grown. His tongue is long and beautiful. His eyes are sapphire blue. glossy and elevated: His toes and fingers are rounded. equal (in size).His calves are like those of an antelope. His skin has a golden His complexion. and close- fitting. His shoulders are well-rounded. They are forty in number. His teeth are pure white. On his proturberance. 21-32): minor marks are enumerated as follows in the same text of the The nails sage are copper-coloured. His energy channels are inconspicuous and unknotted: . His sexual organ is supreme in its contraction. broad and tapering. like that of a lion. He has a Brahma-like voice. and lion-like jaws. head he has an isnjaa His body is symmetrical like a banyan tree. and his eyelashes like those The eighty (v. and his skin is delicate: body-hairs are the right.

It is clean. and small. soft and pure. His sides are round. a lion. his feet equal (in size). His navel is deep. elegant and upright. and on his body There is no trace of black moles. to behold. elephant. white. It is clockwise. deep and long. and both his eyes are pure. His visage is not too long.His ankle bones are inconspicuous. His genitals are fully perfected. And his lips are red like the biro-oa berry. His hands are soft as cotton wool. Sharp. The proportions (kho-lap) of his body are harmonious. equal (in size). firm. cleansed and proportionate. His abdomen does not sag. The lines on his hands are clear. His bodily form is lustrous. His speech is sweet and soft. His tongue is supple. and do not bulge out. His body is most solid. body is youthful. His limbs are well-proportioned. And his voice is like thunder. an His stride is that of Or a lordly bull. and curling From all sides he is pleasant His conduct is clean. a bird. to the right. His gait is His flesh even. slender and red. and his unimpaired and broad. 408 . His vision is unobscured and pure. his teeth round.

While his nose is prominent. soft not shaggy. While it has a fragrant scent Which captivates the human mind. broad. His eyes are very pure and large. spontaneously speech and mind (aku-mans-thugs ana-tahoes-par Run-tu spans-ba). His eyebrows are With soft and glossy. His forehead is well-formed and broad. (hrivatsa) and the auspicious Svastika emblem (on his hands and soles) These are claimed to be the From buddhas' noble minor marks. which are present inexhaustible wheels of . 9u the glorious heart-orb downwards these marks are identical In the expanse of reality. he appears universally as the diverse buddha-bodyr. Thick. tb8lrm-pv1R in space. His arms are long and his ears equal (in size) And free from defects. While his head is large. and not rough. like lotus petals. hairs of equal length. While his eyelashes are thick. The hairs of his head are black as a bee. and in every inconceivable mi-khvab-oa thams-cad-du) world-system which requires to be trained. The glorious heart-orb Make up the eighty. And (his eyes coloured) long.

self-centred ordinary persons. aged. wish-granting boats. emanating light from the mandala of his is and the inexhaustible five buddha-mind cognitions. and it and also comprises the benefits which emerge for sentient beings their immeasurable forms. attendants. the buddhafield of the spontaneous Bounteous Array which in- manifests in and of itself as the perfect infinity of space: the exhaustible buddha-body is equal to space and is adorned with the major and minor marks of comprehends rapture. deceased beings. inaudible and inexhaustible buddha-mind constantly pacifies all conceptual elaborations. the Buddha-body of essenceless. the inexhaustible buddhathe is inexpressible. villages the inexhaustible buddha- . such as lotus and meadows. bodhisattvas. gods. trees. of beings who train each buddhas. present in the character of the pristine Then in the world-systems of the ten directions. the inexhaustible by buddha-speech its expressed meaning visage. reality and transcending speech conceptual elaboration. the invalids.tabhadra. i. the fields where living space: beings are trained and which are equal to the confines the of inexhaustible buddha-body comprises both the in agreeable and disagreeable classes her needs.adornment. and is In without partiality or bias. flowers.e. accord with his or including buddhas. nagas and animals. When he appears as such in the buddhafield of the reality's expanse wheel free from conceptual elaboration: inexhaustible female of adornment of buddha-body is the male consort Samar.

too are gathered in the unborn Thus the nucleus of A. Similarly. You may ask. 40211) the Greater VehicJ. from lotus flowers. It is impossible to consider these acts of benefit as specifically this or that because are performed by inconceivable emanations of the buddhas. those sages endowed with the emanational body who appear to requiring training seem to speak through intonations aspects. on the other hand. all words are a gathering syllable the of syllables and these A.speech resounds as the various kinds of doctrinal speech sound because and emerges from the languages of different living beings. (T. which have sixty tion of These then appear as buddha-speech in the percep- of those to be trained and through the amassed spirituality the buddhas. wish-granting trees and so appears to knows (the view) forth. buddha-speech is the meaning of Teacher 95 syllable the most supreme buddha-speech of the s(itra which accordingly says: himself. They The speak extensively that which is unspoken. and the in- exhaustible buddha-mind because knows act on behalf of living beings and it qualitatively quantitatively intellectually they (phenomena). there is indeed nothing but the inexpressible and through that very (buddha-speech) the inexpressible is actually understood. nothing is The Supreme Continuum actually spoken. verbal to be expression understood. However in the manner of an echo. why the inexpressible speech of the buddha-body of reality is and the buddha-body of perfect rapture At the limit of sound and in fact called speech. There is a The sons of the conquerors say nothing at all. says: 431 .

There with are the some who disagree that this text is connected at emanational body. there not two buddha-body Perfect rapture is the ground and the six sages are revealed as its retinue. all (of They contradict the explanation body" is this very text) that buddha-body.Just as the sound emitted by an echo Does accord with the perception of others. of Here. context applied described to the six as so that it by ma_y be incidentally cages". His two less (zhabs-Qnvis) are to symbolise that he possesses the Pristine cognition of skillful means (thnh ) or great compassion nd discriminative awareness (daIIS together. Folded of (lii they assume the posture skvil-mo krung-du . ahes-rab) or emptiness. But is non-conceptual and uncontrived.L Precious Gems (T. but that is what was understood in the perception of those to be trained. this The term "emanational sages. So the speech of the tathfigatas Emerges according to the perception of others But abides neither externally nor internally. he did not utter a single syllable of doctrine through the appearance of words and letters. 45-93): From the birth of the TathRgata until he attained nirvana in a full night. And in the Pagoda Q. speech and mind appear in every in inconceivable (world-system). to "an introduction given is an argument teachers because the The statement that it is incorrect for a single teaching to two teachers are belong taken out of the context.

as some hold. that the central hands.hus) where all conflicting emotions are of the nature of equanimity (mnvam-28'1) symbolise that he does not abide in extremes of existence or to quiescence. of the six pristine cognitions (ye-shes the drug). duality. as a symbol of (-!i) various precious (rin-oo-che) nature. six hands and the others have two is taught in the common (tantras alone). nonsensical morality. which symbolises cognition. fact present as the expanse Then there are his six hands cognitions They and (vhva ) which are (gi) to illustrate namely.ton. idleness. rays pristine cognition pure are endowed with blazing the ('bar-ba-can) limitless of light which emerge from their hand-implements or seals their (ohva¢-rrva). emerge from that pristine cognition (ve-shes) where speech. This is because desired necessities buddha-body. deity and nonsensical talk about discriminative awareness It is not the case. including vajra. distraction are subdued. that remains in the essence of great pristine There not are some who incorrectly hold that the female consort actually has been explained at this point.h7hu 8-oa) the ascetic discipline (br - . attributes and activities are without six These (implements) respectively symbolise that the of) (defects envy. has because that . or the he posture of indestructible reality. rage. the the five pristine expanse. is in The genuine of Queen this (Dhatvi6vari) 96 appari I. mind.

3-85. the crossed vajra. gemstone. basic visage of Amoghasiddhi is green. one is The basic visage of Aksobhya is white. (The buddhas of) different enlightened families each hold their own hand-implement in the right hand of their basic pair of hands. These are held close to the heart. Buddha- =uhya further asserts that the six hands hold six gemstones which are blazing and eight-faceted. grasping (their respective implements). are extended in different ways. wheel.iava is yellow. and bell. (the hand-implements in lotus. his right one is white And the and the left one dark blue. 405) is an explanation of the different male which includes both an consorts overview and an interlinear commentary. blue and his left one red.1) is in two parts. his right one is white and the left one The basic visage of Amitabha is red.e. the first revealing all things as the primordial mandala of the second classifying them according to their deities and the enlightened families. He has three heads (dbu-esum Bang-ldan-na) which are that he (-i) to illustrate khvab-oa) possesses the inconceivable (beam-evil mj` and deity his inexhaustible adornments of The buddha-body. red. . his right one is white and the left one red. question) are the vaira. while the other (two pairs). and in the correspondi:ig left hand they wield the bell. basic visage of the central his right one is white and his Vairocana) is dark blue. left one red. The and latter female (see p. speech mind (i. i The overview (80. (sku-esune-th-jes).flow. The right of dark basic visage Ratnasamb.

If (the deities) were described in conceptual terms. 417-418) says: "That which is in pursuit of great desire" Describes the pristine cognition In which bliss and emptiness are without duality. are and that in the case of the retinue (the of also described as "the great bodhisattva (i. and is similar to that which is expressed in the term "great nirvana". This is because the buddhas are not described in terms of sorrow. Accordingly the Hevairatantra (T. Particularly that in The sublime reality that is expressed (here) indicates the circumstances of samsgra consciousness abides as the enlightened family of the tathigatas. mirror- like pristine cognition that One should therefore know Vairocana deities) the term "king" refers to the greatness which is and so forth. .As to the first. indestructible hearing" Vajrapani) and so forth. the word "consciousness" would not appropriately refer to "the king of the enlightened family". The deities are not mentioned by the conceptual names of the five components and so forth. and because their sublime reality is recognised.e. The Guhvasamaia (T. 442-3) also actually reveals that expressions such as "indestructible reality of hatred" refer to the and so forth. This (view) however appears to lack analysis."the king of consciousness" and so forth. in The reality contained the expression "king of consciousness" is revealed to surpass the five components. why there are those of the past who have questioned of (this text) does not mention by name (the deities) the five enlightened families such as Vairocana but instead mentions them by the names of their five (corresponding) components-.

circumstances (the buddhas) appear as the five components of beings. comprises but when pure they appear as the mandala buddha-bodies the of the five enlightened disease the a families and their retinue of male and Just female spiritual warriors. the five components. shell appears to be white. the And. pure and desirable.during impura naturally pure. When living Although buddhahood is slightly purer than that they appear in the phyiscal bodies A-nd formed from the aspiration of empowered beings and the like. this accords with of previous description given in the example the element mercury (which appears differently when compounded and heated). as when one is afflicted by some phlegmatic eye shell conch appears to be yellow but. and by accomplished the masters as Mnmaki. they appear as the buddha-body and cognition of the conquerors. water spirits is pristine For example. by human beings as something that is drink. the identical element fire. beings by animals as a lands as a by gods as nectar. by of of the pure river nectar. perceived by denizens of hell as as by tormented puss and blood. in impure situations. as the image or form of the by some phleg(perception) the reality of conch shell is not abandoned when one is afflicted matic (eye disease). outer . just as the the conch is and actually white though it appears to be yellow. so during impure buddhas is harmoniously present. Alternatively. the sensory the twelve activity fields which and so forth. eighteen 99 (the buddhas) appear as bases. just when cured. Moreover. Now. formed from the maturation (of deeds).

hearing and contact are nonThe sensation-functions of sight. and yet they are actually pure buddhafields wheels of adornment. i. the and the consciousness which differentiates them and is in The not intellect. as proceeding to its object. 417 . the classification of the different or deities). speech and The second. The intellect of conflicting emotions comprises the refutation. inexhaustible mind. the buddha-body. of the ground-of-all is the basis without on which consciousness arises.inner to phenomena along with their mass of conceptions all appear and be impure. That which applies refutation relation to them is the intellect of conflicting consciousness accumulate proof emotions. the pure surface of a mirror. of the five senses but it and the intellect alone do of deeds. (components the component of consciousness has eight aggregates The consciousness when classified. is by the intellect conflicting ground- emotions that deeds are accumulated on the basis of the of-all. consciousnesses conceptual.e. The consciousness of the is that which refers to objects of general concept and intellect on which experiences objects through a subsequent intellectual appreciation. is fivefold: first. consciousness which applies proof and and the of the five senses are the five non-conceptual 100 perceptions such as the vision of form.

unpleasant and sorrowThe (feelings) may be pleasant and ful. faith. and the intellect is simply that which discernibly apprehends it. carefulness. the five objectdetermined ones. the conscious- ness of the ground-of-all is recognised as the sublime reality or mirror-like (pristine cognition). the eleven positive functions of every positive attitude. recollection. 101 component of perception is also threefold. in one's own consciousness when it is without ideas and without scrutiny As radiance or clarity in respect universal. In this context. decency. it is present. perception and motivation. comprising objectif- icatlon which is extensive. The five senses clearly perceive the consciousness of object. The component of feeling is or threefold: blissful. The for or example. namely inclination. equanimity.ground-of-all which supports all these (aggregates of consciousness) is unconceived and unindicated per gg. In relation to objects. namely contact. namely. non-violence. On of any object. of habitual tendencies comprises the fifty-one There are relational propensities (ldan-oa'i 'Authe five ever including present ones. perseverance. . contemplation and discriminative awareness. adherence. component mental events: by-td) minute or mediocre. the the ground-of-all refers to the circumstance under which consciousness is radiant and clear but does not proceed towards its object. neutral sensations which zenerate equanimity. decorum. such it is the other hand. The intellect of conflicting emotions generates proof and refutation in relation to it.

and contact. forty-nine along with all the nonnames the the relational propensities (m_-ldan-r. 102 are recognised be essence of the pristine cognition of accomplishment. the twenty namely. nose. subsidiary honesty. namely. carelessness. jealousy. and ideas. Apart from feeling and perception. and and the four variables. of mundane aggregates and doubt. tongue and body. excitability. mischief. malice.a'i du-bved) including and their symbolic representations. anger. spitefulness. and the imperceptible form (which is continuously present). agitation. The component of form. delusion. the four material elements of form-. water. disconflicting emotions. indecorum. the imperceptible form is recognised to be pristine cognition of reality's expanse.form. the other (mental events) among these. lazi- deception. fire when classified. distrust. dissimulation. smell. avarice. reality the sublime of Amoghaaiddhi. view pride. inattentiveness. indecency. the particularly . taste. five sense-organs of eye. regret.ignorance. scrutiny. ness.earth. drowsiness. ear. forgetfulness. namely. and fifteen aspects. the sound. Among the these fifteen. which acti_vly create to dichotomy of samsara and nirvana. the five objects-. has air.

tath&gata (de-bzhin gshe¢s-Da) Amitdbha ('du-shes-kvi who is king of perception (de-bzhin and the tath&gata habitual eshers-re) Amoghasiddhi rz al-oo). the tatb&gata (de-bzhin e hews-Da) (tabor-ba'i who is king of feeling rayal-Do).4) concerns both the central deities of the essential expanse. and their retinue which is not different in nature. his the Pristine cognition benefit of living of particular discernment hankers and Amoghasiddhi is green (li ane-eu) because his pristine cognition of accomplishment performs Radiant diverse of benefit for sentient beings. is king of All these (de-da¢ because Aksobhya tendencies ('du-bved-kvi ]syn) five enlightened families too Vairocana pristine (k-ytana) have their distinct body-colours: is dark-blue cognition the is his mirror-like is white (dkar-Do) because is free from all pristine cognition of reality's expanse stains. who r-mal -DO).ii The interlinear commentary (85. red. 1. The five 7): Lord (bcom-ldan-'das) was present as such in namely the tath&gata mshews-oa) (de-bzhin Qshezs-Da) Vairocana who is king of consciousness (rnem-oar tath&gata (de-bzhin eshe¢s-pall ZQyai-DO). (mthine-kha) unchanging. Ratna- sambhava is yellow (eser-oo) because his pristine cognition because for of ness. and resplendent in . (1e-braan). The first (includes the male & female Transcendent forms. the Aksobhya who is king of form Ratnathe (¢z ¢s-kvi r sambhava Pal-DO). Amit&bha is scarlet beings.l-87. i. of which the section on the former comments on Ch.e. central deities.

who The nature of the celestial expanse is Ak& (dbvines-dar¢) adh&tvi*var1. she is unobstructed of sake of living beings and is the basis their . mollifies in the minds of living beings. central deities. in the manner of water which sustains human beings with she moisture. she manner of earth which is supported and supportive. the unchanging essence and its enlightened attributes. (dro-ba'i Pfinderavaslni II is the one who is the expanse because. Buddhalocan& is the one is the in supports of solidity (sra-ba'i dbvines-danQ) because. the nature of the (The section on the female central deities comments present on Ch. 1. they These are given the title queen (btsun-mo) because are the basis consorts as of enjoyable objects. they are described as genuine (dam-Da) because they surpass others. because they are and because they the are female of the revered and a royal family endowed with enlightened attributes. is mistress of the expanse the vastness of of space the and the essence of apparition (anang-ba'i) because she clarifies reality without obscuration enlightened expanse and expanse who of the attributes. 8): there also were the female consorts of these (tathagatas). is she burns conflicting emotions and clarifies because. M&makl is the one who is the expanse of liquidity (maven-pall dbvines-dance) because.their (respective) colours (mdoz-tu 'taher-ba). of warmth La&&-danQ) the manner of fire which burns and manifests. and Samayat&r& is the one who is the expanse dbyinea) in the manner of of sir Mobility which for (bekvod-oa'i performs acts of movement the and lifting. all that knowable.

Which presence. with the entire host of the enlightened families.The tath&gatas were present. Here in particular. sexually united of queens (btsun-mo'i tshos) these. Filling cognition it (gang) with the mandala of and pristine were no intervening spaces. none excepted. number or enumeration of these (deities). higher male radiant in all mandalas including those of female consorts of the five enlightened and those of the lower male 9 families (i. speech and mind. the inexhaustible wheels of buddha-body adornment. The nature. One they subsequently the become 8. speech and mind). at all.y pervades all apparitional existence without conjunction or disjunction. the and appearances of the buddha-body of perfect rapture entirely their infinitely of pervaded (kun-tu mtha'-vas-oar shvab-oa) object. throughout the infinity with the great appearances of buddha-body. such omiting (gnvts-su (1A-soas-2a) as none without exception. they were pervasively present (n&. They were without duality in respect of man-par) of skillful means and discriminative awareness.Q) everywhere.) female . (rhos-kvi dbvines). buddha. here it applies to should know the appearance of the sugatas alone. Pervaded (by buddha-body. Just as a ('M-its-ste) full-grown pod of sesame seeds (til-avi aana-bu) for example so that there (doer-nn). has been revealed. primordiall.e. the expanse of reality space. khyab-nar bzhues- A.

(87. 1 The first the of these has two aspects. In the arise from the who was a great bodhiwhich sattva the retinues disposition (g) Great of that self-manifesting spirituality are purified of all obscurations and in their buddha-mind all attributes without exception are perfected buddhas. enlightened (chub). 357) there is the detailed exegesis (of of the includes both the natural retinue has Samantaof bhadra) already latter is been revealed threefold: and the retinue & spirituality.4-94. It is because for a beginner they are 106 The Excellent Retinue Thirdly retinue. former concerning Then to four male consorts (comments 9): (de-nee). they are (chen-vo) because they are themselves superior four to terrestrial spiritual spiritual warriors warriors. warriors. and the male & female consorts who gatekeepers (of the mandala). consorts the (of The The male female who are the inner spiritual warriors (of the mandala).wrathful juncture). There were who present have such of consciousness indestructible (rdoie) reality in that they are without duality A23 . of which on Ch. male & female consorts who are the outer spiritual the warriors are the mandala). (SAkyamuni) followed by an explanation of the retinue of the male manner spiritual. the 1.4): (see which which p. the the explanation of the central deities belonging be five enlightened families should of the Teacher himself (bvane-ehub chen-nn). deities are not however explained (at this If you ask why.

expanse emptiness. Deity among deities. at the core. it says in the Indestructible Because it is neither solid nor empty Neither to be cut off nor analysed. Penetrates all things. so-called because his buddha-ears nature ear penetrate their five objects and listen to the real in a single savour.h" chen-Do rdo-rie thos-Da-dan¢). penetrate sees their five objects and perceive reality in surpassing the consciousness of the eye single savour. The naturally present pristine cognition. A80): reality"). Neither to be burned nor destroyed. form. and pristine cognition. Emptiness should be expressed as indestructible it also be reality. means that they have subdueu all obscurations and harmed cannot Net further Vol. The Extensive Ma¢ical (NGB. surpassing the consciousness of the sound. Kaitigarbha is (the great bodhisattva of indestructible) sight so-called because his buddha-eyes a (mthone-ba-danz). And cannot be harmed in any respect. (Concerning the term "indestructible Peak (T. which hears Ak6degarbha is the great bodhisattva of . i4) says: reality The nature of indestructible Has subdued all obscurations. which Vairapbni is the great bodhisattva of indestructible hearing (`-XWJ&. or of appearance and and they are free from decay. by obscuration.

there Although these sometimes interchanged. so-called because his buddha-nose penetrates its five objects and senses the uncreated nature in a single savour. i.e.e. the one who is heard (mnyan-oar bye-ha-dan¢).:arti. rhen-j22 rdo-rie so-called because buddha-tongue penetrates its five objects and savours the non-dual nature in a single savour: surpassing the consciousness of the tongue which merely savours taste. 10): There Queen form was (the assembled host of (-. the delight of are cognition's) display. (pristine i. names. cognition. 425 . There are actually held to be four inner kinds of verbally When heard. the the who is seen (btsun-mo mthon¢-bar or apparitional object of pristine of along with those Gita. is and Avalokitetvars (byano-chub his the great bodhisattva of indestructible savour mvonct-ba). G1t8 refers to their sound which is and likewise DhCp& to their scent which is scented. The latter. surpassing the consciousness of the nose which senses small. and . the the one who is scented (bsnam-Dar bya-ba). is no contradiction because they are merely Lasyfi.indestructible scent (bvana-chub chen-Do rdo-rie gnom-oa-dane). 1. Maly&. comments on Ch.'l tsho2s-dan¢)) bwa-ba-dang). concerning their four female consorts (who are the inner female spiritual warriors of the retinue. expressed. one who is savoured (myone-bar bya-ba-danr). L sya.

surpassing sense-organ needle: of the nose which resembles a straight copper bodkin (the great and bodhisattva of indestructible) tongue (bvanw-chub chen—oo rdo-rle taste whose supreme of its of buddha-speech 107 supports the penetration five objects. surpassing the sense-organ of the tongue which resembles a half—moon. respect unimpeded with paSt to the past. comments on Ch.ji The section on the four (outer) male spiritual warriors of the 5ense-orgafls (comments on 1. The section their female consorts (who are also 1. surpassing the sense-organ of the eye wrich resembles a sesame flower. the nature in which phenomena of the &CtUally radiate as they really are. 11): are respectively: destructible) eyes Maitreya. 12): They are respectively: who the queen of time peat enters the appears as DhQpâ to il)ustrate that she unobstructed and of pristine cognition. surpassing those phenomena a26 . (the great rdo--rle bodhisattva of indestructible) ears (byan2-ehub chen-ro whose unimpaired sense-organs of buddha-ear of support their five clear objects. outer Spiritual warriors of the mandala. (the great bodhisattva of chen-oo whose unobscured indestructible buddha—eyes support the apprehension of their five objects. the surpassing the sense-organ Samantabhadra ear which resembles a twisting ravine: (the great bodhiaattva of indestructible) nose whose sense-organ of the chen-oo rdo-rie buddha-nose the supports the penetration of its five objects. Nivaranaviskhambhir.

. present and future are known. As for the way in which past. those objects of the future which (Jgho2s-dan. having who of the one of time present (da-ltar-dan2) the appears Puspe to illustrate that she enters vision pristine cognition. unobstructed and unimpeded with respect all phenomena become meaningless in those to the present. As many as there are. unobstructed and unimpeded respect to the future because phenomena of the future are seen in the present. Accordingly it Says in the Great Bounteousness j the Buddhas (T.) have not become and the assembled host appears including the one that she of time unpredictable (ma-boon-oa'i). Just like a leaf of kyurara in the palm of the hand. of in which terms actual aeons.which been were known in the past and are destroyed. the reality in which naturally present appearances do not change from their disposition. surpassing manifest. become manifest. the one of time future ('byunr- ba-dam) vision who appears as Aloka to illustrate that she enters of the with pristine cognition. they of the clearly future which known in the manner surface signs of the past are and arise along with the present when they of an drawn 108 (oracular) mirror. surpassing which are merely the appearances of the sense-organs. who as Gardha to illustrate is present as the pristine cognition of sameness with respect to the four times. as it really is. indefinite in its moment of emergence. as now non-existent.

443): the enlightenment buddhas is known to be decay. Then there in is also verbal contact. great The subjugator ('ioms-pa) is skillful discriminative iie) means. g8nz). which is within when the threefold process of sensory interaction occurs the sensation of physical contact (reg-Da-Many) there generated. of and the conscious ness which the body or consciousness of contact two). Without without consciousness. The section on the male & female consorts who are the gateparts. 428 and . these are represented by Abvottame. (reg-shes-dang) Respectively. 13): It is explained that they correspond to the following description which is found in the Subsequent Tantra c Guhvasamaia If this pristine cognition. and Yamintaka whose buddha-bodies penetrate the five sense-objects or sensory bases of contact. Mahabale. He is said to be indestructible (rdosuch because venomous spirits as Mare and 'Mama are disciplined by great emanations who possess Now. surpassing ordinary (contact). Although which this text it is the four primarily aspects of physical (contact) those of both speech ere and actually revealed. (chen-oo) in awareness.iii. the former concerning the male consorts (comments on Ch. is the body or subject of contact (reg-bved- the object of contact (reg-bva-danw). which is vocalised. Of the (T. derives from the encounter (of these Amrtakundalin. be obtained. keepers (of the manda]a) has two of which 1. Without description Bliss will and without conception. these two attributes.

proof derives from the encounter of Surpassing this generation. Contact is of expression. which sorrow. and the four wrathful deities manifest in of themselves at the gates (of the mandala) through the energy pristine of pristine cognition to illustrate that cognition the unobscured regard of the buddhas is actualised without for the apprehension of general concepts and is free are none from all desires and hatred. there is the intellect or subject perception. there is the sound or subject the accumulated object which of that derives of expression. is the generated. there is nothing to be expressed. perception. when the sensation of verbal. These (gatekeepers) other than the four pristine cognitions is neither creation nor decay. and forms of general concept or diverse objects and the consciousness of bliss.mind are implied. and the consciousness of that conditions of these the from two four that aspects wrathful expression. 429 . the object of the of of intellect. These appear respectively as with deities beginning surpassing Amrtakundalin to illustrate buddha-speech free from all obscurations of tone penetrates its the euphonous. Then being. the sound generated. and there is nothing at all (physical. five objects. refutation these two. (respectively) which realise that there verbal or mental). Now. there is mental When (contact) during which phenomena come into the activity field of phenomena. there is nothing which perceives. discordant and neutral sounds which (ordinarily) emerge.

illustrating that it lacks independent existence from the beginning in the manner of emanation and that she establishes sentient beings in Quiescence through purposeful conduct and great equanimity the which on buddha-level. each of the five consciousnesses associated with the sense-organs respectively this. are like reflected that she liberality draws which not existing in sentient beings are her attributes. $020): 430 . overpowers her sentinet joy and empathy which are attributes. 1. Yin-pa) the one who is signless (mtg an-mar ma- and without substance in respect of the essence of samshra and nirvana. with respect things as appearances and because she illustrates that these respective are essentially not abandoned but resemble a mirage she draws in sentient beings which because with Sphota. loving kindness and the one who is to all not transient such (chad-Dar sound. the one essentially is selfless phenomena are not and (bdap-tu ma-vin-pa-fig). and illustrating with P&84. 14): are (the queen. symbolising that in whom mental apprehended as self-existing with sympathetic through refutation she proof but are dreamlike. btsun-mo) who essentially is not eternal (rtaQ-oar to ma-vin-Da-danf) with respect all things such as form-. UI'Ag Q= Concerning it says in. the Ornament QZ the Greater Vehicle (T. compassion and who gentle speech are her attributes. all phenomenal existence. on Ch.The section They on their female consorts (comments respectively: AnkuAfi. ma-vin-oa-dance) in reality. penetrates five 1hg sense-objects. beings and Ganthh.illustrating that appearances images.

there are six divisions of forty. Altogether there are twelve hundred Sensory attributes which emerge. While these male & & female consorts. sound is heard. Now the sense-organ of the eye is at the outset analysed according to the six directions (of its vision). the sense-organ tongue and body hundred. each of the five remaining directions directions. they are surroundF 431 by many hundreds I . namely the four cardinal directions. Each of the remaining nine attributes). nose. (in such which the eye casts its vision). among these. And when the sensory attributes associated respectively with the sense-organs of the ear. direction. All objects are penetrated. Similarly. scent is sensed.d815. focusses on When. These are similarly estimated. the objects are contacted. when analysed according to their ten respective subsidiary Thus also has forty (sensory making attributes).When the five sense-organs become extraneous. they number twelve are the extraordinary sensory attributes of the Buddha-level. subsidiary directions also has these four (sensory in making forty all. and each of these subsidiary is further analysed according to its ten six directions. the zenith and the nadir. two hundred and forty (sensory attributes associated with of the eye). male & female spiritual the warriors. and namely. taste is savoured. male female gatekeepers and so forth appear in Widdle of the basic . the sense-organ of the eye vision of an easterly form in the eastern there are four (sensory attributes which arise).oi.T.

which the secret (esanw-hall) because perceptual their essence is not within range of others. but is one in which the tath&gatas (de-la n eshees-_2&) or male consorts and the assembled host their queens Without duality expressibly of are in- (btsun-mo'i tshoes-dane) or female consorts (envis-su med-Da'i).of thousands of the retinues. then fl id-kvi ¢sane-ba) self-manifesting mandalas (dkvil-'khor). A Synopsis of Pristine Cognition's Self-Manifesting Array The third part (of this chapter.%7 Qs-so). forming the assembly (tshoes) in basic mandalas such as this (de_ clusters of four enlightened It tuLj) is inexpressible (briod-karis mi-lane-b&). and these appearances are naturally present without duality (envis-su med-Dar i. The former (comments on Ch. sections: the synopsis of has which two the essence from which this array emerges and the manner of the array itself. as a emerged (ohvune-nao) arisen and naturally intention from the . 15): the introductory scene had been explained in detail. 336) is pristine cognition's self-manifesting array. pervading the entire celestial expanse. This is essentially through because they arise from the disposition (of reality) a unique display of self-manifesting pristine cognition. see p. who form the respective mandala families in the four 109 The quantity and aspects of this array of deities directions. Once 1.

. the spontaneous mandala of (dkvilwith its 'k^t) fivefold of the buddha-body of perfect rapture cognition ('e-sties) own pristine emerges (n2ana) through or has Teacher's spirituality disposition of inconceivable (wigs-rie). the manner in which it appears. concerning the manner in which this emerges and the self-manifesting array itself. I. (yQn-tan-dana) ). by) (symbolised by) the syllable E (i). syllables (pma) and the wondrous Teacher who diversely manifests in and of himself. J.indestructible buddha-mind (rdo-rie 1. (sku-dang). (e-ma-ho). the the indestructible buddha-speech (thugs-dana). of there emerges the appearance (symbolised the the buddha-body Ema rapture. The first of these (comments on Ch. (symbolised by) the syllables Emaho Holding sway over (dbana-seiur) the essence which is the buddha-body of reality bZhin-nvid kvi and the very expanse of the real along (dg= dbyings-nvid). indestructible (rhrin- the indestructible buddha-attributes these and the indestructible buddha-activities there Thus emerged which following secret of words the of indestructible reality reveal the truth self- manifesting mandala of the five enlightened families.a) buddha-body (as ns-dang). is threefold: the disposition through which this self-manifesting mandala is arrayed. and the recognition of the reality through which it is present. 16): Through the disposition of of perfect the buddha-body of reality. The latter.

a nature endowed with pristine cognition's inexhaustible 12).11.U-gsunY-thuds yon-tan ohrin-las) where not even the is nothing to be dispelled defective gem (eel-med-oa-. 18): identity of buddha-body. (nyid) self-manifesting (ran¢-snane-ha) to the is said to be radiant (peal-ha-n1) and in tathagata to appear buddhas' essentially the pure images of (zzu and in s-brnvAn) the contemplation (time-'dzin) the naturally pure (rnam-da¢) magical display (u-) of pristine cognition. and mind which aaerged (tu'o) concerning the natural expression of tantra. were -. is an inconceivably mighty wish-fulfilling attribute (yid-bzhin rin-yo-che) or excellent enlightened is (nvid-do) the essence of supreme i"destructible reality (rdo-tie mchoo-¢i) without conjunction or disjunction. The second (the manner in which it appears. nature himself. slightest blemish. 1. 17): which is a This huddhafield of the spontaneous Bounteous Array. 1. There are some who ascribe this last passage to the compiler.vi). It itself (mi--zad-oar) wheel of adornment (r2yan-Q'i 'khor(egg and the abode (gnas) of the buddha-body of perfect rapture. comments on Ch. iii The third (the recognition of the reality through which it is present comments on This Ch. speech. attributes there and activities (&k. but Incorrectly this so because it is also extant in (the actual text A JIM Secret wucleus at Indestructible of) TAn Reality .Such the secret words of indestructible reality Q ZLe aaan¢-ba'i tshir) of buddha-body. mind. speech.

mandala skillful jg).twine-nn'i r. Concerning the compilation of the introductory scene the transmitted precepts of the Teacher.1= mane-b&'1 . the mandala of magical display (aavu-ma). to are also some who hold the introductory scene but they have not examined even a be a (later) compilation. (t ns- _QLin) . NGB. and the wandala that is radiant words Now. the mandala of pristine cognition the ( -ehefl). the mandala of contemplation of nature (nytid). there are some who claim that the introductory scene is the word of the that incorrectly compiler and therefore the actual transmitted precepts commence from the beginning of the discourse onwards. The bla-ma Rong-zom section Pandita further asserts to the with respect to this of that it refers mandala of the real the (de-bzhin- y"d). sandala means which holds sway (dh n -baevur). because these are contexts.ud. this is not an occasion for the mandalas of including the mandalas of the three kinds of contemand of images to 'be revealed. 14). scene) are indeed transmitted precepts because (in this context) there is no difference between the compiler and the Furthermore. There Therefore (his explanation) is irrelevant. the path indestructible reality they are applicable in all However. of the mandala of the pure (zeal-ba). the mandala of the expanse (dbvinea). the mandala of spirituality(tbuarsthe mandala of the self-manifesting Crane-snang-ba). among fraction of the text. However the words of this (introductory teacher. in the Zan=A Which 435 . the mandala of images (. (rnam-d&e). plation for It is rather an occasion the self-manifesting and spontaneous mandala of the buddhas 110 to be revealed.west-brnvan). Vol.(rC_.

end upwards. estimated from the therefore. 1. (The conclusion comments on Ch. 0 monks!. Sanskrit) The word chapter (le'u) sense is derived from (the or context. provides authentication and establishes the basis for the tantra which will unfold.Q) positioned at the beginning of Sections indicating the number of lines (in a text= initial are estimated from the beginning downwards are and chapter numbers this (usage of a number) as the final word indicates that it completes (Q) each of the different chapters.f EAL&I ti. P. let the discourse begin 112 with the words T h u g s have j heard n g certain occasion. This (present work) also conforms doctrinally with the Rntra passed Q. The Secret Nuleeus Definitive With Scene _R_esr_+ect Tg Th= (esanQChapters. pariccheda and conveys the which is what of "segmented" this "fragmented". 483) the mandala is mostly described by the Lord of Secrets (Guhyapati Vajrap&ni) 111 and yet it too lies within the tantra-text. (dan¢-nn) in that is is described a as the series. anyiny-no Introductory de-kho-n&-nv d nees-oa) in Twenty-Two is so-called because it forms the background narrative.f Comoassion's White L'tus (T. 19): These descriptions of the (five) kinds of excellence form the content of the Introductory Scene (glens-¢zhi) from the Mantra Q.fur fies A . is also implied in it This is the first chapter. if the transmitted precepts are compiled.U Evil Destinies (T. . 112) which says: When I have into nirvana.

the ten Through this penetration. respect to all is phenomena.generation of Ultimate & Relative Enlightened Mind Then the Transcendent Lord Samantabhadra. which (buddhas) the the natural without of exception. [1] Emeho! The aspects of the component of indestructible reality Are known as the five perfect buddhas. . All things that there are without exception Are not extraneous to the buddhas themselves. So it was that the tathagata himtathagata self uttered this meaningful expression to and for the himself. with his posture of all alt indestructible reality. tathagatas directions and four times without exception became indivisible in the nature of the unique one. The three realms of existence are primordial buddhafields. A13 the manifold activity fields and sensory bases Are the nature of the mandala of bodhisattvas. who is the active male queen she who is positive with subject and the indestructible intelligence penetrated the or passive female object Samantabhadri.

female object. (2) Then the queen Samantabbadri who is the passive with respect to all phenomena. Emaho' This wondrous. [6] At creation itself there is no creation. The three levels of existence are pure fields. their Then non-dual Great through [S] Identity spoke as follows. who is positive with respect to all minds. The five degenerations are themselves the blissful abode.Phenomena extraneous to the buddhas themselves Have not been found by the buddhas themse]ves. The five components themselves are perfect buddhas. and uttered this meaningful expression. 438 . all the tath&gatas rejoiced. the tathAgatas (4) themselves knew all to be primordial buddhahood. marvelous reality Is the secret of all the perfect buddhas. positive became indivisible with the Transcendent Lord Samantabhadra. generating as the mind which primordial buddhahocd is attained Pristine cognition. have not been found by the conquerors. Doctrines said to be other than that Though sought. When he said this. The conquerors do not seek the doctrine elsewhere. (3) 0! The chiliocosms of the ten directions are primordially void. --When things she said this. All is created through the uncreated. Apart from the supreme nucleus of all (things".

It is essentially Not extraneous. [8] Emaho! This wondrous. Emaho! This wondrous. there is no coming or going. --When they said this. very secret-- but most secret. [9] At coming and going itself. Emaho! This wondrous. there is no cessation. At cessation itself. marvellous reality Is the secret of all the perfect buddhas. there is no reference. All ceases through the unceasing. At abiding itself. marvellous reality Is the secret of all the perfect buddhas. there is no abiding. (10) all the tath&gatas and all the assembled host of their queens too were filled with boy. All is referential through the non-referential. [ii] of Then all the tathikgatas with [all) the assembled hosts Queene uttered this meaningful their expression. . All abides through the non-abiding. marvellous reality [7] Is the secret of all the perfect buddhas. [12] Emaho! This primordially secret reality Appears as diversity but is naturally secret. Phenomena come and go through an absence of coming and going.Emaho! This wondrous. At reference itself. marvellous reality Is the secret of all the perfect buddhas.

Abodes. the conceptual ignorance thoughts beings ripened 11vine through beings. [18] 440 from the Secret . [16] In order to reveal this reality of the buddhas Which is primordial. There is not an object to be bound. they this meaningful expression. entitled the generation of ultimate and relative enlightened mind ae pristine cognition. nor liberation. By egotistical conceptual. [14) Emaho! From the nucleus of the sugata Individual conceptual thoughts are emanated by deeds. bondage Is non-existent. sufferings and so forth-[15] The possessor and the possessed are differentiated. spontaneous and perfect. the tathagata himself purposefully conversed with th e tathagata himself-(17) This completes the second chapter Nucleus Definitive With Respect SQ The Real. And where there is neither bondage Diverse emanations are made. into the inconceivable five classes of uttered Generating the great spirituality. or the great pristine cognition of for buddhas their sake. [But) not bound by any agent. raptures. C13) all the tath4gatas and things all are indivisible because they are of one characteristic in nature of of the essential primordial living buddhahood.--In accordance with these words. thoughts Knots in the sky are urgently tied and untied. Through these words. have However. There are diverse corporeal forms.

1s as if. the male & female consort (Samantabhadra) who is the the buddha-body of reality. the Teacher. discloses how all things are . the It the when a mental image of Lhasa is perceived. This on with the explanation given below in chapters (11-12) of 1 attainment the feast-offerings that the object is the consort. for example. This is revealed in the Now. appears as the buddha-body of perfect awareness as At that time. female consort and the subject the male of the The non-duality male and female consorts. when considered intellectually. . subject).4): see p. and the object that is known is named the female consort Samantabhadri. and the single savour of these two in one's own mind were non-duality.tArx The 331) (97. she who is the passive female object. manner of a discourse. second aspect (of the natural mandala of the ground.6-111. mind were the male consort (or Lhasa were female consort (or object). the or subject which makes this ascertainment is described male the consort Samantabhadra who is the indestructible reality of accords mind. ascertains as a knowable buddha-mind object which naturally present pristine cognition of rapture. meaningfully expressed as primordial there buddhahood and how spirituality is aroused because himself is no duality between the Teacher (Samantabhadra) and the naturally present pristine cognition of buddha-mind which arises as the five enlightened families. refers to the unity of these two in the essence of awareness.

4) former is comprising the intention of the and that of male non- their duality. This includes the both the cause which induces and his intention to initiate discourse the actual discourse. then the Transcenbzane- Lord (de-nas bcom-ldan-'das) the Samantabhadra (kun-tu (bred-pa-oo) active male subject who objectively buddha-mind analyses the naturally present pristine cognition or Of the central deity of the enlightened family.once this overview has on been understood. i Intention of the Male Consort Which Gives Rise to the Discourse (98. there follows two the interlinear parts-respectively revealing the genuine intention of the discourse and the arousal of spirituality for the sake of sentient beings who have not realised it. 1): Once the introductory scene dent PQ).5-106.5) .she in Queen the passive (bxa-ba-mo) whom the nature of objects is established as primordial buddhahood and who is positive (bzana-=) because . which respectively give rise to the discourse. straying from intellectually penetrated ('iua-oar female object avur-to) (btsun-mo) or sninantabhadri-. The former (comments on Ch. and in is the indestructible Intelligence (rdo-rie grid) non-dual nature the because essential he penetrates many objects without expanse. It has Genuine The Intention of the Discourse threefold. 2. commentary Chapter Two. 5-101. had been revealed. (98.

without (gcig-fi r na-bzhin-du) Samantabhedre. unchanging throughout the three times. sams&ra and nirv6na without exception. he did with his indestructible natural (rang--bzhin-avi) reality is (rdo-ries). which the posture (tahul) of the three buddhe-bodies without conjunction or disjunction. the tathagata ( himself following (de-bzhin gshees-oa-nyid) uttered (briod-do) this i) meaningful expression (ehed-du briod-pa) to and for the tathigata himself (de-bzhin asheas-oa-r_yId-la). This everything is indeed primordial budhahood. of (rhuna-MD) which it is comprised refers to nature of reality or emptiness and apparitional reality or appearance. which (in reality) are known (craw) as the five (lnea-ru) 443 . intellectual penetration (thugs). So it was that phenomena extraneous to his own nature. Emaho! comments on Ch. 2. the term "indestructible reality" and the component the (rdo-rie) refers to the nature of all buddhas and sentient beings which is the primordial untreated buddhahood. Accordingly. The latter (his actual discourse. Its aspects (yen-laa-ni) are the five components including consciousness. pristine cognition of perceiving buddha-mind.with respect to all (kun-tu) phenomena (chos) of apparent existence. gathering the directions 2 intentions and of all (thams-cad) the buddhas of the ten four times Through this without exception (ma-lus-oa'i). 2): (e-ma-ho) signifies great wonder because all things are originally pure. all the tath&gatas of without the ten directions and four times de-bzhin wshess-oa exception (oh/oas-bcu dus-bi'i essentially one ma-lus-Da thams-cad) became indivisible (dbyer-med) in the nature of the unique the naturally present (-oas).

The five elements are also Earth buddhas in the essence are of the five female consorts. all the manifold (mane-no }i11J1) details activity the fields (skve-mched) and the sensory the bases (khams-rnama) abide primordially (dkvil-'khor-mild) as the nature of mandala of the retinue of bodhisattvae (Qyens-chute sems-dna'i) who are male and female consorts. ear. tongue. and water (PA-chu) respectively Duddhalocan8 and Miaaki (sovan--dane ma-ma-ki). taste. they comprise the six namely those of form. activity fields in all. smell.ed) in the 3 instant. When classified.genuinely perfect buddhaa (r(Jzoea-va'i twelve saner-rpvas) beginning eighteen with Aksobhya. and the six sense-organs (i. while causing the (of their perception) "to be sensed" (mcr. form. sound. nose. LLM&) Fire and air (me(eos-dkar are respectively Pindaravisini and Sanayatiri . subjective modes). The activity fields are so-called because they cause the six such as form and the six consciousnesses of such as objects or¢ans the sense- continuity subsequent the eye "to arise" (skye). objective modes.e. intellect. namely those of the twelve eye. The eighteen sensory sense-organs such sense-organs such bases are the six objects such as as the eye. the six of the and the six consciousnesses as the consciousness of the eye. body and contact. of Similarly. and phenomena.

all things of apparitional existence that there are not extraneous to the buddhas themselves ezhan-ma-vin). actually nothing which tha buddhas do (T.rid-eeum). They are not found. extraneous to the buddhas which themselves independent (mom (tanee-revers-nvid characteristics. Is the nucleus of primordial buddhahood. it says in the Ail-Accomplishine King(1'. the essence of the three realu of existence desire. namely those of form and formlessness which elements.In the same way. 828): The disposition of the All-Accomplishing One. (. even to the extent of an atomic particle.e. are buddha-fields (wanes-pevas All things (thams- sams&ra and the realities of nirv&na without exception i. and there not is understood to be find. (Whoa-se-cee) (saner-revaa-avid-lag (ehoa) The so-called have phenomena of impure saga&ra. Where all things are uncreatad. . The All-accomplishing One does not refer objectively To a presence or absence. are subsumed respectively within the outer the inner or but it of too abides in the nature of primordial yhine). (me=n&&) original Ud) (ma_1ue). searched for. It says in the Ascertainment Valid Cognition sell): The omniscient one is exclusively understood to be in all without erroneous perception respects. have not been found brnves-so) by the buddhas themselves (sagas-revere-nvid-kvis). Similarly. lag when ezhan-na'i).

is ascertained. all (thAML-cad) the tathigatae (de-bzhin rshewa-na) along with the assembled host of their queens rejoiced (mnYed-Dar_ w'ur-tc). he said this (zhes briod-oas). Once 2. the passive bhadvi. Therefore enlightenment is the charact4ristic nature of space. 3): the objective abiding nature had been intellectually expressed (by Samantabhadra). consort which gives rise to a discourse principally on the abiding nature of reality or emptiness. Samantaself- Positive in with respect to all (kun-tu bzane-mo) manifesting phenomena (chog). the reality which appears is When primordial buddhahood. g!Ji ) became indivisible (envis-au meddichotomy terms of the subject-object from the 446 . 240): Al] things have attained primordial buddhahood. also has two sections.His disposition of natural sameness Is the original ground or baseless reality. female object (bva-bs-mo) that. In this way. And in the Sutra _=C Irreversible Wheel (T. than (de-nas) the queen (btsun-mo). or I naturally pure object who appears to his intellect. 442). the cause which induces her intention to initiate the discourse and the actual discourse.6): second p.5-103. namely. ii The Intention of the Female Consort Which Gives Rise to the (see the intention of the female Dis- course (101. The former (comments on Ch.

1 khAMA) delimits one thousand of the latter. and is surrounded 447 . The latter. in and is to surrounded by an iron range height the abode Trayatrim*a. illustrated by this selfmanifesting world-system. the divine thousand mountain The the desire and form The first chiliocosm dane-oo'i equal aDVi-nhud-kvl 'Jig-rten) delimits one of of these world-systems. It is surrounded by an iron mountain range equal in height mansions (AL°ng to of Mt. It is wondrous In the sense that.Transcendent Lord Samantabhadra who is positive with respect to is all minds (bcom-ldan-'das vid kun-td bzane-oo-dane) and who or awareness. comments on Ch. and is surrounded by an iron mountain range equal in height to the abode of the Parinirmit`avasavartins. and the great trichiliocosm (atoms-eaum-evi gtnncp chen-on 'iiQ-rten- J'. (ye-nas) and originally empty and therefore void empti- This means that the physical containing world is the trichiliocosm: Concerning continents The world-system of the four with consists of a single series of four continents Mount Sumeru. ness. dichiliocosm (atone £nyia-oa bar-ma'i 'iiQ-rten) delimits one thousand of those. all the great trichiliocoams (stoneof the ten directions (ohyoes-bnil) are revealed to be khams) 0! (kve-ma-ho) primordially (flfl n). and it is adorned with realms. x): is exclaimed to signify the wonder of reality. 2. Yugadhara. the subjective pristine cognition she And then (na) as uttered of (brood-do) this ('di) following statement the con- essence her meaningful expression (ched-du hriod-oa) cerning this abiding nature of reality or emptiness.

fore. and all the fields world-systems. the abiding nature of all (theme-cad) and which is neither positive nor negative. without acceptance or rejection in all respects. emptiness. the lugs) are them- selves pristine naturally present (bde-idan cognition or the supremely blissful abode RnAs). the conquerors do not seek the doctrine elsewhere (ezhan-du . In addition. For. illustrated this one. by of the first meditative concentration. Apart from (-bas) this. Thereof the supreme nucleus (mchoe-ai snyine-oo) is the nature enlightenment Phenomena or sameness. are emptiness. (nvid) the five degenerations (snyias-ma nothing but the essence. All sentient beings who are the animate systems) contents of these (world- are also revealed to be (arid-alum-ni) Array. similar to a reflected image.by an iron mountain range equal in height to the abode In this context. their three of levels of existence abide in the nature the spontaneous primordielly Bounteous the fields (Zhine) of the pure (daa-oa'i) buddhas. as has indeed been mentioned above. There are some who have mistakenly taught that of time and so forth (and passage refers to the degeneration The are five components (ohuna-oo 1nea) of living beings (iyyj ) themselves the primordially and manifestly (perfect) buddhas (ZdZ"a eanea-reyas). This is because the energy of five the five pristine cognitions appears sams&ra as the poisons and generates in the the suffering of subject-object this not when (beings) are bewildered dichotomy.

They are not found. not been found by the conquerors (btsai- gyyng revel-bas mi-brnves-so) elsewhere... then (debdae-nvid nse ) the no. Everything is the natural expression of the buddhae.= .. When the female the consort (Semantabhadri) (de-bzhin said this (zhea briod- 2U). their non-duel intention. to initiate includes both the cause which induces their intention the discourse and the actual discourse. or pristine cognition that is awareness.a&) it in already possess This is because sams&ra and nirv&na attain buddhahood (saneS-raves-na'i) in primordial 449 (yr.en-no) host of their queens knew to all (thams-cad) ag s-ear). 5): the objective reality had been purified in the essence of the subject._al-bas shag mi-btsa]). The former (comments on Ch. which is indeed understood to be the reality of buddhaexisting primordially as (gg) naturally present pristine (lee-shee). or other than that (nyid-lee have ezhan) buddhahood. (bskved-. Once 2. cognition beings who and thereby generating it. be primordial buddhahood (ye-nas sanga- iii The The Won-Dual Intention Which Gives Rise to the 442) concerning Discourse (103.6-106. 4) : third (see p.-dual Great Identity (emuis-su med-Da' i then Dod) of the male consort or awareness and the female consort or emptiness spoke as follows ('di saunas-so) concerning the mind (SAM) hood. amd any erroneous doctrines said to be (zhes-bva- w" shoe) impure thought sought. the with tathlgatas assembled things eshees-Da) themselves (mild) along (mkhi..

-mtshar) abiding nature is the meaning of the profound secret (asang) of all the perfect buddhae (rdzoss-oa'i sange-revers kun-gyj). revealed as (chos) intellect which realises this is indeed 7 the nature of the five pristine cognitions.sameness. realises it is the pristine cognition of reality's expanse. all (theme-cad) things samsare and within appearance and emptiness. it Is that through (lgg) the disposition of the untreated (gkye-ba med-oa) original subsumed all things. reality. Vol. comments on Ch. 6-11) : Emaho! (e-ma-ho) beyond (the discourse that they initiate. If you ask what is (this secret). Accordingly it says in the Tantra D-f Shn Karvn L12= In (rmad-byung rgya1-oo'1 r2vud. This and the intellect the essence or expanse of reality. 2. 2): Oneself and the limitless sentient beings Are primordial buddhas. and objects conceptual elaboration. 18 actually there is no creation (skve-oa Mra). NGB. . This and the reality of which is the wondrous ( g. appear But to be created (skves) as in a dream or magical the moment when their creation display. The latter. more marvellous (rmad-kvi) than others. things are primordially of creation. (n$) nirvana. is exclaimed because all cessation. at (skves-pa) itself which (mod) appears. May mind be cultivated as supreme enlightenment In beings who know that this is so.

similar to Through the (jgg) disposition clear ocean. natural state. sameress. Through the (lag) sky-like disposition in which all things are prirordially diverse non-abiding (enas-Da {pg_d). This is pristine and the intellect which realises it is the of sameness. But at (na) moment when their cessation itself (9&&e-Da-nyid) appears. all (theme-cad) that appears like reflected images in the diverse the apperitional reality ostensibly ceases ('eaz). devoid of thoughts which apprehend . This is the mirror-like nature. all (theism-cad) the things which appear But (rna ). cognition actually there is no abiding (enas-oa med-Da). is there abiding no cessation ('e a-Da mgd). itself &=M n. in terms of diverse it is groundless and Thin baseless. proof and so forth. and the intellect which realises this is the mirror-like pristine cognition.V. all (thamm-cad) that arises as diverse thoughts in the manner of clouds or reflected which naturally pure images is ostensibly referential (digs) in terms of refutation. ostensibly abide at (na) the moment when abiding itself (enas-nyid) in that manner do appears.The the first two lines four (of this stanza) are similarly combined with the succeeding stanzas in primordially following manner: Through in (lag) the unceasing ('eae-oa med-Da) reality which diverse glows are reflected as on the surface of a mirror. in the midst of space or mind-as-such a is nonreferential (dmies-Da med-Da) and signless. ( But at (na) the moment of reference thoughts. is the and in fact there is do reference (dmies-_2& me ).

phenomena of appearance 'one). and a particular discerment. There are some who claim that the meaning of these (stanza°) delights. is ('e_ro-'one-nvid) there coming the abides and there no or going ('ero-'ong Mrd). and awareness appear to come and go ('ero-dane coming and going itself intrinsic essence which But at (n-g) the appears. This is the accomplishment of intellect which realises it is the pristine and the activity: cognition of accomplishment. This is a situation in which (not delight but) the abiding nature of and nirvana. in sameness. The intellect which realises it is called the pristine cognition of particular discernment.signs. all the tath&gatae (de-bzhin ¢shees-_2& thOnfC_nnA) who are male consorts (symbolising) appearance and all the assembled host of their queens (dane btsun-mo'i tshoes thamsCGd) who are female consorts (symbolising) emptiness too (kyane) were filled with joy (mnves-oas khvab--oar evur-to). Through (1aa) an emanation-like disposition where there mad) is originally an absence of coming and going ('ero-'one with respect diversely moment to when is all things. is but connected with the pristine cognition of the four there is evidently no occasion to make this connection. samsara When they said this (-ces briod-DAR) concerning the primordially pure nature of all things. primordially . is revealed. all apparitional existence.

namely: a teaching on the object for which spirituality lack is induced-- i. The former (comments on Ch.e. It has four sections. the bewilderment in sams&ra through the the egotistical apprehension of that unrealised bewilderment nature. 442) concerns the manner in which spirituality realised is this aroused for the sake of living beings who have not reality.6-107. and a description of the diffusion of spirituality's disp3ay in order that this reality might be revealed. Once the 12): abiding nature of all things had been revealed.e. truth devoid the of bondage and liberation which is not bypassed moment when this from very appears. then all with the tathdgatas (de-nas de-bzhin Yshe¢s-pa thams-csd-dang) (dsnz-bias-oas) queens (rhed-dy truth. (all (theme-cad)) the assembled hosts of their (btaun-mo'i tahops) uttered this meaningful expression hriod-oa 'di brlod-do) in order to reveal that very 453 .4-111.isation. induced.now Spirituality Is Aroused For The Sake Of Sentient Beings Who Have Not Realised This Reality The second (106. spirituality The object for which beings' The is induced. i.4) (see p.5): first comprises both a teaching on the cause spirituality and a teaching on the object for which it is thereby 2. sentient which induces lack of realisation (106. sentient beings' which occurs of.real.

There are some who hold that (this reality) is kept secret from an unworthy recipient. n this is primordially beings. of and these the (appearances) primordially without abide the reality of three buddha-bodies. conjunction (rang-bzh n phenomena. unrecognised as the appearance and emptiness are without conjunction junction. to but most secret (shin-tu esanQ) because it is not seen be present in oneself. long as the to nature of all things is not realised (ye-nas) from the very beginning be the truth in which huddhahood is originally attained. present In accordance with these words (-zhes brlod-Daa) concerning the primordially secret truth. is essentially very secret unlike (n¢o-bo-nyid-kvis rab-tu hidden. But (1. where or disjunction. the spirituality which reveals it is repeatedly generated.8) it is naturally secret as impure bewildering reality or dis- asan¢) because it is perceived This nature of things.The latter (comments on Ch. uanz). phenomenal in secret reality (_nn -t i diversity ehos) for All (sna-tehrrrr) living It appears as (snanc) the existence. This (lesser truths) which are extraneously reality (JAI) is not extraneous (Yzn n-du Mla) to one's own mind. the but (their view) is inappropriate because the context is one in which the secret nature of 9 ground (and not of the path) is revealed. 13): SMaho! (e-ma-ho) who is exclaimed in distress at the host of sentient As beings have not realised this (reality). 6!5b . 2.

namely and (J five classes of living beings ('ero-ba lnea-'i those of the three evil existences along with the beings. 14): All (thams-cad) that appears as the body Zshees-ea) of reality of the their pure tnthhgatas (QBtlg) (de-bzhin along with fields and all (thams-cad) things (chos) of impure contents. the conceptual thoughts of living beings (Lzr-bA'i rnam-oar rtoe-oa) have ripened (smin-nn) into the (beam-evil ml-khyab-oar) inconceivable happiness and suffering experienced by the r18).5-109. i.11 Bewilderment in rams&ra which occurs through egotistical apprehens!. . sams&ra which appear within the three levels of existence. The former (comments on Ch.6): The second section concerning the nature of bewilderment and the comprises both a teaching on the cause of spirituality. actual nature of bewilderment.on of that unrealised nature (i07. mtshen-nyid yin-flan dbyer-med). In this way they However (na'an¢). 10 totls human through AA) the dualistic results ignorance (ma-rie-oa) of These are the Generating which the arise bewild- ering ( subject-object ) dichotomy. containing worlds and their (sentient) the (inanimate) are indivisible beacuse they are of one characteristic in the essential nature of primordial buddhahood (ye-nas scenes-rQVaa-na'i nao-ho-nyid-du are &ix-oa'i pure. once again they uttered 'di) which (ched-du briod-ace 455 follows. 2.e. (skyes-nas) great (sanrs- naturally present spirituality (thues-rie) or the great ( PR) spontaneous pristine cognition of the buddhas "Zi.ticl ]re-ahes) for their this Meaningful expression sake (j).

Pure. The reality which primordially In the Extensive Magical Net ground of (NGB. then. without independent existence. 15): ftaho! (e-ma-ho) Is exclaimed out of living kindness. it is referred to as the ground of all that is uncompounded and genuine: It is not the But the all conceptual thoughts. Bew7lder- went. The ground of all diverse levels Is indeed the nucleus of the This nucleus was revealed by the Sugata In the term "ground-of-all". has emerged from (1=) the disposition of the nucleus of the eeugata (bde-gsheas anvina-oo). It is the pristine cognition of the real nature.The latter (comments on Ch. clear. 110): sugata. the three buddha-bodies without conjunction or disjunction. inwardly Undisturbed and uncompounded Is the nucleus of the sugata. 127): radiant. 456 . It says in the tra the King 2f Contemplation (T. 2. And in the St3tra jaf J Bounteous Arrav (T. the original abiding nature or inwardly which radiant mind-as-such. abides. 14) too. Vol. This is called the expanse of reality. genuine ground. abides as the essence The nucleus of the sugata of inwardly radiant is that mind-as- such.

. Abodes the raptures (longs-sovod-fang) which they desire. (sna-tshogs) (kvis) causally effective (lus-danf) There are corporeal forms of diverse living beings including the gods. 127): (nucleus). Living beings apprehend the concept "I" as a possessor (bdae) and (fig) concepts such as "my things" as the possessed (bdae-sir). conditions.All living beings are pervaded by this same Contemplation (T. (edue-bsneal). their their (1e- respective joys and sufferings and so forth AQZA-ca) which manifoldly appear. 4024) All sentinet beings are always endowed With the nucleus of the buddha Because the perfect buddha-body is diffused. And because they belong to the buddhe-family. in the Surreme Continuum jaf the Greater And Also Vehicle (T. (znas-dang) including the celestial realms. Because they are indivisible from just what is. as IF said in the King Living By the beings are entirely pervaded nucleus of the sugata. the conceptual are by thoughts of individual (rig) sentient beings arise Thus. 'dzin) These are differentiated so (22z&= beings within the subject-object dichotomy. that are never liberated from sameAra. of their own emanated these great citadels of samsfirA dreams (gnrul in the manner of self-manifesting deeds (lag). When bewilderment occurs through any (rnam-rtoe) accord.

if. (ma-bcinas) as in space. bewilderment is fabricated. nor liberation from the very Ch. by egotistical conceptual thoughts (rn=-rtoa bdae-tu 'dzin-na-vis) which suddenly arise. or of subject and object. and then tied and untied ('dor) many knots (mdud-2A) in it. all (eus-kvan¢) living beings are not bound bondage. It is as example. this bewildering one does of gamshra is more veridical the longer not abandon one's attachment to the subject-object appearance dichotomy. is originally pure like the in the sky also seems more veridical the longer this intellectual effort is not abandoned and yet nothing is actually tied.III The truth without bandage and liberation which is not by- passed from the moment when bewilderment appears (109. (It comments on 2. by any agent conflicting emotion which ostensibly appears as bondage (bcinaa) is actually non-existent (mad-de) because there is not (3tod-ma-vin) in fact a single living being or even the mind of a living being which is an object to be bound (being-bar bva-ba). for one has urgently (nan-. Even without actually occuring.6-110. however. one's own mind-as-such but it appears as the bewilderment of samsira because it has contrived many modes of refutation and proof. and yet it is actually not veridical at all.5): The third teaches that there is neither bondage moment when bewilderment appears. in the abiding nature. . ia) or purposefully imagined a rope to appear in the sky (mkhs'-la) before one. If you ask. whence this ostensible bondage has emerged. Just as a knot sky. 16): such afflictions Despite caused by the many kinds of happiness and suffering in causing gams&ra.

pG nvtd) who is of the tath&gata himself (de-bzhin ¢she¢sself-manifesting purity purposefully conversed ¢ahe¢ssecond (9san¢- (shed-y ¢len¢-n¢o) . there is the diffusion of spirituality in order that this reality might be revealed. 17): In and order to reveal secret (bstan-phyir) to living beings this profound nat'. entitled (-.5-111. 2. and nirvana. the of which is spontaneous (]hun) and entirely perfect in the great field of primordial (Ye-nasI buddha-body and pristine neither ra'i) cognition. nzad). 18): pith these words (-ces). (It comments on Ch. Pamsara diverse emanations are made (morn-ha comprise an ts)pQa skillful These inconceivable display means and inestimable emanations of great spirituality (The conclusion comments on Ch.¢s-mad ¢rol-medor of snA_ of with respect to A1l things of Phenomena] existence.iv The diffusion of spirituality's display in order that this (110.91) the generation of of (kIIkYed-k&) both the ultimate (don-dan-oa) (enlightened mind) nirvana which ) is pure and free from all conceptual elaboration and (g. 2.ire (rdzza) reality (en°g) of the buddhad (ean¢s-r¢yas). and also the mind-as-such where there is rnam-par bondage nor liberation (bcir.& IIyis-la). 1 11 with the tathigata himself (de-bzhin This completes (-!p) the exegesis of the of all buddhas Chapter (le'u ate gnvis-oa) from (lai}) the Secret Nucleus anvin¢-co) With Respect 22 The Ill (de-kho-na-nvjd n¢es-oa).2): reality might be revealed fourth.ai the relative enlightened mind (kun-rdzob-kvie as9 bvan¢ .

. (respPCtively) realised (that reality).tA=gm of ) of sams6ra as berAuse These (gu) the pristine cognition (ye-shes-su) has been sameness buddhahood attained from the reveal the indivisible abiding nature and the reason why naturAl]y present spirituality emanates for the sake of living beings who have not from the expense beginning.

inconceivable to inconceivable forms are manifested in the ten directions. (5] . buddhahood. by the power of deeds. normal times. embodiments of awareness who are said to the blessing of great tathagatas. upwards or downwards. the demonstration of great miracles. austerity. the buddha-mind the buddha-visage inconceivable and the buddha-speech inconceivable to all. passing nirvana. of miraculous ability. (beings) move. the turning of the the doctrinal into wheel. the subjugation of Mars. [2] The sages who demonstrate birth. uncorrupted. cognitive powers.[3) are endowed with the six great supernamely. entire knowledge of the four beings. ability. and so forth. mind spirituality that emerges from all the came forth from the indestructible body.Chapter Three The Establishment of All Dhar sa Rg t-text: Then the six sages. each speech and of the tathigatas.(t) They are endowed with the buddha-body inconceivable to all. renunciation. of these treat sages or transcendent lords also acts on behalf of the five classes of living beings through four kinds of instruction in each great directions trichiliocosm of the infinite and limitless ten of the six worlds where. entire knowledge of the continuum of the minds of all entire perception of everything through the eye of entire hearing through the ear of miraculous and perfecting the conduct of Samantaperforming acts of entire benefit through the provision miraculous ability. facing laterally.[i] Having come forth. Countless all.

realisation this apprehension is exagerated from bewilderment. are teaching and will teach are conceptual the eighty-four thousand doctrines as an Antidote for the eighty-four thousand conflicting emotions. dualistic in an illusory manner. Does not differentiate between possessor and posssessed. will and the conclusion revealing (8) is uncovered. (6) they the vehicle of have taught. not be covered and cannot be covered by deeds [9] or the results of deeds. as many as they are. [10) Their nature itself does not degenerate from reality-Genuine reality.All (these emanations) indeed act as follows: By the power of vehicle of pious attendants. the unique mode. and the unsurpassed vehicle. [11) . It is the pure expanse itself. They concern respectively the dichotomy of object and [the the outer and inner dependent that] origination. which As thoughts of ignorance. of the the productive nature of deeds and that which results of deeds. [7) for all these (vehicles) too: subject. Then all the tathAgatas uttered this meaningful expression. Revolve The phenomena of mundane bewilderment. bodhisattvas. the vehicle of self-centred buddhas. in a duality of outer and inner dependent origination Through the subject-object dichotomy of ignorance and ideas. And they produce disharmonious experiences of happiness and suffering.

They are the baseless and groundless expanse. Their doctrines also do not decline. [16] The buddhas do not pass into (final) nirv&na. self. According tG the pure unsurpassed vehicle.Extraneous phenomena associated with possessor and possessed Have neither subtlety nor profundity Apart from mere erroneous thoughts themselves. In order to instruct the ignorant Through acts of maturation. Thus. (14] are supreme Disillusioned with the four vehicles. . Despite the continuity of erroneous In terms of cause and result. They emerge and then demonstrate [17] The passing into nirvhna. [15] investigated by genuine realisation becomes present from that (disposition) Where there is no independent existence. attributes. There is an interaction between the nature of (12) thoughts Erroneous thoughts and (the thoughts) themselves. others and the continuity of thought. But there is no extraneous wavering. One abides in the result of When well Everything the single vehicle. The indivisible time moments are the nature Of the pure expanse itself. (13] Transformations which occur in relation to it.

(22] the nature of erroneous 464 . The cycle of bewilderment which And so forth. --So they said. SOtras. [20] Then this secret description of these non-dual mandalas of the tathhgata came forth from the indestructible buddha-body. abodes. Commitments. speech. bodies. Abhidharma. The teachers apply names and words Corresponding to their meaning And then give teaching. thought. attainment. speech and mind Renowned throughout the ten directions Emanate from the Secret Nucleus. And the tantras of buddha-body. This natural Secret Nucleus (18) Is definitively established as the source Of all pitakas and all tantras. are nothing at all. Other than 1 is suffering. Birth. cessation. are taught But the names and words which Are without substantiality. classes: raptures. accomplishment.The Vinaya. mind. (19] Phenomena are merely names which have been applied. (21] 0! The retributions which are the basis of existence Have emanated from possessive With respect to the six thoughts. attributes and activities.

Through the tathfigata himself knew that the teachings spoken by countless emanations of the six sages and by all the tathAgatas are also gathered in these (verses). Without objective or subjective reference. This completes the third chapter from the Secret g1LC1_e_UZ Definitive [24] 11hh Respect T4 The Real. which establishes all dharmas. . --Such emerged. were the secret words of indestructible reality which [23] these words. speech. attributes and fields.Primordial knowledge and intrinsic awareness Overpowers it through recollection. It itself is accordingly none other then The wondrous buddha-bodies.

lifespan.mmentarv (111.5-133. parasol. fields. accumulation and the final the provisions over three "countless" aeons. was known as the a Bheekara.3-170. he cultivated 0 Sugeta. Overview (111. overview and an interlinear commentary. the boy of (of this Buddha (of ours). It includes an lamp of the world.): The third aspect (of the natural mandala of the ground-. which is arrayed as the without moving from reality. Offering shells. the the buddha-body. the emanational body). aeons ago when the Buddha MahAkkOyapa appeared in S&kyamuni. an (enlightened) attitude. . And your supreme noble marks.1. the son of a potter. And also your retinue.e. initial cultivation of the intermediate 3 mind of in supreme enlightenment.6) This comprises both the tradition of the common vehicles and that threes aspects which 2 are with reference to a single supreme emanational namely. however it appears. see p- 331) concerns the establishment of all dharmAV by the nature 1 of spirituality (i. a pAir flowers shoes and five hundred cowrie as his offering). attain- i As to the first (the cultivation of enlightened mind): Countless world. However they may appear. saying: may I achieve the buddha-body Similar to yourd.

7T. Roca and cultivated the (enlightened mind). during the first "countless" aeon. I made offerings to buddhas Totalling fifty-five thousand in number-Beginning with the guide Dhrtarastra Until the sage Indradvaja.stra. which derived buddhas. said in the Basic Transmission pg the Yinasra (T. The above text also says: . ii As for the second (his accumulation of provisions over three "countless" aeons): Then. 1) : When I came into being during the first "countless" aeon. provisions. in the world. he became the king Kudala who cultivated the (enlightened mind).6 (bodhisattva) levels from the seventh. At that time I was not disillusioned (with samedra). and thus first to the perfected the .aD). when the Buddha Ratnanga (dkon-mchoe vin-lee) appeared he was known as Prajn1bhadra. ('od-mdzes) And when the Buddha appeared in the world. the possessive condition of fifty-five and the path of 5 thousand beginning with the Buddha of and he actualised the path As he provisions connection. the merchant's son.Similarly. he perfected from the experience of the two Dhrtar.

While the last two (trainings) comprise one (perfection) each. basic virtues derived from seventy-seven thousand 7 from Dipam- kara to KBdyapa. At that time I was not disillusioned (with sams&ra). During the third ("countless" he multiplied the buddhas. and he Perfected the six transcendental perfections in accordance 8 with the two provisions. he mastered the three trainings. The one (remaining perfection) is comprised in all three (trainings). 4040): When the conquerors have mastered the three trainings They correctly explain the six transcendental perfections. The same text says. I made offerings to buddhas Totalling seventy-seven thousand in number. It says in the Ornament 9. concerning this: Until the Conqueror K&byapa.Beginning with the Buddha ShdhurOpa Until the guide Vipabyin. aeon). the trio of liberality. essence and branch . I made offerings At that time to buddhas Totalling sixty-six thousand in number.t jhG s QL 3 .g S3r*aigr Vehicle (T. Thus. moral discipline and patience are gathered together (respectively) as the cause. The first (training) comprises three (perfections). and thus actualised the three pure (bodhisattva) levels. During these (aeons). I was not disillusioned (with samsara).

Parents. e. knowahla the twofold obscuration of conflicting emotions and the is purified. and discriminative discriminative the training of superior three Perseverence is an aid for all (superior trainings). (the TrUA-' = Of xhg Abhidharma. T. 4089). invalids. 469 or in the abode . meditative concentration is gathered in the training of (superior) mind. (Vasubandhu) a text of the sublime elder it is said: Though they are not sublime. Iii As for the third (his attainment of buddhahood in accordance the with twelve are deeds): Pious attendants hold of fetters. And the Bodhisattva in his last rebirth Are said to be According Vehicle worthy beyond measure. the geni.I of the training of superior awareness awareness. teachers of religion. . whereas discriminative awareness I is the discriminative awareness without duali-cy. on the other hand. Through these two (provisions). in moral discipline. Now the five (transcendental perfections) from liberality to of) meditative concentration (are accumulated) as (the provision ekfllful means. that ordinary some In Persons bound by all manner but that of keenest acumen in their final birth attain buddhahood.iine provision of pristine ccgniti. 9 to into those who make the causal phase of the greater the path. buddhahood is first of attained in the pure abode of Akaniatha.on.

they are exclusively supramundane deeds. in the supreme and pleasant Akanistha. great enlightenment. and starting from then. Their birth. all Actually. Mara's host. the first five the others and last are called mundane deeds because they are conformity with mundane perception. whereas demonstrated are explained to be supramundane deeds. 10 Jambudvipa. buddhahood is revealed in It says in the Sutra 91 1bt Awakening 21 the (choa-dance j2ae nd its Rapture longs-aovod mnwon-car bvane- . and are here described accordingly: . display (of youthful prowess).mighty lhvara. among these twelve deeds. And an emanation attained buddhahood here. 13 In this the respect. Concerning this sublime mode (of emanation) which has been revealed. And similarly the passing into (final) nirv&na. and the practice of austerity. Adorned with diverse gemstones. and the subjugation of The turning of the doctrinal wheel. however. The perfect Buddha attained buddhahood. 12 the Nagarjuna has said: Those who are swayed by compassion Act to demonstrate their departure (from Tusita).Lh-D8'i/ sands-r vas-pa'i Mg): Residing above the pure abodes. Departure from the Their palace.

Departure From Tusita: Once Now. he sat on the lion throne in the exalted palace of the doctrine fortune: 16 and proclaimed to the divine princes who were equal in from now I shall proceed to Jambudvipa. (the 14 bodhisattva) had perfected (the the provisions) holy divine he over three "countless" aeons. Your Vedic deliberations should be narrated to the blind creatures in Jambudvipa. the first is the deed which transfers consciousness from the Tusita heaven. Thereupon. Peerless. mighty and vast in artistic crafts. Despite and Your arrival beings will not turn to the truth the abode of Tusita itself will become unpleasant. twelve years At this injunction. Friends. 471 . prince Svetaketu in the abode 15 At that time the was aroused by the following words which emerged through sound of divine music: Powerful in your recollection of many provisions (Accumulated) through a hundred merits. Consider the prophetic declaration of Dipamkara. some of the divine princes said: 17 That place is ignoble. illuminator of discriminative awareness. Just now Jambudvipa in being agitated by six teachers who are eternalistic there. 18 extremists. 0 infinite intelligence. he took birth as of Tusita.

" that He said instance among these faith was an approach to the would appearance be of the doctrine through which the sullied mind Thereupon. And subsequently that there would be a greater degree of wrong views so Were taught. said that he would instruct those blow of hia conch shell. he became an Considering time. clarified. Considering and the priestly class family. Suddhodana. five choce to be his own regent and having Considering continent. he wee chose this occasion of IkevAku because it supreme among royal families. he taught a hundred doctrine 20 eight approaches to the appearance of the called refining for the transference of consciousness at death. between the royal class which on (}isatriva) (brahman) are held to be supreme the family by living creatures. eternalistic extremists. father. there a7? were some divine princes who . (the to age when) that years. node exhorting Maitreya considerations: Ja:nbudvipa. as illustrating that mightier he would vanquish them. who been the father and mother of (Bhadrekalpa). Considering mother. by a claimed that he made his departure. Then. he chose King the and considering had he chose the beautiful M6yA- devi.Then the Bodhisattva replied: Let the 19 Re music play!. It is it were. so that taught it even if the doctrine were would not be understood. Prior there was a lifespan of one hundred (age) there would be a lesser degree of disillusionment (with samssr&). all buddhas during the Auspicious Aeon them and and he saw that both of had taken birth in K&pilevastu. beings would not turn even if (the doctrine) to the truth. inhabitant of he controlled by deeds.

Ugratejas. guide.cultivated their minds in enlightenment. Sata- and so forth. Some said in response that it was proper to go as kratu. one at a time. And they are the outcome of virtuous deeds. And then fall into evil existences. You would do well to emanate and go forth in accordance with the That following words from the Vedas of the Brahmans: $73 . gratitude that This past virtue will cease. 21 and some who became receptive to the uncreated doctrine. obtained the immaculate eye of the At that time 22 a shower of flowers fell At a time when the knee-deep. All the And all many divine pleasures that there are glories that emerge through mental conception Totaly emerge from the cause of virtuous deeds. through which guise should I proceed to Jambudvipa? Brahmg. who said: suggestion is inappropriate because it is biased. and the Bodhisattva said: or lion-like one Transfers consciousness at death From the supreme abode of Tusita. The pure coda should be told To abandon all carelessness. And he said: Friends. There were also others who doctrine. But there was a divine prince. Whereupon they will experience the suffering of Let them remember with 23 non-virtue.

while she observing a purificatory fast. the last spring his mother dreamt was. A supreme elephant. he came forth of his own Without took being lifted up. and seven steps in each of the four directions. Th= Deed of ':hen. you gods. She said to his father: 24 I felt that a snow or silver coloured elephant with that six tusks With legs bedecked and head painted red and pleasant. The Bodhisattva transformed the womb into acted on behalf of limitless living a celestial palace. roo on the fifteenth month. mother. 474 . entered the womb from her right side. Brahm& and 3atakratu began raise him in a fold of white silk. when in the grove of Lumbini. ezerged Taking Birth: ten months had passed. Has six tusks and is draped with a golden net. full- day of he Vaihakha. and perfect body firm as a vajra. 26 he naturally by from the right side of his and was to Dathed gods and n&ga kings. or.The sacred elephant. passed within me. but he said: Depart. saying: I am supreme in this world. and beautified. accord. The head is painted deep red. With cheeks dripping fine (saliva) and noble form. because I am purer. conformity with this description. large and supreme in physical form. 25 and beings. With noble gait.

inary and came he beheld them with his supernormal cognitive powers to know that they were omens relating to the prince He Sarvarthasiddha. omens. Who at birth walked seven steps on this great earth. the gods praised him. lord of bipeds. At that time. Then. Saying. arrived at the palace through miraculous Power and saw the marks (of his buddha-body). Bimbis&ra the son of King Mahapadma in Magadha. bloomed.27 At words such as these. because he appeared as a sage among the Sakya youths. in the forest flowers light. At that time Aims Accomplished". The learned made obeisance to you. and Ud&yi the son of King Satasena in Badsala. inquiry from the king. and all worlds were youths filled with great Ananda Five hundred SBkya including including were also as were five hundred kingdoms. "I am supreme in this world". Prasenaiit the son of King 28 Varkloka the son of King Anantanemi in Taksabila. born. Anandabrahmadatta in Kosala. he was named Sarvarthasiddha. but that if become a buddha. and four sons in four petty namely. saying: The learned make obeisance to you. these declared signs were revealed to a brahman who prophetically that if he were not ordained as a renunciate he would he were ordained he would become a universal. the sage replied: 475 In response to an . "Sage of the Sikyae". monarch. "All- and he was also named Sakyamuni. Who there was a rsi named Asita or Niskleha (neon-mQnsa and) Seeing these extraord- lived on the slopes of Mount Sumeru. foals Kanthaka. Then.

Praj pati. became known as the "Elephant's Defile" (Q1ang-no-che'i ¢ods praised At that time. saying: 29 . lake. tended by thirty-two nurses including he became (full-grown) as a lotus resting on a great Proficiency in the Arts: Then he went into the presence of the master of Krmivarman. the the striking it with the palm of his hand. archery. his mother passed away. seven rows of sal trees. It was then that the Sakya youths competed (in trials of) strength. responded: I did. Seven days after the Bodhisattva was born in this But. Nanda threw it corpse outside the city. so forth. under whom he completed study of) writing. The defile (where it landed) Qshoncrs). him. This supreme conqueror of defects Will become a self-born buddha for the sake of living beings. It is predicted that he will become a universal monarch. tail and the Bodhisattva raised by with his big toe. When he enters \into debate he will not become a universal monarch. and letters Sarva(the mitra.Did You previously show these marks to other learned men? The king Yes. and artistic crafts. and cast it outside the seven enclosures of the city. Then the rsj responded: The sophistic lords of the earth will be bewildered. the seven and moats. Devadatta slew an elephant. manner. others.

Similarly. seven rows of trees. Then. among which Devadatta pierced one. he continued to live in the palace. May I assist their supreme spiritual and temporal well-being 477 . endowed with the known as pure water) and it became the "Arrow-Born Well" (mda'-chu khron-oa sk eg) Efloyment With A Retinue of Queens: namely Gopa with her retinue thousand. and the Bodhisattva pierced them all. and Mrgajg with her retinue of twenty her Ya6odhara with retinue of twenty thousand-.The mighty elephant moved like a stone-Raising the mighty elephant with his big toe. when they had competed in the craft (of archery). He married the girls of the 3ekyas. This is undoubtedly a master of supreme learning. there were (as targets) seven cauldrons. By the power of his discriminative awareness. Nanda spot pierced two. of twenty thousand.sixty thousand queens in all. divine music: the following 30 verses emerged through the sound of In the past you made the following prayer of aspiration: "Having seen sentient beings filled with suffering. He hurled it far outside this city. and seven iron walls. On the where eight his arrow alighted. Beyond seven enclosures and seven moats. He will cast corporeal beings who possess the power of pride Far outside the city of samsara. qualities (of water sprung forth. At that time.

refuge and sanctuary of living beings".As a protector. army. And your aspiration to benefit living beings. However. attributes of four not he wished to become a renunciate. in R&jagrha under the guidance 32 of Udraka R&maputra. Then depart swiftly from this holy city. and during the last two years he drank a single drop of water. and The directing his intention towards the enlightened liberation. sickness. he whose hooves approached the Sacred St3pa (mchod-rten rnaln-daa). of birth. gates of the palace were patrolled by the who would permit him to to outside. 31 where he cut off his own hair and became the a renunciate. Then he revealed how contemplation of nothing-at-all and the contemplation which (respectively) reaches the pinnacle of existence are actualised. foremost in virtue. the Bodhi- sattva perceived the suffering death. and old age. Departure From The Palace: Travelling around \the city in its four directions. Austerity: Then he went to the banks of the Nairanjana River and for practised ate a austerity six years. and in Vaii&li under Ar&da Kilkma. During the first two years he single grain of rice. riding upon Kanthaka. During the middle two years he ate a single sesame seed. were supported by the four (guardian) kings. Remember your former conduct. At that time the gods aroused him. saying: 33 A78 .

the colour of his body became golden. the to find the abode of vajra-like contemplation. merchant's cows. In this way. daughter Suj6tg served him with milk drawn from eight which had previously been drawn from five hundred cows and 35 boiled. The three worlds suffer without protection. not move from this position 479 . Will this protector not then pass away? he arose from that (austere posture) and set out 34 On the road. son of the Sskyas. seated on a grass mat.This lord of humans. Reaching The Point of Enlightenment: Then. Let this heap I will of skin and bone decay. On he went until he reached that (soft place where the Point of Enlightenment (Bodhimanda) is situated. on the road. i. he made this firm vow: Let this body of mine dry up. and he dedicated her merit as follows: May whatever merit there is in this pleasant offering Long achieve all the purposes of this lord of Endowed with supreme intelligence humans Until all illustrious purposes are achieved. the Indestructible Seat (Vajrssana) and adorned by bejewelled gods. And his very purpose is unfulfilled. 37 Bodhi Tree which 36 were immeasurably Then. Has not completed his deliberations. At these words.e. the grass merchant Svastika offered him grass as a peacock's throat.

the time has arrived for me to attain buddhahood. and so forth. attain 38 beheld he learned that the Bodhisattva Seat. come be my witness here! . he a victory banner broke. You bear witness But you have no Without to the ephemeral offering I made here.an auspicious vase fell. witness here yourself. tuddhahood. Whereupon the Bodhisattva replied: Since I have completed the two provisions during "countless" aeons. King of Maras then dreamt one hundred and eight these. At these words.he rays of light which are called "the subdi?er of Mara's The host". have a w ti..hen (the Bodhisattva) emanated from his hair-ringlet (limn ) . Fav heed that it was by just one offering that you became the King of Maras. He arrived at the Indestructible and said: The time has not arrived for you to attain buddhahood. dreams-. 0 Earth.ess you already lost. When would. Whatever it is you say! She is just and impartial to animate and inanimate alike. Mara said.

And as many 301) : as one thousand heads. . The King of the 3akyas saw that things which dependently arise Are without independent existence. Then the gods said: The causal basis of Mare has been subdued by the power of loving kindness. where he and he caused a an army one thousand trillion strong. And: turned into flowers.As soon as he had spoken. three heads. Mare mustered returned to his own domain. Snamed by these words. (the Bodhisattva) remained so that equipoised in the contemplation fell of loving kindness. The missiles. Renunciation (T. (The host of Mara) multiplied. the Goddess of the Earth exclaimed: It is fitting because this son of the anlightened family has perfected a multitude of provisions. Accordingly it says in the Sutra Qf. when hurled. of great barrage missiles to descend on the Bodhisattva. earth I can count the estimate whole the of into of atomic particles. At that time. but I cannot number heads and limbs sacrificed by him on behalf sentient beings. the mass of missiles as a shower of flowers and the harsh noises became melodious 39 songs. Because he indeed possesses a sky-like mind The host of demons and their army 481 could not oppress him. two heads. With one head.

saying: 482 . During the second week. Jambuthe which was During the third week he subdued trichiliocosm afar.e. Then tie remained for seven weeks without speaking the the doctrine. near. Enlightenment: Then he became equipoised in the vaira-like when the contemplation. Thereat. $attva) MAra's daughters attempted to seduce women. his During first week. saying: This lion among creatures has subdued Mara. 40 and that in which it is known not to recur.ra) is known to have ceased. the four (guardian) kings offered him a begging bowl. At that time. posture. During sixth subdued spiritual beings. he actualised the contemplation in which (the corruption of sams. king of nigas. And obtained the ten powers and three kinds of awareness. the Bodhi Tree). He obtained the three kinds of awareness or enlightenment 41 cf the buddhas. During the fifth he departed the for the he abode of Mucilinda. (the Bodhi- but he transformed them into old whereupon they implored his forgiveness. During the fourth he gazed at the Tree itself with unclosing eyes. he remained without interrupting he subdued meditative dvipa. the gods praised him. and during the seventh he was offered honey by Tree of the merchants Trapusa and Bhallika in a grove near the Liberation (i. to At dawn drum (of victory) was about be beaten.Furthermore. which he accepted. He has actualised the concentrations of the Teacher. At which all fields of the ten directions have trembled.

why do you remain indifferent today? Pray beat the great drum of genuine doctrine. luminous and uncompounded. You emanate rays of light in the ten directions.May these two merchants find Advantage and great After giving this profit. Again. He thought: 42 I have found a nectar-like doctrine. And blow swiftly the conch of genuine doctrine. the lamp of genuine he said nothing in response to this request. made offered Qolden with a thousand spokes. doctrine. he remained there. 0 sun among teachers. without speaking the doctrine. no-one will understand. Brahma arrived and made the accomplished 43 following request: pristine Having the mandaln of supreme great cognition. calm. The lotus of your intelligence blooms Through rays of pristine cognition. the following request: 483 . Pray raise the staff of genuine And kindle But doctrine. If I teach it. Turning the Doctrinal Wheel: Thereupon. Profound. simple. approaching (the He Buddha). Brahm& a summoned tatakratu wheel 44 and. I will remain right here in the forest in silence. benediction.

Arise. Pray reveal your doctrine. victor And with Dispel in battle. victor in battle. with the request: 45 full-moon released by Rahu. Without a mote (of obscuration). This doctrine But Brahma again made the following request: 47 Formerly in this country of Magadha You made contact with the impure tainted doctrine. awareness's light of the world. having subdued all the badness of ego. 46 discriminative the darkness Thereupon. Your mind is liberated. faithful and wise.Arise. is not easily realised By one ensnared by attachment to rebirth. I will open the portal of nectar-like instruction For those who live in Magadha. And emanate discriminative awareness's light In the darkness of the world. And explain the immaculate doctrine. Which is most satisfying of all. 0 Sage. 0 Sage. And having been realised with great difficulty. Please open the portal of nectar-like (instruction). 484 . the Buddha said: Brahma. Who are attentive. The Buddha 48 replied: Brahma. Ard Satakratu offered a precious Like the gemstone.

49 told: In Visranasi-. congregation asked The gods who were of supreme existence and they were where the doctrinal wheel would be turned. emerged. abodes of gods. In this way. Therefore in that supreme abode which is called P. in that vicinity.si. took to turn and then the a wheel was heard as far place.Non-violent and constantly attentive to the doctrine. He turned the doctrinal wheel of the four truths for his five noble and the companions eighty truth thousand gods so that they actually realised and the five noble companions obtained the result of arhatship. Then. the word that the Tathtgata had agreed away as Akanistha. 485 . The sacred wheel will be turned. at Vulture Peak (Grdhrakiuta) he turned the wheel (of doctrine) that is free from characteristics for the sake of bodhisattvas. With these words he eet out. n&gas and so 50 he turned the final Wheel of definitive ultimate truth. in the great pious attendants and so forth. Instantly doctrinal he assented. a thousand thrones of precious gemstones three.there I made sixty-six thousand sacrificial offerings. Circumambulating he sat upon the fourth. That sacred Varanasi is the abode of the rsj of the past. Then. Then forth.

(the Buddha) is claimed have passed Kutinagara. And at VaidAli. and the greater & lesser vehicles. And according to the final (transmitted precepts). one the delivered of from samshra chiefly through renunciation and an ipplicaticn antidote. Makkolam. the three trainings. and the god realms. the purpose is to refute the clinging to those doctrines of the path and so forth as an antidote through which samsara is abandoned. in conformity with the gradual perception through which a beginner enters on the path. as well as Seketa. Venupura. According to the intermediate (transmitted precepts).Mow. this reality which abides as the fundamental He nature of all that is knowable is directly through expressed. And the city of Kapilavkstu. The Final Deed: In his eightieth or eighty-Second to year. according to the first category of transmitted is precepts. the site of the wheel of the doctrine. into nirvana. also taught (these transmitted precepts) the three pitakas. supreme being. Lived for one year each At (Varanasi). 486 . Atavi and Caityagiri. 51 . He passed two years in the Jvhlini Cave. Sibutnjra Hill and Kauhambi. next to a pair of sal trees in That this occured in his eightieth year is stated in passage the following from the Great Treasury 52 Qg Detailed LXD06111on (bye-brag-tu bshad-Da'i Md7Qd chen-mo): The Sage.

Passed into nirvana at the age of eighty. Five years in Rajagrha. It is said in the Transmissions 53 the Vinaye T. Furthermore. And one measure of these supreme remains Was worshipped by the king of the naga city Ravana.-uudy endowed with discernment. 1 make obeisance at all times. Seven were acquired for worship by the inhabitants of Jambuvdvipa. speech and mind. Six years practising austerity. The supreme and holy Sage.Three Years in Bhaisajyavana. is explained that the relics were divided into eight different Parts. Bowing reverently with body. And twenty-four years in Sravasti. (Y1a35C8gdala . After the funeral pyre appropriated by had been ignited. requiring Paese^ the it was in order to train the who majority that his of those training held to eternalism intention as into final nirvana during moon it the last watch of the night full was setting. So it was that the Conqueror. and four tooth-relics were potentates. 487 . 1-7): Among the eight measures of relics From his buddy. He had spent twenty-nine years in the palace. To those meritorious places Where the Omniscient One resided.

ra. there is the overview according to the uncommon vehicles (130. n&gas and humans.6): The Teacher Samantabhadra. manifests inconceivable emanations in the worlds of the ten directions from his disposition of spirituality.Among the four tooth-relics of this supreme being The first was worshipped in the mundane world of Trayatrimla. Mightily. The second in the pleasant city of Qandh&. beings. masters of nagas and yaksas. too' With he has adorned this earth objects of prayer. arising as the body of perfect and rapture. without straying Secondly. humans. and so forth. he trains the six classes or five types of living in the world-system of Patient Endurance perception =) In particular. manifest So it was that the relics of this buddha-body Endowed with discernment Were worshipped most reverently By the lords And by the of gods. And the fourth tooth-relic of this supreme being Was worshipped by the king of the n&ga city Ravan a. King Ahoka who lives in P&taliputra Has vastly increased the seven stipas.5-133. from the buddha-body of reality. The third in the land of the king of Kalinga. of those to be It is said in the Tantra af Sky-Like Priit MA Cognition (xa-sties nom.-mkha'-dance mnvam-na'i jZZAL"): 488 . (Sahalokadh` he manifesto the bodies of the Thousand Buddhas who grant instruction according to the trained.

(final) He then demonstrates nirvina. Reaches the Point of Enlightenment. Becomes proficient in the arts. In particular. He appears as the Thousand And Two Buddha-Bodies. countless emanations who grant instruction. from the body of reality. the knower of the world Perceives world-systems. (And turns) the doctrinal wheel.Derived Are the from Samantabhadra. The last two are Manjuhri and Vajrapani. He enters the womb and takes birth. in the world of Patient Endurance. 489 . Renounces the world. these manifestations arise buddha-body of reality. naturalIt from the disposition of the also says in the Supreme Continuum 21 _the Greater Vehicle (T. And without Through straying the diverse nature of his emanations. the perfect rapture. According to this ly 54 (passage). 4042): Through great all spirituality. practises asceticism. world's existence: He reveals these deeds to impure realms For the duration of the He is actually born (among the gods). And he descends from the Tusita realm. Enjoys the company of his queens. Vanquishes Mire's host. Attains perfect enlightenment.

The forms which assume this magical display Are not created and will not come into being.C Inconceivable Pristine Cognition (T. it is for example. 185): "ManJu*ri. The Buddha said. Manifesting in all fields. The buddhas are not dualistic appearances. It manifests in an immediate manner. And in the slime SfUmn Which Penetrates ' The $anre QS Th. In accordance with the aspiration of sentient beings It manifests immeasurably. Nor is the future the buddha-body. Just as at 490 . So the learned who lack desire Attain buddhahood in desireless forms. entity. The buddha-body is not past. 44) : Just as immeasurable reflections appear In a vessel of water when the moon shines: But the moon is without duality.And in the Great Bounteousnesse Buddhas (T. And nor The are they a single buddha-body is neither two nor three. Thus the body of the tathagatas Is above all revealed through the uncreated nature.

Manjubri. sapphire. And similarly. animals. antigods." Through these topics the overview is completed. the lunar disk emerges way.' golden in colour. he becomes present in these very Brahma. Indeed. as arhat. the denizens of hell. Likewise. when there is someone to be trained by perceiving the Tath&gata's body to be golden in colour. before all beings inconceivable within immeasurable unappraisable inexpressible not conceive However. the Tathagata does or think that he should be present before those know sentient beings in order for sentient beings to before them. corundum or red pearl in colour. that the Tathagate is present the Tathagata is present just as he is seen by sentient beings. humans. or the mundane Yama beings. 491 . when there perceiving) his body to be is someone to be trained (by colours. think why it should be facing those sentient beings in order for sentient beings to recognise it as the lunar disk. he becomes present in these very and teaches the doctrine. beryl. the Tathagata. distinct the In the same Manjubri. livara. forms. Indeed. when there is Sakra. Manjubri. Manjubri. the body of the Tathagata does appea. someone to be trained by the guardians of the world. as such endowed spontaneously with and without conception because it is attributes. or completely perfect Buddha too is seen the Tathigata present unequalled samsara.midnight the disk of the moon's ascending node is known to be the lunar disk facing each of all the sentient beings in but the lunar disk itself does not conceive or Jambudvipa.

1): After the explanation of the discourse initiated (by the male & female consorts Samantabhadra).1-134.3) (comments on Ch. 466). an exegesis of the meaning of its words. the interlinear commentary has three the background motivation (of this chapter).1) Secondly parts: p. are said to be (zhes.Interlinear Cosseentary (see (133. . then (de-naa) the six ('Jig) emanations body.tbug These. and a synopsis of the chapter. They are embodiments of akarenes (r.xa-ba'i) naturally arisen from the blessing of great that emerges spirituality (thu¢a-rje chen-nn" bvin-avie manifesting fig) by itself of from all the tath&gatas (de-bzhin ¢ehe¢s-na theme-cad- the self-manifesting array. 492 . 3. their respective six classes of living beings of the six worlds 1") because they have subdued all deeds and conflicting emotions.i¢-oa'i akvea-bu) because they themselves are the and they grant instruction to pristine cognition of the buddhas. (thub-_2A) came forth from the indestructible speech and mind of the tathigatao (de-bzhin ¢she¢s-oa'i or sages oku-dane ¢sun¢-_d&" array. rdo-rie-lag 'thon-to) of this selfincluding SAkyamuni.6-170. Background Motivation This (134.

(ihub- rapture and so forth. gzbi). these infinite six pervading all of the directions of (drua-Q+ rhvoes-bcu) dissimilar container-worlds. and a synopsis of amaAra and nirvAna as self-manifestations of mind and pristine emanation by means of the four kinds of instruction. crescent-shaped and triangular. and upwards or (van-manvi).l[1JG-Ydum-pvi ten Atoms cnan-DO). Briefly.An zxetesis of the Meaning second of Its Words (134. where living beings move laterally (anrelindicating that their heads are lopsided. their world-systems also appear differently by the power of (yi dbanaThe six sages having come iii) the respective deeds (lag) accumulated by living beings.iie-rten) which are square.3-169. round. cognition.4-155. 3: 2): detailed exegesis-- forth ('thon-nass) in this way.6): a first comprises bot:. there are worlds ('. limitless (mtha'-vas) in number and parts of happiness. i The General Teaching On Emanation Sy Means of the Four Kinds of Instruction (134.4) The part has three sections: a general teaching on a particular exegesis of the nature of the living beings who are the object of these instructions and of their doctrines. In each (re-rar) indicating that their heads face up or world-system of the great triehiliocosa naturally . each great sage or transcendent lord 493 . downwards down. an abbreviated teaching and the former (commenting on Ch. along with the hollowed nadir and the uncovered zenith. and (sup-mad-oa11) in their forms sorrow.

instruction by direct perception of all meanings. living also (fin) acts on behalf of the five classes of beings through his own four kinds of instruction ('du1-ha rnam-oa wig 'pro-ha'1 dog mdzaa-de). the animals are also (sometimes) considered to be included in the category of the lateral. there are some the six worlds comprise those of the four are lateral. Animals. instruction by great miraculous abilities. The world of Yama is lateral. The world of the hells slopes downwards. On this point. the and its sentient contents who are subsumed in the (of upwards and downwards-- classes (of living beings) and endowed with three kinds motion)-- lateral. It also says in the Great js Buddhas by merit. So it is that in the world-system container-world five of a single trichiliocosm. gods and humans move upwards. that are the field of in- struction for the who hold directions downward emanational body. 44): The distinctions of deeds are inconceivable.I pj chen-no bcom-ldan-'d&2 re-res). granting his own particular instructions. Now these (four kinds of instruction) are namely. instruction the (T. 494 . nadir which facing and a zenith which is but they do not even partially perceive the central meaning. However. which along faces with a upwards. and instruction by knowledge.

by perception or the great supernormal great cognitive of buddha-mind. the turning of the doctrinal (2hoe-kv1 'khor-lo bskor-ba-d&") in Of great miracles and the demonstration (cho-'ohrul chen-no betas-Da-dang) at Sr&vasti. his arrival at the Point of Enlightenment. the subjugation of Mara's wheel V&ranasi.latter (the detailed exegesis namely. of buddha-body and its excellent by instruction power. taught.e. Included from Tusita. instruction and inconceivable in miraculous the five instruction by knowledge conveyed vehicles of buddha-speech. the renunciation life. retinue of queens. (rab-tu Dvun2-ba-dane) or rejection of household banks of the the austerity (dka'-thub mdzas-Da-dana) on the Nairahjana River and so forth. 'JAM-DA) at the Passing into nirvana (m'a-naan-las Kudi- et+`'s+' ) in addition to these eight (deeds) which are universally among them are his transference of consciousness his enjoyment with a his proficiency in the arts. abilities. (he demonstrates) the birth (bltams-Da-dann) of the buddha-body. (bdud-btul-ba Aang) host. the buddhahood in Vajrasana. 3. on Ch. of the four kinds of instruction) has four sections. his of a rutting elephant subjugation at Rajagrha. i. The first (comments 3): The same who demonstrates (Eton-oa'i thub-Pas) the great miracles of deeds in order to mature immeasurable living beings through his great emanation of buddha-body instructs inconceivable living beings. his teaching of . merit direct instruction by the great deeds.

and the subjugation of a great yaksa in Atavi. In short. There are some who hold that his deeds number twelve. without minds differentiation.) ttie or six classes of living beings who require to be trained. all acts living beings by the great miracles of buddha-body subsumed therein. Furthermore. The comments on Ch. and the other are interspersed these. they possess others. The second (instruction by direct perception. nature of to among all the conflicting emotions and conceptual thoughts belonging respective five of all beings (thama-cad-kvi fig. but that is not definite because he is additionally (deeds) said to with demonstrate miracles. the supernormal cognitive power of knowing the minds of 331) Essentially this is the entire (!kun_ knowledge (etkhven-na-Wane) at all times and in all eircumof the stances. mastery recollection of many they instruct living beings. 3. power of knowing past they have direct perception of knowledge the lives.the doctrine to his mother in 55 Tusita. over the of (mkhwen-pa-dan¢) Through such as past. The four times are known in the mariner of the forms (of past and future events) which appear on an oracular mirror. The so enumeration of twelve deeds subsumed in the words and forth which are (la-sore-ma) instruct is merely illustrative. i. A96 . sages are endowed with the supernormal cognitive abodes. all knowable things because of their entire (kun-tu) the four times (due-bzhi).e.

performing entire acts of benefit They sovc. compounded. through the ear of miraculous YnyAn-eylz). They also grant instruction through the supernormal cognitive power of clairvoyance.g) which teaches each sentient being according to his or her needs. And they instruct through the supernormal cognitive power of the cessation of corruption.without exception. and also of the intention or continuum of (kvl-reyud) pristine cognition.yi (kun-tu esan na-lone) every language in all world-systems. which is of the the perceptual knowledge buddhas. Then.e. they instruct sentient beings power of through the supernormal cognitive clairaudience. and encompasses the an d transference emanation of consciousness at the birth of living beings in both pure buddhafields and impure world-systems. i.a-aa-done) power of (kun-tu jjII in accordance with the volition of living provision beings through the of miraculous ability (rdzu-'nhrul-e. instruct through the supernormal cognitive miraculous ability. naturally and wholly perfecting (rdzoes- 4") the conduct (ltd-a&) associated with the inexhaustible . perception of pristine Its range death. (rdzu-'nh_rul-evi). the entire hearing of great ability (rdzu-'nhrul. the divine eyesight which is mani- festly is the entire perception of everything (snvan-evis) or the (thaws-cad kun-tu aziws-na-dAne) through the eye of unobscured miraculous ability cognition. and small. lihnas-ki. This i.e.

corresponding in their volition to all (kun_ 1L) the le immeasurable minds of living beings. because through these six all knowable things are directly mastered.e. 3. peaceful & wrathful and so with their dissimilar mandalas of body. The third (instruction by miraculous abilities. and the inconceivabbuddha-visage (mil haam-avis mi-khvab-oa-dano) which manideities. guise and visage. or the six treat supernormal 56 cognitive powers ( Qon--oar goes-D. conclusive pristine He i. Satakratu.ab-Da-dan¢) forms of the (gjiu) such as Brahma. to all (kun-tu) the dissimilar distinct range of those who are to be with at their each sensory bases and volitionsr corresponding perceptions. the buddha-body. The comments on Ch. trained. 5): sages are revealed to be endowed with (danQ-ldan-2&) inconceivable body which (bR_=m-evis nii-kh. Samantabhadra. chen-ao jug).vis ML-khyab-oa-dane) beneficial deeds of the buddha-mind knows (phenomena). fests as the many different forth. speech and mind of is entirely positive (kun-tu bzAng-DO'i) and with respect in to the uncorrupted which the (Zaz-Da med-pas) obscuration and cognition twofold propensitiea are without exception purified in the expanse.wheels of adornment. and a universal conform budd:iamonarch infinite in their appearance to all (kun-tu) the beings requiring training. They demonstrate the inconceivable (bsam. In this way they instruct through the buddha-mind. moment to their respective Because .

To those who are endowel with desire He ostensibly reveals a dez. In this manner. And as all kinds of mountains and living creatures-58 And in the Su"tra Requested ty Sub£hu (T. exclusively towards oneself. 8): These is sentient beings of Jambudvipa feel that the doctrine is revealed because the loving kindness of buddha-mind present exclusively before them. Obeisance to this guide. And a single buddha-body reveals inconceivable modes in addition. it is felt to be present It says accordingly in the Great Mother (T. And to instruct the venomous beings He reveals wrathful forms to the wrathful. And sometimes as the great spirits who cause (They appear) in infinite supreme forms such as these. endowed with skillful means. 805): Although his nature is without Desire or hatred. 366-7): Also. (gaunt the sages possess the inconceivable mi-khyab-pa) (kun-tu) buddhawhich 'Peach beam-g. obstruction.'ie of the doctrine manifests as sound to all fortunate living beings that 499 . it is said in the Buddhasamayoza Mantra Sometimes peaceful.rous form. of buddha-visage.this buddha-visage directs the loving kindness of buddha-mind before one. sometimes wrathful. (T. this In way the sages grant teaching from the 57 continents of Videha and'Aparagodanlya as far as Akanistha.

which is the best of vehicles.5) includes both a verbal definition and a classification (of the vehicle through which knowledge is conveyed in speech). The former (139. All sentient beings pass into nirvana. instructing each in accord with his The fourth. The second (the classification) includes former: both general and Particular to classifications. Manifestly attaining to delightful bliss. Riding on that.tag Trance endental perfection QP Diacrimina _iye Awareness (T. beings. Consequently. 13): This vehicle is a great palace Immeasurable as the sky. It says in the Verse Summation = . corresponding to the languages of different that sentient Inconceivable (hsam-rvis in the infinity mi-khvab-ca) forms are diversely emanated of space so countless (arancs-m d) Wyur-to) enumerations are manifested (enana-har in the ten or directions her needs. veys progressively reaches or one to a desired by reliance on some (instruction). it is discipline the conflicting emotions of the minds of sentient beings that the buddhas' spirituality is demonstrated to each in accord with his or her needs. It 500 . As to the first: The word "vehicle" means that which (goal) (thef-na). one cannot affirm that the number of the vehicles is specifically determined.there are. As to the In general. derived from (the con- Sanskrit) y na. instruction by knowledge conveyed in speech compriseE both an overview and interlinear commentary.5- 152. (Dhvoas-Dcu).

It is not divided into two. it is said. And in the Lamp . 107): In order to guide sentient beings completely. 501 .. As such it is not an object of reference.says in the S(itra j= ihf neacent I Lama (T.. When subsumed. 113) says: The vehicle is one. is only one. it has two aspects-and lesser. an intention directed towards the result. I have explained the entire vehicle. and with an intention directed towards the greater and lesser (vehicles) they are also said to be two. And in the A11-Accomnlishinv Kina (T. 328): 59 Existentially there Yet. The Tantra the Glorious Cessation -a the FQ F1 m nre (doal 'byunQ-bshi zad-Da'i r 'ud) says: Because there are causal doctrines and the result. there are said to be two (vehicles). with an intention directed towards both cause and result. This vehicle is indeed twofold. The enumeration of the vehicle corresponds. However.Z Pristine Cognition (1e-aron): Because there are intellects Endowed with greater and lesser degrees of greater acumen. The vehicle) if (the White Lotus _the Genuine Doctrine (T. to be one. with is provisionally subsumed.

26): This inconceivable teaching numbers eighty-four thousand: Yet there are said to be three approaches to the vehicle. Vol. The vehicle is held to be threefold. self-centred buddhas and the greater vehicle. greater when (this vehicle) is classifi-d according to intermediate aspects. 3. Vol. three aspects.rurthermore. And a fourth subsumed in the secret vehicle itself. comprising those of the pious attendants.outer. And in &n9-IM the Tantra G mstones. 4020): In accordance with the thorough classification Of connections. exegeses and attainments. rather than just outer and inner stages: Three vehicles-. 841: NGB.the SAtras 2f_ i" Greater Vehicle (T. inner Excellently There are grasp the genuine also explained to be and the resultant one. One abides in the result of the single vehicle. the enumeration (of the vehicle) has been subsumed. provisions. And in the Eight Volumes Qf Nectar (T. four. It says in the Ornament of. fivefold. namely the three causal vehicles as is stated in the Mazical Net 21 Maniuhrl (T. such 15): that it is explained to be This text says (Ch. its and it is said to be threefold. NGB. Again. 502 . 15): Attaining disillusionment through the three vehicles. 360. lid) the Secret Seminal point thiZ-le nor-bu'i there are also explained to be and secret doctrine. attitudes.

When disillusioned with the four vehicles. as is said in =& arAA-t Space (NGB. Descent a (T. a Additionally.been differently explained. pious attendants. And likewise the vehicle of the pious attendants. There is explained to be an enumeration of Vairasattva In this eight. there with are also explained to be six vehicles in accordance and the higher and lower classifications of cause result. 828) says: That which has emerged has emerged in the nine vehicles. 107): The vehicle of gods and the vehicle of Brahma. 3705): as is said in the SummAtIon Gods. And both outer and inner secrets-These are explained to be the seven vehicles. j2t the MandAL.. IIL ShL the single vehicle. 2)! way. humane. Vol. Then. surpassing the eight vehicles. One abides in the result of And in the 3&tMa. And there even explained to be seven. The All-Acc molishing (T. Tathagatae and self-centred buddhas Have. (T. The All_ King (T. Self-centred buddhas and bodhieattvas.. 503 . 828) says: are There are ix vehicles of definitive attainment. ninefold enumeration is explained.

the two basic vehicles of gods and humans.There are even explained to be sixteen vehicles. There is neither vehicle nor mover. the five outer (Non-Buddhist) vehicles and the nine inner vehicle pd nyi-ma (Buddhist) vehicles. The abiding nature. and. Tantra 2f Ih& Illuminating Sun It says in the g Nucleus (an-ving- rab-tu snang-bved-kvi rgyyld): The first of the vehicles is the protector of the sixteen. One should therefore that (the abiding nature) is like space. as the same text says: When the mind becomes transformed. In brief. apart Yogine from that. however. the very expression "vehicle" is baseless for know essentially pure intelligence. of 504 . 107): is Said in the Jj tra Q. all these (enumerations) merely appear in accordance with the stages of intelligence (of those to be trained). as well as 6a the of the indestructible nucleus of inner radiance. is merely labelled as a vehicle.t j= Descent SuZ 8 As long as sentient beings manifest There will be no end to the vehicles. namely. Indeed. the as vehicles are explained to be inconceivable } (in (T. number). and is not really such.

and the three mental non-virtues-. and the expression "vehicle of from the term devavana. Their classification causes birth is similarly twofold! The vehicle of humans the as a human being of the higher worlds because ten non-virtues are abandoned and the ten virtues are practised. the particular clasification has five aspects: is the vehicle of Code and humans. causes birth among the six of of divinities of the desire realm because the nature ten virtues is intensively experienced. self-centred buddhas. These virtues are named after their function which is to renounce the ten non-virtues. classes the on the other hand. The three physical non-virtues-. to steal. to talk irresponsibly. and secret mantras.to lie. among the seventeen classes of divine abode in the form realm because the four Meditative activity in the four fields of the formless realm through the experience of are concentrations experienced.to covet. malicious. to be kill. The expression of humans" is derived from (the Sanskrit) Coda" term M&n{lsy yea.. and the vehicles of pious attendants. 61 It says in the 8unnlemntarv 505 . and to commit sexual misconduct. The vehicle of gods.to ten the four verbal non-virtues-. 14): absorption. and to utter abuse. are all abandoned.Al to the There latter. Vol. Among them. and to hold wrong views. bodhisattvas. to slander. and the four formless dal IL&L (NaB. the first (the vehicle of gods and humans) has both a "vehicle verbal definition and a classification.

vehicle) the ground (of this respectively. middling and greater on states of the path of provisions one meditates respectively the four recollections. The second is the vehicle of the pious twofold. threefold: The ground is (the with there self nor possessor reference to the the components extraneous individuals. and the birth in the abodes of different (gods and humans). The classification is is neither and trainings. which is also The verbal definition is that (the Tibetan) term thos_ teross (lit. the four correct 506 renunciations. The path entails that during the lesser. Teacher and derived from (the Sanskrit) the indicates one who listens to the doctrine in the presence of verbally view) that communicates it to others. The practice Causes birth furthermore. been attentively heard). and the . and one abides in three having established the awareness of objects or relative. attendants. is (the view) that one to the conscious of acceptance and rejection with respect virtue and evil meditative conduct and is aware of the nature of absorptions. objective phenomena to be and their indivisible atomic particles to be ultimate. concentrations and formless reference The path is result is with to the ten virtues. becomes of the four immeasurables and unwavering meditation in the Brahmak&ylka and so forth.The practice of the tan virtues and renunciation Causes birth among the gods and humans of the of non-virtues desire realm. preacher of what has trivaka. while the mental continuum is relative 62 and its indivisible time moments ultimate truth.

well renounced understands the meaning and is four truths. 507 . and equanimity. meditates on the aspects of genuine enlightenment. Then during path of meditation one meditates on the eight aspects of the namely. and contemplation. and recollection. activity. the five faculties and perseverence. one practices acceptance and rejection with reference to the four truths. awareness. analysis of the doctrine. Vol. and so obtains the highest among the sixteen on the path of insight and so forth. recollection. Above all. one During the path of insight. that of one who enters the continuum (to enlightenment). the contemplation. refinement. goal of livlihood. its During the feeling of warmth on climax on the path of connection one meditates of faith. effort. is well-pacified and one who is an arhat. 64 It says SuDDIementarv Maoiq-1 Net (NGB. As to the result: One abides in the expanse of quiescence having obtained either the residual or the non-residual (nirvana). correct view. perseverence. 1a): by training One who In the Which sixteen-faceted pristine cognition. discriminative during the feeling of receptiveness and the supreme phenomenon one meditates on the five powers of faith and so forth. In respect of the And who has been trained through the succession (of results) Such as entering the stream.four and stages of miraculous ability. one who is in a penultimate birth. namely. speech. recollection. thought. namely. one who is in in the a final birth. sublime path. 63 moments The result is then actualised. contemplation. delight.

and one who abides in the 65 solitary manner of a rhinocerous. during a final birth. which is The verbal definition refers to (the Sanskrit) twofold: The also term Cratyekabuddha. sratsteka meaning "individually" or "for oneself alone". It refers to one who. that nirvana is obtained by reversing that mode.Proceeds to the level on which the enemy. It says in the 21 Emergent Realisation (T. and then actualises one enlightenment. One must know the path genuinely subsumed therein Is that of a As to the path: because rhinocerous-like recipient. And since they do not renounce the subject. is pacified. Conflicting emotion. aanss-rvas). it has When this vehicle is classified. Now. 3786): Since they renounce the idea of objects. ground. cultivates in his mind the realisation of the path. and buddha meaning "one who is pure and extensive" (Tib. naturally without regard for oral.one of great conduct in respect of the of lesser conduct. three aspects: As to the one knows that samsara arises by entering into the mode with of dependent and origination respect to outer and inner phenomena. there are three kinds (of self-centred provisions. buddha)-. third is the vehicle of self-centred buddhas. instructions revealed by a master. It is superior (to that of the pious attendants) in addition to meditation on the thirty-seven doctrines 508 . Then it is objects Qrn '"ta realised that the selfhood of individuals and external 66 too are without independent existence.

enlighten- sent" (Tib. Verge the armour) liberate living beings. 14): It says in the SuoDle?±entarv Magical Knowing outer and inner dependent origination as an optical illusion. They thoroughly impediment. does demonstrate so that they come to understand it list and pass into nirvana.of enlightenment. reveal (a self-centred buddha) does not but he the doctrine verbally to sentient beings. A bodhisattva vanQuishes the and baseness assumes dons which through supports his own desire for buddhahood. there is also meditation on dependent origination. in the manner of the pious attendants. The level of the arhats among those (self-centred buddhas) 67 is called the resultant level with supreme bliss of purpose. (HGB. The result is that when enlightenment has been obtained. it symbolically. The which is also twofold: verbal definition is that (the Sanskrit) term Q LiS&ttya has the meaning of "spiritual warrior of by an¢-chub gems-dDa'). Untaught by a spiritual benefactor. The fourth is the vehicle of the bodhisattvas. 13) says: 509 . great power of compassion the implements which (lit. And with supreme bliss of purpose proceed to an enlightened level. They penetrate substantial forms without become realised through intrinsic awareness. The 1 Vszn (T. Vol.

all things subsumed in phenomenal existence. the and namely. this When vehicle has three aspects: As for the ground. and. Therefore he is called a bodhisattva. (NGB. kinds mind-. in the transcendental perfection of discriminative awareness. power.are As to the path. including both to objects subjective the two are of comprehended enlightened be emptiness. Thereafter. greater liberality and greater mind. are studied. are realised of to be without independent existence. . while the ten levels are include those The (transcendental perfections) skillful means. manner of a reflected image. of perfections ter. the selfhood individuals and external selfhood of phenomena. classified. The result is that the two kinds of benefit become spontaneously accomplished once one is present on the eleventh omniscient buddha-level. He dons a mighty armour and tames the causal basis of M&ra. Universal Magical It Light (Samantaprabhb). Who has realised the two kinds of selflessness. the transcendental refined.of aspiration and the actual entrance-. spiritual warricr of enlightenment. Vol. reference the thirty-seven to attributes of the six or ten path. samsara and nirvana. l4): It says in the The Yogin who has perfected the transcendental perfections. and pristine cognition.With greater intelligence. mind. aspiration. with conduct. in addition to and all of them are gathered 69 the six transcendental perfections. in the The two kinds of selfhood.

Introduction to JLhr Gpnduc_t & Bodhisattva (T. It says in the Analysis of the Lw Tnuthgaf Madhvamaka (T. 3881): This appearance which accords with the relative Is not found at all when investigated with awareness. The existen- relative truth is the ce. The adherents or of not. The adherents of Svatantrika-Madhyamaka hold that but when 70 all things ultimately appear to be relative. 3871) says: The ultimate is not within range of the intellect. the two truths are the ultimate and the relative truths.And who has gradually traversed the ten levels. diverse phenomena of apparitional samsara and nirvana: whereas the ultimate truth is the mindthe as-such. reality in which all conceptual elaborations are The quiescent. of intellectual thought. That which is not found is itself the ultimate. are quiescent 71 of It conceptual elaboration and free propositions. 511 . whether analysed things at all times from all (T. Will excellently attain by means of the two truths. investigated are without independent existence. says in the Introduction to Shg Just as you hold substances to have 3861): dependent existence. Now. The reality which primordially abides. Prasangika-Madhyamaka all hold that. transcending objects QX. The path through which the buddha-level is reached And its status is attained. The intellect is held to be relative.

When in the relative is which classified.BlQ Truths 21 MA1hx&m&" (T. And: Obeisance to the Which have That truth of the buddhas' words perfected the teaching anything emerging dependently Neither ceases nor is created. both the correct and the erroneous are the in the fact that they appear. It Bays in the Analysis 2Z 11= T. Neither comes nor goes. and there is a correct such as relative in which appearances are causally effective. The classification of the correct And erroneous relative has been made. Neither is difference nor identity. game on analysis. 382u): And in the Root Stanzas on Discriminative Awareness It is characterised as being Unexpressed through concepual elaboration. they 512 . there is an erroneous such relative as appearances are not causally effective moon the (reflection of the) in water. 72 the moon in the sky. Indeed. Showing the peace (of nirvana). But respectively causally effective and ineffective. (T.I have not admitted even relative existence. On further investigation. And is quiescent of conceptual elaboration. 3881): Since they are similarly apparent. Neither is transitory nor eternal.

and merely designates the ultimate truth. ified to However. without classification. And a quiescence of all conceptual Actually this method is explained to be characteristic of relative truth because it is an object of the intellect. is beyond the intellect and thus its essence cannot be classified. enduring phenomenon. abide in the present moment. The ultimate. on the other hand. 513 . When the yogin who meditates on this real nature 74 cultivates the intelligence free from conceptual elaboration. 3881) : Although creation and so The ultimate are refuted. the genuine real nature is indivisible whether the essence of the tathagatas' doctrines quiescence. This (refutation) is claimed to be in harmony with genuine realit is symbolised as non-creation elaboration. Therefore all phenomenal existence. diminished it is as for example space when is neither filled nor someone praises it or someone does not praise it. There is a sQtra which says: SubhQti. Similarly. sams&ra and sameness from nirvana.are also the same because they do not actually exist as such. ultimate AnH1 si truth it is called the to which synonyms are applied. is expressed whether it as the nature of ultimate unique or to is revealed by other eternalist parivrAlikas be a constant. if tentatively class- by the intellect. things as the fundamental ultimate reality refers all being empty of inherent 73 or independent existence. It says in the Qf the TAta Truths of the forth (T.

is so-called ablution and cleanlinescs. 828): According to Kriy&tantra. it When conforms to Kriy&tantra. is visually created. As because it emphatically teaches When classified. On the path. The result is that the enlightenment of the buddhas is deity held to be obtained after sixteen human 76 lives. oneself and the deity are as servant and master.The fifth is the vehicle of secret mantras which comprises both outer The both and inner aspects. the from the accomplishment is then derived. among which the Kriy&tantra The bva-ha 'i has definition and classification): of action (Tib. both". One is held to be liberated through the labours of human lifetimes. and then offerings are made. outer aspect is (verbal threefold. As to the ground. It says in the All-Accomotishinz Kiwi (T. 514 and from skillful means which . because in conduct (car") Yogatantra. The sixteen Caryatantra is or Ubhayatantra is also that it twofold: (in The verbal "the definition vehicle of is called 3ubhava Sanskrit). and in meditation to there are three aspects of ness without independent Caryatantra: classified. it has three aspects: all things the deity have or to the ground. it is understood that accomplishment derives from discriminative awareexistence. 75 of whoa: pristine cognition (dnanasattva) is beheld as a king. with reliance on the austere and pure nature of their reality and so forth. it is established that once been realised to being be without independent existence. verbal Ycryuei) definition is that the tantra Kriys (in Sanskrit).

by the habitual conduct of cleanliness. The Yogatantra is also Sanskrit) (the The verbal definition is that term y9ZA refers chiefly to mental meditation. 515 .riet{ne cognition 77 Vttva) with respectively. bei. ground. text says: oneself and the deity are both seen According to Ubhayatantra. According to the path. in the manner of water according poured into water. Hoping for accomplishment to be conferred. of . result that one in held to be liberated within seven human lifetimes. in that manner the and 78 performs acts of cleanliness as in The previous KriyBtantra. that assisted the result. The previous text says: One who desires the Bounteous Array of Yogatantra Desires liberation within three human lifetimes. The result of liberation within seven human lifetimes is held. as if by a friend. The path is meditation to so that view. to When classified. as the being of commit(1n naone meditates and t!%.holds oneself and the -AVeeettya) deity to be equal. there is of Yogatantra: the it established that discriminative awareness without independent which that existence being of pristine cognition in oneself radiates as the is deity abide. twofold: while the view and conduct are both held to are three aspects and the assist As it. in human lifetimes 79 on one is held to be liberated within three the level of the Bounteous Array (dhanavyuha). to be equals..

and by the practices When of vital energy.rna1-'boor then-Q). cognition are without duality. One will be well liberated in a single lifetime. the father tantras of MahSyoga are (explained) in two The aspects: Sanskrit) term definition is that. as to the 81 is held to be the Display jal Pristine Cognition (. and. The mother tantras of discriminative awareness (i. derived from (the Sanskrit) term anuvo¢a.e-ehea rQ. . pristine there are three aspects of Anuyoga: the The ground is the nature of expanse and primordially pure deity in whom the 516 pristine . classified.-Da): By activating the vital energy of pristine cognition 82 And perfecting the "milking of space". one It says in lifetime.ich depend on the stages of creation and perfection.The inner them. verbal to (the vehicle) in which one is held to be or Great Yoga refers liberated chiefly by the creation stage where there 80 is a union (Yo¢a) of skillful means and discriminative awareness. derived from (the (Tib. there are three aspects of mandala of the deity are Mahayoga: The ground of comprises energy the because and the action The vital is these primordially pure. where the expanse When classified. path meditation on these. Wt. liberated within this very result.havo?a. Anuyoga) are also (explained) in two parts: The verbal definition is that.e.-Or (vehicles of the) secret mantras also are threefold. or (the Tibetan) ries-su one rail-'byor perfection and Subsequent Yoga indicates that upholds the stage of discriminative awareness. the Mahayoga ra.

(explained) in two (the The verbal definition is derived from Sanskrit) Yoga the term jLU (the Tibetan) ghin-tu rnal-'byor or Highest indicates that everything is primordial buddhahood untreated because is essential nature or nucleus of all things penetrated. samsara are the nature of primordial buddhahood. The result and nirvana. Which is the supreme bliss Will attain the result of perfect buddhahood In this lifetime. The path is meditation thereon.14) saws: In intrinsic And in these awareness. The When classified. Without dichotomy of the expanse and pristine cognition. . hope & doubt are transcended.e. the buddha-body of 83 is actualised. The sunnien+entarv A&1sAl flat (N G B . great skillful means 517 . the king Who realises the truth of sameness. It says in the Tantra Qf the supreme bliss Zyoreme Seminal PoIIS (thin-le mchoa-2i mod): Whoever meditates on the mind-as-such or inner radiance. In this vehicle all (the others) themselves perfected. acceptance & rejection. without duality of creation and perfection (stages). there are three aspects of Atiyoga: ground is that all things of phenomenal existence.cognition and are without duality. is that one conclusively abides from the spontaneous present moment on 84 the perfect are level of Samantabhadra. The path is that. The non-dual tantras (i. aspects: Atiyoga) are also that. the result is that within this lifetime. Vol.

The first (comments on Ch. 6).6). 3. There is . and the vehicle of hustans (-dan¢ 4L1 then-na-dan¢) which itself concerns the ten virtues. 152. vehicle of the gods (1. Just as all these great oceans. four of by truths teven through renunciation and and on the then-oa-Mann) thirty- attributes to the (of enlightenment). All the inconceivable vehicles rivers flow into to liberation Are gathered without exception. namely: the As divisions of the vehicle.5-155.+ea] 1 aR the 'ingurpaceed truth. All (thaws-cad) these body excellent pronouncements of the emanational are indeed ( L) revealed within five vehicles to act as follows ('di-its-ete): By the power of their instruction formless.A) of the which form and desire realms teaches the ten virtues. it has three parts. (of Through topics the overview the instruction by for the interlinear commentary (on instruction by knowledge conveyed in speech. There is the vehicle bliss of self-Centred Progresses buddhas (ring bxann-chub-kvi which level with supreme purpose Meditation on dependent origination and the five paths. There is the vehicle of pious attendants (nvan-thus-kyi then-oa-danz) which actualises which the status of an arhat by meditation the on doctrines refer objectively to the nature of acceptance. and an exegesis of the meaning of these (vehicles). the antidotes as which these are taught.Whi nh .

(neon-moms--na twenty-one thousand of which each comprise the conflicting (Ma-_ emotions of desire.twenty-one thousand of belong to each of the three pitakas of the Vinaya. delusion. and their equal combination and which are created by conceptual thoughts of ignorance rip-na'i r)am-car rtoa-na) in the minds of living beings. hatred. which 519 . and to the Pitaka of the Mantras where (their distinctive features) are in equal combination.. 7) : An an antidote for the eighty-four thousand conflicting emotions ntpnZznhraa braved-cu rtes-hzhi' i enven-nor). 3Qtra.the vehicle of bodhia&ttvaa perfections. the even at the present moment in the worlds of infinite limitless ten directions. 3. -d^± tree-Des-danr) and there is the unsurmantras which actualises buddhahood through the two kinds of selflessness and the ten transcendental passed vehicle 85 (bla-na med-n&!1 hem) of secret which liberates andalaa. IIihl) ana will teach (runa-bar 'avur-ro) in the future the eighty-four thousand (atones-nhraa braved-cu rtsaapproaches of the doctrines (ehnL)-. and by meditation profound Through (-oaa) these vehicles. those teachers pristine who emanate from the naturally present cognition in conformity with (asunas-so) trained have taught la"R) the perception of those to be are teaching (asunapreviously. The second (the antidotes as which these vehicles are taught comments on Ch.. in this lifetime by knowing on the all things to be the three path. and Abhidharma.

cies emerges from habitual tendenwhen ignorance is as far as old age and death but that reversed the cycle and death.s theme-cad) doctrinal categories taught within the five vehicles too (kyana).e. 8): The As meaning of these vehicles. 86 objects. that. for all these (da-da. they belong to or concern respectively: the vehicle of pious attendants who. when there is ignorance. (sams&ra) who know that. know indivisible atomic particles to be ultimate truth -- i. In this way they apply Then the self. reflected but are relatively understood to resemble a and image arising in a pool of water. 3. which comprise half of phenomena. they acknowledge a dichotosW of and (daps) of indivisible 2") the object (compounded) (bzuna-_L&) without (compounded) self.third (the exegesis of the comments on Ch. 520 . they meditate on inner dependent origination (nana-ai rten-cins 'brel-bar 'bvune-ba) and apply an antidote for the apprehension of selfhood in external. surpassing the intelligence of ordinary beings who uphold (the existence of) gross external the objects. an inner mind or series time moments. and of aamaira is also reversed as far as old age They thus realise that the selfhood of the individual are non- the selfhood of phenomena which externally appear So it is existent. also without an antidote for the apprehension by a subject ('dzjn) of the components as a self (or inherently existing entity). there is the vehicle of self-centred buddhas who know outer (Dhvi) dependent origination is false because that objects of external appearance do not ultimately exist even as indivisib1e atomic particles.