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PART 3

IMAGE RESTORATION

Academic responsible

Dr. Tania STATHAKI

Room 811b

Ext. 46229

Email: t.stathaki@ic.ac.uk

0

What is image restoration?

Image Restoration refers to a class of methods that aim to remove or reduce the degradations that

have occurred while the digital image was being obtained.

All natural images when displayed have gone through some sort of degradation:

during display mode

acquisition mode, or

processing mode

The degradations may be due to

sensor noise

blur due to camera misfocus

relative object-camera motion

random atmospheric turbulence

others

In most of the existing image restoration methods we assume that the degradation process can be

described using a mathematical model.

the original image

the degradations

(how accurate our models are)

Image restoration differs from image enhancement in that the latter is concerned more with

accentuation or extraction of image features rather than restoration of degradations.

Image restoration problems can be quantified precisely, whereas enhancement criteria are difficult

to represent mathematically.

Typical parts of an imaging system: image formation system, a detector and a recorder. A general

model for such a system could be:

1

y ( i , j ) r w( i , j ) n ( i , j )

where y (i , j ) is the degraded image, f (i , j ) is the original image and h(i , j , i , j ) is an

operator that represents the degradation process, for example a blurring process.

Functions g and r are generally nonlinear, and represent the characteristics of

detector/recording mechanisms. n(i , j ) is the additive noise, which has an image-dependent random

component g r H f (i, j ) n1 (i, j ) and an image-independent random component n 2 (i, j ) .

An example is the response of image scanners

r (i , j ) w(i , j )

where and are device-dependent constants and w(i, j ) is the input blurred image.

For photofilms

r (i , j ) log10 w(i , j ) r0

where is called the gamma of the film, w(i , j ) is the incident light intensity and r (i , j ) is

called the optical density. A film is called positive if it has negative .

Noise models

n(i, j ) g r w(i, j ) n1 (i, j ) n 2 (i, j )

is applicable in many situations. Example, in photoelectronic systems we may have g ( x) x .

Therefore

n (i , j ) w(i , j ) n1 (i , j ) n 2 (i , j )

where n1 and n 2 are zero-mean, mutually independent, Gaussian white noise fields.

In the case of films there is no thermal noise and the noise model is

n (i , j ) log10 w(i , j ) ro n1 (i , j )

2

Because of the signal-dependent term in the noise model, restoration algorithms are quite difficult.

which makes n(i , j ) a Gaussian white noise random field.

A lineal observation model for photoelectronic devices is

y (i, j ) w(i, j ) w n1 (i, j ) n 2 (i , j )

y (i , j ) log10 w(i , j ) r0 an1 ( x , y )

The light intensity associated with the observed optical density y (i , j ) is

where n(i, j ) 10 an1 (i , j ) now appears as multiplicative noise having a log-normal distribution.

Keep in mind that we are just referring to the most popular image observation models. In the

literature you can find a quite large number of different image observation models!

Image restoration algorithms are based on (derived from) the above image formation models!

y ( i , j ) H f (i , j ) n ( i , j )

where

y (i , j ) the degraded image

f (i , j ) the original image

n(i , j ) the external noise which is assumed to be image-independent

We see in the figure below a schematic diagram for a generic degradation process described by the

above simplified model

3

n (i , j )

f (i , j ) H y (i , j )

deterministic: we work with sample by sample processing of the observed (degraded) image

stochastic: we work with the statistics of the images involved in the process

blind: the degradation process H is unknown

the degradation process H could be considered partly known

direct

iterative

recursive

Definitions

y (i , j ) H f (i , j ) n (i , j )

y (i , j ) H f (i , j )

H is linear if

H k1 f1 (i, j ) k 2 f 2 (i, j ) k1 H f1 (i , j ) k 2 H f 2 (i , j )

H is position (or space) invariant if

H f (i a , j b ) y (i a , j b )

From now on we will deal with linear, space invariant type of degradations.

4

In a real life problem many types of degradations can be approximated by linear, position

invariant processes!

Disadvantage: In some real life problems nonlinear and space variant models would be more

appropriate for the description of the degradation phenomenon.

Motion blur. It occurs when there is relative motion between the object and the camera during

exposure.

1 L L

, if i

h (i ) L 2 2

0, otherwise

Atmospheric turbulence. It is due to random variations in the reflective index of the medium

between the object and the imaging system and it occurs in the imaging of astronomical objects.

i2 j2

h (i, j ) K exp

2 2

Uniform out of focus blur

1

, if i 2 j 2 R

h ( i , j ) R

0, otherwise

Uniform 2-D blur

1 L L

2 , if i, j

h (i , j ) ( L ) 2 2

0, otherwise

Blurred Signal-to-Noise Ratio (BSNR): a metric that describes the degradation model.

1

g (i , j ) g (i , j )

2

MN i j

BSNR 10log10

n2

g (i , j ) y (i , j ) n (i , j )

5

g (i, j ) E{g (i, j )}

Improvement in SNR (ISNR): validates the performance of the image restoration algorithm.

f ( i , j ) y (i , j ) 2

i j

ISNR 10log10 2

f (i, j ) f (i, j )

i j

where f (i , j ) is the restored image.

Both BSNR and ISNR can only be used for simulation with artificial data.

f (0), f (1), , f ( A 1) , which is due to a degradation process.

samples. If we assume that the degradation is a causal function we have the samples

h (0), h (1), , h ( B 1) .

We form the extended versions of f (i ) and h (i ) , both of size M A B 1 and periodic with

For a time invariant degradation process we obtain the discrete convolution formulation as follows

M 1

y e (i ) f e ( m )he (i m ) ne (i )

m 0

y Hf n

f e ( 0)

f (1)

f e ,

f e ( M 1)

he (0) he ( 1) he ( M 1)

h (1) he (0) he ( M 2)

H

e

(M M)

he ( M 1) he ( M 2) he (0)

At the moment we decide to ignore the external noise n.

Because h is periodic with period M we have that

6

he (0) he ( M 1) he (1)

h (1) he (0) he ( 2)

H e

(M M)

he ( M 1) he ( M 2) he (0)

We define (k ) to be

2 2

( k ) he (0) he ( M 1) exp( j k ) he ( M 2) exp( j 2k )

M M

2

he (1) exp[ j ( M 1)k ], k 0,1, , M 1

M

2 2

Because exp[ j ( M i )k ] exp( j ik ) we have that

M M

( k ) MH ( k )

H (k ) is the discrete Fourier transform of he (i ) .

I define w (k ) to be

1

2

exp( j k )

w( k ) M

2

exp[ j ( M 1) k ]

M

It can be seen that

Hw( k ) ( k ) w ( k )

eigenvector.

We form a matrix w whose columns are the eigenvectors of the matrix H , that is to say

W w ( 0) w (1) w ( M 1)

2 1 2

w( k , i ) exp j ki and w 1 ( k , i ) exp j ki

M M M

We can then diagonalize the matrix H as follows

H WDW -1 D W -1 HW

where

( 0) 0

(1)

D

0 ( M 1)

7

D ( k , k ) ( k ) MH ( k )

y Hf y WDW -1f W -1 y DW 1f

Y(k) MH ( k ) F ( k ), k 0,1, , M 1

Y(k), H ( k ), F ( k ), k 0,1, , M 1 are the M sample discrete Fourier transforms of

y(i), h (i ), f (i ), respectively.

matrix problem and end up with M scalar problems.

a degradation process.

The degradation can now be modeled by a two dimensional discrete impulse response h(i , j ) of

size C D samples.

We form the extended versions of f (i , j ) and h(i , j ) , both of size M N , where

M A C 1 and N B D 1 , and periodic with period M N . These can be denoted as

f e (i , j ) and he (i , j ) .

For a space invariant degradation process we obtain

M 1 N 1

y e (i, j ) f e ( m, n )he (i m, j n ) ne (i, j )

m 0 n 0

y Hf n

where f and y are MN dimensional column vectors that represent the lexicographic ordering of

H0 HM 1 H1

H H0 H2

H 1

HM1 HM 2 H0

he ( j,0) he ( j, N 1) he ( j,1)

h ( j,1) he ( j,0) he ( j , 2 )

Hj

e

he ( j, N 1) he ( j, N 2) he ( j,0)

The analysis of the diagonalisation of H is a straightforward extension of the one-dimensional case.

8

In that case we end up with the following set of M N scalar problems.

Y(u , v) MNH (u, v ) F (u, v )( N (u, v ))

u 0,1, , M 1, v 0,1, , N 1

In the general case we may have two functions f (i ), A i B and h(i ), C i D , where A, C

can be also negative (in that case the functions are non-causal). For the periodic convolution we have

to extend the functions from both sides knowing that the convolution is

g (i ) h(i ) f (i ), A C i B D .

DIRECT METHODS

1. Inverse filtering

2 2

J ( f ) n( f ) y Hf

J (f )

0 2H T ( y Hf ) 0

f

If H 1 exists then

f ( H T H ) -1 H T y

If M N then

f H -1 y

According to the previous analysis if H (and therefore H -1 ) is block circulant the above problem

can be solved as a set of M N scalar problems as follows

F ( u, v ) 2

f (i , j ) 1 2

H ( u, v )

H ( u , v )

(I)

9

Suppose first that the additive noise n(i , j ) is negligible. A problem arises if H (u, v ) becomes

very small or zero for some point (u, v ) or for a whole region in the (u, v ) plane. In that region

inverse filtering cannot be applied.

Note that in most real applications H (u, v ) drops off rapidly as a function of distance from

the origin !

Solution: if these points are known they can be neglected in the computation of F (u, v ) .

(II)

In the presence of external noise we have that

H ( u, v ) Y ( u, v ) N ( u, v )

F (u, v ) 2

H ( u, v )

2

2

H (u, v ) H (u, v )

N (u, v )

F (u, v ) F (u, v )

H ( u, v )

If H (u, v ) becomes very small, the term N (u, v ) dominates the result.

Solution: again to carry out the restoration process in a limited neighborhood about the origin where

H (u, v ) is not very small.

In that case we set

H ( u, v )Y ( u, v )

2

H (u , v ) 0

H ( u, v )

(u , v )

F

0 H (u , v ) 0

In general, the noise may very well possess large components at high frequencies (u, v ) ,

while H (u, v ) and Y ( u, v ) normally will be dominated by low frequency components.

The problem can be formulated as follows.

minimize

2 2

J ( f ) n(f ) y Hf

10

subject to

2

Cf

where

Cf is a high pass filtered version of the image.

The idea behind the above constraint is that the highpass version of the image contains a

considerably large amount of noise!

Algorithms of the above type can be handled using optimization techniques.

Constrained least squares (CLS) restoration can be formulated by choosing an f to minimize the

Lagrangian

min y Hf

2

Cf

2

Typical choice for C is the 2-D Laplacian operator given by

0.00 0.25 0.00

C 0.25 1.00 0.25

0.00 0.25 0.00

controls the relative contribution between the term y Hf 2 and the term Cf 2 .

The minimization of the above leads to the following estimate for the original image

f H T H C T C 1

HTy

(I) Choice of

The problem of the choice of has been attempted in a large number of studies and different

techniques have been proposed.

One possible choice is based on a set theoretic approach: a restored image is approximated by an

image which lies in the intersection of the two ellipsoids defined by

2

Qf |y {f | y Hf E 2 } and

2

Qf {f | Cf 2}

The center of one of the ellipsoids which bounds the intersection of Qf |y and Qf , is given by the

equation

f H T H C T C 1

HTy

with ( E / ) 2 .

Problem: choice of E 2 and 2 . One choice could be

11

1

BSNR

Comments

With larger values of , and thus more regularisation, the restored image tends to have more

ringing.

With smaller values of , the restored image tends to have more amplified noise effects.

The variance and bias of the error image in frequency domain are

2

M N H (u, v )

Var ( ) n2

u 0v 0

H (u, v ) 2

C ( u, v )

2 2

2 4

M 1 N 1 F (u , v ) 2 C (u, v )

Bias( ) n2

u 0 v 0

H (u, v ) 2

C (u, v )

2 2

The minimum MSE is encountered close to the intersection of the above functions.

A good choice of is one that gives the best compromise between the variance and bias of the error

image.

ITERATIVE METHODS

They refer to a large class of methods that have been investigated extensively over the last decades.

Advantages

There is no need to explicitly implement the inverse of an operator. The restoration process is

monitored as it progresses. Termination of the algorithm may take place before convergence.

The effects of noise can be controlled in each iteration.

The algorithms used can be spatially adaptive.

The problem specifications are very flexible with respect to the type of degradation. Iterative

techniques can be applied in cases of spatially varying or nonlinear degradations or in cases

where the type of degradation is completely unknown (blind restoration).

A general formulation

In general, iterative restoration refers to any technique that attempts to minimize a function of the

form

(f )

12

A widely used iterative restoration method is the method of successive approximations where the

initial estimate and the updating rule for obtaining the restored image are given by

f0 0

fk 1 f k ( f k )

(f k )

3. Basic iteration

(f ) y Hf

f0 0

fk 1 f k ( y Hf k ) y ( I H )f k

2

M ( f ) y Hf

A necessary condition for M (f ) to have a minimum is that its gradient with respect to f is equal to

zero, which results in the normal equations

H T Hf H T y

and

(f ) H T ( y - Hf ) 0

f 0 H T y

fk 1 f k H T ( y Hf k )

H T y ( I H T H )f k

As already mentioned the following functional is minimized

2 2

M (f , ) y Hf Cf

The necessary condition for a minimum is that the gradient of M (f , ) is equal to zero. That is

13

(f ) f M (f , ) ( H T H C T C)f H T y

The initial estimate and the updating rule for obtaining the restored image are now given by

f 0 H T y

fk 1 f k [H T y ( H T H C T C)f k ]

It can be proved that the above iteration (known as Iterative CLS or Tikhonov-Miller Method)

converges if

2

0

max

( H T H C T C)

If the matrices H and C are block-circulant the iteration can be implemented in the frequency

domain.

The set-based approach described previously can be generalized so that any number of prior

constraints can be imposed as long as the constraint sets are closed convex.

If the constraint sets have a non-empty intersection, then a solution that belongs to the intersection set

can be found by the method of POCS.

Any solution in the intersection set is consistent with the a priori constraints and therefore it is a

feasible solution.

Let Q1 , Q2 , , Qm be closed convex sets in a finite dimensional vector space, with P1 , P2 , , Pm

their respective projectors.

The iterative procedure

f k 1 P1 P2 , Pm f k

converges to a vector that belongs to the intersection of the sets Qi , i 1,2, , m , for any starting

vector f 0 .

An iteration of the form f k 1 P1 P2 f k can be applied in the problem described previously, where

we seek for an image which lies in the intersection of the two ellipsoids defined by

2 2

Qf |y {f | y Hf E 2 } and Qf {f | Cf 2}

P1f f 1 I 1H T H 1

H T ( y Hf )

P2 f [I 2 I 2 C T C 1

C T C]f

14

Brief description of other advanced methods

2 2

M (f , ) y Hf W1 Cf W2

where

2

y Hf W1 ( y Hf) T W1 ( y Hf)

2

Cf W2 (Cf) T W2 (Cf)

W1 ,W2 are diagonal matrices, the choice of which can be justified in various ways. The entries in

both matrices are non-negative values and less than or equal to unity.

In that case

(f ) f M (f , ) ( H T W1T W1 H C T W2T W2 C)f H T W1 y

A more specific case is

2 2

M (f , ) y Hf Cf W

where the weighting matrix is incorporated only in the regularization term. This method is known as

weighted regularised image restoration. The entries in matrix W will be chosen so that the high-

pass filter is only effective in the areas of low activity and a very little smoothing takes place in the

edge areas.

8. Robust functionals

Robust functionals allow for the efficient supression of a wide variety of noise processes and permit

the reconstruction of sharper edges than their quadratic counterparts. We are seeking to minimize

M ( f , ) Rn ( y Hf ) R x Cf

(I) Convergence

The contraction mapping theorem usually serves as a basis for establishing convergence of iterative

algorithms.

According to it iteration

15

f0 0

f k 1 f k ( f k ) ( f k )

converges to a unique fixed point f , that is, a point such that (f ) f , for any initial vector, if

the operator or transformation (f ) is a contraction.

This means that for any two vectors f 1 and f 2 in the domain of (f ) the following relation holds

( f1 ) ( f 2 ) f1 f 2

1

any norm

The above condition is norm dependent.

The termination criterion most frequently used compares the normalized change in energy at each

iteration to a threshold such as

2

f k 1 f k

2

10 6

fk

RECURSIVE METHODS

1. Kalman filtering

Kalman is a recursive filter based on an autoregressive (AR) parametrization of the prior statistical

knowledge of the image.

A global state vector for an image model, at pixel position (i, j ) is defined as

f (i , j ) [ f (i , j ), f (i , j 1), ,

f (i 1, j N ), f (i 1, j M 1), , f (i M 1, j M 1)]T

f (i , j ) A f (i , j 1) w(i , j )

y (i , j ) H f (i , j ) n (i , j )

the noise terms w(i , j ) and n (i , j ) , are assumed to be white, zero-mean, Gaussian

A is the state transition matrix

H is the so called measurement matrix

16

Prediction

f ( m, n ) A f ( m, n 1)

P ( m, n ) AP ( m, n 1) AT Rw w

Update

K ( m, n ) P ( m, n ) H T [ HP ( m, n ) H T Rnn ]1

f ( m, n ) A f ( m, n 1) K ( m, n )[ y ( m, n ) HA f ( m, n 1)]

P ( m, n ) [ I K ( m , n ) H ]P ( m, n )

where

T

P ( m, n ) E

f ( m, n ) f ( m, n )

f ( m, n ) f ( m, n )

P ( m, n ) E f ( m, n ) f ( m, n ) f ( m, n ) f ( m, n ) T

2. Variations of the Kalman filtering

2.2 Reduced order model Kalman filter (ROMKF)

DIRECT METHODS

The image restoration problem can be viewed as a system identification problem as follows:

f (i , j ) y (i , j ) f (i , j )

H W

n (i , j )

E{(f f ) T (f f )}

17

(i) E{f} E{f } E{f } WE{y}

(ii) the error must be orthogonal to the observation about the mean

E{(f f )( y E{y}) T } 0

y y E{y} and ~

If ~ f f E{f } then

~ T ~~ T ~~ T ~~ T ~~ T

E{( W~

y f )~

y } 0 E{Wyy } E{f y } WE{yy } E{f y } WR ~y~y R ~f ~y

If the original and the degraded image are both zero mean then

R ~y~y R yy and R ~f ~y R fy .

If we go back to the degradation model and find the autocorrelation matrix of the degraded image then

we get that

y Hf n y T f T H T n T

E{yy T } HR ff H T R nn R yy

E{fy T } R ff H T R fy

W R fy R yy 1 R ff H T (HR ff H T R nn ) 1

f R ff H T ( HR ff H T R nn ) 1 y

In frequency domain

S ff (u, v ) H (u, v )

W (u, v ) 2

S ff ( u, v ) H (u, v ) S nn (u, v )

S ff (u, v ) H ( u, v )

F ( u, v ) 2

Y ( u, v )

S ff ( u, v ) H ( u, v ) S nn (u, v )

Computational issues

The noise variance has to be known, otherwise it is estimated from a flat region of the observed

image.

18

In practical cases where a single copy of the degraded image is available, it is quite common to use

S yy ( u, v ) as an estimate of S ff ( u, v ) . This is very often a poor estimate !

In the absence of any blur, H (u, v ) 1 and

S ff (u, v ) ( SNR)

W (u, v )

S ff (u, v ) S nn (u, v ) ( SNR ) 1

(b) ( SNR ) 1 W (u, v ) ( SNR )

(SNR ) is high in low spatial frequencies and low in high spatial frequencies so W (u, v ) can be

1

If S nn (u, v ) 0 W (u, v ) which is the inverse filter

H (u, v )

If S nn (u, v ) 0

1

H ( u, v ) H ( u, v ) 0

lim W ( u, v )

Snn 0

0 H ( u, v ) 0

which is the pseudoinverse filter.

ITERATIVE METHODS

They refer to a class of iterative procedures, that successively use the Wiener filtered signal as an

improved prototype to update the covariance estimates of the original image.

Step 0: Initial estimate of R ff

R ff (0) R yy E{yy T }

W(i 1) R ff (i )H T ( HR ff (i )H T R nn ) 1

19

Step 2: Obtain the (i 1) th estimate of the restored image

f (i 1) W (i 1) y

References

Company, 1992.

[2] Two-Dimensional Signal and Image Processing by J. S. Lim, Prentice Hall, 1990.

[3] 'Digital Image Restoration', by M.R. Banham and A.K. Katsaggelos, IEEE Signal Processing

Magazine, pp. 27-41, March 1997.

20

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