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Stefano Ferrari

stefano.ferrari@unimi.it

(Image processing I)

Sharpening

enhancing the intensity transitions.

I In images, the borders between objects are perceived because

of the intensity change: more crisp the intensity transitions,

more sharp the image.

I The intensity transitions between adjacent pixels are related

to the derivatives of the image.

I Hence, operators (possibly expressed as linear filters) able to

compute the derivatives of a digital image are very interesting.

.

I Since the image is a discrete function, the traditional

definition of derivative cannot be applied.

I Hence, a suitable operator have to be defined such that it

satisfies the main properties of the first derivative:

1. it is equal to zero in the regions where the intensity is constant;

2. it is different from zero for an intensity transition;

3. it is constant on ramps where the intensity transition is

constant.

I The natural derivative operator is the difference between the

intensity of neighboring pixels (spatial differentiation).

I For simplicity, the monodimensional case can be considered:

f

= f (x + 1) f (x)

x

f

I Since x is defined using the next pixel:

I it cannot be computed for the last pixel of each row (and

column);

I it is different from zero in the pixel before a step.

I Similarly, the second derivative operator can be defined as:

2f

= f (x + 1) f (x) (f (x) f (x 1))

x 2

= f (x + 1) 2f (x) + f (x 1)

1. it is equal to zero where the intensity is constant;

2. it is different from zero at the begin of a step (or a ramp) of

the intensity;

3. it is equal to zero on the constant slope ramps.

2f

I Since x 2

is defined using the previous and the next pixels:

I it cannot be computed with respect to the first and the last

pixels of each row (and column);

I it is different from zero in the pixel that precedes and in the

one that follows a step.

.

the second deriva-

tive switch the sign

(zero crossing).

Laplacian

I Usually the sharpening filters make use of the second order

operators.

I A second order operator is more sensitive to intensity

variations than a first order operator.

I Besides, partial derivatives has to be considered for images.

I The derivative in a point depends on the direction along which

it is computed.

I Operators that are invariant to rotation are called isotropic.

I Rotate and differentiate (or filtering) has the same effects of

differentiate and rotate.

I The Laplacian is the simpler isotropic derivative operator (wrt.

the principal directions):

2f 2f

2 f = +

x 2 y 2

.

Laplacian filter

I In a digital image, the second derivatives wrt. x and y are

computed as:

2f

= f (x + 1, y ) 2f (x, y ) + f (x 1, y )

x 2

2f

= f (x, y + 1) 2f (x, y ) + f (x, y 1)

y 2

I Hence, the Laplacian results:

2 f (x, y ) = f (x + 1, y ) + f (x 1, y ) + f (x, y + 1)

+f (x, y 1) 4f (x, y )

2 f (x, y ) + f (x 1, y 1) + f (x + 1, y + 1)

+ f (x 1, y + 1) + f (x + 1, y 1) 4f (x, y )

.

I In order to be visualized, it must be properly scaled to the

representation interval [0, . . . , L 1].

(a) Original image, (b) its Laplacian, (c) its Laplacian scaled such

that zero is displayed as the intermediate gray level.

I The Laplacian is positive at the onset of a step and negative

at the end.

I Subtracting the Laplacian (or a fraction of it) from the image,

the height of the step is increased.

(a) Original image, (b) Laplacian filtered, (c) Laplacian with

diagonals filtered.

.

Unsharp masking

common use in graphics for making the images sharper.

I It consists of:

1. defocusing the original image;

2. obtaining the mask as the difference between the original

image and its defocused copy;

3. adding the mask to the original image.

I The process can be formalized as:

g = f + k (f f h)

is a constant for tuning the mask contribution.

I If k > 1, the process is called highboost filtering.

original image

defocused image

unsharping mask

unsharped image

highboosted image

.

Gradient

I The gradient of a function is the vector formed by its partial

derivatives.

I For a bidimensional function, f (x, y ):

" # f

gx x

f grad(f ) =

f

gy

y

I The gradient vector points toward the direction of maximum

variation.

I The gradient magnitude, M(x, y ) is:

q

M(x, y ) = mag(f ) = gx2 + gy2

I Often approximated as M(x, y ) |gx | + |gy |.

Derivative operators

I Basic definitions:

gx (x, y ) = f (x + 1, y ) f (x, y )

-1

gx : -1 1 gy :

1

I Roberts operators:

gx (x, y ) = f (x + 1, y + 1) f (x, y )

gy (x, y ) = f (x, y + 1) f (x 1, y )

-1 0 0 -1

gx : gy :

0 1 1 0

.

I Sobel operators:

gx (x, y ) = f (x 1, y 1) 2f (x 1, y )

f (x 1, y + 1) + f (x + 1, y 1)

+ 2f (x + 1, y ) + f (x + 1, y + 1)

gy (x, y ) = f (x 1, y 1) 2f (x, y 1)

f (x + 1, y 1) + f (x 1, y + 1)

+ 2f (x, y + 1) + f (x + 1, y + 1)

-1 -2 -1 -1 0 1

gx : 0 0 0 gy : -2 0 2

1 2 1 -1 0 1

which the intensity changes slowly, allowing to highlight the

defects (and making defects detection easier for automatic

processing).

.

Combined methods

desired results.

I For example, the image (a) is affected by noise and has a

narrow dynamic range.

enhance the details,

but also the noise.

I The gradient is less

sensitive to the noise

than the Laplacian

(which is a second

order operator).

(a) (b)

used for weighting the contribution of the Laplacian.

I The image (c), the Sobel filtering gradient smoothed using a

5 5 averaging filter is reported.

by the Laplacian

results in the image in

(d).

I The intensity changes

are preserved, while

the noise has been

attenuated.

(c) (d)

.

results in the image (e).

I The dynamical range can be enlarged applying a power

transformation (e).

I The intensity

transformation make

the noise more visible,

but also enhance

other details, such as

the tissues around the

skeleton.

(e) (f)

Bilateral Filtering *

Giving f an image, g is the image after bilateral filtering:

1 X ||q p||2 ||f (q) f (p)||2

g (p) = exp exp f (q)

Wp s2 i2

qNp

X

||q p||2 ||f (q) f (p)||2

Wp = exp exp

s2 i2

qNp

I What is the effect produced by the filter?

I Notes:

I when i grows, the filter tends to an averaging filter;

I the filter is not linear.

.

Bilateral Filtering *

(b) after filtering with Gaussian filter (7 7, s = 3)

(c) after filtering with bilateral filter (7 7, s = 3, i = 50)

Bilateral Filtering *

(b) after filtering with Gaussian filter (7 7, s = 3)

(c) after filtering with bilateral filter (7 7, s = 3, i = 30)

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