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Arte-Polis 3 International Conference on Creative Collaboration and the Making of Place 1

WHY ALWAYS SEEING SOMETHING FROM THE


BAD SIDE??
OPTIMIZING THE FUNCTION OF CITY OPEN SPACE TO
FACILITATE PUBLIC ACTIVITY AND CREATIVITY
CASE STUDY: GASIBU SQUARE, BANDUNG

Astri Anindya SARI


Post-graduate Student, Architecture, SAPPK, Institute Technology of Bandung -
INDONESIA
thatitoetz@yahoo.com

Wanda YOVITA
Post-graduate Student, Architecture, SAPPK, Institute Technology of Bandung -
INDONESIA
wandayov@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Public open space which main function is to accommodate people’s
activities is an essential element to form the characteristics of the city. Number of
people who come and do various activities at the space is one of the success
design parameters of a public open space. In many big cities of the developing
countries where the urbanization rate is very high, the initially designed functions
of a city open space may often changed due to of the presence of street vendors to
start their business. The presence of street vendors in the open space will
indirectly stimulate more people to come, which eventually construct a new socio-
temporal space that liven up the people activities in the city. This, however, may
also raise some problems related to the beauty and cleanliness of the city. To the
stakeholders this is the problem rather than business potential, for them it should
be terminated rather than managed.
Gasibu square Bandung is one of the city's open space facing this
problem. Initially designed as a community sports facilities, this place is now
changed to chaotic street vendor market people visited on Sunday. Various
activities and socioeconomic characteristics of traders and visitors at the Gasibu
market prove that Gasibu has succesfully accommodated people activities leading
to the improvement of micro economy. The existence of Gasibu market with its
slum an chaotic image, on the other hand, has ruined the beautiful image of
Bandung.
Through a comparative study of similar problems in the cities of Malang,
Surabaya, and Solo, this paper aims to show that through creative management in
collaboration between the stake holders involved, the problems arising from the
activities of street vendors in the open space can be minimized. Collaborative
management is able to maximize the various potentials existing in the space to
grow without causing negative effect to the city.

Keywords: public open space, street vendor, collaboration, place making,


urbanization.

Why Always Seeing Something From the Bad Side??. Astri Anindya SARI, Wanda YOVITA
Arte-Polis 3 International Conference on Creative Collaboration and the Making of Place 2

OPEN SPACE AS A MEANS OF PUBLIC ACTIVITIES AND


ITS PROBLEMS IN INDONESIA
Public open space is one of the essential elements that play a role in forming
characteristic of the city. As a public facility, this space must primary accomodate
social interaction, economic activities, and public cultural appreciation
(Darmawan, 2007). Given these core functions, one of the success parameters of
public open space is its function to support the people’s need for various activies.
This means that society is not segmented, they come from various backgrounds
such as social levels, economic conditions, educations, ages, and interests.
Essentially, according to Darmawan, (2007) a good public space should be able to
meet the three following criteria: a) meaningful: it can give a significance meaning
for the local community whether it is for individual or a group. b) responsive,
meaning that it can accommodate the wishes of existing activities in these public
space. c) Democratic, the ability to accept the presence of various layers of society
without any discrimination. In addition to the above criteria a public space should
be easily accessed, of good image, comfortable, and supportive to a specific and
unique activity to attract people to come (Project for Public Spaces, 2008).
In line with Darmawan, Whyte, (1980) states that food and seats are important
elements to attract more people to come. Whyte, further says the presence of food
vendors will always invite more people to visit the public open space. Food
vendors have an instinct to seek and find the locations where there are men
activities, for their business. There always be a mutual relationship between the
vendors and the people gathering in the space thus create new socio-temporal
space that liven up the people activities in the city (Whyte, 1980). In the
developing countries, however, the presence of food vendors often becomes a
problem. The activities of the food vendors tend to privatize and change the initial
planning function of public spaces such as sidewalks and squares, more over ruin
the beauty and cleanliness of the city.
The main problems of developing countries is the high rate of urbanization and
population growth that does not followed by a significant increase in employment.
These conditions require the creative community to seek their own livelihoods as a
source of livelihood. So what happens is due to the emergence of vendors with
small capital in search of trade opportunities in strategic locations in the city's
public spaces that actually have been planned with special functions regardless of
their presence before (Breman 2001; Castells and Portes 1989; Rachbini and
Hamid 1994 in Setia, 2008).
The dilemma of the existence of vendors on public spaces raises different views
on it. Some people view that the activities of the traders have an impact on
improving the micro economy and their ability to provide public activity space
that is not segmented as a potential that should be developed. But others see such
activities as the problems that must be resolved in a certain way, such as policing
and relocation.
As one of the destination city of urbanization, Bandung experiencing similar
problems. The high level of urbanization in the city of Bandung, have an impact
on the increasing number of vendors that are concentrated in public spaces (Setia,
2008). Implementation of Pasal 37 ayat d and k in the Regional Regulation
number 11 year 2002 regarding the provision of Cleanliness, orderliness, and
beauty shows how Bandung city government’s point of view in addressing the

Why Always Seeing Something From the Bad Side??. Astri Anindya SARI, Wanda YOVITA
Arte-Polis 3 International Conference on Creative Collaboration and the Making of Place 3

problem of informality. Bandung city government prefers an enforcement


operation to solve problems and evicting street vendors in public spaces than
consider it a potential that needs to be contained and developed (Setia, 2008).
BANDUNG GASIBU SQUARE, THE CHANGE OF
FUNCTION, POTENCY AND PROBLEMS
History of Gasibu
Gasibu square is one of the primary public open space in Bandung which has the
same character with alun-alun in other traditional cities in Indonesia. Align in an
axis with Gedung Sate, the prominent landmark of Bandung, Gasibu Square has
sense of place and special atmosphere that won’t found in other public spaces in
Kota Bandung. The flexibility of space with road and and open space around the
square are advantages to strengthen the function of Gasibu Square and make it
able to be the mean of public activity in every scale (Damajani, 2007). The
strategic location and easy to access from every direction also some of many
advantages factors of Gasibu Square than other public space in Bandung. A lot of
push factor makes Gasibu developed as a favourite public space of Bandung’s
people especially to do sport activity. Besides its function as a means of sport,
Gasibu occasionally used also as a place of ceremony, folk art performances, and
religious activities such as Eid prayers.
MPRJB boulevard Development (1985) in the north of Gasibu square, extending
the imaginary axis connecting the Gedung Sate and Tangkuban Perahu and
expand the open space around Gasibu. Construction of this district aims to support
the functions of Gedung Sate as office facility of formal government. However,
according to Damajani (2007), until 1995s when it hosted the inauguration of the
monument, community activities in the field Gasibu still not showing as the
current diversity.

Current issue of Gasibu


The main function of Gasibu as a mean of sports activity, apparently attracted
vendors to sell at this open space. Initially, they sold temporarily, to serve the
people who work out in Gasibu over time and as changes in building functions
around Gasibu into office functions, the number of vendors on this site grew up,
even some of them trading there permanently (Damajani, 2007 ).
Increasing number of vendors who came to sell at Gasibu has shifted the initially
function as a function of sport. Since a few years ago to the present, the open
space from MPRJB to Gasibu Square has morphed into temporary market where
in it peddled a wide range of food and goods with cheap price. Now people who
come to this open space is no longer with the aim of exercising, but to enjoy
shopping at the market Gasibu week.
Every Sunday there are hundreds of vendors that hold their goods occupy the area
around MPRJB, the road section from MPRJB to Gedung Sate, and the Gasibu
Square itself. Wide range of goods ranging from food, clothing, sandals, shoes,
crockery, tv remote, until the pet are offered. Various tools used for trade shows
heterogenity level of economic and social capabilities of the vendors in this
district. Start from using a cart, lay a tarp as a base of goods display, to the use of
motorcycle and car boxes.
The vendors in this temporary market not only come from the Bandung area, but
also from surrounding areas such as Garut, Cianjur and Tasikmalaya. The

Why Always Seeing Something From the Bad Side??. Astri Anindya SARI, Wanda YOVITA
Arte-Polis 3 International Conference on Creative Collaboration and the Making of Place 4

presence of vendors from outside the city showed that Bandung has become a
destination of city urbanization, with the market Gasibu week as one of attractive
factor in creating employment.

Figure 1 & 2 Shopping atmosphere at Gasibu Sunday market


Source: private documentation, 2010
A large number of visitors with a diversity of socioeconomic and place of
residence indicates the attractiveness of the market activity held at Gasibu Sunday
market. Crowded and cramped conditions did not seem too problematic, as
evidenced from week to week this market is never empty. Buying and selling
activity in the Gasibu Sunday market start after the arrival of buyers at around
06:30 and gradually decrease in the afternoon at about 11-12.00 pm. After the
visitors began to slow, the vendors start to pack his wares and then leave the area.
From this phenomenon, it can be seen that Gasibu has demonstrated its success as
a public open space that can accommodate a variety of activities and creativity of
the community. For the vendors, presence of the open space with this activity is a
facility to improve their economy. The existence of Gasibu market with its
strategic location as opening hundreds of jobs for urban communities in Bandung
and challenge them to show their creativity in their business competition to win
consumers. Instead of the community who visit Gasibu, the existence of different
vendors with their goods give its own atmosphere which can be an attraction for
people from various realms to come and enjoy the attractions at the Gasibu
Sunday market. Nevertheless, behind its success in realizing the function of
interaction, socialization, and accommodate the activities and the creativity of
society, there are many problems in Gasibu market. The main problems identified
related to market activity in Gasibu week are traffic jam, cleanliness, and chaotic
image. These problems were considered quite disturbing, triggering both the pros
and cons among the community, as well as authorized officials of the existence of
Gasibu Sunday market.

Figure 3.The chaotic arrangement of Gasibu Figure 4 The activities on Gasibu


Sunday market, ruin the image of Gedung Sate Sunday market impact on traffic jam
Source: private documentation, 2010 Source: private documentation,2010
Why Always Seeing Something From the Bad Side??. Astri Anindya SARI, Wanda YOVITA
Arte-Polis 3 International Conference on Creative Collaboration and the Making of Place 5

Traffic jam on road sections through Gasibu Square almost certainly always
happens every Sunday. Behavior of vendors who lay their goods along with road
shoulder effects the blocking the traffic. Gasibu’s district also does not have a
special parking area for visitors, so many vehicles on the road park everywhere
and increase the congestion on road sections, especially on Surapati street in front
of the Gasibu square.
Cleanliness is another issue to complain about. After the Gasibu Sunday market
ended at the afternoon, the vendors left the food and beverage waste from the rest
of the business especially from from food stalls and groceries. This problem also
comes from visitor because lack of awareness of cleanliness or there is no trash
can available on the site.
Based on direct interviews with some vendors in the Gasibu Sunday market, the
management of this market using premanism. Vendors pay their stall daily to
certain unofficial person, who has coordinated the distribution of lands to be used
by vendors. At first vendors also pay for the rental offering of approximately Rp.
800,000 for space sized 2x2 meters. Coordinator of leasing land to trade does not
regulate how the deal of each other stall so that the chaos among vendors stall was
not inevitable. On the Gasibu Sunday market there is no detailed territorial
distribution between the various functions of the vendors. Vendors used varety
types of stall. Some are using tents, lay the goods based with mat direct to the
ground, or sold mobile to the buyers.
For most people, the problem of slums, chaos and density of Gasibu Sunday
market are negative things that inhibit their desire to shop. Nevertheless, the
variety and prices of merchandise in this market is a major attractor for the
hundreds or thousands of Bandung people as well as migrants from outside the
city. This indicates that the management of this market without a plan for a
comfortable space for vendors and buyers, but this market could become an urban
space for the community in an urban scale. Economic aspects, tourism and leisure
can be accomodated by this market space. Gasibu Sunday market is an even
greater potential for society and the government when there is proper and
sustainable management.

LEARNING FROM THE CREATIVE COLLABORATION


EXPERIENCE IN PUBLIC SPACE MAKING
The presence of street vendors and their activities that occupy public spaces the
city is a typical problem in developing country such as Indonesia. Malang,
Surabaya, and Solo are the Indonesian cities that have tried to solve the problems
of street vending on public open space and turn it into tourism potential. Their
experiences can be used as an input for the city of Bandung in viewing and
managing the problems of street vendors, especially in Gasibu Sunday market.
Tugu Market Malang
Tugu Market is a temporary Sunday market that been occur in Malang since 1999.
The people who trade in this temporary market are the street vendors coming from
all over the city of Malang. First time to operate, Tugu market occupies the open
space in front of the Gajayana stadium Malang. But when the renovation and
construction process of Olympic Garden Mall was held in the stadium complex,
the market activities then moved on Malabar square and extending to the street of

Why Always Seeing Something From the Bad Side??. Astri Anindya SARI, Wanda YOVITA
Arte-Polis 3 International Conference on Creative Collaboration and the Making of Place 6

Simpang Balapan, which is a middle-class residential area. However, lack of


coordination between local goverment and the vendors led to the lack of planning
and structuring a synergistic on market activity in Simpang Balapan. As a result,
some problems arise such as mess, crowd, and garbages that disturbing residents
of Simpang Balapan so that eventually they filed a protest to the city. On the
other hand the city government's desire to maintain the market activity to provide
an alternative tourist destination in Malang.
Now, the activities of Tugu market restored back on Semeru street in front of the
Gajayana stadium after it was transferred in the Rampal square. At this
development, the street vendors who sell at the market has formed associations
Ikatan Pedagang Wisata Belanja Tugu (IPWBT), that its members has now
reached 470 people. This association was established to facilitate coordination
among the vendors, in addition to ease of communication with city government.
The street of semeru is also a residential area. So as to avoid the protests of
citizens and further optimize the management of the market, the city government
of Malang under the Department of Tourism and Culture working together with
the vendor’s association of IPWBT to jointly realize the ideals to make the Tugu
market activities as one of the tourism potential of the city of Malang.
Based on the direct interview held in the secretary of Tugu Market, cooperation
between IPWBT and the city goverment have been manifested in the form of
contract. The steps taken were restrictions on working time, uniformity of the
display booth, and zoning arrangements. Restrictions on the working time done
by the city government by closing transportation access through Semeru street on
Sunday morning until 13:00 o'clock noon GMT for market activity. Afterwards
the road back to normal functioning. Zoning arrangement made by the IPWBT, by
arranging the vendors with a particular zone based on the item being sold. Finally
in order to tidy up the market view, they decide to order and uniform the booth
display of the vendors. In doing that, the city government works together in
collaboration with the vendor’s association in the provision of tents as the
displayed booth.

Figure 5. Shopping atmosphere at Tugu Figure 6. The secretariat of Tugu Market,


market Malang the center of coordination, and providing all
Source: private documentation, 2010 information related to this market
Source: private documentation, 2010
Through the uniformity of appearance, and arrangement of zoning, the chaotic
image and impression that arise from the previous activities of Tugu market will
be lost. The problems of cleanlines become the responsibility of vendors and
IPWBT. IPWT urge to their members to maintain the cleanliness of their
respective trade areas, and clearing merchandise after the event was over so the

Why Always Seeing Something From the Bad Side??. Astri Anindya SARI, Wanda YOVITA
Arte-Polis 3 International Conference on Creative Collaboration and the Making of Place 7

the road of Semeru can get back on the original function promptly at 13:00 pm.
Thus, until now Tugu market activities run smoothly and be able to move the
micro economy in addition to being one of the options in Malang city tour that
interests the public. This activity is also able to provide benefits for local
government of Malang in the form of levies amounting to Rp 5000 per vendor per
week.
Kya-Kya Kembang Jepun, Surabaya
Kembang Jepun street area is in the Chinatown area since 1900, and until recently
famous for its trading activities. The buildings that stand along this road is a
conservation building, with art deco style of colonial heritage and the traditional
architecture of China. In early 2003, the city government of Surabaya plans to
liven up the night of corridors of Kembang Jepun street by concentrating food
vendors on this street corridor and make a culinary tourism center. However, due
to lack of planning, this effort failed and was not well received by the public.
Furthermore, by the suggestion of Dahlan Iskan, the initial concept of Kembang
Jepun culinary tourism center was developed with a better planned. The idea is to
raise the sense of place that has been owned by Kembang Jepun street as
Chinatown area, by implementing the traditional nuance of traditional China in the
design of the culinary tourism center. The concept embodied by the theme
continuity between the design, including the provision of clean water, electricity
utilities and also the packaging events. The management of this area handed by
PT. Kya-Kya Kembang Jepun, such a private company. Furthermore, since the
date 31 May 2003, the road of Kembang Jepun was closed from 18.00-02.00
o'clock pm and opened to public as a culinary tourism center with chinese cultural
background.
A total of 182 traders and street vendors participate in this event. They occupied a
position on the sidewalk, while the middle path laid out tables and chairs. To joint
this event, the vendors must pay Rp 500,000 per month including the cleaning fee,
for the booth rent. Since the opening, the culinary center of Kya-Kya get very
festive greeting from the public of Surabaya and its surrounding cities. Another
uniqueness of the management of Kya-Kya culinary tourism is that they not only
providing food, but also display cultural attractions as the entertainment at certain
times. In providing the cultural attractions, they held a collaboration with the
local communities such as youth clubs, and cultural arts groups. Through to this
management, Kya-kya Kembang Jepun culinary center activities had gaining a
result in providing employment opportunities, mobilizing the public economy, and
providing such an income for the government of Surabaya, and also able to
become one of the icon of culinary tourism in Surabaya.

Figure 7. Public appreciation on the Figure 8. The atmosphere of public


opening of Kya-kya Kembang Jepun activities and interaction at Kya-kya
Source: www.eastjava.com Source: www.eastjava.com
Why Always Seeing Something From the Bad Side??. Astri Anindya SARI, Wanda YOVITA
Arte-Polis 3 International Conference on Creative Collaboration and the Making of Place 8

Unfortunately slowly people left this place. Several opinions that analyze the
cause of this phenomena occur, such as the high price of food, the far away
parking lot, until the other reason that sounds mystical. But what the real cause
was never known, because after the contract with PT Kya-Kya Kembang Jepun
ended in 2005, without holding the evaluation, the goverment of Surabaya had end
the culinary activity in Kembang Jepun and restore the function of this road as
before. This decision, had made Kembang Jepun back to a lonely road corridor
that had no longer live as before. Despite this failures and the discontinuation, this
project is very good in terms of structuring and empowering local people to make
a tourism potential.
Gladak Langen Bogan, Solo
Gladak Langen Bogan (Galabo) is a culinary center that was developed by the city
goverment of Solo since 13rd April 2008. Located in the downtown area along
Major Sunaryo Gladag street (northern part of alun-alun utara). The development
of Galabo is done by closing public roads in the center of wholesale Solo batik
(PGS) and Beteng Trade Center (BTC) every day from 17:00 o'clock-24.00 pm.
The aims of the development of this culinary destination is to make such a tourism
attractions the city of Solo besides to give a facilitate to the activities some food
vendors in Solo and simplify the monitoring of their activities.
Adopting the concept of Surabaya Kya-Kya Kembang Jepun, the arrangement of a
public street as a center for culinary tourism center conducted by placing the
vendors lined up along the right and left on the street, while in the middle of the
road laid out chairs and tables with umbrellas shade as a place to enjoy the food.
To bring order and uniformity of appearance of the food vendors, the local
government has provided stainless cart for free as the booth display. The place are
also provided with clean water which flowed at each location so that the
cleanliness of the presentation of the food vendors can be maintained. The food
vendors who participate in this Gladag Langen Bogan is specially selected by the
goverment of Solo, in order to trade in this place they are not charged a daily fee
but are required to pay income tax. Presents a variety of typical regional cuisine,
Gladak Langen Bogan has successfully become one of the central of public
activity and creativity in Solo besides as a tourism destinations.

Figure 9. The atmosphere of activities and Figure 10. Vendors booth


interaction at Gladag Langen Bogan at Gladag Langen Bogan
Source: Alfan, 2008 Source: Fronny, 2009

Why Always Seeing Something From the Bad Side??. Astri Anindya SARI, Wanda YOVITA
Arte-Polis 3 International Conference on Creative Collaboration and the Making of Place 9

CONCLUSION
Through phenomenon that occurs in the case of study which is Gasibu Square and
other three places that has been discussed is known that the presence of vendors in
the public space of the city has the ability to attract people to come and do some
activities together. These activities can liven up the activity and atmosphere of the
city both during the day or night. With the right approach, problems arise as a side
effect of the activities of vendors and the public in public spaces will be
minimized, even the existence of vendors can be optimized and used as a tourist
destination.
The experience of several cities that are considered capable of improving
environmental quality and public spaces can be implemented in weeks Gasibu
market in Bandung. The success of the arrangement of street vendors on public
open space that has been carried out on the town of Malang, Surabaya, and Solo
was essentially derived from the cooperation and organization of street vendors
with city government. By embracing the organization of street vendors, the
aspirations of vendors will be involved in the arrangement and planning of public
space, so that conflicts between officials and vendors can be minimized.
Furthermore, coordination and collaboration can facilitate the completion of the
impact of this market such as cleanliness and congestion problems. If vendors
have good coordination and clear territory to trade, then the settings of cleanliness
can be given to vendors itself. Congestion can be minimized with the shift of the
main road to alternative road for a while for the vehicle or restrict vendors to not
use the shoulder of the road. Concrete steps taken to restructure the space and
place, and eliminate slums and chaotic impression are the structuring of zoning
and uniformity of appearance. It can be done with the same trading tools among
the vendors, such as tents and umbrellas are uniform, so the atmosphere of a
compactness can be achieved. However, in principle, it is required the
collaborative effort between the city government and organizations of street
vendors to achieve one goal which is to develop a new tourist destination.
The problems of public open space at the city of Bandung actually happen due to
a lack of coordination and empowerment, so these problems need good
cooperation from relevant stakeholders from local government, vendors, and
society to the realization of a comfortable public space to become a commodity of
tourism.
Designing collaborative on the city public space has a variety of benefits for the
informal sector, the city government, community and the value of public space
itself as part of the city. For the informal sector, this collaboration provides
employment and accomodate their economy improving. For society, the
collaborative design of public space will provide a comfortable space for them to
gather, socialize, and activities and also provides options for tourism destination
will also provide benefits for the city government. Activities that occur from
collaborative planning will liven up the atmosphere of public open space in the
city and increase the value of open space functions as a means of activity and
creativity in society.

Why Always Seeing Something From the Bad Side??. Astri Anindya SARI, Wanda YOVITA
Arte-Polis 3 International Conference on Creative Collaboration and the Making of Place 10

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Why Always Seeing Something From the Bad Side??. Astri Anindya SARI, Wanda YOVITA