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In partial fulfilment for the course of Entrepreneurship and
Intrapreneurship under the doctorate program of
Business Management



Submitted to:

Atty. Martha Farolan

17 December 2016, Manila

. For many people around the world. (2007) using evidence from India concluded that some religions. CONTEXTUALIZATION OF TERMS Church  As used in this paper. Audretsch et al. Philippine Christian University – Manila Entrepreneurship in Church Community 2 . such as Islam and Christianity. 1993). are found to be conducive to entrepreneurship. Concentration has been on finding and documenting strategies of influencing entrepreneurship activities. the church is a community of believers in the Lord Jesus Christ. It is not surprising that researchers in entrepreneurship find it compelling to study the moderating effect of religion on the new venture creation process. INTRODUCTION Entrepreneurship development has been a topical issue having been initiated by past great thinkers like Adam Smith and Joseph Schumpeter. Attempts have been made to understand the entrepreneur (one who undertakes to form a business) and why other people shy away from entrepreneurship. Some researchers and authors have delved into unfamiliar and less talked about territory- religion. This church is also used in reference to formal organizations that are created to preach the gospel of Jesus Christ sustainably under the tutelage of a leader/founder often called Manuel Ocampo Jr. Entrepreneurship has been seen to be the new engine of economic growth. religious beliefs are central in their everyday life for religion provides the moral codes by which they live (Geertz. In this regard entrepreneurship authors and researchers have been falling over each other and even stepping on others toes in a desperate attempt to find the secret about this subject. This paper seeks to posit the view that these church groups have a role to play in entrepreneurship development.

Entrepreneurial stimulation refers to those deliberate attempts to steer or increase entrepreneurship activities. The importance of entrepreneurship is being emphasized in economy. Apostle. Evangelical. (Landstrom (2007:12). It was no accident that even in time when there were numerous theoretical controversies on entrepreneurship Peter Drucker emphasized innovativeness as a basic determinant of Manuel Ocampo Jr. and not only because it is a faster way to develop small and medium businesses but also because it is a creative contribution to market success of business organisations. Senior Pastor. Thompson 2009). Orthodox communities are also included in the church dimension. 2007:65). Bishop. ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION – THE INTENT TO START A BUSINESS Entrepreneurial intentions illustrate the ‘extent of commitment directed towards the performance of the entrepreneurial endeavor of putting up a business for self-employment (Roxas. & De Jesus. Protestants. regardless their size. Entrepreneurship  Notwithstanding the fact that ‘entrepreneurship is in itself a complicated. It is the state of mind and self-acknowledged convictions by individuals that they intend to establish businesses in future (Roxas et al. 2007. Consequently entrepreneurial intentions have thus been considered by many as a key element in understanding the firm or venture creation process. communities or individuals in starting or engaging in business activities either formally or informally to make a profit’. Cayoca-Panizales. my working definition for entrepreneurship is ‘any deliberate action by groups of people. In this paper I conjecture that Christian church groups positively affect entrepreneurial intention. ambiguous and changeable phenomenon. Reverend or Prophet and advancing the Christian doctrine. Philippine Christian University – Manila Entrepreneurship in Church Community 3 .

when congregates meet after service or other important social functions like funerals and weddings they not only pursue holiness but some discuss business deals as well. an enterprise has to have special characteristics over and above being new and small. they change or transmute values” (Drucker: 1993). They create something new. entrepreneurs are a minority among new businesses. But to be entrepreneurial. Social Networks an Essential Ingredient in Business Church gatherings undoubtedly create good networks for entrepreneurs. POSITIVE CONTRIBUTIONS BY CHURCH GROUPS There is no doubt that churches contributed and encouraged its members to start their own business. It has been observed that in the recent years. all new small businesses have many factors in common. They wanted to be in control of their time and income so they can do what they love to do with a sense of freedom in their hands. Indeed. there has been a rise in the number of entrepreneurs in the Philippines especially coming from the young professionals who seems to want to be free from the usual 8AM to 5PM routine of their daily lives. Many Pentecostal and Manuel Ocampo Jr. The 2013 Global Entrepreneurship monitor report indicates that entrepreneurship intentions are higher in factor-driven economies where fewer good job alternatives are available and more necessity-based entrepreneurship can be expected. The reasons may vary from one denomination to another but the entrepreneurship endeavor is boosted by constructive support from members of the congregation and even their own senior ministers. This has been further encouraged by the government which offers soft loans to encourage small-medium enterprises (SMEs). Philippine Christian University – Manila Entrepreneurship in Church Community 4 . Entrepreneurship is indeed seen as an important factor of economic development even in the developing countries like the Philippines. something different.entrepreneurship: “Admittedly.

In the Philippines Bro. Men. Church of God. More precisely other denominations have taken deliberate steps to address the spiritual needs of entrepreneurs alike. Though the influence of these preachers on entrepreneurial stimulation might be anecdotal my view is that they have a positive influence in encouraging venture startups. Despite the fact that there is meager research on the impact of these preachers on entrepreneurial orientation and self-efficacy it is obvious that there have an influence on the development of an entrepreneurial mind set. Roman Catholic Church and other independent churches encourage social connections even outside church and have since introduced forums for Women. It has been observed that ‘the beguiling sermons hold the audience spellbound or captive as they emphasize physical and spiritual breakthroughs on issues of health and well-being. Youth and Family to encourage these interactions. wealth creation and general prosperity’. employment opportunities. It has been reported that these preachers also called ‘man of God’ or ‘Prophets’ hold sermons where hundreds of thousands of followers attend and sometimes fill church auditoriums with congregates.non-Pentecostal churches like Assemblies of God. The rise of Prosperity Gospel Preachers Prosperity gospel preachers shot into prominence in the 1980s with American televangelists like Jim Bakker and Jimmy Swaggart. which may include values conducive to entrepreneurship (Dougherty et al. Philippine Christian University – Manila Entrepreneurship in Church Community 5 . . Later on influential and inspirational speakers like TD Jakes. 2013: 402). Eddie Villanueva and Bro. Joel Osteen and the late Myles Munroe emerged as proponents of this gospel. business development. Mike Velarde are some examples of influential and charismatic preachers who lead a church with thousands in membership. Christians flock to church for many reasons and chief among them is to seek divine intervention for economic emancipation and be ushered into prosperity. It becomes scandalous though if Manuel Ocampo Jr. Interacting with others of the same religion cultivates shared values.

Find Strength Through Adversity. Joel Osteen. and Choose to Be Happy. the book is encouraging and written in an optimistic manner which Manuel Ocampo Jr. we gave you this rule: The one who is unwilling to work shall not eat. “For even when we were with you. In one of his books entitled. Let go of the Past.” Unfortunately the wealthy seeking congregates have been preyed upon by some unscrupulous and corrupt church leaders who take advantage of their vulnerability if not gullibility to enrich themselves by emphasizing on offerings as a key to unlocking the promised wealth. Discover the Power of Your Thoughts and Words. Christian inspirational literature Education plays a pivotal role as an antecedent of entrepreneurial intention and a catalyst in arousing interest in venture creation. This kind of deception has been the prime reason why prosperity gospel preachers have received so much attention and criticism.churches promote wealth without suffering and working for it. This kind of education can be called unstructured and informal because sermons do not follow a known pedagogical sequence unlike college course outlines. groups and organizations who have contributed immensely towards entrepreneurial development. Your Best Life Now. Church organizations are providing this education formally and even informally in a variety of ways. Not only do church organizations preach about the Ten Commandments and righteousness but also business and how to be a good steward of what God has entrusted to us in terms of wealth. Philippine Christian University – Manila Entrepreneurship in Church Community 6 . However church leaders are contributing a lot through inspirational literature and are thus contributing immensely to the knowledge bank. a US televangelist has written so many books. Live to Give. According to Larry Triveri Jr. Besides this backlash I still contend that today’s churches deserve a sit among those individuals. The Apostle Paul said in 2 Thessalonians 3:10. he emphasizes 7 steps in realizing one’s dream which are Enlarge Your Vision. Develop a Healthy Self-Image.

The Trust Edge: How Top Leaders Gain Faster Results. Upward Entrepreneur: How to Transform Your Start-up Business in 21 Days By Unlocking the Truth of God's Word (A Daily Entrepreneur Motivational Series) which is dedicated to the Christian faithful. Formulas & Ethos: Your Primitive Business Guide To Giving Your Business The Greatest Chance Of Success (PrimitiveBusiness. Ancient Secrets Of Lead Generation: Your Primitive Business Guide To Better Leads With Less Effort (PrimitiveBusiness. Some of these books include. The Greatest Salesman In The World by Og Mandino. The Richest Man in Babylon by George S. Philippine Christian University – Manila Entrepreneurship in Church Community 7 . The Go-Giver: A Little Story About a Powerful Business Idea by Bob Burg. Clason. The Good Reads Listopia websites lists more than 25 popular Christian books by various authors. Jesus CEO: Using Ancient Wisdom for Visionary Leadership by Laurie Beth Jones. The Extremely Successful Salesman's Club by Chris Murray. Deeper Relationships. beating competitors and positive thinking. #2) by Daryl Urbanski. overcoming fear. The book covers relevant aspects of entrepreneurship education that include customer care. Business Success Secrets. Mathew Irons. See You at the Top by Zig Ziglar. and a Stronger Bottom Line by David Horsager. The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership by John C. an entrepreneur and believer wrote a book #1) by Daryl Urbanski. Principles. A US author based in relevant to personal growth. This is indicative of the fact that there is unquestionable bias towards entrepreneurship in the Christian world. Entre Leadership: 20 Years of Practical Business Wisdom from the Trenches by Dave Ramsey. A plethora of gospel inspired business literature is evidently present in many bookshops and even on the world’s famous online bookstores like Amazon and EBay beside those listed Manuel Ocampo Jr. business planning.

'If I will not for you open the windows of heaven and pour out for you such blessing that there will not be room enough to receive it.' says the Lord of hosts. The proper way to look into this is to have a balance perspective.' It is not surprising to find people giving a lot of offerings as a means of unlocking blessings from the Lord. Now while it is true that God is the source of all blessings. can bless any endeavor dedicated to His honor.. it is said that. but idle chatter leads only to poverty. In this regard Christians must never anticipate getting quick riches by turning to God or giving at church. who is the source of all blessings. Testimonials are also given and meant to encourage other congregates to venture into business with the convictions that God will bless and prosper them.” It is no surprise that the critics of the prosperity Gospel argue that God did not sign any spiritual contract with anyone and neither is he a celestial ATM (Beama and Chu. Business inspired sermons are not only found at seminars but even at Sunday services where some pastors are preaching that God. God did not promise a quick road to riches. Business Inspired Sermons It is not surprising to hear business testimonials given at church services in the Philippines whether in the city or in provinces. This development goes on to buttress my assertion that churches play a significant role in entrepreneurship stimulation. “In all labor there is profit. 2006). Philippine Christian University – Manila Entrepreneurship in Church Community 8 . Despite this observation.. Most of the congregants who give a lot are business people who would want to do well in their businesses. The Bible encourages that people should do hard work and expect their efforts to be blessed. Christians are still inspired and hold on to the promise presented in Malachi that says 'Bring all the tithes into the storehouse . While it is true that God is true Manuel Ocampo Jr. and try me now in this. In Proverbs 14:23.above. Business people of churches testify that it is God who as their partner is the one who blesses their efforts with success.

But if he plants and then believe that God will bless his efforts with success. people must also work in order for God to bless something. then he can expect a great harvest because now God has something to bless. No one can expect a good harvest if he did no plant any seeds. he still cannot harvest His promises and is impossible for Him to lie. Manuel Ocampo Jr. Philippine Christian University – Manila Entrepreneurship in Church Community 9 . Even if he prays and believe but did not plant anything.

civic groups and development partners must seek ways to complement church or religious efforts to encourage venture creation and create the necessary infrastructural conditions that favour entrepreneurship. Budhism and Chinese Traditional influence entrepreneurship in different settings. advisory (by church mate) among a host of other contributions. it will also be prudent and interesting to look at how other major religious groups like Islam. Philippine Christian University – Manila Entrepreneurship in Church Community 10 . churches have a significant role in encouraging our people to engage in business and narrow the gap between those who are rich and those who are poor which will contribute to the transformation of our beloved country. gospel on prosperity. contribution to the literature bank. Government departments. creation of social and business networks. While this paper looked at the Christian community only. other researchers can also look further in this subject and try to expound more so it can be fully realized that in the context of the Philippines. business seminars and role modeling. CONCLUSION The deliberate efforts by different religious or church groups to stimulate entrepreneurial activities cannot go unnoticed by researchers and those interested in the field of entrepreneurship. Manuel Ocampo Jr. Hinduism. Some of these interventions are education. Hopefully.

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