You are on page 1of 47

AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E.

, PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Thank you for joining our live webinar today.


We will begin shortly. Please standby.

Thank you.
Need Help?
Call ReadyTalk Support: 800.843.9166

Todays audio will be broadcast through the


internet.

Alternatively, to hear the audio through the


phone, dial 800 728 2056.

International callers, dial 00+1 212 231 2900.


For additional support, please press *0 and you
will be connected to a live operator.

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
1
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Todays live webinar will begin shortly.


Please standby.
As a reminder, all lines have been muted. Please type any
questions or comments through the Chat feature on the
left portion of your screen.

Todays audio will be broadcast through the internet.


Alternatively, to hear the audio through the phone, dial
800 728 2056.

International callers, dial 00+1 212 231 2900.


For additional support, please press *0 and you will be
connected to a live operator.

Fundamentals of Connection Design


Session 1: Fundamental Concepts Part I
January 14, 2013

Presented by
Thomas M. Murray, Ph.D., P.E.
Emeritus Professor
Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
2
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

SCHEDULE
January 14, 2013 Fundamental Concepts Part I
January 28, 2013 Fundamental Concepts Part II
February 4, 2013 Shear Connections Part I
February 11, 2013 Shear Connections Part II
February 25, 2013 Moment Connections Part I
March 4, 2013 Moment Connections Part II
March 11, 2013 Moment Connections Part III
March 18, 2013 Bracing Connections

REFERENCE
DOCUMENTS
and
NOMENCLATURE

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
3
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

SPECIFICATION AND
MANUAL PROVISIONS
AISC/ANSI 360-10 Specification for Structural
Steel Buildings
Chapter D Design of Members for Tension
Chapter J Connection, Joints and Fasteners
14th Edition AISC Manual of Steel Construction

RCSC Specification for Structural Joints Using


ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts

SPECIFICATION AND
MANUAL PROVISIONS

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
4
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Nomenclature

LRFD: Load and Resistance Factor Design


Factored Loads and Resistance Factors,
Required Strength < Design Strength
Ru < Rn
where Ru = Required Strength using LRFD Load
Combinations (Factored Loads)
= Resistance Factor
Rn = Nominal Strength
Rn = Design Strength

Nomenclature

ASD: Allowable Strength Design


Service Loads and Factors of Safety,
Factored Loads < Allowable Strength
Ra < Rn/
where Ru = Required Strength using ASD Load
Combinations (Service Loads)
Rn = Nominal Strength
= Factor of Safety
Rn / = Allowable Strength

10

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
5
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Nomenclature
Note: Available Strength is generic for
Design Strength and Allowable Strength in
the Specification.
AISC 360-10 Specification for Structural Steel
Buildings AISCS

14th Ed. Steel Construction Manual AISCM

RCSC Specification Bolt Spec.

11

Nomenclature
For the course:
AISC 360-10 Specification for Structural Steel
Buildings AISCS

14th Ed. Steel Construction Manual AISCM

RCSC Specification Bolt Spec.

12

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
6
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Nomenclature

Resistance Factors:
Ductile Limit States: = 0.9
Example: Tension Yielding

Non-Ductile Limit States: = 0.75


Example: Tension Rupture

13

Steel Properties
A36 Steel: Primarily Plates and Angles
Fy = 36 ksi (Tension Yield Stress)
Fu = 58 ksi (Tension Rupture Strength)
A992 Steel: Beams and Columns
Fy = 50 ksi Fu = 65 ksi
Note:
Shear Yield = 0.6 Fy
Shear Rupture = 0.6 Fu
14

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
7
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

FUNDAMENTAL
CONCEPTS
PART I

15

TOPICS
Types of Connections

Classification of Beam-to-Column Connections

Limit States in the Load Path

Basic Bolt related Limit states and Detailing

Basic Weld Related Limit States and Detailing

16

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
8
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

CONNECTION TYPES

TENSION CONNECTIONS
Direct Loaded
Hanger
Light and Heavy Bracing

17

Hanger
Connection

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
9
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
10
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

CONNECTION TYPES

COMPRESSION CONNECTIONS
Column Splice
Beam Bearing Plate
Column Base Plate

21

Please do not design a beam


bearing connection like one.

22

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
11
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

23

CONNECTION TYPES
FRAMING (SHEAR) CONNECTIONS
Double Angles
Single Angle
Shear Tab
Shear End-Plate
Tee Connections
Seated
24

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
12
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Double Angles

Single Angle

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
13
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Shear Tab

Shear End-Plate

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
14
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Tee Connection

CONNECTION TYPES
MOMENT CONNECTIONS
Flange Welded
Flange Plate Welded
Flange Plate Bolted
Tee-Stub
Flange Angle
Moment End-Plate
30

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
15
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Flange Welded

Flange Plate
Bolted

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
16
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Tee-Stub

33

Flange Angle

34

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
17
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Moment
End-Plate

CLASSIFICATION
OF CONNECTIONS

36

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
18
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Classification of Connections

Classification: All techniques depend on


member length and moment
diagram/magnitude of
moment.
Example: Beam Line/Connection Curve

37

Classification of Connections
FR Moment Connection

M = 0.9MF

Typical Beam Line


Moment, M

PR Moment Connection

M = 0.2MF
PR Pinned

Rotation, S

38

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
19
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Classification of Connections

Fully Restrained FR
Flange Welded
Flange Plate Welded or Bolted
Tee-Stub
Moment End-Plate

39

Classification of Connections

Partially Restrained PR
Flush End-Plate
Flange Angle
Double Angles

40

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
20
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Classification of Connections

Partially Restrained/Pinned PR
Double Angles
Single Angle
Shear Tab
Shear End-Plate
Seated Connections

41

LIMIT STATES
IN THE
LOAD PATH

42

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
21
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Load Paths/Limit States

Example: Tension Connection


5/16
5/8" PL 2L 4 x 3 1/2 x 1/4 LLBB
A

Tu

A
3/4" Dia. Section A-A
A325 Bolts, Typ

43

Load Paths/Limit States


1 A
2

3,4 Tu

4 2
1 A

1. Angle Yielding
2. Angle Rupture including Shear Lag
3. Angle Bolt Bearing/Tear Out
4. Angle Block Shear

44

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
22
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Load Paths/Limit States

5. Bolt Shear
6. Plate Bearing / Tear Out
7. Plate Block Shear (N/A) 5
9 8
8. Plate Rupture
10
9. Plate Yield
10. Weld Rupture 6,7

7
98

45

BASIC BOLT RELATED


LIMIT STATES
AND
DETAILING

46

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
23
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Bolt Types

A307 machine bolts


Ft = 45 ksi
Group A high strength bolts
Ft = 90 ksi
Group B high strength bolts
Ft = 113 ksi

Ft = tensile strength from AISCS Table J3.6


47

Bolt Types

Group A high strength bolts Ft = 90 ksi


ASTM A325, A325M, F1852,
A354 Grade BC, A449
Group B high strength bolts Ft = 113 ksi
ASTM A490, A490M, F2280, and
A354 Grade BD
Note: F1852 and F2280 are Twist-Off Bolts

48

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
24
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

A325 and A490 Bolts

3/4 in. Dia.

7/8 in. Dia.

1 1/4 in. Dia.

Note: Thread length is a function of bolt diameter


49

ASTM F1852 Twist-Off Bolt

Note: Requires a special tightening tool.

50

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
25
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Bolts: Connection Types


Types of Connections:
(a) Bearing Type
N - threads included in shear plane
X - threads excluded from shear plane
(b) Slip Critical
SC - slip critical (friction)
Example Designations: in. A325 N
1 in. A490 SC
51

Bolts: Tightening
-N or -X Bearing Type Bolts
Snug Tight (Tightened so that a wrench is
needed to remove the nut.)
Pretensioned with no faying surface
preparation)

52

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
26
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Bolts: Tightening
-SC Slip Critical Type Bolts
Requires faying surface preparation and
field inspection
Pretensioning - Turn of Nut Method
- Calibrated Wrench
- Direct Tension Indicator
- Twist-Off Bolt

53

Bolts: Pretensioned Installation

Turn of Nut Tightening

from Bolt Spec. Table 8.2


Example: Bolt Length < 4db, = 1/3 Turn
54

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
27
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Bolts: Pretensioned Installation

Calibrate
Wrench
Tightening

55

Bolts: Pretensioned Installation


Direct Tension Indicator

56

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
28
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Bolts: Pretensioned Installation

Twist Off Bolt

57

Bolt Holes
Hole Types and Dimensions (Table J3.3)
Standard (STD) db + 1/16 in.
Oversized (OVS) db + (3/16 in. to 5/16 in.)
Short Slots (SS) STD by OVS + 1/16 in.
Long Slots (LS) STD by up to 2.5 bolt
diameters
(Standard Hole, STD, is Default for Course.)
58

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
29
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Use of Slotted Holes

59

Bolt Tensile Strength


Design Tensile Strength of one Bolt, rt
(AISCS J3.6)
= 0.75
rt = Ft Ab
Ab = nominal bolt area
Ft = nominal strength from Table J3.2
rt = 0.75 Fv Ab = Design Tensile Strength
Note: Tensile area is accounted for in Ft.0
60

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
30
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Bolt Shear Strength


Design Shear Strength of one Bolt, rv
(AISCS J3.6)
= 0.75
rv = Fv Ab
Ab = nominal bolt area
Fv = nominal strength from Table J3.2
rv = 0.75 Fv Ab = Design Shear Strength
Note: Area at threads is accounted for in Fv.
61

Bolt Nominal Strengths

62

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
31
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Bolt Nominal Strengths


Table J3.2 Continued

63

Bolts: Connection Length Effect


Table J3.2 Footnote [b]

64

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
32
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Bolt Shear Strength


Design Strength of the Connection
Rv = 0.75 rv x Number of Bolts
x Number of Shear Planes
Tn / 2
Tn
Tn / 2

Ex. For three bolts per row, there are twelve


(3x2x2) shear planes in this connection.
65

Bolt Slip (-SC Connections)


Section J3.8. High-Strength Bolts in Slip-
Critical Connections
rsc = Du hf Tb ns (J-3.4)

= 1.00 for STD and SS Perpendicular


= 0.85 for OVS and SS Parallel
= 0.70 for long slots Note: Section J3.8 of ASICS
indicates that Eq. J-3.-4 is
Design Strength: available strength. It is
actually nominal strength.
rsc = Du hf Tb ns

66

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
33
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Bolt Slip (-SC Connections)


Section J3.8. High-Strength Bolts in Slip-
Critical Connections Continued
rsc = Du hf Tb ns (J-3.4)
= mean slip coefficient depending on
faying surface preparation:
Class A 0.3 Class B 0.5
Du=1.13, a multiplier that reflects the ratio
of the mean installed pretension to the
specified minimum bolt tension
67

Bolt Slip (-SC Connections)


Section J3.8. High-Strength Bolts in Slip-
Critical Connections Continued
rsc = Du hf Tb ns (J-3.4)
hf = factor for fillers
= 1.0 for no fillers or one filler
= 0.85 for two or more fillers
Tb= minimum fastener pretension, Table J3.1
Ns= number of shear planes

68

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
34
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Bolt Slip (-SC Connections)


IMPORTANT:
Slip Critical Connections are expensive because of
faying surface preparation, tightening and
inspection requirements.
SC-Connections are not needed for typical framing
connections and most moment connections.
SC-Connections may be needed when dynamic or
vibration loads are present or may be used to
control drift in frames and are required in some
moment connections.

69

Bolt Slip (-SC Connections)

70

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
35
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Bearing Bolts: Combined


Shear and Tension Strength
ft

fv
Bearing Bolt Interaction Diagram
71

Bolts: Combined Tension and


Shear Strength in Bearing
AISCS J3.7 Combined Tension and Shear Bearing
R n = F'nt A b = 0.75 ft
Fnt
F'nt = 1.30Fnt f v Fnt
Fnv
and f v Fnv fv
Fnt = nominal tensile stress from Table J3.2
Fnv = nominal shear stress from Table J3.2
f v = the required shear stress = Vu/ Ab

72

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
36
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Bolt Holes in Calculations

For all hole related limit states except tear


out, the effective hole diameter used in
calculations is
dh = dh + 1/16 in.
The additional 1/16 in. accounts for damage
from punching and drilling.
For tear out, the actual hole diameter is used.
Note: For bearing, the bolt diameter is used.
73

Bolts: Bearing and Tear Out

T
Bearing u

Tear-Out Tu

Lc Lc

74

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
37
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Bolts: Bearing and Tear-Out

Tear-Out

Bearing

75

Bolts: Bearing and Tear-Out


Section J3.10 Bearing Strength at Bolt Holes
= 0.75
For standard, oversized, and short-slotted holes
Rn = 1.2 L ct Fu < 2.4 db t Fu

1.2 L ct Fu is the tear out strength


2.4 db t Fu is the bearing strength
Lc = clear distance between
Tu
between holes or to edge

Lc Lc

76
76

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
38
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Example: Determine the Bearing/Tear-Out


Design Strength
PL 1/2" x 7"
A36, Fu = 58 ksi

112"
4" Tn

112"

3/4" A325-N Bolts


112" 3" Std. Holes = 13/16 in.
Bearing Strength at Holes:
2.4dbtFu = 2.4 x 0.75 x 0.5 x 58 = 52.2 k

77

Example: Determine the Bearing/Tear-Out


Design Strength

Tear-Out Strength:

Edge Bolts: L c = 1.5 13/32 = 1.09 in.


1.2LctFu = 1.2 x 1.09 x 0.5 x 58 = 37.9 k < 52.2 kips

Other Bolts: L c= 3.0 13/16 = 2.19 in.


1.2 L ct Fu = 1.2 x 2.19 x 0.5 x 58
= 76.2 k > 52.2 k

78

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
39
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Example: Determine the Bearing/Tear Out


Design Strength

Design Strength:
Tn = 0.75 [2 x edge + 2 x other]
= 0.75 [2 x 37.9 + 2 x 52.2]
PL 1/2" x 7"
=135.2 k A36, uF= 58 ksi
112"
4" Tn
1
12"
3/4" A325-N Bolts
112" 3" Std. Holes

79

Bolts: Minimum Spacing and


Edge Distance
e s

e
s Tu
e
Section J3.3 Minimum Spacing
The distance between centers of standard,
oversized, or slotted holes, shall not be less than
2 2/3 times the nominal diameter of the fastener;
a distance 3d is preferred.
Typical spacing when db < 1 in. is 3 in.
80

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
40
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

81

BASIC WELD RELATED


LIMIT STATES
AND
DETAILING

82

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
41
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Weld Rupture
J2. Welds J2.4. Design Strength
Design Strength = Fw Aw.

Tu
For Fillet Welds
= 0.75 Weld

Fw = 0.60 FEXX (1.0 + 0.50 sin1.5)


FEXX = electrode strength, ksi
= angle of loading measured from
the weld longitudinal axis, degrees
= (angle of attack)
83

Weld Rupture
Fw = 0.60 FEXX (1.0 + 0.50 sin1.5)

= 0o Fw = 0.6FEXX = 90o Fw = 1.5x0.6FEXX

= 45o Fw = 1.3x0.6FEXX
84

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
42
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Weld Rupture Special Case

Tu

Rwt Rwl

Rn = max Rwl + Rwt


0.85Rwl + 1.5Rwt
Rwl and Rwt are the weld strengths with = 0o.

85

Weld Rupture: Effective Areas

t t

t t

teff = 0.707 t for t < 3/8 teff = t


for t > 3/8 teff = t + 0.11

FCAW, GMAW, SMAW SAW (Machine


(Manual Welding) Welding)
86

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
43
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Weld Rupture: SMAW Weld

Example: = 00 E70xx
1/16 1"
Rn = 0.75 (0.6x70)(0.707x 1/16) = 1.392 k/in/1/16

Example: E70xx
1/4 5"
Let D = no. of 1/16s
Rn = 1.392 D Lweld= 1.392 x 4 x 5 = 27.84 k

87

Minimum Fillet Weld Sizes

88

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
44
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Maximum Fillet Weld Size

Maximum Fillet Weld Size:


(AISCS J2.2b)

tp < in. tw = tp
1/16"

tp > in. tw = tp 1/16 in.

89

Base Metal Strength at Weld


Section J4.1 Shear Rupture Strength
The design rupture strength for the limit state
of rupture along a shear failure path in the
affected elements of connected members
shall be taken as

Rn = 0.75 (0.6 Fu Anw)


Where Anw = area of the element at the weld
Fu = tensile strength of base metal

90

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
45
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Example: Determine Tn for Welds


PL 3/8" x 8"
A36 Steel E70XX
1/4
Fu = 58 ksi
Tn

PL 5/16" x 5"
Weld Rupture: 5"

Tn.= (1.392x4) (5x2) = 55.7 k


Base Metal:
Tn.= 0.75 (0.6 Fu Anw)
= 0.75 (0.6x58) (5/16) (5x2) = 81.6 k
Tn = 55.7 k
91

End of Session 1
Thank You for
Attending

Next Up

92

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
46
AISC NIGHT SCHOOL: Lecturer: Tom Murray, P.E., PhD
FUNDAMENTALS OF CONNECTION DESIGN Emeritus Professor, Virginia Tech

Next Session
January 14, 2013 Fundamental Concepts Part I
January 28, 2013 Fundamental Concepts Part II
Topics
Eccentric Bolted and Welded Connections

Direct Loaded Tension Connections

Light Bracing Connection Example

93

CEU/PDH Certificates
(For those who registered for the individual webinar)

Within 2 business days, you will receive


an email on how to report attendance
from: ceu@aisc.org.
Be on the lookout: Check your spam
filter! Check your junk folder!
Completely fill out online form. Dont
forget to check the boxes next to each
attendees name!

Copyright 2013 Session 1 Fundamental Concepts, Part I


American Institute of Steel Construction January 14, 2013
47