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Fen Li, Yunping Zou, Wei Chen, Jie Zhang

Power Electronics Center, College of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology,

Wuhan, P.R.China

e-mail:lifen@smail.hust.edu.cn

for single-phase voltage-source PWM rectifiers. The PI controller

is compared with the resonant controller. In addition, a

compensating method to eliminate input current distortion a C +

caused by supply voltage harmonics for the resonant control is Ls is uab

proposed. Finally, the differences in the performance of the two b

controllers in a single-phase PWM rectifier are investigated by us RL

simulations of MATLAB/SIMULINK.

they can realize operation with near sinusoidal current II. CURRENT CONTROL TECHNIQUES

waveforms with low harmonics distortion to network, Fig.1 shows the main circuit of the single-phase voltage-

controllable power factor (bi-directional power flow and any source PWM rectifier: is is input current, us is supply voltage,

active-reactive power combination), regulation of dc bus uab is modulated voltage, Ls is input inductor, R is inductor

voltage and high-speed dynamic response [1-3]. Consequently, resistance and RL is load resistance.

they are widely accepted in industry, such as high power In Fig.1, according to Kirchoffs voltage law, the

factor ac/dc converters instead of conventional diode rectifiers, mathematic model of single-phase voltage-source PWM

ac motor drives and active filters. rectifier can be written as (1).

Recently, control techniques of voltage-source PWM di

rectifiers are indirect and direct current control mainly [1-2] Ls s + Ris = us uab (1)

dt

[4-6]. Obviously, the performance of PWM rectifiers largely

From (1), we can see that in essence, the input current is is

depends on the quality of the applied current control strategy. controlled by adjusting the phase and amplitude of modulated

In this paper, two direct current control methods are

voltage uab.

considered. Also, evaluation rules of the applied current A. PI Controller

control are as follows:

Fig.2 shows the current loop based on PI controller of the

1) No steady-state phase and amplitude errors (precise single-phase PWM rectifier. Here, u* is the modulated voltage

tracking) [3],

reference.

2) Fast response to achieve good dynamic performance, Neglecting the delay of PWM Bridge, which is equal to a

3) Anti-interference ability (robustness)

linear system with unity gain, we can get that uab= u* (2)

The PI current controller has become a classical method for Hence, the transfer function from input current reference Is*

current control of PWM rectifiers in industry, which can

to its actual input current Is can be expressed as (3).

eliminate the steady-state control error of input current for

K 1

three-phase PWM rectifiers completely, with coordinate ( KP + i )

transformations of three-phase ac current to dc current. I ( s) s R + sLs

Gi (s) = * = (3)

However, for ac current of single-phase PWM rectifiers, this I ( s) K 1

1 ( KP + i )

result can not be realized. Because the PI controller can s R + sLs

eliminate the control error completely only for dc components

[2] [7]. A resonant controller is just suitable for ac current of + us

Is

the single-phase PWM rectifier to realize zero steady-state Is* PWM 1

Kp + Ki Bridge

control error, which has an infinite gain at the resonant s u* R+sLs

+ uab

frequency set at the fundamental frequency and is independent

of the circuit parameters [3][7]. Also, this paper proposes a

method to eliminate input current distortion caused by supply Fig.2 The system black diagram based on PI controller

voltage harmonics.

When s=jwr , we can obtain the control characteristics at the

resonant frequency wr (6).

I ( j ) K2

Gi ( jr ) = * r = r r 2 = 1 (6)

I ( jr ) Krr

frequency. From (6), we can see that in steady state, the

fundamental frequency components of ac input current

coincide exactly with its current reference in amplitude and

phase. That means there is no steady-state control error for the

fundamental frequency components of ac input current applied

resonant controller. In addition, we can find that Gi(jwr) is

Fig.3 Bode plot of Gi(s) unity, independent of the values of control parameters Kr, Kp,

and the circuit parameters R, Ls . In others words, the resonant

For ac components, there are inevitable control errors controller is not affected by these parameters variation and

in the PI controller.Fig.3 shows the bode plot of Gi(s). It enjoys good robustness.

From Fig.4, we can see that the supply voltage vs is the

is clear in Fig.3 that at the fundamental frequency 314 disturbed input of the current loop, which has an influence on

rad/sec, there is phase shift and amplitude attenuation. In tracking performance. Similarly, the transfer function Gv(s)

order to reduce current control error for the single-phase from the supply voltage Vs to its input current Is can be also

PWM rectifier, current loop based on PI controller with expressed as (7).

supply voltage feed forward was presented in [8].

B. Resonant Controller 1

Fig.4 shows the control block diagram based on a I ( s) R + sLs

Gv (s) = =

conventional resonant controller. The transfer function Gr(s) V (s) 1 (G (s) + K ) 1

of the resonant controller is given by i p

R + sLs (7)

Kr s2 + r 2

Gr (s) = (4) =

1 + (s / r )2 (R + sLs K p )(s2 + r 2 ) Krr 2

Where Kr is gain and wr is the resonant frequency.

According to (4), Gr(s) has infinite gain when s=jwr. When s=jwr , we can get that

Therefore the resonant frequency is set to the fundamental I ( jr ) 0

frequency of ac current (also the supply voltage). Gv ( jr ) = = =0 (8)

V ( jr ) Krr 2

In Fig.4, we can see there is an additional P controller Kp in

parallel with the resonant controller. It is used to increase

From (8), we can find that Gv(jwr) is 0, independent of the

phase margins in order to make the whole system stable. values of control parameters Kr, Kp, and the circuit parameters

From Fig.4 and (2), the transfer function Gi(s) from input R, Ls.

current reference Is* to its actual input current Is can be However, the supply voltage is not sinusoidal and contains

expressed as (5). harmonic components. When s=jwc , wc (harmonic frequency),

Gv(jwc) will be not equal to 0. Therefore, we need to find a

1

(Gi (s) + K p ) solution to eliminate the current distortion caused by supply

I ( s) R + sLs voltage harmonics. In [7], an additional resonant controller for

Gi (s) = * = specific harmonic voltage is used, but the supply voltage

I (s) 1 (G (s) + K ) 1

(5) contains different harmonic frequency components. If every

R + sLs

i p

harmonic frequency needs a matching resonant controller, the

K p (s2 + r 2 ) + Krr 2 whole control will be very complex. In this paper, a simple

= compensating method is proposed; supply voltage is fed

(R + sLs K p )(s 2 + r 2 ) Krr 2 forward in the current loop to eliminate the influence of

supply voltage in Fig.5.

Kp us

+ +

Is* Is Kp

Kr PWM 1

Is* + us Is

+ 1+(s/wr)2 Bridge R+sLs Kr + + PWM 1

+ u*

uab + 1+(s/wr)2 + Bridge R+sLs

u*

uab

Fig.5 An improved resonant controller with supply voltage feed forward

III. SIMULATION RESULTS

of Fig.1 is simulated by Matlab/Simulink to evaluate the

performance of the proposed current control techniques. Mail

circuit parameters are as follows: supply voltage 55V, supply

voltage frequency 50Hz (314rad/sec), switching frequency 10

kHz, input inductor 5mH with the resistance 0.3 , DC bus

capacitor 2350 F and the load resistance 80 . For PI

controller, Kp is 32 and Ki is 10. For resonant controller, Kp is

3, Kr is -3, and wr is 314 rad/sec.

(a)

Fig.6 Waves of input current based on PI controller with the supply voltage

feed forward at a sudden change in input current reference with sinusoidal (b)

supply voltage. Up is*, middle is and down control error

(c)

Current (5A/div); Error (1A/div); Time (20ms/div)

(a) Fig.8 Waves of input current based on resonant controller with the supply

voltage feed forward at a sudden change in supply voltage from sinusoidal to

containing harmonic components (a) Up is*, middle is and down control error,

and (b) its spectra in steady-state at low- medium frequency with the supply

voltage feed forward, (c) its spectra in steady-state at low- medium frequency

without the supply voltage feed forward

based on PI controller with the supply voltage feed forward

and the simple resonant controller without the supply voltage

feed forward at a sudden change in input current reference

with sinusoidal supply voltage, respectively. From Fig.6 and

Fig.7(a), its clear the control error (is*-is) at the fundamental

frequency is effectively eliminated by the single resonant

(b)

controller and is smaller than that of PI controller with the

Fig.7 Waves of input current based on resonant controller without the supply supply voltage feed forward, when the supply voltage is

voltage feed forward at a sudden change in input current reference with sinusoidal.

sinusoidal supply voltage(a) Up is*, middle is and down control error, and (b)

its spectra in steady-state at low- medium frequency In the low-medium frequency range, it can be noted that

with sinusoidal supply voltage, the gird current obtained in

simulation has a THD of 0.29% in Fig.7 (b), with the sample this paper. This method is proved to be effective by the

resonant controller. simulations.

Fig.8 shows the simulation input current based on resonant The next work is to verify by experiments. Also, there is a

controller with the supply voltage feed forward at a sudden problem that the resonant controller is sensitive to the resonant

change in supply voltage from sinusoidal to containing frequency in practice.

harmonic components, and its spectra in steady-state at low-

medium frequency with and without the supply voltage feed

REFERENCES

forward. It can be observed that input current changes little to

the harmonic components of the supply voltage with the [1] J.R. Rodriguez, J.W. Dixon, J.R. Espinoza and J. Pontt, PWM

regenerative rectifiers: state of the art, IEEE Trans. on Industrial

proposed compensating method and has a THD of 2.5% less Electronics, 2005, 52(1): 5-22.

than that of 3.63% without the supply voltage feed forward. [2] Z.W. Zhang and X. Zhang, PWM Rectifier and Control [M]. Beijing:

China Machine Press, 2003.

IV. CONCLUSIONS [3] M. Cichowlas and M.P. Kamierkowski, Comparison of current control

techniques for PWM rectifiers, IEEE International Symposium on

For the single-phase PWM rectifier, PI controller can not Industrial Electronics, 2002, 4: 1259 - 1263.

realize no control error of ac input current theoretically, and PI [4] J.W. Dixon and B. T. Ooi, Indirect Current Control of a Unity Power

Factor Sinusoidal Current Boost Type Three-Phase Rectifier, IEEE

controller with supply voltage feed forward can reduce the Trans. Ind. Electronics , 1988, 35 (4): 508-515.

control error and achieve no error approximately, applied in [5] O. Kukrer and H. Komurcugil, Control strategy for single-phase PWM

the non-high precision condition. Rectifier, Electronics Letters 9th, 1997, 33(21): 1745-1746.

[6] O. Stihi and B. T. Ooi, A Single-phase Controlled Current PWM

The resonant controller is just suitable for the single-phase Rectifier, IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, 1988, 3(4):453-459.

PWM rectifier. Because it can reduce control error to zero for [7] S. Yukihiko, I. Tomotsugu, N. Kazuyoshi and K. Teruo, A New

the fundamental frequency components of ac input current and Control Strategy for Voltage-type PWM Rectifiers to Realize Zero

Steady-state Control Error in Input Current , IEEE Trans. on Industrial

eliminate the disturbance of the fundamental supply voltage Applications, 1998, 34(3): 480-485.

completely, independent of the control and circuit parameters. [8] S. Omkun, P. Sethakul and V. Chunkag, Novel control technique of

That means the resonant controller also enjoys good single-phase PWM rectifier by compensating output ripple voltage,

IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT), 2005,

robustness. But it cannot eliminate the disturbance of the 1(2): 1033-1038.

harmonic components of supply voltage. So, a resonant

controller with the supply voltage feed forward is proposed in

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